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Sample records for essential gene products

  1. Eubacterial Diterpene Cyclase Genes Essential for Production of the Isoprenoid Antibiotic Terpentecin

    PubMed Central

    Dairi, Tohru; Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Itoh, Nobuya; Furihata, Kazuo; Seto, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    A gene cluster containing the mevalonate pathway genes (open reading frame 2 [ORF2] to ORF7) for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) synthase gene (ORF1) had previously been cloned from Streptomyces griseolosporeus strain MF730-N6, a diterpenoid antibiotic, terpentecin (TP) producer (Y. Hamano, T. Dairi, M. Yamamoto, T. Kawasaki, K Kaneda, T. Kuzuyama, N. Itoh, and H. Seto, Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 65:16271635, 2001). Sequence analysis in the upstream region of the cluster revealed seven new ORFs, ORF8 to ORF14, which were suggested to encode TP biosynthetic genes. We constructed two mutants, in which ORF11 and ORF12, which encode a protein showing similarities to eukaryotic diterpene cyclases (DCs) and a eubacterial pentalenene synthase, respectively, were inactivated by gene disruptions. The mutants produced no TP, confirming that these cyclase genes are essential for the production of TP. The two cyclase genes were also expressed in Streptomyces lividans together with the GGDP synthase gene under the control of the ermE* constitutive promoter. The transformant produced a novel cyclic diterpenoid, ent-clerod-3,13(16),14-triene (terpentetriene), which has the same basic skeleton as TP. The two enzymes, each of which was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, converted GGDP into terpentetriene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eubacterial DC. PMID:11567009

  2. Genes Required for Free Phage Production are Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chronic Lung Infections.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Andre-Ann; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Fothergill, Joanne L; Boyle, Brian; Laroche, Jrme; Tucker, Nicholas P; Winstanley, Craig; Levesque, Roger C

    2016-02-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. The Liverpool Epidemic Strain LESB58 is highly resistant to antibiotics, transmissible, and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its genome contains 6 prophages and 5 genomic islands. We constructed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based signature-tagged mutagenesis library of 9216 LESB58 mutants and screened the mutants in a rat model of chronic lung infection. A total of 162 mutants were identified as defective for in vivo maintenance, with 11 signature-tagged mutagenesis mutants having insertions in prophage and genomic island genes. Many of these mutants showed both diminished virulence and reduced phage production. Transcription profiling by quantitative PCR and RNA-Seq suggested that disruption of these prophages had a widespread trans-acting effect on the transcriptome. This study demonstrates that temperate phages play a pivotal role in the establishment of infection through modulation of bacterial host gene expression. PMID:26268854

  3. The iap gene of Listeria monocytogenes is essential for cell viability, and its gene product, p60, has bacteriolytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wuenscher, M D; Köhler, S; Bubert, A; Gerike, U; Goebel, W

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the iap gene of Listeria monocytogenes in the L. monocytogenes rough mutant RIII and in Bacillus subtilis DB104 caused the disruption of the cell chains which these two strains normally form under exponential growth conditions. The p60 protein produced by L. monocytogenes and B. subtilis DB104 also exhibited bacteriolytic activity detected in denaturing polyacrylamide gels containing heat-killed Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Purification of the p60 protein led to aggregation of p60 and loss of the cell chain disruption and bacteriolytic activities. A cysteine residue in the C-terminal part of p60 which is conserved in all p60-like proteins from the other Listeria species seems to be essential for both activities. The iap gene could not be inactivated without a loss of cell viability, indicating that p60 is an essential housekeeping protein for L. monocytogenes and probably also for other Listeria species. These data suggest that p60 possesses a murein hydrolase activity required for a late step in cell division. Images PMID:8099071

  4. Genes essential for morphological development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor are targets of BldD during vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    den Hengst, Chris D; Tran, Ngat T; Bibb, Maureen J; Chandra, Govind; Leskiw, Brenda K; Buttner, Mark J

    2010-10-01

    BldD is a transcriptional regulator essential for morphological development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here we identify the BldD regulon by means of chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray analysis (ChIP-chip). The BldD regulon encompasses ~167 transcriptional units, of which more than 20 are known to play important roles in development (e.g. bldA, bldC, bldH/adpA, bldM, bldN, ssgA, ssgB, ftsZ, whiB, whiG, smeA-ssfA) and/or secondary metabolism (e.g. nsdA, cvn9, bldA, bldC, leuA). Strikingly, 42 BldD target genes (~25% of the regulon) encode regulatory proteins, stressing the central, pleiotropic role of BldD. Almost all BldD binding sites identified by ChIP-chip are present in the promoters of the target genes. An exception is the tRNA gene bldA, where BldD binds within the region encoding the primary transcript, immediately downstream of the position corresponding to the processed, mature 3 end of the tRNA. Through gene overexpression, we identified a novel BldD target gene (cdgA) that influences differentiation and antibiotic production. cdgA encodes a GGDEF domain protein, implicating c-di-GMP in the regulation of Streptomyces development. Sequence analysis of the upstream regions of the complete regulon identified a 15 bp inverted repeat that functions as a high-affinity binding site for BldD, as was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting analysis. High-scoring copies of the BldD binding site were found at relevant positions in the genomes of other bacteria containing a BldD homologue, suggesting the role of BldD is conserved in sporulating actinomycetes. PMID:20979333

  5. A highly conserved baculovirus gene p48 (ac103) is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Meijin; Wu Wenbi; Liu Chao; Wang Yanjie; Hu Zhaoyang; Yang Kai Pang Yi

    2008-09-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) p48 (ac103) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene of unknown function. In the present study, we generated a knockout of the p48 gene in an AcMNPV bacmid and investigated the role of P48 in baculovirus life cycle. The p48-null Bacmid vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to propagate in cell culture, while a 'repair' Bacmid vAc{sup P48-REP-PH-GFP} was able to replicate in a manner similar to a wild-type Bacmid vAc{sup PH-GFP}. Titration assays and Western blotting confirmed that vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to produce budded viruses (BVs). qPCR analysis showed that p48 deletion did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy indicated that P48 was required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) and their subsequent occlusion. Confocal analysis showed that P48 prominently condensed in the centre of the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that P48 plays an essential role in BV production and ODV envelopment in the AcMNPV life cycle.

  6. Identification and characterization of the bovine herpesvirus 1 UL7 gene and gene product which are not essential for virus replication in cell culture.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, J; Keil, G M

    1996-01-01

    The UL7 gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) strain Schönböken was found at a position and in a context predicted from the gene order in the prototype alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 1. The gene and flanking regions were sequenced, the UL7 RNA and protein were characterized, and 98.3% of the UL7 open reading frame was deleted from the viral genome without destroying productive virus replication. Concomitant deletion of nine 3' codons from the BHV-1 UL6 ORF and 77 amino acids from the carboxy terminus of the predicted BHV-1 UL8 protein demonstrated that these domains are also not essential for function of the respective proteins. The UL7 open reading frame encodes a protein of 300 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 32 kDa. Comparison with UL7 homologs of other alphaherpesviruses revealed a high degree of homology, the most prominent being to the predicted UL7 polypeptide of varicella-zoster virus, with 43.3% identical amino acids. A monospecific anti-UL7 serum identified the 33-kDa (apparent-molecular-mass) UL7 polypeptide which is translated from an early-expressed 1.7-kb RNA. The UL7 protein was localized in the cytoplasm of infected cells and could not be detected in purified virions. In summary, we describe the first identification of an alphaherpesviral UL7-encoded polypeptide and demonstrate that the UL7 protein is not essential for replication of BHV-1 in cell culture. PMID:8551568

  7. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A.R.; Shahbazzadeh, D.; Khalaj, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity. PMID:24294264

  8. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Yahyaraeyat, R; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D; Khalaj, V

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity. PMID:24294264

  9. Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes pesL and pes1 Are Essential for Fumigaclavine C Production in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Gallagher, Lorna; Schrettl, Markus; Jöchl, Christoph; Kavanagh, Kevin; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of metabolites encoded by the majority of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, remains outstanding. We found that the nonribosomal peptide (NRP) synthetases PesL and Pes1 were essential for fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, the end product of the complex ergot alkaloid (EA) pathway in A. fumigatus. Deletion of either pesL (ΔpesL) or pes1 (Δpes1) resulted in complete loss of fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, relatively increased production of fumitremorgins such as TR-2, fumitremorgin C and verruculogen, increased sensitivity to H2O2, and increased sensitivity to the antifungals, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Deletion of pesL resulted in severely reduced virulence in an invertebrate infection model (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that NRP synthesis plays an essential role in mediating the final prenylation step of the EA pathway, despite the apparent absence of NRP synthetases in the proposed EA biosynthetic cluster for A. fumigatus. Liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry analysis also revealed the presence of fumiquinazolines A to F in both A. fumigatus wild-type and ΔpesL strains. This observation suggests that alternative NRP synthetases can also function in fumiquinazoline biosynthesis, since PesL has been shown to mediate fumiquinazoline biosynthesis in vitro. Furthermore, we provide here the first direct link between EA biosynthesis and virulence, in agreement with the observed toxicity associated with EA exposure. Finally, we demonstrate a possible cluster cross-talk phenomenon, a theme which is beginning to emerge in the literature. PMID:22344643

  10. The groES and groEL heat shock gene products of Escherichia coli are essential for bacterial growth at all temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Fayet, O; Ziegelhoffer, T; Georgopoulos, C

    1989-01-01

    The products of the groES and groEL genes of Escherichia coli, constituting the groE operon, are known to be required for growth at high temperature (42 degrees C) and are members of the heat shock regulon. Using a genetic approach, we examined the requirement for these gene products for bacterial growth at low temperature (17 to 30 degrees C). To do this, we constructed various groES groEL heterodiploid derivative strains. By inactivating one of the groE operons by a polar insertion, it was shown by bacteriophage P1 transduction that at least one of the groE genes was essential for growth at low temperature. Further P1 transduction experiments with strains that were heterodiploid for only one of the groE genes demonstrated that both groE gene products were required for growth at low temperature, which suggested a fundamental role for the groE proteins in E. coli growth and physiology. Images PMID:2563997

  11. Essentiality, not expressiveness, drives gene-strand bias in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Eduardo P C; Danchin, Antoine

    2003-08-01

    Preferential positioning of bacterial genes in the leading strand was thought to result from selection to avoid high head-on collision rates between DNA and RNA polymerases. Here we show, however, that in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, essentiality (the transcript product), not expressiveness (the collision rate), selectively drives the biased gene distribution. PMID:12847524

  12. Comparing the evolutionary conservation between human essential genes, human orthologs of mouse essential genes and human housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenhua; Zheng, Jiajia; Luan, Meiwei; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-01

    Human housekeeping genes are often confused with essential human genes, and several studies regard both types of genes as having the same level of evolutionary conservation. However, this is not necessarily the case. To clarify this, we compared the differences between human housekeeping genes and essential human genes with respect to four aspects: the evolutionary rate (dN/dS), protein sequence identity, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density and level of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The results showed that housekeeping genes had lower evolutionary rates, higher sequence identities, lower SNP densities and higher levels of LD compared with essential genes. Together, these findings indicate that housekeeping and essential genes are two distinct types of genes, and that housekeeping genes have a higher level of evolutionary conservation. Therefore, we suggest that researchers should pay careful attention to the distinctions between housekeeping genes and essential genes. Moreover, it is still controversial whether we should substitute human orthologs of mouse essential genes for human essential genes. Therefore, we compared the evolutionary features between human orthologs of mouse essential genes and human housekeeping genes and we got inconsistent results in long-term and short-term evolutionary characteristics implying the irrationality of simply replacing human essential genes with human orthologs of mouse essential genes. PMID:25911641

  13. The yeast NOP4 gene product is an essential nucleolar protein required for pre-rRNA processing and accumulation of 60S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, C; Woolford, J L

    1994-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NOP4 gene was isolated by screening a lambda gt11 yeast genomic DNA library with a monoclonal antibody against a yeast nucleolar protein. NOP4 encodes a 78 kDa protein that contains two prototypical RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) flanking an imperfect RRM lacking characteristic RNP1 and RNP2 motifs. In addition, there is a fourth incomplete RRM. NOP4 is a single copy essential gene present on chromosome XVI, between RAD1 and PEP4. To examine the function of Nop4p, we constructed a conditional null allele of NOP4 by placing this gene under the control of the glucose-repressible GAL1 promoter. When cells are shifted from galactose-containing medium to glucose-containing medium, NOP4 transcription is terminated, Nop4 protein is depleted and cell growth is impaired. Nop4 protein depletion results in diminished accumulation of 60S ribosomal subunits, assignable to a defect in ribosome biogenesis arising from a lack of production of mature 25S rRNA from 27S precursor rRNA. Images PMID:8039505

  14. The Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme contains both products of the dnaX gene, tau and gamma, but only tau is essential.

    PubMed

    Blinkova, A; Hervas, C; Stukenberg, P T; Onrust, R; O'Donnell, M E; Walker, J R

    1993-09-01

    The replicative polymerase of Escherichia coli, DNA polymerase III, consists of a three-subunit core polymerase plus seven accessory subunits. Of these seven, tau and gamma are products of one replication gene, dnaX. The shorter gamma is created from within the tau reading frame by a programmed ribosomal -1 frameshift over codons 428 and 429 followed by a stop codon in the new frame. Two temperature-sensitive mutations are available in dnaX. The 2016(Ts) mutation altered both tau and gamma by changing codon 118 from glycine to aspartate; the 36(Ts) mutation affected the activity only of tau because it altered codon 601 (from glutamate to lysine). Evidence which indicates that, of these two proteins, only the longer tau is essential includes the following. (i) The 36(Ts) mutation is a temperature-sensitive lethal allele, and overproduction of wild-type gamma cannot restore its growth. (ii) An allele which produced tau only could be substituted for the wild-type chromosomal gene, but a gamma-only allele could not substitute for the wild-type dnaX in the haploid state. Thus, the shorter subunit gamma is not essential, suggesting that tau can be substitute for the usual function(s) of gamma. Consistent with these results, we found that a functional polymerase was assembled from nine pure subunits in the absence of the gamma subunit. However, the possibility that, in cells growing without gamma, proteolysis of tau to form a gamma-like product in amounts below the Western blot (immunoblot) sensitivity level cannot be excluded. PMID:8376347

  15. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac142, a core gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Da, Xiaojiang; Donly, Cam; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-03-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac142 is a baculovirus core gene and encodes a protein previously shown to associate with occlusion-derived virus (ODV). To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac142 deletion virus (AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}). Fluorescence and light microscopy revealed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} exhibits a single-cell infection phenotype. Titration assays and Western blot confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} is unable to produce budded virus (BV). However, viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}-transfected cells evidenced progression to very late phases of the viral infection. Western blot analysis showed that AC142 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection and that it is a structural component of BV and ODV which localizes to nucleocapsids. Electron microscopy indicates that ac142 is required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form ODV and their subsequent occlusion, a fundamental process to all baculoviruses.

  16. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  17. Eliminating the requirement of an essential gene product in an already very small virus: scaffolding protein B-free X174, B-free.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Uchiyama, Asako; Fane, Bentley A

    2007-10-19

    Unlike most viral assembly systems, two scaffolding proteins, B and D, mediate bacteriophage X174 morphogenesis. The external scaffolding protein D is highly ordered in the atomic structure and proper function is very sensitive to mutation. In contrast, the internal scaffolding protein B is relatively unordered and extensive alterations do not eliminate function. Despite this genetic laxity, protein B is absolutely required for virus assembly. Thus, this system, with its complex arrangements of overlapping reading frames, can be regarded as an example of "irreducible complexity." To address the biochemical functions of a dual scaffolding protein system and the evolution of complexity, progressive and targeted genetic selections were employed to lessen and finally eliminate B protein-dependence. The biochemical and genetic bases of adaptation were characterized throughout the analysis that led to the sextuple mutant with a B-independent phenotype, as evaluated by plaque formation in wild-type cells. The primary adaptation appears to be the over-expression of a mutant external scaffolding protein. Progeny production was followed in lysis-resistant cells. The ability to produce infectious virions does not require all six mutations. However, the lag phase before progeny production is shortened as mutations accumulate. The results suggest that the primary function of the internal scaffolding protein may be to lower the critical concentration of the external scaffolding protein needed to nucleate procapsid formation. Moreover, they demonstrate a novel mechanism by which a stringently required gene product can be bypassed, even in a system encoding only eight strictly essential proteins. PMID:17825320

  18. The essential gene set of a photosynthetic organism.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Benjamin E; Wetmore, Kelly M; Price, Morgan N; Diamond, Spencer; Shultzaberger, Ryan K; Lowe, Laura C; Curtin, Genevieve; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam; Golden, Susan S

    2015-12-01

    Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism used for studying photosynthesis and the circadian clock, and it is being developed for the production of fuel, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. To identify a comprehensive set of genes and intergenic regions that impacts fitness in S. elongatus, we created a pooled library of ∼ 250,000 transposon mutants and used sequencing to identify the insertion locations. By analyzing the distribution and survival of these mutants, we identified 718 of the organism's 2,723 genes as essential for survival under laboratory conditions. The validity of the essential gene set is supported by its tight overlap with well-conserved genes and its enrichment for core biological processes. The differences noted between our dataset and these predictors of essentiality, however, have led to surprising biological insights. One such finding is that genes in a large portion of the TCA cycle are dispensable, suggesting that S. elongatus does not require a cyclic TCA process. Furthermore, the density of the transposon mutant library enabled individual and global statements about the essentiality of noncoding RNAs, regulatory elements, and other intergenic regions. In this way, a group I intron located in tRNA(Leu), which has been used extensively for phylogenetic studies, was shown here to be essential for the survival of S. elongatus. Our survey of essentiality for every locus in the S. elongatus genome serves as a powerful resource for understanding the organism's physiology and defines the essential gene set required for the growth of a photosynthetic organism. PMID:26508635

  19. Identification and characterization of essential genes in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tim; Birsoy, K?van; Hughes, Nicholas W.; Krupczak, Kevin M.; Post, Yorick; Wei, Jenny J.; Lander, Eric S.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genetic analysis of lethal phenotypes has elucidated the molecular underpinnings of many biological processes. Using the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, we constructed a genome-wide single-guide RNA (sgRNA) library to screen for genes required for proliferation and survival in a human cancer cell line. Our screen revealed the set of cell-essential genes, which was validated by an orthogonal gene-trap-based screen and comparison with yeast gene knockouts. This set is enriched for genes that encode components of fundamental pathways, are expressed at high levels, and contain few inactivating polymorphisms in the human population. We also uncovered a large group of uncharacterized genes involved in RNA processing, a number of whose products localize to the nucleolus. Lastly, screens in additional cell lines showed a high degree of overlap in gene essentiality, but also revealed differences specific to each cell line and cancer type that reflect the developmental origin, oncogenic drivers, paralogous gene expression pattern, and chromosomal structure of each line. These results demonstrate the power of CRISPR-based screens and suggest a general strategy for identifying liabilities in cancer cells. PMID:26472758

  20. Identification and characterization of essential genes in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tim; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Hughes, Nicholas W; Krupczak, Kevin M; Post, Yorick; Wei, Jenny J; Lander, Eric S; Sabatini, David M

    2015-11-27

    Large-scale genetic analysis of lethal phenotypes has elucidated the molecular underpinnings of many biological processes. Using the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, we constructed a genome-wide single-guide RNA library to screen for genes required for proliferation and survival in a human cancer cell line. Our screen revealed the set of cell-essential genes, which was validated with an orthogonal gene-trap-based screen and comparison with yeast gene knockouts. This set is enriched for genes that encode components of fundamental pathways, are expressed at high levels, and contain few inactivating polymorphisms in the human population. We also uncovered a large group of uncharacterized genes involved in RNA processing, a number of whose products localize to the nucleolus. Last, screens in additional cell lines showed a high degree of overlap in gene essentiality but also revealed differences specific to each cell line and cancer type that reflect the developmental origin, oncogenic drivers, paralogous gene expression pattern, and chromosomal structure of each line. These results demonstrate the power of CRISPR-based screens and suggest a general strategy for identifying liabilities in cancer cells. PMID:26472758

  1. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB4 gene product is an essential virulence protein requiring an intact nucleoside triphosphate-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, B R; Christie, P J

    1993-01-01

    Products of the approximately 9.5-kb virB operon are proposed to direct the export of T-DNA/protein complexes across the Agrobacterium tumefaciens envelope en route to plant cells. The presence of conserved nucleoside triphosphate (NTP)-binding domains in VirB4 and VirB11 suggests that one or both proteins couple energy, via NTP hydrolysis, to T-complex transport. To assess the importance of VirB4 for virulence, a nonpolar virB4 null mutation was introduced into the pTiA6NC plasmid of strain A348. The 2.37-kb virB4 coding sequence was deleted precisely by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in vitro. The resulting delta virB4 mutation was exchanged for the wild-type allele by two sequential recombination events with the counterselectable Bacillus subtilis sacB gene. Two derivatives, A348 delta B4.4 and A348 delta B4.5, sustained a nonpolar deletion of the wild-type virB4 allele, as judged by Southern blot hybridization and immunoblot analyses with antibodies specific for VirB4, VirB5, VirB10, and VirB11. Transcription of wild-type virB4 from the lac promoter restored virulence to the nonpolar null mutants on a variety of dicotyledonous species, establishing virB4 as an essential virulence gene. A substitution of glutamine for Lys-439 and a deletion of Gly-438, Lys-439, and Thr-440 within the glycine-rich NTP-binding domain (Gly-Pro-Iso-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Thr) abolished complementation of A348 delta B4.4 or A348 delta B4.5, demonstrating that an intact NTP-binding domain is critical for VirB4 function. Merodiploids expressing both the mutant and wild-type virB4 alleles exhibited lower virulence than A348, suggesting that VirB4, a cytoplasmic membrane protein, may contribute as a homo- or heteromultimer to A. tumefaciens virulence. Images PMID:8449880

  2. Exploring the Optimal Strategy to Predict Essential Genes in Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingyuan; Tan, Lirong; Lin, Xiaodong; Lu, Yao; Lu, Long J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurately predicting essential genes is important in many aspects of biology, medicine and bioengineering. In previous research, we have developed a machine learning based integrative algorithm to predict essential genes in bacterial species. This algorithm lends itself to two approaches for predicting essential genes: learning the traits from known essential genes in the target organism, or transferring essential gene annotations from a closely related model organism. However, for an understudied microbe, each approach has its potential limitations. The first is constricted by the often small number of known essential genes. The second is limited by the availability of model organisms and by evolutionary distance. In this study, we aim to determine the optimal strategy for predicting essential genes by examining four microbes with well-characterized essential genes. Our results suggest that, unless the known essential genes are few, learning from the known essential genes in the target organism usually outperforms transferring essential gene annotations from a related model organism. In fact, the required number of known essential genes is surprisingly small to make accurate predictions. In prokaryotes, when the number of known essential genes is greater than 2% of total genes, this approach already comes close to its optimal performance. In eukaryotes, achieving the same best performance requires over 4% of total genes, reflecting the increased complexity of eukaryotic organisms. Combining the two approaches resulted in an increased performance when the known essential genes are few. Our investigation thus provides key information on accurately predicting essential genes and will greatly facilitate annotations of microbial genomes. PMID:24970124

  3. Comparative analysis of essential genes in prokaryotic genomic islands

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Peng, Chong; Zhang, Ge; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes are thought to encode proteins that carry out the basic functions to sustain a cellular life, and genomic islands (GIs) usually contain clusters of horizontally transferred genes. It has been assumed that essential genes are not likely to be located in GIs, but systematical analysis of essential genes in GIs has not been explored before. Here, we have analyzed the essential genes in 28 prokaryotes by statistical method and reached a conclusion that essential genes in GIs are significantly fewer than those outside GIs. The function of 362 essential genes found in GIs has been explored further by BLAST against the Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) and the phage/prophage sequence database of PHAge Search Tool (PHAST). Consequently, 64 and 60 eligible essential genes are found to share the sequence similarity with the virulence factors and phage/prophages-related genes, respectively. Meanwhile, we find several toxin-related proteins and repressors encoded by these essential genes in GIs. The comparative analysis of essential genes in genomic islands will not only shed new light on the development of the prediction algorithm of essential genes, but also give a clue to detect the functionality of essential genes in genomic islands. PMID:26223387

  4. Isolation and characterization of the Escherichia coli htrB gene, whose product is essential for bacterial viability above 33 degrees C in rich media.

    PubMed Central

    Karow, M; Fayet, O; Cegielska, A; Ziegelhoffer, T; Georgopoulos, C

    1991-01-01

    We have identified and studied the htrB gene of Escherichia coli. Insertional inactivation of the htrB gene leads to bacterial death at temperatures above 33 degrees C. The mutant bacterial phenotype at nonpermissive temperatures includes an arrest of cell division followed by the formation of bulges or filaments. The htrB+ gene has been cloned by complementation and shown to reside at 23.4 min on the E. coli genetic map, the relative order of the neighboring loci being mboA-htrB-pyrC. The htrB gene is transcribed in a counterclockwise fashion, relative to the E. coli genetic map, and its product has been identified as a membrane-associated protein of 35,000 Da. Growth experiments in minimal media indicate that the HtrB function becomes dispensable at low growth rates. Images PMID:1846149

  5. Network analysis of gene essentiality in functional genomics experiments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Wang, Hongfang; Li, Wei; Zang, Chongzhi; Li, Bo; Wong, Yinling J; Meyer, Cliff; Liu, Jun S; Aster, Jon C; Liu, X Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Many genomic techniques have been developed to study gene essentiality genome-wide, such as CRISPR and shRNA screens. Our analyses of public CRISPR screens suggest protein interaction networks, when integrated with gene expression or histone marks, are highly predictive of gene essentiality. Meanwhile, the quality of CRISPR and shRNA screen results can be significantly enhanced through network neighbor information. We also found network neighbor information to be very informative on prioritizing ChIP-seq target genes and survival indicator genes from tumor profiling. Thus, our study provides a general method for gene essentiality analysis in functional genomic experiments ( http://nest.dfci.harvard.edu ). PMID:26518695

  6. In silico network topology-based prediction of gene essentiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Joo Paulo Mller; Acencio, Marcio Luis; Mombach, Jos Carlos Merino; Vieira, Renata; da Silva, Jos Camargo; Lemke, Ney; Sinigaglia, Marialva

    2008-02-01

    The identification of genes essential for survival is important for the understanding of the minimal requirements for cellular life and for drug design. As experimental studies with the purpose of building a catalog of essential genes for a given organism are time-consuming and laborious, a computational approach which could predict gene essentiality with high accuracy would be of great value. We present here a novel computational approach, called NTPGE (Network Topology-based Prediction of Gene Essentiality), that relies on the network topology features of a gene to estimate its essentiality. The first step of NTPGE is to construct the integrated molecular network for a given organism comprising protein physical, metabolic and transcriptional regulation interactions. The second step consists in training a decision-tree-based machine-learning algorithm on known essential and non-essential genes of the organism of interest, considering as learning attributes the network topology information for each of these genes. Finally, the decision-tree classifier generated is applied to the set of genes of this organism to estimate essentiality for each gene. We applied the NTPGE approach for discovering the essential genes in Escherichia coli and then assessed its performance.

  7. Two Oligopeptide-Permease-Encoding Genes in the Clavulanic Acid Cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus Are Essential for Production of the ?-Lactamase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzana, Luis M.; Prez-Redondo, Rosario; Santamarta, Irene; Martn, Juan F.; Liras, Paloma

    2004-01-01

    orf7 (oppA1) and orf15 (oppA2) are located 8 kb apart in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus and encode proteins which are 48.0% identical. These proteins show sequence similarity to periplasmic oligopeptide-binding proteins. Mutant S. clavuligerus oppA1::acc, disrupted in oppA1, lacks clavulanic acid production. Clavulanic acid production is restored by transformation with plasmid pIJ699-oppA1, which carries oppA1, but not with the multicopy plasmid pIJ699-oppA2, which carries oppA2. The mutant S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph also lacks clavulanic acid production, shows a bald phenotype, and overproduces holomycin (5). Clavulanic acid production at low levels is restored in the oppA2-disrupted mutants by transformation with plasmid pIJ699-oppA2, but it is not complemented by the multicopy plasmid pIJ699-oppA1. Both genes encode oligopeptide permeases with different substrate specificities. The disrupted S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph is not able to grow on RPPGFSPFR (Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg; bradykinin), but both mutants grow on VAPG (Val-Ala-Pro-Gly) as the only nitrogen source, indicating differences in the peptide bound by the proteins encoded by both genes. The null S. clavuligerus oppA1::acc and S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph mutants are more resistant to the toxic tripeptide phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine (also named bialaphos) than the wild-type strain, suggesting that this peptide might be transported by these peptide-binding proteins. PMID:15150229

  8. A Penicillium expansum glucose oxidase-encoding gene, GOX2, is essential for gluconic acid production and acidification during colonization of deciduous fruit.

    PubMed

    Barad, Shiri; Horowitz, Sigal Brown; Moscovitz, Oren; Lichter, Amnon; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2012-06-01

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest maceration of fruit through secretion of total, d-gluconic acid (GLA). Two P. expansum glucose oxidase (GOX)-encoding genes, GOX1 and GOX2, were analyzed. GOX activity and GLA accumulation were strongly related to GOX2 expression, which increased with pH to a maximum at pH 7.0, whereas GOX1 was expressed at pH 4.0, where no GOX activity or extracellular GLA were detected. This differential expression was also observed at the leading edge of the decaying tissue, where GOX2 expression was dominant. The roles of the GOX genes in pathogenicity were further studied through i) development of P. expansum goxRNAi mutants exhibiting differential downregulation of GOX2, ii) heterologous expression of the P. expansum GOX2 gene in the nondeciduous fruit-pathogen P. chrysogenum, and iii) modulation of GLA production by FeSO(4) chelation. Interestingly, in P. expansum, pH and GLA production elicited opposite effects on germination and biomass accumulation: 26% of spores germinated at pH 7.0 when GOX activity and GLA were highest whereas, in P. chrysogenum at the same pH, when GLA did not accumulate, 72% of spores germinated. Moreover, heterologous expression of P. expansum GOX2 in P. chrysogenum resulted in enhanced GLA production and reduced germination, suggesting negative regulation of spore germination and GLA production. These results demonstrate that pH modulation, mediated by GLA accumulation, is an important factor in generating the initial signal or signals for fungal development leading to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum. PMID:22352719

  9. The ha72 Core Gene of Baculovirus Is Essential for Budded Virus Production and Occlusion-Derived Virus Embedding, and Amino Acid K22 Plays an Important Role in Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huachao; Wang, Manli; Deng, Fei; Hou, Dianhai; Arif, Basil M.; Wang, Hualin

    2014-01-01

    ha72 of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (a homologue of ac78) was identified as a conserved late baculovirus gene and characterized. HA72 localizes in the intranuclear ring zone. By generating mutants, we showed that HA72 is essential for budded virus (BD) production and occlusion-derived virus (ODV) embedding. HA72 also interacted with P33, a baculoviral sulfhydryl oxidase. A point mutation of amino acid 22 from lysine to glutamic acid curtailed BV production and precluded ODV occlusion as well as interaction with P33. PMID:24089571

  10. Mutualistic Polydnaviruses Share Essential Replication Gene Functions with Pathogenic Ancestors

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Gaelen R.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Eum, Jai H.; Strand, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are usually thought to form parasitic associations with hosts, but all members of the family Polydnaviridae are obligate mutualists of insects called parasitoid wasps. Phylogenetic data founded on sequence comparisons of viral genes indicate that polydnaviruses in the genus Bracovirus (BV) are closely related to pathogenic nudiviruses and baculoviruses. However, pronounced differences in the biology of BVs and baculoviruses together with high divergence of many shared genes make it unclear whether BV homologs still retain baculovirus-like functions. Here we report that virions from Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV) contain multiple baculovirus-like and nudivirus-like conserved gene products. We further show that RNA interference effectively and specifically knocks down MdBV gene expression. Coupling RNAi knockdown methods with functional assays, we examined the activity of six genes in the MdBV conserved gene set that are known to have essential roles in transcription (lef-4, lef-9), capsid assembly (vp39, vlf-1), and envelope formation (p74, pif-1) during baculovirus replication. Our results indicated that MdBV produces a baculovirus-like RNA polymerase that transcribes virus structural genes. Our results also supported a conserved role for vp39, vlf-1, p74, and pif-1 as structural components of MdBV virions. Additional experiments suggested that vlf-1 together with the nudivirus-like gene int-1 also have novel functions in regulating excision of MdBV proviral DNAs for packaging into virions. Overall, these data provide the first experimental insights into the function of BV genes in virion formation. PMID:23671417

  11. Why There Are No Essential Genes on Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements such as plasmids are important for the evolution of prokaryotes. It has been suggested that there are differences between functions coded for by mobile genes and those in the "core" genome and that these differences can be seen between plasmids and chromosomes. In particular, it has been suggested that essential genes, such as those involved in the formation of structural proteins or in basic metabolic functions, are rarely located on plasmids. We model competition between genotypically varying bacteria within a single population to investigate whether selection favors a chromosomal location for essential genes. We find that in general, chromosomal locations for essential genes are indeed favored. This is because the inheritance of chromosomes is more stable than that for plasmids. We define the "degradation" rate as the rate at which chance genetic processes, for example, mutation, deletion, or translocation, render essential genes nonfunctioning. The only way in which plasmids can be a location for functioning essential genes is if chromosomal genes degrade faster than plasmid genes. If the two degradation rates are equal, or if plasmid genes degrade faster than chromosomal genes, functioning essential genes will be found only on chromosomes. PMID:25540453

  12. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Department of Microbial Molecular Biology, AGERI, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619; Division of Biomedical Sciences, Zewail University, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 ; Zhang, Fengrui; Thiem, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  13. Conditional promoters for analysis of essential genes in Zymoseptoria tritici?

    PubMed Central

    Kilaru, S.; Ma, W.; Schuster, M.; Courbot, M.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Development of new fungicides, needed for sustainable control of fungal plant pathogens, requires identification of novel anti-fungal targets. Essential fungal-specific proteins are good candidates, but due to their importance, gene deletion mutants are not viable. Consequently, their cellular role often remains elusive. This hindrance can be overcome by the use of conditional mutants, where expression is controlled by an inducible/repressible promoter. Here, we introduce 5 inducible/repressible promoter systems to study essential genes in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We fused the gene for enhanced green-fluorescent protein (egfp) to the promoter region of Z. tritici nitrate reductase (Pnar1; induced by nitrogen and repressed by ammonium), 1,4-?-endoxylanase A (Pex1A; induced by xylose and repressed by maltodextrin), l-arabinofuranosidase B (PlaraB; induced by arabinose and repressed by glucose), galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 7 (Pgal7; induced by galactose and repressed by glucose) and isocitrate lyase (Picl1; induced by sodium acetate and repressed by glucose). This was followed by quantitative analysis of cytoplasmic reporter fluorescence under induced and repressed conditions. We show that Pnar1, PlaraB and Pex1A drive very little or no egfp expression when repressed, but induce moderate protein production when induced. In contrast, Pgal7 and Picl1 show considerable egfp expression when repressed, and were strongly induced in the presence of their inducers. Normalising the expression levels of all promoters to that of the ?-tubulin promoter Ptub2 revealed that PlaraB was the weakest promoter (?20% of Ptub2), whereas Picl1 strongly expressed the reporter (?250% of Ptub2). The use of these tools promises a better understanding of essential genes, which will help developing novel control strategies that protect wheat from Z. tritici. PMID:26092803

  14. Growth regulation of a Salmonella plasmid gene essential for virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, F C; Krause, M; Roudier, C; Fierer, J; Guiney, D G

    1991-01-01

    The Salmonella dublin plasmid gene vsdC is essential for virulence. We have constructed a vsdC-lacZ translational fusion to demonstrate that vsdC is selectively expressed during the stationary phase of bacterial cell growth. This pattern of expression has been confirmed by mRNA hybridization studies. Carbon starvation is able to induce vsdC expression by limiting bacterial growth. The expression of vsdC is dependent upon an upstream gene, vsdA, whose gene product possesses significant amino-terminus homology with the LysR family of transcriptional activator proteins. We have further demonstrated that vsdC expression is not dependent upon the known Salmonella chromosomal virulence regulatory loci ompR, phoP, and cya-crp and that vsdC can be expressed in a range of nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, including some serovars in which introduction of the virulence plasmid does not confer mouse virulence. The vsd system provides a model for the study of transcriptional activation, a basis for the development of new expression vectors, and a novel mechanism of virulence gene regulation. Bacterial growth limitation within the phagosomes of host phagocytic cells may be the environmental signal inducing plasmid-mediated virulence gene expression in salmonellae. Images FIG. 3 PMID:1938884

  15. The six conserved helicase motifs of the UL5 gene product, a component of the herpes simplex virus type 1 helicase-primase, are essential for its function.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, L A; Weller, S K

    1992-01-01

    The UL5 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1, one component of the viral helicase-primase complex, contains six sequence motifs found in all members of a superfamily of DNA and RNA helicases. Although this superfamily contains more than 20 members ranging from bacteria to mammalian cells and their viruses, the importance of these motifs has not been addressed experimentally for any one of them. In this study, we have examined the functional significance of these six motifs for the UL5 protein through the introduction of site-specific mutations resulting in single amino acid substitutions of the most highly conserved residues within each motif. A transient replication complementation assay was used to test the effect of each mutation on the function of the UL5 protein in viral DNA replication. In this assay, a mutant UL5 protein expressed from an expression clone is used to complement a replication-deficient null mutant with a mutation in the UL5 gene for the amplification of herpes simplex virus origin-containing plasmids. Eight mutations in conserved regions and three similar mutations in nonconserved regions of the UL5 gene were analyzed, and the results indicate that all six conserved motifs are essential to the function of UL5 protein in viral DNA replication; on the other hand, mutations in nonconserved regions are tolerated. These data provide the first direct evidence for the importance of these conserved regions in any member of the superfamily of DNA and RNA helicases. In addition, three motif mutations were introduced into the viral genome, and the phenotypic analyses of these mutants are consistent with results from the transient replication complementation assay. The ability of these three mutant UL5 proteins to form specific interactions with other members of the helicase-primase complex, UL8 and UL52, indicates that the functional domains required for replication activity of UL5 are separable from domains responsible for protein-protein interactions. It is anticipated that this type of structure-function analysis will lead to the identification of protein domains that contribute not only to the enzymatic activities of helicase or primase but also to protein-protein interactions within members of the complex. Images PMID:1309257

  16. A new computational strategy for predicting essential genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determination of the minimum gene set for cellular life is one of the central goals in biology. Genome-wide essential gene identification has progressed rapidly in certain bacterial species; however, it remains difficult to achieve in most eukaryotic species. Several computational models have recently been developed to integrate gene features and used as alternatives to transfer gene essentiality annotations between organisms. Results We first collected features that were widely used by previous predictive models and assessed the relationships between gene features and gene essentiality using a stepwise regression model. We found two issues that could significantly reduce model accuracy: (i) the effect of multicollinearity among gene features and (ii) the diverse and even contrasting correlations between gene features and gene essentiality existing within and among different species. To address these issues, we developed a novel model called feature-based weighted Naïve Bayes model (FWM), which is based on Naïve Bayes classifiers, logistic regression, and genetic algorithm. The proposed model assesses features and filters out the effects of multicollinearity and diversity. The performance of FWM was compared with other popular models, such as support vector machine, Naïve Bayes model, and logistic regression model, by applying FWM to reciprocally predict essential genes among and within 21 species. Our results showed that FWM significantly improves the accuracy and robustness of essential gene prediction. Conclusions FWM can remarkably improve the accuracy of essential gene prediction and may be used as an alternative method for other classification work. This method can contribute substantially to the knowledge of the minimum gene sets required for living organisms and the discovery of new drug targets. PMID:24359534

  17. Gene Essentiality Is a Quantitative Property Linked to Cellular Evolvability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gaowen; Yong, Mei Yun Jacy; Yurieva, Marina; Srinivasan, Kandhadayar Gopalan; Liu, Jaron; Lim, John Soon Yew; Poidinger, Michael; Wright, Graham Daniel; Zolezzi, Francesca; Choi, Hyungwon; Pavelka, Norman; Rancati, Giulia

    2015-12-01

    Gene essentiality is typically determined by assessing the viability of the corresponding mutant cells, but this definition fails to account for the ability of cells to adaptively evolve to genetic perturbations. Here, we performed a stringent screen to assess the degree to which Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells can survive the deletion of ?1,000 individual "essential" genes and found that ?9% of these genetic perturbations could in fact be overcome by adaptive evolution. Our analyses uncovered a genome-wide gradient of gene essentiality, with certain essential cellular functions being more "evolvable" than others. Ploidy changes were prevalent among the evolved mutant strains, and aneuploidy of a specific chromosome was adaptive for a class of evolvable nucleoporin mutants. These data justify a quantitative redefinition of gene essentiality that incorporates both viability and evolvability of the corresponding mutant cells and will enable selection of therapeutic targets associated with lower risk of emergence of drug resistance. PMID:26627736

  18. Analysis of pan-genome to identify the core genes and essential genes of Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaowen; Li, Yajie; Zang, Juan; Li, Yexia; Bie, Pengfei; Lu, Yanli; Wu, Qingmin

    2016-04-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens, that cause a contagious zoonotic disease, that can result in such outcomes as abortion or sterility in susceptible animal hosts and grave, debilitating illness in humans. For deciphering the survival mechanism of Brucella spp. in vivo, 42 Brucella complete genomes from NCBI were analyzed for the pan-genome and core genome by identification of their composition and function of Brucella genomes. The results showed that the total 132,143 protein-coding genes in these genomes were divided into 5369 clusters. Among these, 1710 clusters were associated with the core genome, 1182 clusters with strain-specific genes and 2477 clusters with dispensable genomes. COG analysis indicated that 44 % of the core genes were devoted to metabolism, which were mainly responsible for energy production and conversion (COG category C), and amino acid transport and metabolism (COG category E). Meanwhile, approximately 35 % of the core genes were in positive selection. In addition, 1252 potential essential genes were predicted in the core genome by comparison with a prokaryote database of essential genes. The results suggested that the core genes in Brucella genomes are relatively conservation, and the energy and amino acid metabolism play a more important role in the process of growth and reproduction in Brucella spp. This study might help us to better understand the mechanisms of Brucella persistent infection and provide some clues for further exploring the gene modules of the intracellular survival in Brucella spp. PMID:26724943

  19. In Vivo-Validated Essential Genes Identified in Acinetobacter baumannii by Using Human Ascites Overlap Poorly with Essential Genes Detected on Laboratory Media

    PubMed Central

    Umland, Timothy C.; Schultz, L. Wayne; MacDonald, Ulrike; Beanan, Janet M.; Olson, Ruth; Russo, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A critical feature of a potential antimicrobial target is the characteristic of being essential for growth and survival during host infection. For bacteria, genome-wide essentiality screens are usually performed on rich laboratory media. This study addressed whether genes detected in that manner were optimal for the identification of antimicrobial targets since the in vivo milieu is fundamentally different. Mutant derivatives of a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii were screened for growth on human ascites, an ex vivo medium that reflects the infection environment. A subset of 34 mutants with unique gene disruptions that demonstrated little to no growth on ascites underwent evaluation in a rat subcutaneous abscess model, establishing 18 (53%) of these genes as in vivo essential. The putative gene products all had annotated biological functions, represented unrecognized or underexploited antimicrobial targets, and could be grouped into five functional categories: metabolic, two-component signaling systems, DNA/RNA synthesis and regulation, protein transport, and structural. These A.baumannii in vivo essential genes overlapped poorly with the sets of essential genes from other Gram-negative bacteria catalogued in the Database of Essential Genes (DEG), including those of Acinetobacterbaylyi, a closely related species. However, this finding was not due to the absence of orthologs. None of the 18 in vivo essential genes identified in this study, or their putative gene products, were targets of FDA-approved drugs or drugs in the developmental pipeline, indicating that a significant portion of the available target space within pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria is currently neglected. PMID:22911967

  20. Identification of essential genes of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontal disease onset and progression. Genetic tools for the manipulation of bacterial genomes allow for in-depth mechanistic studies of metabolism, physiology, interspecies and host-pathogen interactions. Analysis of the essential genes, protein-coding sequences necessary for survival of P. gingivalis by transposon mutagenesis has not previously been attempted due to the limitations of available transposon systems for the organism. We adapted a Mariner transposon system for mutagenesis of P. gingivalis and created an insertion mutant library. By analyzing the location of insertions using massively-parallel sequencing technology we used this mutant library to define genes essential for P. gingivalis survival under in vitro conditions. Results In mutagenesis experiments we identified 463 genes in P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 that are putatively essential for viability in vitro. Comparing the 463 P. gingivalis essential genes with previous essential gene studies, 364 of the 463 are homologues to essential genes in other species; 339 are shared with more than one other species. Twenty-five genes are known to be essential in P. gingivalis and B. thetaiotaomicron only. Significant enrichment of essential genes within Cluster of Orthologous Groups ‘D’ (cell division), ‘I’ (lipid transport and metabolism) and ‘J’ (translation/ribosome) were identified. Previously, the P. gingivalis core genome was shown to encode 1,476 proteins out of a possible 1,909; 434 of 463 essential genes are contained within the core genome. Thus, for the species P. gingivalis twenty-two, seventy-seven and twenty-three percent of the genome respectively are devoted to essential, core and accessory functions. Conclusions A Mariner transposon system can be adapted to create mutant libraries in P. gingivalis amenable to analysis by next-generation sequencing technologies. In silico analysis of genes essential for in vitro growth demonstrates that although the majority are homologous across bacterial species as a whole, species and strain-specific subsets are apparent. Understanding the putative essential genes of P. gingivalis will provide insights into metabolic pathways and niche adaptations as well as clinical therapeutic strategies. PMID:23114059

  1. Methods for identifying an essential gene in a prokaryotic microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Shizuya, Hiroaki

    2006-01-31

    Methods are provided for the rapid identification of essential or conditionally essential DNA segments in any species of haploid cell (one copy chromosome per cell) that is capable of being transformed by artificial means and is capable of undergoing DNA recombination. This system offers an enhanced means of identifying essential function genes in diploid pathogens, such as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Essential genes from Arctic bacteria used to construct stable, temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Duplantis, Barry N; Osusky, Milan; Schmerk, Crystal L; Ross, Darrell R; Bosio, Catharine M; Nano, Francis E

    2010-07-27

    All bacteria share a set of evolutionarily conserved essential genes that encode products that are required for viability. The great diversity of environments that bacteria inhabit, including environments at extreme temperatures, place adaptive pressure on essential genes. We sought to use this evolutionary diversity of essential genes to engineer bacterial pathogens to be stably temperature-sensitive, and thus useful as live vaccines. We isolated essential genes from bacteria found in the Arctic and substituted them for their counterparts into pathogens of mammals. We found that substitution of nine different essential genes from psychrophilic (cold-loving) bacteria into mammalian pathogenic bacteria resulted in strains that died below their normal-temperature growth limits. Substitution of three different psychrophilic gene orthologs of ligA, which encode NAD-dependent DNA ligase, resulted in bacterial strains that died at 33, 35, and 37 degrees C. One ligA gene was shown to render Francisella tularensis, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium smegmatis temperature-sensitive, demonstrating that this gene functions in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive lineage bacteria. Three temperature-sensitive F. tularensis strains were shown to induce protective immunity after vaccination at a cool body site. About half of the genes that could be tested were unable to mutate to temperature-resistant forms at detectable levels. These results show that psychrophilic essential genes can be used to create a unique class of bacterial temperature-sensitive vaccines for important human pathogens, such as S. enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20624965

  3. Training Set Selection for the Prediction of Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Li, Xiangchen; Liu, Yanlin; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    Various computational models have been developed to transfer annotations of gene essentiality between organisms. However, despite the increasing number of microorganisms with well-characterized sets of essential genes, selection of appropriate training sets for predicting the essential genes of poorly-studied or newly sequenced organisms remains challenging. In this study, a machine learning approach was applied reciprocally to predict the essential genes in 21 microorganisms. Results showed that training set selection greatly influenced predictive accuracy. We determined four criteria for training set selection: (1) essential genes in the selected training set should be reliable; (2) the growth conditions in which essential genes are defined should be consistent in training and prediction sets; (3) species used as training set should be closely related to the target organism; and (4) organisms used as training and prediction sets should exhibit similar phenotypes or lifestyles. We then analyzed the performance of an incomplete training set and an integrated training set with multiple organisms. We found that the size of the training set should be at least 10% of the total genes to yield accurate predictions. Additionally, the integrated training sets exhibited remarkable increase in stability and accuracy compared with single sets. Finally, we compared the performance of the integrated training sets with the four criteria and with random selection. The results revealed that a rational selection of training sets based on our criteria yields better performance than random selection. Thus, our results provide empirical guidance on training set selection for the identification of essential genes on a genome-wide scale. PMID:24466248

  4. Predicting bacterial essential genes using only sequence composition information.

    PubMed

    Ning, L W; Lin, H; Ding, H; Huang, J; Rao, N; Guo, F B

    2014-01-01

    Essential genes are those genes that are needed by organisms at any time and under any conditions. It is very important for us to identify essential genes from bacterial genomes because of their vital role in synthetic biology and biomedical practices. In this paper, we developed a support vector machine (SVM)-based method to predict essential genes of bacterial genomes using only compositional features. These features are all derived from the primary sequences, i.e., nucleotide sequences and protein sequences. After training on the multiple samplings of the labeled (essential or not essential) features using a library for SVM, we obtained an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 0.82 in a 5-fold cross-validation for Escherichia coli and about 0.74 for Mycoplasma pulmonis. We further evaluated the performance of the method proposed using the dataset consisting of 16 bacterial genomes, and an average AUC of 0.76 was achieved. Based on this training dataset, a model for essential gene prediction was established. Another two independent genomes, Shewanella oneidensis RW1 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 were used to evalutate the model. Results showed that the AUC sores were 0.77 and 0.81, respectively. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a web server has been constructed, which is freely available at http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn:9999/egp. PMID:25036505

  5. Identification, characterization, and mapping of the Escherichia coli htrA gene, whose product is essential for bacterial growth only at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Lipinska, B; Fayet, O; Baird, L; Georgopoulos, C

    1989-01-01

    We identified and cloned an Escherichia coli gene called htrA (high temperature requirement). The htrA gene was originally discovered because mini-Tn10 transposon insertions in it allowed E. coli growth at 30 degrees C but prevented growth at elevated temperatures (above 42 degrees C). The htrA insertion mutants underwent a block in macromolecular synthesis and eventually lysed at the nonpermissive temperature. The htrA gene was located at approximately 3.7 min (between the fhuA and dapD loci) on the genetic map of E. coli and between 180 and 187.5 kilobases on the physical map. It coded for an unstable, 51-kilodalton protein which was processed by removal of an amino-terminal fragment, resulting in a stable, 48-kilodalton protein. Images PMID:2537822

  6. Gene Trap Mice Reveal an Essential Function of Dual Specificity Phosphatase Dusp16/MKP-7 in Perinatal Survival and Regulation of Toll-like Receptor (TLR)-induced Cytokine Production*

    PubMed Central

    Niedzielska, Magdalena; Bodendorfer, Barbara; Mnch, Sandra; Eichner, Alexander; Derigs, Marcus; da Costa, Olivia; Schweizer, Astrid; Neff, Frauke; Nitschke, Lars; Sparwasser, Tim; Keyse, Stephen M.; Lang, Roland

    2014-01-01

    MAPK activity is negatively regulated by members of the dual specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, which differ in expression, substrate specificity, and subcellular localization. Here, we investigated the function of Dusp16/MKP-7 in the innate immune system. The Dusp16 isoforms A1 and B1 were inducibly expressed in macrophages and dendritic cells following Toll-like receptor stimulation. A gene trap approach was used to generate Dusp16-deficient mice. Homozygous Dusp16tp/tp mice developed without gross abnormalities but died perinatally. Fetal liver cells from Dusp16tp/tp embryos efficiently reconstituted the lymphoid and myeloid compartments with Dusp16-deficient hematopoietic cells. However, GM-CSF-induced proliferation of bone marrow progenitors in vitro was impaired in the absence of Dusp16. In vivo challenge with Escherichia coli LPS triggered higher production of IL-12p40 in mice with a Dusp16-deficient immune system. In vitro, Dusp16-deficient macrophages, but not dendritic cells, selectively overexpressed a subset of TLR-induced genes, including the cytokine IL-12. Dusp16-deficient fibroblasts showed enhanced activation of p38 and JNK MAPKs. In macrophages, pharmacological inhibition and siRNA knockdown of JNK1/2 normalized IL-12p40 secretion. Production of IL-10 and its inhibitory effect on IL-12 production were unaltered in Dusp16tp/tp macrophages. Altogether, the Dusp16 gene trap mouse model identifies an essential role in perinatal survival and reveals selective control of differentiation and cytokine production of myeloid cells by the MAPK phosphatase Dusp16. PMID:24311790

  7. Targeted gene knockout and essentiality testing by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Warner, Digby F; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an updated experimental protocol for generating allelic exchange mutants of mycobacteria by two-step selection using the p2NIL/pGOAL system. The types of mutants that can be generated using this approach are targeted gene knockouts marked with a drug resistance gene, unmarked deletion mutants, or strains in which a point mutation/s has been introduced into the target gene. A method for assessing the essentiality of a gene for mycobacterial growth by means of allelic exchange is also described. This method, which utilizes a merodiploid strain carrying a second copy of the gene of interest on an integration vector, allows the exploration by means of complement switching of structure-function relationships in proteins that are essential for mycobacterial growth. PMID:25779314

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae essential genes with an Opi- phenotype.

    PubMed

    Salas-Santiago, Bryan; Lopes, John M

    2014-04-01

    The overproduction and secretion of inositol (i.e., Opi(-)) phenotype is associated with defects in regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast. Here we report a screen of the essential yeast gene set using a conditional-expression library. This screen identified novel functions previously unknown to affect phospholipid synthesis. PMID:24558266

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Essential Genes with an Opi? Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Santiago, Bryan; Lopes, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The overproduction and secretion of inositol (i.e., Opi?) phenotype is associated with defects in regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast. Here we report a screen of the essential yeast gene set using a conditional-expression library. This screen identified novel functions previously unknown to affect phospholipid synthesis. PMID:24558266

  10. Transcriptional landscape and essential genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Remmele, Christian W.; Xian, Yibo; Albrecht, Marco; Faulstich, Michaela; Fraunholz, Martin; Heinrichs, Elisabeth; Dittrich, Marcus T.; Müller, Tobias; Reinhardt, Richard; Rudel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has recently classified Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a super-bacterium due to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistant derivatives and an overall dramatic increase in infection incidences. Genome sequencing has identified potential genes, however, little is known about the transcriptional organization and the presence of non-coding RNAs in gonococci. We performed RNA sequencing to define the transcriptome and the transcriptional start sites of all gonococcal genes and operons. Numerous new transcripts including 253 potentially non-coding RNAs transcribed from intergenic regions or antisense to coding genes were identified. Strikingly, strong antisense transcription was detected for the phase-variable opa genes coding for a family of adhesins and invasins in pathogenic Neisseria, that may have regulatory functions. Based on the defined transcriptional start sites, promoter motifs were identified. We further generated and sequenced a high density Tn5 transposon library to predict a core of 827 gonococcal essential genes, 133 of which have no known function. Our combined RNA-Seq and Tn-Seq approach establishes a detailed map of gonococcal genes and defines the first core set of essential gonococcal genes. PMID:25143534

  11. Plasmid selection in Escherichia coli using an endogenous essential gene marker

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shan; Good, Liam

    2008-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance genes are widely used for selection of recombinant bacteria, but their use risks contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. In particular, the practice is inappropriate for some intrinsically resistant bacteria and in vaccine production, and costly for industrial scale production. Non-antibiotic systems are available, but require mutant host strains, defined media or expensive reagents. An unexplored concept is over-expression of a host essential gene to enable selection in the presence of a chemical inhibitor of the gene product. To test this idea in E. coli, we used the growth essential target gene fabI as the plasmid-borne marker and the biocide triclosan as the selective agent. Results The new cloning vector, pFab, enabled selection by triclosan at 1 ?M. Interestingly, pFab out-performed the parent pUC19-ampicillin system in cell growth, plasmid stability and plasmid yield. Also, pFab was toxic to host cells in a way that was reversed by triclosan. Therefore, pFab and triclosan are toxic when used alone but in combination they enhance growth and plasmid production through a gene-inhibitor interaction. Conclusion The fabI-triclosan model system provides an alternative plasmid selection method based on essential gene over-expression, without the use of antibiotic-resistance genes and conventional antibiotics. PMID:18694482

  12. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  13. Functional Analysis of the Molecular Interactions of TATA Box-Containing Genes and Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jisook

    2015-01-01

    Genes can be divided into TATA-containing genes and TATA-less genes according to the presence of TATA box elements at promoter regions. TATA-containing genes tend to be stress-responsive, whereas many TATA-less genes are known to be related to cell growth or housekeeping functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that there are striking differences among four gene sets defined by the presence of TATA box (TATA-containing) and essentiality (TATA-less) with respect to number of associated transcription factors, amino acid usage, and functional annotation. Extending this research in yeast, we identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways that are statistically enriched in TATA-containing or TATA-less genes and evaluated the possibility that the enriched pathways are related to stress or growth as reflected by the individual functions of the genes involved. According to their enrichment for either of these two gene sets, we sorted KEGG pathways into TATA-containing-gene-enriched pathways (TEPs) and essential-gene-enriched pathways (EEPs). As expected, genes in TEPs and EEPs exhibited opposite results in terms of functional category, transcriptional regulation, codon adaptation index, and network properties, suggesting the possibility that the bipolar patterns in these pathways also contribute to the regulation of the stress response and to cell survival. Our findings provide the novel insight that significant enrichment of TATA-binding or TATA-less genes defines pathways as stress-responsive or growth-related. PMID:25789484

  14. Gene essentiality and synthetic lethality in haploid human cells.

    PubMed

    Blomen, Vincent A; Mjek, Peter; Jae, Lucas T; Bigenzahn, Johannes W; Nieuwenhuis, Joppe; Staring, Jacqueline; Sacco, Roberto; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Olk, Nadine; Stukalov, Alexey; Marceau, Caleb; Janssen, Hans; Carette, Jan E; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2015-11-27

    Although the genes essential for life have been identified in less complex model organisms, their elucidation in human cells has been hindered by technical barriers. We used extensive mutagenesis in haploid human cells to identify approximately 2000 genes required for optimal fitness under culture conditions. To study the principles of genetic interactions in human cells, we created a synthetic lethality network focused on the secretory pathway based exclusively on mutations. This revealed a genetic cross-talk governing Golgi homeostasis, an additional subunit of the human oligosaccharyltransferase complex, and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase ? adaptor hijacked by viruses. The synthetic lethality map parallels observations made in yeast and projects a route forward to reveal genetic networks in diverse aspects of human cell biology. PMID:26472760

  15. A crtB homolog essential for photochromogenicity in Mycobacterium marinum: isolation, characterization, and gene disruption via homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, L; Tran, H T; Federspiel, N A; Falkow, S

    1997-01-01

    A gene essential for light-induced pigment production was isolated from the photochromogen Mycobacterium marinum by heterologous complementation of an M. marinum cosmid library in the nonchromogen Mycobacterium smegmatis. This gene is part of an operon and homologous to the Streptomyces griseus and Myxococcus xanthus crtB genes encoding phytoene synthase. Gene replacement at this locus was achieved via homologous recombination, demonstrating that its expression is essential for photochromogenicity. The ease of targeted gene disruption in this pathogenic Mycobacterium allows for the dissection of the molecular basis of mycobacterial pathogenesis. PMID:9294446

  16. High-throughput screen of essential gene modules in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bibliometric approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The annotation of functional genome and signaling network in M. tuberculosis are still not systematic. Essential gene modules are a collection of functionally related essential genes in the same signaling or metabolic pathway. The determination of essential genes and essential gene modules at genomic level may be important for better understanding of the physiology and pathology of M. tuberculosis, and also helpful for the development of drugs against this pathogen. The establishment of genomic operon database (DOOR) and the annotation of gene pathways have felicitated the genomic analysis of the essential gene modules of M. tuberculosis. Method Bibliometric approach has been used to perform a High-throughput screen for essential genes of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Ant colony algorithm were used to identify the essential genes in other M. tuberculosis reference strains. Essential gene modules were analyzed by operon database DOOR. The pathways of essential genes were assessed by Biocarta, KEGG, NCI-PID, HumanCyc and Reactome. The function prediction of essential genes was analyzed by Pfam. Results A total approximately 700 essential genes were identified in M. tuberculosis genome. 40% of operons are consisted of two or more essential genes. The essential genes were distributed in 92 pathways in M. tuberculosis. In function prediction, 61.79% of essential genes were categorized into virulence, intermediary metabolism/respiration,cell wall related and lipid metabolism, which are fundamental functions that exist in most bacteria species. Conclusion We have identified the essential genes of M. tuberculosis using bibliometric approach at genomic level. The essential gene modules were further identified and analyzed. PMID:23687949

  17. Essentiality drives the orientation bias of bacterial genes in a continuous manner.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-Xin; Luo, Cheng-Si; Deng, Yan-Yan; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Studies had found that bacterial genes are preferentially located on the leading strands. Subsequently, the preferences of essential genes and highly expressed genes were compared by classifying all genes into four groups, which showed that the former has an exclusive influence on orientation. However, only some functional classes of essential genes have this orientation bias. Nevertheless, previous studies only performed comparative analyzes by differentiating the orientation bias extent of two types of genes. Thus, it is unclear whether the influence of essentiality on strand bias works continuously. Herein, we found a significant correlation between essentiality and orientation bias extent in 19 of 21 analyzed bacterial genomes, based on quantitative measurement of gene essentiality (or fitness). The correlation coefficient was much higher than that derived from binary essentiality measures (essential or non-essential). This suggested that genes with relatively lower essentiality, i.e., conditionally essential genes, also have some orientation bias, although it is weaker than that of absolutely essential genes. The results demonstrated the continuous influence of essentiality on orientation bias and provided details on this visible structural feature of bacterial genomes. It also proved that Geptop and IFIM could serve as useful resources of bacterial gene essentiality, particularly for quantitative analysis. PMID:26560889

  18. Essentiality drives the orientation bias of bacterial genes in a continuous manner

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wen-Xin; Luo, Cheng-Si; Deng, Yan-Yan; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Studies had found that bacterial genes are preferentially located on the leading strands. Subsequently, the preferences of essential genes and highly expressed genes were compared by classifying all genes into four groups, which showed that the former has an exclusive influence on orientation. However, only some functional classes of essential genes have this orientation bias. Nevertheless, previous studies only performed comparative analyzes by differentiating the orientation bias extent of two types of genes. Thus, it is unclear whether the influence of essentiality on strand bias works continuously. Herein, we found a significant correlation between essentiality and orientation bias extent in 19 of 21 analyzed bacterial genomes, based on quantitative measurement of gene essentiality (or fitness). The correlation coefficient was much higher than that derived from binary essentiality measures (essential or non-essential). This suggested that genes with relatively lower essentiality, i.e., conditionally essential genes, also have some orientation bias, although it is weaker than that of absolutely essential genes. The results demonstrated the continuous influence of essentiality on orientation bias and provided details on this visible structural feature of bacterial genomes. It also proved that Geptop and IFIM could serve as useful resources of bacterial gene essentiality, particularly for quantitative analysis. PMID:26560889

  19. The tobacco plastid accD gene is essential and is required for leaf development.

    PubMed

    Kode, Vasumathi; Mudd, Elisabeth A; Iamtham, Siriluck; Day, Anil

    2005-10-01

    Angiosperm plastid genomes typically encode approximately 80 polypeptides, mainly specifying plastid-localized functions such as photosynthesis and gene expression. Plastid protein synthesis and expression of the plastid clpP1 gene are essential for development in tobacco, indicating the presence of one or more plastid genes whose influence extends beyond the plastid compartment. The plastid accD gene encodes the beta-carboxyl transferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and is present in the plastids of most flowering plants, including non-photosynthetic parasitic plants. We replaced the wild-type accD gene with an aadA-disrupted mutant allele using homologous recombination. Persistent heteroplasmy in the presence of antibiotics indicated that the wild-type accD allele was essential. The phenotype of the accD knockout was revealed in plastid transformants grown in the absence of antibiotics. Leaves contained pale green sectors and lacked part or all of the leaf lamina due to arrested division or loss of cells. Abnormal structures were present in plastids found in mutant plants, indicating that accD might be required to maintain the plastid compartment. Loss of the plastid compartment would be expected to be lethal. These results provide genetic evidence showing the essential role of plastid ACCase in the pathway leading to the synthesis of products required for the extra-plastidic processes needed for leaf development. PMID:16212603

  20. Characterization of the angR Gene of Vibrio anguillarum: Essential Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wertheimer, A. M.; Verweij, W.; Chen, Q.; Crosa, L. M.; Nagasawa, M.; Tolmasky, M. E.; Actis, L. A.; Crosa, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to utilize the iron bound by high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the vertebrate host is an important virulence factor for the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Virulence in septicemic infections is due to the presence of a highly efficient plasmid-encoded iron transport system. AngR, a 110-kDa protein component of this system, appears to play a role in both regulation of the expression of the iron transport genes fatDCBA and the production of the siderophore anguibactin. Therefore, study of the expression of the angR gene and the properties of its product, the AngR protein, may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of virulence of this pathogen. In this work, we present genetic and molecular evidence from transposition mutagenesis experiments and RNA analysis that angR, which maps immediately downstream of the fatA gene, is part of a polycistronic transcript that also includes the iron transport genes fatDCBA and angT, a gene located downstream of angR which showed domain homology to certain thioesterases involved in nonribosomal peptide synthesis of siderophores and antibiotics. In order to dissect the specific domains of AngR associated with regulation of iron transport gene expression, anguibactin production, and virulence, we also generated a panel of site-directed angR mutants, as well as deletion derivatives. Both virulence and anguibactin production were dramatically affected by each one of the angR modifications. In contrast to the need for an intact AngR molecule for anguibactin production and virulence, the regulation of iron transport gene expression does not require the entire AngR molecule, since truncation of the carboxy terminus carrying the nonribosomal peptide synthetase cores, as well as the site-directed mutations, resulted in derivatives that retained their ability to regulate gene expression which was only abolished after truncation of amino-terminal sequences containing helix-turn-helix and leucine zipper motifs and a specialized heterocyclization and condensation domain found in certain nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The evidence, while not rigorously eliminating the possibility that a separate regulatory polypeptide exists and is encoded somewhere within the 5′-end region of the angR gene, strongly supports the idea that AngR is a bifunctional protein and that it plays an essential role in the virulence mechanisms of V. anguillarum. We also show in this study that the angT gene, found downstream of angR, intervenes in the mechanism of anguibactin production but is not essential for virulence or iron transport gene expression. PMID:10569768

  1. Uncovering major genomic features of essential genes in Bacteria and a methanogenic Archaea.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Vidal, Newton M; Venancio, Thiago M

    2015-09-01

    Identification of essential genes is critical to understanding the physiology of a species, proposing novel drug targets and uncovering minimal gene sets required for life. Although essential gene sets of several organisms have been determined using large-scale mutagenesis techniques, systematic studies addressing their conservation, genomic context and functions remain scant. Here we integrate 17 essential gene sets from genome-wide in vitro screenings and three gene collections required for growth in vivo, encompassing 15 Bacteria and one Archaea. We refine and generalize important theories proposed using Escherichia coli. Essential genes are typically monogenic and more conserved than nonessential genes. Genes required in vivo are less conserved than those essential in vitro, suggesting that more divergent strategies are deployed when the organism is stressed by the host immune system and unstable nutrient availability. We identified essential analogous pathways that would probably be missed by orthology-based essentiality prediction strategies. For example, Streptococcus sanguinis carries horizontally transferred isoprenoid biosynthesis genes that are widespread in Archaea. Genes specifically essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Burkholderia pseudomallei are reported as potential drug targets. Moreover, essential genes are not only preferentially located in operons, but also occupy the first position therein, supporting the influence of their regulatory regions in driving transcription of whole operons. Finally, these important genomic features are shared between Bacteria and at least one Archaea, suggesting that high order properties of gene essentiality and genome architecture were probably present in the last universal common ancestor or evolved independently in the prokaryotic domains. PMID:26084810

  2. Computational prediction of essential genes in an unculturable endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia of Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Wolbachia (wBm) is an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium of Brugia malayi, a parasitic filarial nematode of humans and one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. There is a pressing need for new drugs against filarial parasites, such as B. malayi. As wBm is required for B. malayi development and fertility, targeting wBm is a promising approach. However, the lifecycle of neither B. malayi nor wBm can be maintained in vitro. To facilitate selection of potential drug targets we computationally ranked the wBm genome based on confidence that a particular gene is essential for the survival of the bacterium. Results wBm protein sequences were aligned using BLAST to the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) version 5.2, a collection of 5,260 experimentally identified essential genes in 15 bacterial strains. A confidence score, the Multiple Hit Score (MHS), was developed to predict each wBm gene's essentiality based on the top alignments to essential genes in each bacterial strain. This method was validated using a jackknife methodology to test the ability to recover known essential genes in a control genome. A second estimation of essentiality, the Gene Conservation Score (GCS), was calculated on the basis of phyletic conservation of genes across Wolbachia's parent order Rickettsiales. Clusters of orthologous genes were predicted within the 27 currently available complete genomes. Druggability of wBm proteins was predicted by alignment to a database of protein targets of known compounds. Conclusion Ranking wBm genes by either MHS or GCS predicts and prioritizes potentially essential genes. Comparison of the MHS to GCS produces quadrants representing four types of predictions: those with high confidence of essentiality by both methods (245 genes), those highly conserved across Rickettsiales (299 genes), those similar to distant essential genes (8 genes), and those with low confidence of essentiality (253 genes). These data facilitate selection of wBm genes for entry into drug design pipelines. PMID:19943957

  3. Computational prediction of essential metabolic genes using constraint-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Basler, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the application of constraint-based modeling to predict the impact of gene deletions on a metabolic phenotype. The metabolic reactions taking place inside cells form large networks, which have been reconstructed at a genome-scale for several organisms at increasing levels of detail. By integrating mathematical modeling techniques with biochemical principles, constraint-based approaches enable predictions of metabolite fluxes and growth under specific environmental conditions or for genetically modified microorganisms. Similar to the experimental knockout of a gene, predicting the essentiality of a metabolic gene for a phenotype further allows to generate hypotheses on its biological function and design of genetic engineering strategies for biotechnological applications. Here, we summarize the principles of constraint-based approaches and provide a detailed description of the procedure to predict the essentiality of metabolic genes with respect to a specific metabolic function. We exemplify the approach by predicting the essentiality of reactions in the citric acid cycle for the production of glucose from fatty acids. PMID:25636620

  4. Lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 gene in adolescents with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bairova, T A; Kolesnikov, S I; Kolesnikova, L I; Pervushina, O A; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A

    2014-12-01

    The study of LPO processes in adolescents of different races with essential hypertension revealed that Mongoloids exhibit oxidative stress by altering the level of the formation of diene conjugates, the primary LPO products. Caucasians increased the levels of both primary and end products of LPO, diene conjugates, and malondialdehyde. The revealed differences can be genetically determined because ethnic differences in the frequency of SOD2 gene Ala16Val polymorphism and its contribution to the biochemical phenotype were reported. The risk factors are Ala allele associated with increased MDA level for adolescent Caucasians and Val allele linked with decreased level of total antioxidant activity for adolescent Mongoloids. PMID:25430642

  5. The Essential Gene EMB1611 Maintains Shoot Apical Meristem Function During Arabidopsis Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains hundreds of genes essential for seed development. Because null mutations in these genes cause embryo lethality, their specific molecular and developmental functions are largely unknown. Here, we identify a role for EMB1611/MEE22, an essential gene in Arabidop...

  6. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene.

    PubMed

    Mihlik, Daniel; Kl?ov, Lenka; Ondrei?kov, Katarna; Hudcovicov, Martina; Gubiov, Marcela; Klempov, Tatiana; ?ertk, Milan; Pauk, Jnos; Kraic, Jn

    2015-01-01

    The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ??desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T? and T? generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the ?-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%-0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized ?-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T? generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T? generation. Contents of ?-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%-1.40% (v/v) and 0%-1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat. PMID:26694368

  7. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Mihálik, Daniel; Klčová, Lenka; Ondreičková, Katarína; Hudcovicová, Martina; Gubišová, Marcela; Klempová, Tatiana; Čertík, Milan; Pauk, János; Kraic, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v) and 0%–1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat. PMID:26694368

  8. Towards a compendium of essential genes - From model organisms to synthetic lethality in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Tianzuo; Boutros, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Essential genes are defined by their requirement to sustain life in cells or whole organisms. The systematic identification of essential gene sets not only allows insights into the fundamental building blocks of life, but may also provide novel therapeutic targets in oncology. The discovery of essential genes has been tightly linked to the development and deployment of various screening technologies. Here, we describe how gene essentiality was addressed in different eukaryotic model organisms, covering a range of organisms from yeast to mouse. We describe how increasing knowledge of evolutionarily divergent genomes facilitate identification of gene essentiality across species. Finally, the impact of gene essentiality and synthetic lethality on cancer research and the clinical translation of screening results are highlighted. PMID:26627871

  9. Statistical Analysis of Hurst Exponents of Essential/Nonessential Genes in 33 Bacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Baojin; Xu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Methods for identifying essential genes currently depend predominantly on biochemical experiments. However, there is demand for improved computational methods for determining gene essentiality. In this study, we used the Hurst exponent, a characteristic parameter to describe long-range correlation in DNA, and analyzed its distribution in 33 bacterial genomes. In most genomes (31 out of 33) the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the essential genes were significantly higher than for the corresponding full-gene-set, whereas the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the nonessential genes remained unchanged or increased only slightly. All of the Hurst exponents of essential genes followed a normal distribution, with one exception. We therefore propose that the distribution feature of Hurst exponents of essential genes can be used as a classification index for essential gene prediction in bacteria. For computer-aided design in the field of synthetic biology, this feature can build a restraint for pre- or post-design checking of bacterial essential genes. Moreover, considering the relationship between gene essentiality and evolution, the Hurst exponents could be used as a descriptive parameter related to evolutionary level, or be added to the annotation of each gene. PMID:26067107

  10. Human lupus anti-DNA autoantibodies undergo essentially primary V kappa gene rearrangements.

    PubMed Central

    Bensimon, C; Chastagner, P; Zouali, M

    1994-01-01

    We have recently characterized the heavy chain variable region (VH) genes expressed by a panel of human anti-DNA antibodies derived from four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and expressing an idiotypic marker representative of a subset of pathogenic autoantibodies. Here, we have cloned and sequenced the kappa chain variable region genes (V kappa) of the clones whose VH genes had been previously analysed. All the V kappa genes utilized map to the 280 kb portion of the 3' end of the locus, suggesting that they represent essentially the products of primary rearrangements. This proximal clustering of the V kappa genes used contrasts with the broad distribution of immunization-induced human antibody V kappa genes over 1400 kb of the locus. In addition, lupus autoantibodies show no tendency to express the downstream junctional (J kappa) exons--another indication of infrequent secondary variable gene assembly. Since successive rearrangements may extinguish high-affinity recognition of self antigens, we propose that this bias in V kappa and J kappa expression reflects a low rate of secondary light chain rearrangements among lupus autoantibodies. We also postulate that the corrective mechanism capable of editing potentially aggressive, self-reactive antibodies in these patients may be deficient--a deficit that could be genetically determined and/or somatically acquired. Images PMID:8039491

  11. Predicting Essential Genes and Proteins Based on Machine Learning and Network Topological Features: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue; Acencio, Marcio Luis; Lemke, Ney

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins/genes are indispensable to the survival or reproduction of an organism, and the deletion of such essential proteins will result in lethality or infertility. The identification of essential genes is very important not only for understanding the minimal requirements for survival of an organism, but also for finding human disease genes and new drug targets. Experimental methods for identifying essential genes are costly, time-consuming, and laborious. With the accumulation of sequenced genomes data and high-throughput experimental data, many computational methods for identifying essential proteins are proposed, which are useful complements to experimental methods. In this review, we show the state-of-the-art methods for identifying essential genes and proteins based on machine learning and network topological features, point out the progress and limitations of current methods, and discuss the challenges and directions for further research. PMID:27014079

  12. The functional diversity of essential genes required for mammalian cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Clowes, Christopher; Boylan, Michael GS; Ridge, Liam A; Barnes, Emma; Wright, Jayne A; Hentges, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    Genes required for an organism to develop to maturity (for which no other gene can compensate) are considered essential. The continuing functional annotation of the mouse genome has enabled the identification of many essential genes required for specific developmental processes including cardiac development. Patterns are now emerging regarding the functional nature of genes required at specific points throughout gestation. Essential genes required for development beyond cardiac progenitor cell migration and induction include a small and functionally homogenous group encoding transcription factors, ligands and receptors. Actions of core cardiogenic transcription factors from the Gata, Nkx, Mef, Hand, and Tbx families trigger a marked expansion in the functional diversity of essential genes from midgestation onwards. As the embryo grows in size and complexity, genes required to maintain a functional heartbeat and to provide muscular strength and regulate blood flow are well represented. These essential genes regulate further specialization and polarization of cell types along with proliferative, migratory, adhesive, contractile, and structural processes. The identification of patterns regarding the functional nature of essential genes across numerous developmental systems may aid prediction of further essential genes and those important to development and/or progression of disease. genesis 52:713737, 2014. PMID:24866031

  13. Identification of essential Alphaproteobacterial genes reveals operational variability in conserved developmental and cell cycle systems

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Patrick D.; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus is controlled by a complex signaling network that coordinates events. Genome sequencing has revealed many C. crescentus cell cycle genes are conserved in other Alphaproteobacteria, but it is not clear to what extent their function is conserved. As many cell cycle regulatory genes are essential in C. crescentus, the essential genes of two Alphaproteobacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobiales) and Brevundimonas subvibrioides (Caulobacterales), were elucidated to identify changes in cell cycle protein function over different phylogenetic distances as demonstrated by changes in essentiality. The results show the majority of conserved essential genes are involved in critical cell cycle processes. Changes in component essentiality reflect major changes in lifestyle, such as divisome components in A. tumefaciens resulting from that organisms different growth pattern. Larger variability of essentiality was observed in cell cycle regulators, suggesting regulatory mechanisms are more customizable than the processes they regulate. Examples include variability in the essentiality of divJ and divK spatial cell cycle regulators, and non-essentiality of the highly conserved and usually essential DNA methyltransferase CcrM. These results show that while essential cell functions are conserved across varying genetic distance, much of a given organisms essential gene pool is specific to that organism. PMID:24975755

  14. small ORFs: A new class of essential genes for development

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, João Paulo; Tobias-Santos, Vitória; Rodrigues, Aline Cáceres; Mury, Flávia Borges; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Genes that contain small open reading frames (smORFs) constitute a new group of eukaryotic genes and are expected to represent 5% of the Drosophila melanogaster transcribed genes. In this review we provide a historical perspective of their recent discovery, describe their general mechanism and discuss the importance of smORFs for future genomic and transcriptomic studies. Finally, we discuss the biological role of the most studied smORF so far, the Mlpt/Pri/Tal gene in arthropods. The pleiotropic action of Mlpt/Pri/Tal in D. melanogaster suggests a complex evolutionary scenario that can be used to understand the origins, evolution and integration of smORFs into complex gene regulatory networks. PMID:26500431

  15. Systematic identification of novel, essential host genes affecting bromovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gancarz, Brandi L; Hao, Linhui; He, Qiuling; Newton, Michael A; Ahlquist, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA virus replication involves viral proteins and cellular proteins at nearly every replication step. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a well-established model for dissecting virus-host interactions and is one of very few viruses whose RNA replication, gene expression and encapsidation have been reproduced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously, our laboratory identified ?100 non-essential host genes whose loss inhibited or enhanced BMV replication at least 3-fold. However, our isolation of additional BMV-modulating host genes by classical genetics and other results underscore that genes essential for cell growth also contribute to BMV RNA replication at a frequency that may be greater than that of non-essential genes. To systematically identify novel, essential host genes affecting BMV RNA replication, we tested a collection of ?900 yeast strains, each with a single essential gene promoter replaced by a doxycycline-repressible promoter, allowing repression of gene expression by adding doxycycline to the growth medium. Using this strain array of ?81% of essential yeast genes, we identified 24 essential host genes whose depleted expression reproducibly inhibited or enhanced BMV RNA replication. Relevant host genes are involved in ribosome biosynthesis, cell cycle regulation and protein homeostasis, among other cellular processes. BMV 2a(Pol) levels were significantly increased in strains depleted for a heat shock protein (HSF1) or proteasome components (PRE1 and RPT6), suggesting these genes may affect BMV RNA replication by directly or indirectly modulating 2a(Pol) localization, post-translational modification or interacting partners. Investigating the diverse functions of these newly identified essential host genes should advance our understanding of BMV-host interactions and normal cellular pathways, and suggest new modes of virus control. PMID:21915247

  16. Targeted Chromosomal Translocations and Essential Gene Knockout Using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangyang; Li, Mu; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2015-12-01

    Many genes play essential roles in development and fertility; their disruption leads to growth arrest or sterility. Genetic balancers have been widely used to study essential genes in many organisms. However, it is technically challenging and laborious to generate and maintain the loss-of-function mutations of essential genes. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been successfully applied for gene editing and chromosome engineering. Here, we have developed a method to induce chromosomal translocations and produce genetic balancers using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and have applied this approach to edit essential genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. The co-injection of dual small guide RNA targeting genes on different chromosomes resulted in reciprocal translocation between nonhomologous chromosomes. These animals with chromosomal translocations were subsequently crossed with animals that contain normal sets of chromosomes. The F1 progeny were subjected to a second round of Cas9-mediated gene editing. Through this method, we successfully produced nematode strains with specified chromosomal translocations and generated a number of loss-of-function alleles of two essential genes (csr-1 and mes-6). Therefore, our method provides an easy and efficient approach to generate and maintain loss-of-function alleles of essential genes with detailed genetic background information. PMID:26482793

  17. Construction of an inducible system for the analysis of essential genes in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Ford, D C; Ireland, P M; Bullifent, H L; Saint, R J; McAlister, E V; Sarkar-Tyson, M; Oyston, P C F

    2014-05-01

    Yersinia pestis, a Gram negative bacterium, causes bubonic and pneumonic plague. Emerging antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates is driving a need to develop novel antibiotics to treat infection by this transmissible and highly virulent pathogen. Proteins required for viability, so called essential genes, are attractive potential therapeutic targets, however, confirmation of essentiality is problematic. For the first time, we report the development of a system that allows the rapid determination of Y. pestis gene essentiality through mutagenesis and inducible expression of a plasmid borne copy of the target gene. Using this approach, we have confirmed the uridine monophosphate kinase PyrH as an essential protein in Y. pestis. This methodology and the tools we have developed will allow the confirmation of other putative essential genes in this dangerous pathogen, and facilitate the identification of novel targets for antimicrobial development. PMID:24524852

  18. Bayesian analysis of gene essentiality based on sequencing of transposon insertion libraries

    PubMed Central

    DeJesus, Michael A.; Zhang, Yanjia J.; Sassetti, Christopher M.; Rubin, Eric J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Ioerger, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Next-generation sequencing affords an efficient analysis of transposon insertion libraries, which can be used to identify essential genes in bacteria. To analyse this high-resolution data, we present a formal Bayesian framework for estimating the posterior probability of essentiality for each gene, using the extreme-value distribution to characterize the statistical significance of the longest region lacking insertions within a gene. We describe a sampling procedure based on the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm to calculate posterior probabilities of essentiality while simultaneously integrating over unknown internal parameters. Results: Using a sequence dataset from a transposon library for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we show that this Bayesian approach predicts essential genes that correspond well with genes shown to be essential in previous studies. Furthermore, we show that by using the extreme-value distribution to characterize genomic regions lacking transposon insertions, this method is capable of identifying essential domains within genes. This approach can be used for analysing transposon libraries in other organisms and augmenting essentiality predictions with statistical confidence scores. Availability: A python script implementing the method described is available for download from http://saclab.tamu.edu/essentiality/. Contact: michael.dejesus@tamu.edu or ioerger@cs.tamu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23361328

  19. An integrated machine-learning model to predict prokaryotic essential genes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes are indispensable for the target organism's survival. Large-scale identification and characterization of essential genes has shown to be beneficial in both fundamental biology and medicine fields. Current existing genome-scale experimental screenings of essential genes are time consuming and costly, also sometimes confer erroneous essential gene annotations. To circumvent these difficulties, many research groups turn to computational approaches as the alternative to identify essential genes. Here, we developed an integrative machine-learning based statistical framework to accurately predict essential genes in microorganisms. First we extracted a variety of relevant features derived from different aspects of an organism's genomic sequences. Then we selected a subset of features have high predictive power of gene essentiality through a carefully designed feature selection system. Using the selected features as input, we constructed an ensemble classifier and trained the model on a well-studied microorganism. After fine-tuning the model parameters in cross-validation, we tested the model on the other microorganism. We found that the tenfold cross-validation results within the same organism achieves a high predictive accuracy (AUC ~0.9), and cross-organism predictions between distant related organisms yield the AUC scores from 0.69 to 0.89, which significantly outperformed homology mapping. PMID:25636617

  20. Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

    2013-01-01

    Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

  1. A multi-level multi-scale approach to study essential genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The set of indispensable genes that are required by an organism to grow and sustain life are termed as essential genes. There is a strong interest in identification of the set of essential genes, particularly in pathogens, not only for a better understanding of the pathogen biology, but also for identifying drug targets and the minimal gene set for the organism. Essentiality is inherently a systems property and requires consideration of the system as a whole for their identification. The available experimental approaches capture some aspects but each method comes with its own limitations. Moreover, they do not explain the basis for essentiality in most cases. A powerful prediction method to recognize this gene pool including rationalization of the known essential genes in a given organism would be very useful. Here we describe a multi-level multi-scale approach to identify the essential gene pool in a deadly pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results The multi-level workflow analyses the bacterial cell by studying (a) genome-wide gene expression profiles to identify the set of genes which show consistent and significant levels of expression in multiple samples of the same condition, (b) indispensability for growth by using gene expression integrated flux balance analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model, (c) importance for maintaining the integrity and flow in a protein-protein interaction network and (d) evolutionary conservation in a set of genomes of the same ecological niche. In the gene pool identified, the functional basis for essentiality has been addressed by studying residue level conservation and the sub-structure at the ligand binding pockets, from which essential amino acid residues in that pocket have also been identified. 283 genes were identified as essential genes with high-confidence. An agreement of about 73.5% is observed with that obtained from the experimental transposon mutagenesis technique. A large proportion of the identified genes belong to the class of intermediary metabolism and respiration. Conclusions The multi-scale, multi-level approach described can be generally applied to other pathogens as well. The essential gene pool identified form a basis for designing experiments to probe their finer functional roles and also serve as a ready shortlist for identifying drug targets. PMID:24308365

  2. The role of the 'gearbox' in the transcription of essential genes.

    PubMed

    Vicente, M; Kushner, S R; Garrido, T; Aldea, M

    1991-09-01

    Regulation of transcription occurs at different levels, one being in the presence of sequences specifically recognized by different forms of RNA polymerase, i.e. the promoters. Three different kinds of promoter are defined according, among other things, to their dependence on the growth rate of the cell: the 'house-keeper' promoter of many metabolic genes, the stringent promoter found at several rRNA and ribosomal protein genes, and the 'gearbox' at genes whose products are required at higher relative amounts at lower growth rates. The identified gearbox promoters of Escherichia coli share specific homologies in the -10, -35 and upstream regions. Although there may be different types of gearbox promoters, the -10 sequence of one of these promoters has been found to be essential for functioning as a gearbox. This suggests the existence of specific sigma factors for its transcription. RpoS (KatF) is a likely candidate for being one of these sigma factors. Computer simulation allows us to predict that such sigma factors should, in turn, be expressed following a gearbox mode, which would then imply the existence of self-regulated loops contributing to the expression of some genes of bacterial division. PMID:1766382

  3. Correlating Traits of Gene Retention, Sequence Divergence, Duplicability and Essentiality in Vertebrates, Arthropods, and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Robert M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.

    2011-01-01

    Delineating ancestral gene relations among a large set of sequenced eukaryotic genomes allowed us to rigorously examine links between evolutionary and functional traits. We classified 86% of over 1.36 million protein-coding genes from 40 vertebrates, 23 arthropods, and 32 fungi into orthologous groups and linked over 90% of them to Gene Ontology or InterPro annotations. Quantifying properties of ortholog phyletic retention, copy-number variation, and sequence conservation, we examined correlations with gene essentiality and functional traits. More than half of vertebrate, arthropod, and fungal orthologs are universally present across each lineage. These universal orthologs are preferentially distributed in groups with almost all single-copy or all multicopy genes, and sequence evolution of the predominantly single-copy orthologous groups is markedly more constrained. Essential genes from representative model organisms, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are significantly enriched in universal orthologs within each lineage, and essential-gene-containing groups consistently exhibit greater sequence conservation than those without. This study of eukaryotic gene repertoire evolution identifies shared fundamental principles and highlights lineage-specific features, it also confirms that essential genes are highly retained and conclusively supports the “knockout-rate prediction” of stronger constraints on essential gene sequence evolution. However, the distinction between sequence conservation of single- versus multicopy orthologs is quantitatively more prominent than between orthologous groups with and without essential genes. The previously underappreciated difference in the tolerance of gene duplications and contrasting evolutionary modes of “single-copy control” versus “multicopy license” may reflect a major evolutionary mechanism that allows extended exploration of gene sequence space. PMID:21148284

  4. Spermidine synthase genes are essential for survival of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akihiro; Matsuyama, Takashi; Hanzawa, Yoshie; Akiyama, Takashi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Saji, Hikaru; Shirano, Yumiko; Kato, Tomohiko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Daisuke; Tabata, Satoshi; Komeda, Yoshibumi; Takahashi, Taku

    2004-07-01

    The cellular polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are ubiquitous in nature and have been implicated in a wide range of growth and developmental processes. There is little information, however, on mutant plants or animals defective in the synthesis of polyamines. The Arabidopsis genome has two genes encoding spermidine synthase, SPDS1 and SPDS2. In this paper, we describe T-DNA insertion mutants of both of these genes. While each mutant allele shows normal growth, spds1-1 spds2-1 double-mutant seeds are abnormally shrunken and they have embryos that are arrested morphologically at the heart-torpedo transition stage. These seeds contain significantly reduced levels of spermidine and high levels of its precursor, putrescine. The embryo lethal phenotype of spds1-1 spds2-1 is complemented by the wild-type SPDS1 gene. In addition, we observed a nearly identical seed phenotype among an F2 seed population from the cross between the spds2-1 allele and SPDS1 RNA interference transgenic lines. These data provide the first genetic evidence indicating a critical role of the spermidine synthase in plant embryo development. PMID:15247389

  5. The fission yeast dis3+ gene encodes a 110-kDa essential protein implicated in mitotic control.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, N; Goebl, M; Yanagida, M

    1991-01-01

    The fission yeast mutant dis3-54 is defective in mitosis and fails in chromosome disjunction. Its phenotype is similar to that of dis2-11, a mutant with a mutation in the type 1 protein phosphatase gene. We cloned the dis3+ gene by transformation. Nucleotide sequencing predicts a coding region of 970 amino acids interrupted by a 164-bp intron at the 65th codon. The predicted dis3+ protein shares a weak but significant similarity with the budding yeast SSD1 or SRK1 gene product, the gene for which is a suppressor for the absence of a protein phosphatase SIT4 gene or the BCY1 regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Anti-dis3 antibodies recognized the 110-kDa dis3+ gene product, which is part of a 250- to 350-kDa oligomer and is enriched in the nucleus. The cellular localization of the dis3+ protein is reminiscent of that of the dis2+ protein, but these two proteins do not form a complex. A type 1 protein phosphatase activity in the dis3-54 mutant extracts is apparently not affected. The dis3+ gene is essential for growth; gene disruptant cells do not germinate and fail in cell division. Increased dis3+ gene dosage reverses the Ts+ phenotype of a cdc25 wee1 strain, as does increased type 1 protein phosphatase gene dosage. Double mutant dis3 dis2 is lethal even at the permissive temperature, suggesting that the dis2+ and dis3+ genes may be functionally overlapped. The role of the dis3+ gene product in mitosis is unknown, but this gene product may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of mitosis. Images PMID:1944266

  6. Silencing of Essential Genes within a Highly Coordinated Operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shan; Hohmeier, Angela; Stone, Timothy C; Offord, Victoria; Sarabia, Francisco; Garcia-Ruiz, Cristina; Good, Liam

    2015-08-15

    Essential bacterial genes located within operons are particularly challenging to study independently because of coordinated gene expression and the nonviability of knockout mutants. Essentiality scores for many operon genes remain uncertain. Antisense RNA (asRNA) silencing or in-frame gene disruption of genes may help establish essentiality but can lead to polar effects on genes downstream or upstream of the target gene. Here, the Escherichia coli ribF-ileS-lspA-fkpB-ispH operon was used to evaluate the possibility of independently studying an essential gene using expressed asRNA and target gene overexpression to deregulate coupled expression. The gene requirement for growth in conditional silencing strains was determined by the relationship of target mRNA reduction with growth inhibition as the minimum transcript level required for 50% growth (MTL50). Mupirocin and globomycin, the protein inhibitors of IleS and LspA, respectively, were used in sensitization assays of strains containing both asRNA-expressing and open reading frame-expressing plasmids to examine deregulation of the overlapping ileS-lspA genes. We found upstream and downstream polar silencing effects when either ileS or lspA was silenced, indicating coupled expression. Weighted MTL50 values (means and standard deviations) of ribF, ileS, and lspA were 0.65 ± 0.18, 0.64 ± 0.06, and 0.76 ± 0.10, respectively. However, they were not significantly different (P = 0.71 by weighted one-way analysis of variance). The gene requirement for ispH could not be determined due to insufficient growth reduction. Mupirocin and globomycin sensitization experiments indicated that ileS-lspA expression could not be decoupled. The results highlight the inherent challenges associated with genetic analyses of operons; however, coupling of essential genes may provide opportunities to improve RNA-silencing antimicrobials. PMID:26070674

  7. A postgenomic method for predicting essential genes at subsaturation levels of mutagenesis: Application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Gyanu; Zignol, Matteo; Blades, Natalie J.; Geiman, Deborah E.; Dougherty, Annette; Grosset, Jacques; Broman, Karl W.; Bishai, William R.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a postgenomic in silico approach for identifying genes that are likely to be essential and estimate their proportion in haploid genomes. With the knowledge of all sites eligible for mutagenesis and an experimentally determined partial list of nonessential genes from genome mutagenesis, a Bayesian statistical method provides reasonable predictions of essential genes with a subsaturation level of random mutagenesis. For mutagenesis, a transposon such as Himar1 is suitable as it inserts randomly into TA sites. All of the possible insertion sites may be determined a priori from the genome sequence and with this information, data on experimentally hit TA sites may be used to predict the proportion of genes that cannot be mutated. As a model, we used the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Using the Himar1 transposon, we created a genetically defined collection of 1,425 insertion mutants. Based on our Bayesian statistical analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo and the observed frequencies of transposon insertions in all of the genes, we estimated that the M. tuberculosis genome contains 35% (95% confidence interval, 28%41%) essential genes. This analysis further revealed seven functional groups with high probabilities of being enriched in essential genes. The PE-PGRS (Pro-Glu polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence) family of genes, which are unique to mycobacteria, the polyketide/nonribosomal peptide synthase family, and mycolic and fatty acid biosynthesis gene families were disproportionately enriched in essential genes. At subsaturation levels of mutagenesis with a random transposon such as Himar1, this approach permits a statistical prediction of both the proportion and identities of essential genes of sequenced genomes. PMID:12775759

  8. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houl, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessire, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Vronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 g/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  9. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products.

    PubMed

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  10. An ABC transporter from Bacillus thuringiensis is essential for beta-exotoxin I production.

    PubMed

    Espinasse, Sylvain; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier; Sanchis, Vincent

    2002-11-01

    beta-Exotoxin I is a nonspecific insecticidal metabolite secreted by some Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Several studies of B. thuringiensis strains that have lost the capacity to produce beta-exotoxin I have suggested that there is a strong correlation between high levels of beta-exotoxin I production and the ability to synthesize crystal proteins. In this study, we showed that a mutant strain, B. thuringiensis 407-1(Cry(-))(Pig(+)), with no crystal gene, produced considerable amounts of beta-exotoxin I together with a soluble brown melanin pigment. Therefore, beta-exotoxin I production can take place after a strain has lost the plasmids bearing the cry genes, which suggests that these curable plasmids probably contain determinants involved in the regulation of beta-exotoxin I production. Using a mini-Tn10 transposon, we constructed a library of strain 407-1(Cry(-))(Pig(+)) mutants. We screened for nonpigmented mutants with impaired beta-exotoxin I production and identified a genetic locus harboring two genes (berA and berB) essential for beta-exotoxin I production. The deduced amino acid sequence of the berA gene displayed significant similarity to the ATP-binding domains of the DRI (drug resistance and immunity) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins involved in drug resistance and immunity to bacteriocins and lantibiotics. The berB gene encodes a protein with six putative transmembrane helices, which probably constitutes the integral membrane component of the transporter. The demonstration that berAB is required for beta-exotoxin I production and/or resistance in B. thuringiensis adds an adenine nucleotide analog to the wide range of substrates of the superfamily of ABC proteins. We suggest that berAB confers beta-exotoxin I immunity in B. thuringiensis, through active efflux of the molecule. PMID:12374817

  11. An ABC Transporter from Bacillus thuringiensis Is Essential for β-Exotoxin I Production

    PubMed Central

    Espinasse, Sylvain; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier; Sanchis, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    β-Exotoxin I is a nonspecific insecticidal metabolite secreted by some Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Several studies of B. thuringiensis strains that have lost the capacity to produce β-exotoxin I have suggested that there is a strong correlation between high levels of β-exotoxin I production and the ability to synthesize crystal proteins. In this study, we showed that a mutant strain, B. thuringiensis 407-1(Cry−)(Pig+), with no crystal gene, produced considerable amounts of β-exotoxin I together with a soluble brown melanin pigment. Therefore, β-exotoxin I production can take place after a strain has lost the plasmids bearing the cry genes, which suggests that these curable plasmids probably contain determinants involved in the regulation of β-exotoxin I production. Using a mini-Tn10 transposon, we constructed a library of strain 407-1(Cry−)(Pig+) mutants. We screened for nonpigmented mutants with impaired β-exotoxin I production and identified a genetic locus harboring two genes (berA and berB) essential for β-exotoxin I production. The deduced amino acid sequence of the berA gene displayed significant similarity to the ATP-binding domains of the DRI (drug resistance and immunity) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins involved in drug resistance and immunity to bacteriocins and lantibiotics. The berB gene encodes a protein with six putative transmembrane helices, which probably constitutes the integral membrane component of the transporter. The demonstration that berAB is required for β-exotoxin I production and/or resistance in B. thuringiensis adds an adenine nucleotide analog to the wide range of substrates of the superfamily of ABC proteins. We suggest that berAB confers β-exotoxin I immunity in B. thuringiensis, through active efflux of the molecule. PMID:12374817

  12. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc4+ gene encodes a novel EF-hand protein essential for cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells divide by medial fission. One class of cell division mutants (cdc), the late septation mutants, defines four genes: cdc3, cdc4, cdc8, and cdc12 (Nurse, P., P. Thuriaux, and K. Nasmyth. 1976. Mol. & Gen. Genet. 146:167-178). We have cloned and characterized the cdc4 gene and show that the predicted gene product. Cdc4p, is a 141-amino acid polypeptide that is similar in sequence to EF-hand proteins including myosin light chains, calmodulin, and troponin C. Two temperature-sensitive lethal alleles, cdc4-8 and cdc4- 31, accumulate multiple nuclei and multiple improper F-actin rings and septa but fail to complete cytokinesis. Deletion of cdc4 also results in a lethal terminal phenotype characterized by multinucleate, elongated cells that fail to complete cytokinesis. Sequence comparisons suggest that Cdc4p may be a member of a new class of EF-hand proteins. Cdc4p localizes to a ringlike structure in the medial region of cells undergoing cytokinesis. Thus, Cdc4p appears to be an essential component of the F-actin contractile ring. We find that Cdc4 protein forms a complex with a 200-kD protein which can be cross-linked to UTP, a property common to myosin heavy chains. Together these results suggest that Cdc4p may be a novel myosin light chain. PMID:7622565

  13. Flux balance analysis predicts essential genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Francesco; Miess, Heike; Schulze, Almut; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is the only modelling approach that is capable of producing genome-wide predictions of gene essentiality that may aid to unveil metabolic liabilities in cancer. Nevertheless, a systemic validation of gene essentiality predictions by flux balance analysis is currently missing. Here, we critically evaluated the accuracy of flux balance analysis in two cancer types, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and prostate adenocarcinoma, by comparison with large-scale experiments of gene essentiality in vitro. We found that in ccRCC, but not in prostate adenocarcinoma, flux balance analysis could predict essential metabolic genes beyond random expectation. Five of the identified metabolic genes, AGPAT6, GALT, GCLC, GSS, and RRM2B, were predicted to be dispensable in normal cell metabolism. Hence, targeting these genes may selectively prevent ccRCC growth. Based on our analysis, we discuss the benefits and limitations of flux balance analysis for gene essentiality predictions in cancer metabolism, and its use for exposing metabolic liabilities in ccRCC, whose emergent metabolic network enforces outstanding anabolic requirements for cellular proliferation. PMID:26040780

  14. A Caenorhabditis Elegans RNA Polymerase II Gene, Ama-1 Iv, and Nearby Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, T. M.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II in Caenorhabditis elegans is encoded by the ama-1 gene, located approximately 0.05 map unit to the right of dpy-13 IV. Using the amanitin-resistant ama-1(m118) strain as a parent, we have isolated amanitin-sensitive mutants that carry recessive-lethal ama-1 alleles. Of the six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants examined, two are arrested late in embryogenesis. One of these is a large deficiency, mDf9, but the second may be a novel point mutation. The four other mutants are hypomorphs, and presumably produce altered RNA polymerase II enzymes with some residual function. Two of these mutants develop into sterile adults at 20° but are arrested as larvae at 25°, and two others are fertile at 20° and sterile at 25°. Temperature-shift experiments performed with the adult sterile mutant, ama-1(m118m238ts), have revealed a temperature-sensitive period that begins late in gonadogenesis and is centered around the initiation of egg-laying. Postembryonic development at 25° is slowed by 30%. By contrast, the amanitin-resistant allele of ama-1 has very little effect on developmental rate or fertility. We have identified 15 essential genes in an interval of 4.5 map units surrounding ama-1, as well as four γ-ray-induced deficiencies and two duplications that include the ama-1 gene. The larger duplication, mDp1, may include the entire left arm of chromosome IV, and it recombines with the normal homologue at a low frequency. The smallest deficiency, mDf10, complements all but three identified genes: let-278, dpy-13 and ama-1, which define an interval of only 0.1 map unit. The terminal phenotype of mDf10 homozygotes is developmental arrest during the first larval stage, suggesting that there is sufficient maternal RNA polymerase II to complete embryonic development. PMID:8608933

  15. From essential to persistent genes: a functional approach to constructing synthetic life

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Fang, Gang; Schmidt, Markus; Ussery, David W.; Danchin, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    A central undertaking in synthetic biology (SB) is the quest for the minimal genome. However, minimal sets of essential genes are strongly context-dependent and, in all prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, not a single protein-coding gene is entirely conserved. Furthermore, a lack of consensus in the field as to what attributes make a gene truly essential adds another aspect of variation. Thus, a universal minimal genome remains elusive. Here, as an alternative to defining a minimal genome, we propose that the concept of gene persistence can be used to classify genes needed for robust long-term survival. Persistent genes, although not ubiquitous, are conserved in a majority of genomes, tend to be expressed at high levels, and are frequently located on the leading DNA strand. These criteria impose constraints on genome organization, and these are important considerations for engineering cells and for creating cellular life-like forms in SB. PMID:23219343

  16. The Dpy-30 Gene Encodes an Essential Component of the Caenorhabditis Elegans Dosage Compensation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, D. R.; Meyer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The need to regulate X chromosome expression in Caenorhabditis elegans arises as a consequence of the primary sex-determining signal, the X/A ratio (the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes), which directs 1X/2A animals to develop as males and 2X/2A animals to develop as hermaphrodites. C. elegans possesses a dosage compensation mechanism that equalizes X chromosome expression between the two sexes despite their disparity in X chromosome dosage. Previous genetic analysis led to the identification of four autosomal genes, dpy-21, dpy-26, dpy-27 and dpy-28, whose products are essential in XX animals for proper dosage compensation, but not for sex determination. We report the identification and characterization of dpy-30, an essential component of the dosage compensation machinery. Putative null mutations in dpy-30 disrupt dosage compensation and cause a severe maternal-effect, XX-specific lethality. Rare survivors of the dpy-30 lethality are dumpy and express their X-linked genes at higher than wild-type levels. These dpy-30 mutant phenotypes superficially resemble those caused by mutations in dpy-26, dpy-27 and dpy-28; however, detailed phenotypic analysis reveals important differences that distinguish dpy-30 from these genes. In contrast to the XX-specific lethality caused by mutations in the other dpy genes, the XX-specific lethality caused by dpy-30 mutations is completely penetrant and temperature sensitive. In addition, unlike the other genes, dpy-30 is required for the normal development of XO animals. Although dpy-30 mutations do not significantly affect the viability of XO animals, they do cause them to be developmentally delayed and to possess numerous morphological and behavioral abnormalities. Finally, dpy-30 mutations can dramatically influence the choice of sexual fate in animals with an ambiguous sexual identity, despite having no apparent effect on the sexual phenotype of otherwise wild-type animals. Paradoxically, depending on the genetic background, dpy-30 mutations cause either masculinization or feminization, thus revealing the complex regulatory relationship between the sex determination and dosage compensation processes. The novel phenotypes caused by dpy-30 mutations suggest that in addition to acting in the dosage compensation process, dpy-30 may play a more general role in the development of both XX and XO animals. PMID:7982580

  17. Comprehensive identification of essential Staphylococcus aureus genes using Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Allen, Andrew G; Owen, Paul J; Shalom, Gil; Stone, Karl; Harrison, Marcus; Burgis, Timothy A; Lockyer, Michael; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J; Pleasance, Stephen J; Peters, Sarah E; Maskell, Duncan J; Charles, Ian G

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an increasing problem with Staphylococcus aureus strains that are resistant to treatment with existing antibiotics. An important starting point for the development of new antimicrobial drugs is the identification of "essential" genes that are important for bacterial survival and growth. Results We have developed a robust microarray and PCR-based method, Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH), that uses novel bioinformatics to identify transposon inserts in genome-wide libraries. Following a microarray-based screen, genes lacking transposon inserts are re-tested using a PCR and sequencing-based approach. We carried out a TMDH analysis of the S. aureus genome using a large random mariner transposon library of around a million mutants, and identified a total of 351 S. aureus genes important for survival and growth in culture. A comparison with the essential gene list experimentally derived for Bacillus subtilis highlighted interesting differences in both pathways and individual genes. Conclusion We have determined the first comprehensive list of S. aureus essential genes. This should act as a useful starting point for the identification of potential targets for novel antimicrobial compounds. The TMDH methodology we have developed is generic and could be applied to identify essential genes in other bacterial pathogens. PMID:19570206

  18. Identification of siderophore biosynthesis genes essential for growth of Aeromonas salmonicida under iron limitation conditions.

    PubMed

    Najimi, Mohsen; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2008-04-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbG, asbF, asbD, asbC, asbB, and asbI, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that this cluster consists of four iron-regulated transcriptional units. Mutants with deletions in either asbD (encoding a multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase), asbG (encoding a histidine decarboxylase), or asbC (encoding a predicted histamine monooxygenase) did not grow under iron-limiting conditions and did not produce siderophores. Growth of the DeltaasbG strain under iron starvation conditions was restored by addition of histamine, suggesting that the siderophore in this species could contain a histamine-derived moiety. None of the mutants could grow in the presence of transferrin, indicating that A. salmonicida uses the catechol-type siderophore for removal of iron from transferrin rather than relying on a receptor for this iron-binding protein. All 18 A. salmonicida strains analyzed by DNA probe hybridization were positive in tests for the presence of the asbD gene, and all of them promoted the growth of asbD, asbG, and asbC mutants, suggesting that this siderophore-mediated iron uptake system is conserved among A. salmonicida isolates. This study provides the first description of siderophore biosynthesis genes in this fish pathogen, and the results demonstrate that the asbD, asbG, and asbC genes are necessary for the production of a catecholate siderophore that is essential for the growth of A. salmonicida under iron limitation conditions. PMID:18296539

  19. Role of Azotobacter vinelandii mucA and mucC gene products in alginate production.

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; León, R; Guzmán, J; Espín, G; Soberón-Chávez, G

    2000-12-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii produces the exopolysaccharide alginate, which is essential for its differentiation to desiccation-resistant cysts. In different bacterial species, the alternative sigma factor sigma(E) regulates the expression of functions related to the extracytoplasmic compartments. In A. vinelandii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the sigma(E) factor (AlgU) is essential for alginate production. In both bacteria, the activity of this sigma factor is regulated by the product of the mucA, mucB, mucC, and mucD genes. In this work, we studied the transcriptional regulation of the A. vinelandii algU-mucABCD gene cluster, as well as the role of the mucA and mucC gene products in alginate production. Our results show the existence of AlgU autoregulation and show that both MucA and MucC play a negative role in alginate production. PMID:11073894

  20. Identifying essential genes in bacterial metabolic networks with machine learning methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identifying essential genes in bacteria supports to identify potential drug targets and an understanding of minimal requirements for a synthetic cell. However, experimentally assaying the essentiality of their coding genes is resource intensive and not feasible for all bacterial organisms, in particular if they are infective. Results We developed a machine learning technique to identify essential genes using the experimental data of genome-wide knock-out screens from one bacterial organism to infer essential genes of another related bacterial organism. We used a broad variety of topological features, sequence characteristics and co-expression properties potentially associated with essentiality, such as flux deviations, centrality, codon frequencies of the sequences, co-regulation and phyletic retention. An organism-wise cross-validation on bacterial species yielded reliable results with good accuracies (area under the receiver-operator-curve of 75% - 81%). Finally, it was applied to drug target predictions for Salmonella typhimurium. We compared our predictions to the viability of experimental knock-outs of S. typhimurium and identified 35 enzymes, which are highly relevant to be considered as potential drug targets. Specifically, we detected promising drug targets in the non-mevalonate pathway. Conclusions Using elaborated features characterizing network topology, sequence information and microarray data enables to predict essential genes from a bacterial reference organism to a related query organism without any knowledge about the essentiality of genes of the query organism. In general, such a method is beneficial for inferring drug targets when experimental data about genome-wide knockout screens is not available for the investigated organism. PMID:20438628

  1. MEGA (Multiple Essential Genes Assembling) deletion and replacement method for genome reduction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaoli; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Peng; Shao, Yangyang; Zhou, Min; Zhong, Li; Wu, Ronghai; Zhou, Jianting; Xia, Haiyang; Zhao, Guoping; Qin, Zhongjun

    2015-06-19

    Top-down reduction of the bacterial genome to construct desired chassis cells is important for synthetic biology. However, the current progress in the field of genome reduction is greatly hindered by indispensable life-essential genes that are interspersed throughout the chromosomal loci. Here, we described a new method designated as "MEGA (Multiple Essential Genes Assembling) deletion and replacement" that functions by assembling multiple essential genes in an E. coli-S. cerevisiae shuttle vector, removing targeted chromosomal regions containing essential and nonessential genes using a one-round deletion, and then integrating the cloned essential genes into the in situ chromosomal loci via I-SceI endonuclease cleavage. As a proof of concept, we separately generated three large deletions (80-205 kbp) in the E. coli MDS42 chromosome. We believe that the MEGA deletion and replacement method has potential to become widely used in large-scale genome reductions in other sequenced organisms in addition to E. coli. PMID:25494410

  2. High-Throughput Analysis of Gene Essentiality and Sporulation in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Dembek, Marcin; Barquist, Lars; Boinett, Christine J.; Cain, Amy K.; Mayho, Matthew; Lawley, Trevor D.; Fagan, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated intestinal infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Infection with C. difficile requires disruption of the intestinal microbiota, most commonly by antibiotic usage. Therapeutic intervention largely relies on a small number of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which further exacerbate intestinal dysbiosis and leave the patient acutely sensitive to reinfection. Development of novel targeted therapeutic interventions will require a detailed knowledge of essential cellular processes, which represent attractive targets, and species-specific processes, such as bacterial sporulation. Our knowledge of the genetic basis of C. difficile infection has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools, although recent developments have made some headway in addressing this limitation. Here we describe the development of a method for rapidly generating large numbers of transposon mutants in clinically important strains of C. difficile. We validated our transposon mutagenesis approach in a model strain of C. difficile and then generated a comprehensive transposon library in the highly virulent epidemic strain R20291 (027/BI/NAP1) containing more than 70,000 unique mutants. Using transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), we have identified a core set of 404 essential genes, required for growth in vitro. We then applied this technique to the process of sporulation, an absolute requirement for C. difficile transmission and pathogenesis, identifying 798 genes that are likely to impact spore production. The data generated in this study will form a valuable resource for the community and inform future research on this important human pathogen. PMID:25714712

  3. Coenzyme Q regulates the expression of essential genes of the pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defense pathway in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Dring, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is necessary for mitochondrial energy production and modulates the expression of genes that are important for inflammatory processes, growth and detoxification reactions. A cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADDs) pathway has been recently identified in C. elegans. The down-regulation of the components of the cSADDs pathway initiates an aversion behavior of the nematode. Here we hypothesized that CoQ regulates genes of the cSADDs pathway. To verify this we generated CoQ-deficient worms ("CoQ-free") and performed whole-genome expression profiling. We found about 30% (120 genes) of the cSADDs pathway genes were differentially regulated under CoQ-deficient condition. Remarkably, 83% of these genes were down-regulated. The majority of the CoQ-sensitive cSADDs pathway genes encode for proteins involved in larval development (enrichment score (ES)=38.0, p=5.0E(-37)), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, proteasome function (ES 8.2, p=5.9E(-31)) and mitochondria function (ES 3.4, p=1.7E(-5)). 67% (80 genes) of these genes are categorized as lethal. Thus it is shown for the first time that CoQ regulates a substantial number of essential genes that function in the evolutionary conserved cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26566301

  4. Coenzyme Q regulates the expression of essential genes of the pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defense pathway in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Dring, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is necessary for mitochondrial energy production and modulates the expression of genes that are important for inflammatory processes, growth and detoxification reactions. A cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADDs) pathway has been recently identified in C. elegans. The down-regulation of the components of the cSADDs pathway initiates an aversion behavior of the nematode. Here we hypothesized that CoQ regulates genes of the cSADDs pathway. To verify this we generated CoQ-deficient worms (CoQ-free) and performed whole-genome expression profiling. We found about 30% (120 genes) of the cSADDs pathway genes were differentially regulated under CoQ-deficient condition. Remarkably, 83% of these genes were down-regulated. The majority of the CoQ-sensitive cSADDs pathway genes encode for proteins involved in larval development (enrichment score (ES)=38.0, p=5.0E?37), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, proteasome function (ES 8.2, p=5.9E?31) and mitochondria function (ES 3.4, p=1.7E?5). 67% (80 genes) of these genes are categorized as lethal. Thus it is shown for the first time that CoQ regulates a substantial number of essential genes that function in the evolutionary conserved cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26566301

  5. Identification of the Physiological Gene Targets of the Essential Lytic Replicative Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dinesh; Li, Da-Jiang; Krueger, Brian; Renne, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 gene product is essential for lytic KSHV replication and virion production. Recombinant ORF57-null mutants fail to accumulate several lytic cycle mRNAs at wild-type levels, leading to decreased production of lytic proteins necessary for efficient replication. Several mechanisms by which ORF57 may enhance expression of lytic KSHV mRNAs have been proposed, including mRNA stabilization, mRNA nuclear export, increased polyadenylation, and transcriptional activation. ORF57 activity is also gene specific, with some genes being highly dependent on ORF57, whereas others are relatively independent. Most experiments have utilized transfection models for ORF57 and have not systematically examined the gene specificity and potential mechanisms of action of ORF57 in the context of KSHV-infected cells. In this study, the KSHV genes that are most highly upregulated by ORF57 during KSHV lytic replication were identified by a combination of high-throughput deep RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, Northern blotting, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Comparison of gene expression from a ΔORF57 KSHV recombinant, a rescued ΔORF57 KSHV recombinant, and wild-type KSHV revealed that two clusters of lytic genes are most highly dependent on ORF57 for efficient expression. Despite contiguous location in the genome and shared polyadenylation of several of the ORF57-dependent genes, ORF57 regulation was promoter and polyadenylation signal independent, suggesting that the mRNAs are stabilized by ORF57. The eight genes identified to critically require ORF57 belong to both early and late lytic temporal classes, and seven are involved in DNA replication, virion assembly, or viral infectivity, explaining the essential role of ORF57 in infectious KSHV production. IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human herpesvirus involved in the causation of several human cancers. The KSHV ORF57 protein is required for KSHV to replicate and produce infectious virus. We have identified several KSHV genes whose expression is highly dependent on ORF57 and shown that ORF57 increases expression of these genes specifically. These genes code for proteins that are required for the virus to replicate its DNA and to infect other cells. Identifying the targets and mechanism of action of ORF57 provides further approaches to discover antiviral therapy. PMID:25410858

  6. Characteristics of Plant Essential Genes Allow for within- and between-Species Prediction of Lethal Mutant Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John P; Seddon, Alexander E; Moghe, Gaurav D; Simenc, Matthew C; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2015-08-01

    Essential genes represent critical cellular components whose disruption results in lethality. Characteristics shared among essential genes have been uncovered in fungal and metazoan model systems. However, features associated with plant essential genes are largely unknown and the full set of essential genes remains to be discovered in any plant species. Here, we show that essential genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have distinct features useful for constructing within- and cross-species prediction models. Essential genes in A. thaliana are often single copy or derived from older duplications, highly and broadly expressed, slow evolving, and highly connected within molecular networks compared with genes with nonlethal mutant phenotypes. These gene features allowed the application of machine learning methods that predicted known lethal genes as well as an additional 1970 likely essential genes without documented phenotypes. Prediction models from A. thaliana could also be applied to predict Oryza sativa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae essential genes. Importantly, successful predictions drew upon many features, while any single feature was not sufficient. Our findings show that essential genes can be distinguished from genes with nonlethal phenotypes using features that are similar across kingdoms and indicate the possibility for translational application of our approach to species without extensive functional genomic and phenomic resources. PMID:26286535

  7. Characteristics of Plant Essential Genes Allow for within- and between-Species Prediction of Lethal Mutant Phenotypes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John P.; Seddon, Alexander E.; Moghe, Gaurav D.; Simenc, Matthew C.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes represent critical cellular components whose disruption results in lethality. Characteristics shared among essential genes have been uncovered in fungal and metazoan model systems. However, features associated with plant essential genes are largely unknown and the full set of essential genes remains to be discovered in any plant species. Here, we show that essential genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have distinct features useful for constructing within- and cross-species prediction models. Essential genes in A. thaliana are often single copy or derived from older duplications, highly and broadly expressed, slow evolving, and highly connected within molecular networks compared with genes with nonlethal mutant phenotypes. These gene features allowed the application of machine learning methods that predicted known lethal genes as well as an additional 1970 likely essential genes without documented phenotypes. Prediction models from A. thaliana could also be applied to predict Oryza sativa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae essential genes. Importantly, successful predictions drew upon many features, while any single feature was not sufficient. Our findings show that essential genes can be distinguished from genes with nonlethal phenotypes using features that are similar across kingdoms and indicate the possibility for translational application of our approach to species without extensive functional genomic and phenomic resources. PMID:26286535

  8. The Yield of Essential Oils in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) Is Regulated through Transcript Abundance of Genes in the MEP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Hamish; Lanfear, Robert; Hamill, John; Foley, William J.; Klheim, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaves contain large amounts of an essential oil, dominated by monoterpenes. Several enzymes of the chloroplastic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway are hypothesised to act as bottlenecks to the production of monoterpenes. We investigated, whether transcript abundance of genes encoding for enzymes of the MEP pathway were correlated with foliar terpenes in M. alternifolia using a population of 48 individuals that ranged in their oil concentration from 39 -122 mg.g DM?1. Our study shows that most genes in the MEP pathway are co-regulated and that the expression of multiple genes within the MEP pathway is correlated with oil yield. Using multiple regression analysis, variation in expression of MEP pathway genes explained 87% of variation in foliar monoterpene concentrations. The data also suggest that sesquiterpenes in M. alternifolia are synthesised, at least in part, from isopentenyl pyrophosphate originating from the plastid via the MEP pathway. PMID:23544156

  9. Essential gene disruptions reveal complex relationships between phenotypic robustness, pleiotropy, and fitness

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christopher R; Li, Shuang; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of robustness in biology has gained much attention recently, but a mechanistic understanding of how genetic networks regulate phenotypic variation has remained elusive. One approach to understand the genetic architecture of variability has been to analyze dispensable gene deletions in model organisms; however, the most important genes cannot be deleted. Here, we have utilized two systems in yeast whereby essential genes have been altered to reduce expression. Using high-throughput microscopy and image analysis, we have characterized a large number of morphological phenotypes, and their associated variation, for the majority of essential genes in yeast. Our results indicate that phenotypic robustness is more highly dependent upon the expression of essential genes than on the presence of dispensable genes. Morphological robustness appears to be a general property of a genotype that is closely related to pleiotropy. While the fitness profile across a range of expression levels is idiosyncratic to each gene, the global pattern indicates that there is a window in which phenotypic variation can be released before fitness effects are observable. PMID:25609648

  10. A Modified Screening System for Loss-of-Function and Dominant Negative Alleles of Essential MCMV Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pogoda, Madlen; Bosse, Jens B.; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Ruzsics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Inactivation of gene products by dominant negative mutants is a valuable tool to assign functions to yet uncharacterized proteins, to map protein-protein interactions or to dissect physiological pathways. Detailed functional and structural knowledge about the target protein would allow the construction of inhibitory mutants by targeted mutagenesis. Yet, such data are limited for the majority of viral proteins, so that the target gene needs to be subjected to random mutagenesis to identify suitable mutants. However, for cytomegaloviruses this requires a two-step screening approach, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we report the establishment of a high-throughput suitable screening system for the identification of inhibitory alleles of essential genes of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). In this screen, the site-specific recombination of a specifically modified MCMV genome was transferred from the bacterial background to permissive host cells, thereby combining the genetic engineering and the rescue test in one step. Using a reference set of characterized pM53 mutants it was shown that the novel system is applicable to identify non-complementing as well as inhibitory mutants in a high-throughput suitable setup. The new cis-complementation assay was also applied to a basic genetic characterization of pM99, which was identified as essential for MCMV growth. We believe that the here described novel genetic screening approach can be adapted for the genetic characterization of essential genes of any large DNA viruses. PMID:24733555

  11. Genome-wide characterization of essential, toxicity-modulating and no-phenotype genes in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dapeng; Lv, Yingli; Zuo, Yongchun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-03-15

    Based on the requirements for an organism's viability, genes can be classified into essential genes and non-essential genes. Non-essential genes can be further classified into toxicity-modulating genes and no-phenotype genes based on the fitness phenotype of yeast cells when the gene is deleted under DNA-damaging conditions. In this study, graph theoretical approaches were used to characterize essential, toxicity-modulating and no-phenotype genes for S. cerevisiae in the physical interaction (PI) network and the perturbation sensitivity (PS) network. We also gained previously published biological datasets to gain a more complete understanding of the differences and relationships between essential, toxicity-modulating genes and no-phenotype genes. The analysis results indicate that toxicity-modulating genes have similar properties as essential genes, and toxicity-modulating genes might represent a middle ground between essential genes and no-phenotype genes, suggesting that cells initiate highly coordinated responses to damage that are similar to those needed for vital cellular functions. These findings may elucidate the mechanisms for understanding toxicity-modulating processes relevant to certain diseases. PMID:25576218

  12. The ciliopathy gene Rpgrip1l is essential for hair follicle development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; Laclef, Christine; Moncayo, Alejandra; Snedecor, Elizabeth R; Yang, Ning; Li, Li; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Paus, Ralf; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie; Clark, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    The primary cilium is essential for skin morphogenesis through regulating the Notch, Wnt, and hedgehog signaling pathways. Prior studies on the functions of primary cilia in the skin were based on the investigations of genes that are essential for cilium formation. However, none of these ciliogenic genes has been linked to ciliopathy, a group of disorders caused by abnormal formation or function of cilia. To determine whether there is a genetic and molecular link between ciliopathies and skin morphogenesis, we investigated the role of RPGRIP1L, a gene mutated in Joubert (JBTS) and Meckel (MKS) syndromes, two severe forms of ciliopathy, in the context of skin development. We found that RPGRIP1L is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis. Specifically, disrupting the Rpgrip1l gene in mice resulted in reduced proliferation and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes, leading to hair follicle developmental defects. These defects were associated with significantly decreased primary cilium formation and attenuated hedgehog signaling. In contrast, we found that hair follicle induction and polarization and the development of interfollicular epidermis were unaffected. This study indicates that RPGRIP1L, a ciliopathy gene, is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis likely through regulating primary cilia formation and the hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25398052

  13. The ciliopathy gene Rpgrip1l is essential for hair follicle development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang; Laclef, Christine; Moncayo, Alejandra; Snedecor, Elizabeth R.; Yang, Ning; Li, Li; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Paus, Ralf; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie; Clark, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium is essential for skin morphogenesis through regulating the Notch, Wnt, and hedgehog signaling pathways. Prior studies on the functions of primary cilia in the skin were based on the investigations of genes that are essential for cilium formation. However, none of these ciliogenic genes has been linked to ciliopathy, a group of disorders caused by abnormal formation or function of cilia. To determine whether there is a genetic and molecular link between ciliopathies and skin morphogenesis, we investigated the role of RPGRIP1L, a gene mutated in Joubert (JBTS) and Meckel (MKS) syndromes, two severe forms of ciliopathy, in the context of skin development. We found that RPGRIP1L is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis. Specifically, disrupting the Rpgril1 gene in mice resulted in reduced proliferation and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes, leading to hair follicle developmental defects. These defects were associated with significantly decreased primary cilium formation and attenuated hedgehog signaling. In contrast, we found that hair follicle induction and polarization and the development of interfollicular epidermis were unaffected. This study indicates that RPGRIP1L, a ciliopathy gene, is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis likely through regulating primary cilia formation and the hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25398052

  14. Atrial natriuretic peptide and aldosterone synthase gene in essential hypertension: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sudhir; Saluja, Daman; Narang, Rajiv; Bhatia, Jagriti; Srivastava, Kamna

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and their candidate genes are principally involved in regulation of blood pressure through salt-water homeostasis. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) are the important RAAS mediators, play a major role in hypertension through regulation of cardiorenal homeostasis and water-electrolytes balance, respectively. Present study reports the expression of ANP and CYP11B2 gene at mRNA and proteins levels in patients with essential hypertension in North Indian subjects. Gene expression at mRNA and protein levels was carried out by Real time PCR and Western blot, respectively. We found a significant down regulation in the ANP gene expression at mRNA (85%) and protein (72.6%) levels and significant increase in the CYP11B2 protein expression in patients as compared to controls. A significant increase in Serum creatinine (14.6%), Sodium (1.15%) and decrease in the Blood urea (8.18%) and Potassium (2.32%) levels were also observed among the patients group having higher expression (based on median delta-CT value) in comparison to the lower expression of CYP11B2 gene. Our results suggest that the down-regulation of ANP gene expression at mRNA and protein levels and up-regulated CYP11B2 protein expression levels may be correlated with the essential hypertension and could serve as circulating prognostic biomarkers for essential hypertension. PMID:25917967

  15. A genome-wide screen for essential yeast genes that affect telomere length maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Lior; Yosef, Nir; Sela, Yael; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan; Kupiec, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Telomeres are structures composed of repetitive DNA and proteins that protect the chromosomal ends in eukaryotic cells from fusion or degradation, thus contributing to genomic stability. Although telomere length varies between species, in all organisms studied telomere length appears to be controlled by a dynamic equilibrium between elongating mechanisms (mainly addition of repeats by the enzyme telomerase) and nucleases that shorten the telomeric sequences. Two previous studies have analyzed a collection of yeast deletion strains (deleted for nonessential genes) and found over 270 genes that affect telomere length (Telomere Length Maintenance or TLM genes). Here we complete the list of TLM by analyzing a collection of strains carrying hypomorphic alleles of most essential genes (DAmP collection). We identify 87 essential genes that affect telomere length in yeast. These genes interact with the nonessential TLM genes in a significant manner, and provide new insights on the mechanisms involved in telomere length maintenance. The newly identified genes span a variety of cellular processes, including protein degradation, pre-mRNA splicing and DNA replication. PMID:19386622

  16. Essential Genes in the Core Genome of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Yoann; Belew, Ashton T.; Valdes, Kayla M.; Islam, Emrul; Curry, Patrick; Tettelin, Hervé; Shirtliff, Mark E.; El-Sayed, Najib M.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) remains a major public health burden worldwide, infecting over 750 million people leading to over 500,000 deaths annually. GAS pathogenesis is complex, involving genetically distinct GAS strains and multiple infection sites. To overcome fastidious genetic manipulations and accelerate pathogenesis investigations in GAS, we developed a mariner-based system (Krmit) for en masse monitoring of complex mutant pools by transposon sequencing (Tn-seq). Highly saturated transposant libraries (Krmit insertions in ca. every 25 nucleotides) were generated in two distinct GAS clinical isolates, a serotype M1T1 invasive strain 5448 and a nephritogenic serotype M49 strain NZ131, and analyzed using a Bayesian statistical model to predict GAS essential genes, identifying sets of 227 and 241 of those genes in 5448 and NZ131, respectively. A large proportion of GAS essential genes corresponded to key cellular processes and metabolic pathways, and 177 were found conserved within the GAS core genome established from 20 available GAS genomes. Selected essential genes were validated using conditional-expression mutants. Finally, comparison to previous essentiality analyses in S. sanguinis and S. pneumoniae revealed significant overlaps, providing valuable insights for the development of new antimicrobials to treat infections by GAS and other pathogenic streptococci. PMID:25996237

  17. Experimental and Computational Assessment of Conditionally Essential Genes in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Andrew R.; Reed, Jennifer L.; White, Aprilfawn; Edwards, Robert; Osterman, Andrei; Baba, Tomoya; Mori, Hirotada; Lesely, Scott A.; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Agarwalla, Sanjay

    2006-01-01

    Genome-wide gene essentiality data sets are becoming available for Escherichia coli, but these data sets have yet to be analyzed in the context of a genome scale model. Here, we present an integrative model-driven analysis of the Keio E. coli mutant collection screened in this study on glycerol-supplemented minimal medium. Out of 3,888 single-deletion mutants tested, 119 mutants were unable to grow on glycerol minimal medium. These conditionally essential genes were then evaluated using a genome scale metabolic and transcriptional-regulatory model of E. coli, and it was found that the model made the correct prediction in ∼91% of the cases. The discrepancies between model predictions and experimental results were analyzed in detail to indicate where model improvements could be made or where the current literature lacks an explanation for the observed phenotypes. The identified set of essential genes and their model-based analysis indicates that our current understanding of the roles these essential genes play is relatively clear and complete. Furthermore, by analyzing the data set in terms of metabolic subsystems across multiple genomes, we can project which metabolic pathways are likely to play equally important roles in other organisms. Overall, this work establishes a paradigm that will drive model enhancement while simultaneously generating hypotheses that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the organism. PMID:17012394

  18. Replacement of the essential Dictyostelium Arp2 gene by its Entamoeba homologue using parasexual genetics

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Mehreen; King, Jason; Ftterer, Klaus; Insall, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell motility is an essential feature of the pathogenesis and morbidity of amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. As motility depends on cytoskeletal organisation and regulation, a study of the molecular components involved is key to a better understanding of amoebic pathogenesis. However, little is known about the physiological roles, interactions and regulation of the proteins of the Entamoeba cytoskeleton. Results We have established a genetic strategy that uses parasexual genetics to allow essential Dictyostelium discoideum genes to be manipulated and replaced with modified or tagged homologues. Our results show that actin related protein 2 (Arp2) is essential for survival, but that the Dictyostelium protein can be complemented by E. histolytica Arp2, despite the presence of an insertion of 16 amino acids in an otherwise highly conserved protein. Replacement of endogenous Arp2 with myc-tagged Entamoeba or Dictyostelium Arp2 has no obvious effects on growth and the protein incorporates effectively into the Arp2/3 complex. Conclusion We have established an effective two-step method for replacing genes that are required for survival. Our protocol will allow such genes to be studied far more easily, and also allows an unambiguous demonstration that particular genes are truly essential. In addition, cells in which the Dictyostelium Arp2 has been replaced by the Entamoeba protein are potential targets for drug screens. PMID:17553170

  19. Use of selected essential oils to control aflatoxin contaminated stored cashew and detection of aflatoxin biosynthesis gene.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Al-Othman, Monira R; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  20. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  1. Targeting Essential Genes in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium with Antisense Peptide Nucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Soofi, Muhammad A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the capability of antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) conjugated to the (KFF)3K cell-penetrating peptide to target possible essential genes (ligA, rpoA, rpoD, engA, tsf, and kdtA) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and inhibit bacterial growth in vitro and in cell culture. All targeted PNA-based gene inhibition has shown great potency in gene expression inhibition in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner at micromolar concentrations. Among tested PNAs, the anti-rpoA and -rpoD PNAs showed the greatest potency. PMID:23006748

  2. Predicting essential genes and synthetic lethality via influence propagation in signaling pathways of cancer cell fates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Min; Li, Xue-Juan; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2015-06-01

    A major goal of personalized anti-cancer therapy is to increase the drug effects while reducing the side effects as much as possible. A novel therapeutic strategy called synthetic lethality (SL) provides a great opportunity to achieve this goal. SL arises if mutations of both genes lead to cell death while mutation of either single gene does not. Hence, the SL partner of a gene mutated only in cancer cells could be a promising drug target, and the identification of SL pairs of genes is of great significance in pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, we propose a hybridized method to predict SL pairs of genes. We combine a data-driven model with knowledge of signalling pathways to simulate the influence of single gene knock-down and double genes knock-down to cell death. A pair of genes is considered as an SL candidate when double knock-down increases the probability of cell death significantly, but single knock-down does not. The single gene knock-down is confirmed according to the human essential genes database. Our validation against literatures shows that the predicted SL candidates agree well with wet-lab experiments. A few novel reliable SL candidates are also predicted by our model. PMID:25669329

  3. An Updated Collection of Sequence Barcoded Temperature-Sensitive Alleles of Yeast Essential Genes.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Megan; Milbury, Karissa L; Chiang, Jennifer H; Sinha, Sunita; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    Systematic analyses of essential gene function using mutant collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been conducted using collections of heterozygous diploids, promoter shut-off alleles, through alleles with destabilized mRNA, destabilized protein, or bearing mutations that lead to a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype. We previously described a method for construction of barcoded ts alleles in a systematic fashion. Here we report the completion of this collection of alleles covering 600 essential yeast genes. This resource covers a larger gene repertoire than previous collections and provides a complementary set of strains suitable for single gene and genomic analyses. We use deep sequencing to characterize the amino acid changes leading to the ts phenotype in half of the alleles. We also use high-throughput approaches to describe the relative ts behavior of the alleles. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental usefulness of the collection in a high-content, functional genomic screen for ts alleles that increase spontaneous P-body formation. By increasing the number of alleles and improving the annotation, this ts collection will serve as a community resource for probing new aspects of biology for essential yeast genes. PMID:26175450

  4. An Updated Collection of Sequence Barcoded Temperature-Sensitive Alleles of Yeast Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kofoed, Megan; Milbury, Karissa L.; Chiang, Jennifer H.; Sinha, Sunita; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Systematic analyses of essential gene function using mutant collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been conducted using collections of heterozygous diploids, promoter shut-off alleles, through alleles with destabilized mRNA, destabilized protein, or bearing mutations that lead to a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype. We previously described a method for construction of barcoded ts alleles in a systematic fashion. Here we report the completion of this collection of alleles covering 600 essential yeast genes. This resource covers a larger gene repertoire than previous collections and provides a complementary set of strains suitable for single gene and genomic analyses. We use deep sequencing to characterize the amino acid changes leading to the ts phenotype in half of the alleles. We also use high-throughput approaches to describe the relative ts behavior of the alleles. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental usefulness of the collection in a high-content, functional genomic screen for ts alleles that increase spontaneous P-body formation. By increasing the number of alleles and improving the annotation, this ts collection will serve as a community resource for probing new aspects of biology for essential yeast genes. PMID:26175450

  5. Evolutionary conservation of essential and highly expressed genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The constant increase in development and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a serious threat to human health. New sequencing technologies are now on the horizon that will yield massive increases in our capacity for DNA sequencing and will revolutionize the drug discovery process. Since essential genes are promising novel antibiotic targets, the prediction of gene essentiality based on genomic information has become a major focus. Results In this study we demonstrate that pooled sequencing is applicable for the analysis of sequence variations of strain collections with more than 10 individual isolates. Pooled sequencing of 36 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates revealed that essential and highly expressed proteins evolve at lower rates, whereas extracellular proteins evolve at higher rates. We furthermore refined the list of experimentally essential P. aeruginosa genes, and identified 980 genes that show no sequence variation at all. Among the conserved nonessential genes we found several that are involved in regulation, motility and virulence, indicating that they represent factors of evolutionary importance for the lifestyle of a successful environmental bacterium and opportunistic pathogen. Conclusion The detailed analysis of a comprehensive set of P. aeruginosa genomes in this study clearly disclosed detailed information of the genomic makeup and revealed a large set of highly conserved genes that play an important role for the lifestyle of this microorganism. Sequencing strain collections enables for a detailed and extensive identification of sequence variations as potential bacterial adaptation processes, e.g., during the development of antibiotic resistance in the clinical setting and thus may be the basis to uncover putative targets for novel treatment strategies. PMID:20380691

  6. DEG 10, an update of the database of essential genes that includes both protein-coding genes and noncoding genomic elements

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao; Lin, Yan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Zhang, Ren

    2014-01-01

    The combination of high-density transposon-mediated mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing has led to significant advancements in research on essential genes, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of identified prokaryotic essential genes under diverse conditions and a revised essential-gene concept that includes all essential genomic elements, rather than focusing on protein-coding genes only. DEG 10, a new release of the Database of Essential Genes (available at http://www.essentialgene.org), has been developed to accommodate these quantitative and qualitative advancements. In addition to increasing the number of bacterial and archaeal essential genes determined by genome-wide gene essentiality screens, DEG 10 also harbors essential noncoding RNAs, promoters, regulatory sequences and replication origins. These essential genomic elements are determined not only in vitro, but also in vivo, under diverse conditions including those for survival, pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. We have developed customizable BLAST tools that allow users to perform species- and experiment-specific BLAST searches for a single gene, a list of genes, annotated or unannotated genomes. Therefore, DEG 10 includes essential genomic elements under different conditions in three domains of life, with customizable BLAST tools. PMID:24243843

  7. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  8. Multiple Genes for Essential-Hypertension Susceptibility on Chromosome 1q

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yen-PeiChristy; Liu, Xin; Kim, JamesDaeOk; Ikeda, MornaA.; Layton, MarnieR.; Weder, AlanB.; Cooper, RichardS.; Kardia, SharonL.R.; Rao, D.C.; Hunt, SteveC.; Luke, Amy; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2007-01-01

    Essential hypertension, defined as elevated levels of blood pressure (BP) without any obvious cause, is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal disease. BP levels and susceptibility to development of essential hypertension are partially determined by genetic factors that are poorly understood. Similar to other efforts to understand complex, non-Mendelian phenotypes, genetic dissection of hypertension-related traits employs genomewide linkage analyses of families and association studies of patient cohorts, to uncover rare and common disease alleles, respectively. Family-based mapping studies of elevated BP cover the large intermediate ground for identification of genes with common variants of significant effect. Our genomewide linkage and candidate-genebased association studies demonstrate that a replicated linkage peak for BP regulation on human chromosome 1q, homologous to mouse and rat quantitative trait loci for BP, contains at least three genes associated with BP levels in multiple samples: ATP1B1, RGS5, and SELE. Individual variants in these three genes account for 25-mm Hg differences in mean systolic BP levels, and the cumulative effect reaches 810 mm Hg. Because the associated alleles in these genes are relatively common (frequency >5%), these three genes are important contributors to elevated BP in the population at large. PMID:17236131

  9. Cell-specific expression of artificial microRNAs targeting essential genes exhibit potent antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Chen, Ping; Ye, Jingjia; Teng, Lisong; Jia, Zhenyu; Cao, Jiang

    2015-03-20

    To achieve specific and potent antitumor effect of hepatocyte carcinoma cells, replication defective adenoviral vectors, namely rAd/AFP-amiRG, rAd/AFP-amiRE and rAd/AFP-amiRP, were constructed which were armed with artificial microRNAs (amiRs) targeting essential functional genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and DNA polymerase ? respectively under the control of a recombinant promoter comprised of human ?-fetoprotein enhancer and basal promoter. The AFP enhancer/promoter showed specific high transcription activity in AFP-positive HCC cells Hep3B, HepG2 and SMMC7721, while low in AFP-negative cell Bcap37. All artificial microRNAs exhibited efficient knockdown of target genes. Decreased ATP production and protein synthesis was observed in rAd/AFP-amiRG and rAd/AFP-amiRE treated HCC cells. All three recombinant adenoviruses showed efficient blockage of cell cycle progression and significant suppression of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice model bearing Hep3B xenograft, administration of rAd/AFP-amiRG showed potent antitumor effect. The strategy of tumor-specific knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and proliferation may suggest a novel promising approach for HCC gene therapy. PMID:25691059

  10. Coccidioides posadasii Contains a Single 1,3-?-Glucan Synthase Gene That Appears To Be Essential for Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Ellen M.; Orsborn, Kris I.; Siegel, Erin M.; Mandel, M. Alejandra; Orbach, Marc J.; Galgiani, John N.

    2005-01-01

    1,3-?-Glucan synthase is responsible for the synthesis of ?-glucan, an essential cell wall structural component in most fungi. We sought to determine whether Coccidioides posadasii possesses genes homologous to known fungal FKS genes that encode the catalytic subunit of 1,3-?-glucan synthase. A single gene, designated FKS1, was identified, and examination of its predicted protein product showed a high degree of conservation with Fks proteins from other filamentous fungi. FKS1 is expressed at similar levels in mycelia and early spherulating cultures, and expression decreases as the spherules mature. We used Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to create strains that harbor ?FKS1::hygB, a null allele of FKS1, and hypothesize that Fks1p function is essential, due to our inability to purify this allele away from a complementing wild-type FKS1 allele in a heterokaryotic strain. The heterokaryon appears normal with respect to growth rate and arthroconidium production; however, microscopic examination of strains with ?FKS1::hygB alleles revealed abnormal swelling of hyphal elements. PMID:15643067

  11. Essential Gene Discovery in the Basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans for Antifungal Drug Target Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Ianiri, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungal diseases represent a major burden to health care globally. As with other pathogenic microbes, there is a limited number of agents suitable for use in treating fungal diseases, and resistance to these agents can develop rapidly. Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete fungus that causes cryptococcosis worldwide in both immunocompromised and healthy individuals. As a basidiomycete, it diverged from other common pathogenic or model ascomycete fungi more than 500 million years ago. Here, we report C. neoformans genes that are essential for viability as identified through forward and reverse genetic approaches, using an engineered diploid strain and genetic segregation after meiosis. The forward genetic approach generated random insertional mutants in the diploid strain, the induction of meiosis and sporulation, and selection for haploid cells with counterselection of the insertion event. More than 2,500 mutants were analyzed, and transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertions in several genes required for viability were identified. The genes include those encoding the thioredoxin reductase (Trr1), a ribosome assembly factor (Rsa4), an mRNA-capping component (Cet1), and others. For targeted gene replacement, the C. neoformans homologs of 35 genes required for viability in ascomycete fungi were disrupted, meiosis and sporulation were induced, and haploid progeny were evaluated for their ability to grow on selective media. Twenty-one (60%) were found to be required for viability in C. neoformans. These genes are involved in mitochondrial translation, ergosterol biosynthesis, and RNA-related functions. The heterozygous diploid mutants were evaluated for haploinsufficiency on a number of perturbing agents and drugs, revealing phenotypes due to the loss of one copy of an essential gene in C. neoformans. This study expands the knowledge of the essential genes in fungi using a basidiomycete as a model organism. Genes that have no mammalian homologs and are essential in both Cryptococcus and ascomycete human pathogens would be ideal for the development of antifungal drugs with broad-spectrum activity. PMID:25827419

  12. Effective identification of essential proteins based on priori knowledge, network topology and gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zheng, Ruiqing; Zhang, Hanhui; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2014-06-01

    Identification of essential proteins is very important for understanding the minimal requirements for cellular life and also necessary for a series of practical applications, such as drug design. With the advances in high throughput technologies, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which makes it possible to detect proteins' essentialities from the network level. Considering that most species already have a number of known essential proteins, we proposed a new priori knowledge-based scheme to discover new essential proteins from protein interaction networks. Based on the new scheme, two essential protein discovery algorithms, CPPK and CEPPK, were developed. CPPK predicts new essential proteins based on network topology and CEPPK detects new essential proteins by integrating network topology and gene expressions. The performances of CPPK and CEPPK were validated based on the protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental results showed that the priori knowledge of known essential proteins was effective for improving the predicted precision. The predicted precisions of CPPK and CEPPK clearly exceeded that of the other 10 previously proposed essential protein discovery methods: Degree Centrality (DC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Subgraph Centrality (SC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), Information Centrality (IC), Bottle Neck (BN), Density of Maximum Neighborhood Component (DMNC), Local Average Connectivity-based method (LAC), and Network Centrality (NC). Especially, CPPK achieved 40% improvement in precision over BC, CC, SC, EC, and BN, and CEPPK performed even better. CEPPK was also compared to four other methods (EPC, ORFL, PeC, and CoEWC) which were not node centralities and CEPPK was showed to achieve the best results. PMID:24565748

  13. Identification of genes and gene products necessary for bacterial bioluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Engebrecht, J; Silverman, M

    1984-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in Escherichia coli was recently achieved by cloning genes from the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. One DNA fragment on a hybrid plasmid encoded regulatory functions and enzymatic activities necessary for light production. We report the results of a genetic analysis to identify the luminescence genes (lux) that reside on this recombinant plasmid. lux gene mutations were generated by hydroxylamine treatment, and these mutations were ordered on a linear map by complementation in trans with a series of polar transposon insertions on other plasmids. lux genes were defined by complementation of lux gene defects on pairs of plasmids in trans in E. coli. Hybrid plasmids were also used to direct the synthesis of polypeptides in the E. coli minicell system. Seven lux genes and the corresponding gene products were identified from the complementation analysis and the minicell programing experiments. These genes, in the order of their position on a linear map, and the apparent molecular weights of the gene products are luxR (27,000), luxI (25,000), luxC (53,000), luxD (33,000), luxA (40,000), luxB (38,000), and luxE (42,000). From the luminescence phenotypes of E. coli containing mutant plasmids, functions were assigned to these genes: luxA, luxB, luxC, luxD, and luxE encode enzymes for light production and luxR and luxI encode regulatory functions. Images PMID:6377310

  14. The NGATHA Distal Organ Development Genes Are Essential for Style Specification in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, John Paul; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Efroni, Idan; Bowman, John L.; Eshed, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Floral organ identities are specified by a few transcription factors that act as master regulators. Subsequently, specification of organ axes programs the distribution of distinct tissue types within the organs that themselves develop unique identities. The C-class, AGAMOUS-clade MADS box genes are primary promoters of the gynoecium, which is divided into a distal style and a subtending ovary along the apical-basal axis. We show that members of a clade of B3 domain transcription factors, NGATHA1 (NGA1) to NGA4, are expressed distally in all lateral organs, and all four have a redundant and essential role in style development. Loss of all four genes results in gynoecia where style is replaced by valve-like projections and a reduction in style-specific SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) expression. In agreement, floral misexpression of NGA1 promotes ectopic style and SHP1 expression. STYLISH1, an auxin biosynthesis inducer, conditionally activated NGA genes, which in turn promoted distal expression of other STY genes in a putative positive feedback loop. Inhibited auxin transport or lack of YABBY1 gene activities resulted in a basally expanded style domain and broader expression of NGA genes. We speculate that early gynoecium factors delimit NGA gene response to an auxin-based signal, elicited by STY gene activity, to restrict the activation of style program to a late and distal carpel domain. PMID:19435933

  15. Genome-scale gene/reaction essentiality and synthetic lethality analysis.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Patrick F; Zomorrodi, Alireza; Maranas, Costas D

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic lethals are to pairs of non-essential genes whose simultaneous deletion prohibits growth. One can extend the concept of synthetic lethality by considering gene groups of increasing size where only the simultaneous elimination of all genes is lethal, whereas individual gene deletions are not. We developed optimization-based procedures for the exhaustive and targeted enumeration of multi-gene (and by extension multi-reaction) lethals for genome-scale metabolic models. Specifically, these approaches are applied to iAF1260, the latest model of Escherichia coli, leading to the complete identification of all double and triple gene and reaction synthetic lethals as well as the targeted identification of quadruples and some higher-order ones. Graph representations of these synthetic lethals reveal a variety of motifs ranging from hub-like to highly connected subgraphs providing a birds-eye view of the avenues available for redirecting metabolism and uncovering complex patterns of gene utilization and interdependence. The procedure also enables the use of falsely predicted synthetic lethals for metabolic model curation. By analyzing the functional classifications of the genes involved in synthetic lethals, we reveal surprising connections within and across clusters of orthologous group functional classifications. PMID:19690570

  16. Arabidopsis genes essential for seedling viability: isolation of insertional mutants and molecular cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, G J; Lewis, S P; Glover, L W; Reineke, J; Jones, G; Ziemnik, L S; Lonowski, J; Nyfeler, B; Aux, G; Zhou, Q; McElver, J; Patton, D A; Martienssen, R; Grossniklaus, U; Ma, H; Law, M; Levin, J Z

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a large-scale genetic screen to identify genes with a seedling-lethal mutant phenotype. From screening approximately 38,000 insertional mutant lines, we identified >500 seedling-lethal mutants, completed cosegregation analysis of the insertion and the lethal phenotype for >200 mutants, molecularly characterized 54 mutants, and provided a detailed description for 22 of them. Most of the seedling-lethal mutants seem to affect chloroplast function because they display altered pigmentation and affect genes encoding proteins predicted to have chloroplast localization. Although a high level of functional redundancy in Arabidopsis might be expected because 65% of genes are members of gene families, we found that 41% of the essential genes found in this study are members of Arabidopsis gene families. In addition, we isolated several interesting classes of mutants and genes. We found three mutants in the recently discovered nonmevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants disrupting genes similar to Tic40 and tatC, which are likely to be involved in chloroplast protein translocation. Finally, we directly compared T-DNA and Ac/Ds transposon mutagenesis methods in Arabidopsis on a genome scale. In each population, we found only about one-third of the insertion mutations cosegregated with a mutant phenotype. PMID:11779813

  17. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  18. An essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae coding for an actin-related protein.

    PubMed Central

    Harata, M; Karwan, A; Wintersberger, U

    1994-01-01

    Actin filaments provide the internal scaffold of eukaryotic cells; they are involved in maintenance of cell shape, cytokinesis, organelle movement, and cell motility. The major component of these filaments, actin, is one of the most well-conserved eukaryotic proteins. Recently genes more distantly related to the conventional actins were cloned from several organisms. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one conventional actin gene, ACT1 (coding for the filament actin), and a so-called actin-like gene, ACT2 (of unknown function), have so far been identified. We report here the discovery of a third member of the actin gene family from this organism, which we named ACT3. The latter gene is essential for viability and codes for a putative polypeptide, Act3, of 489 amino acids (M(r) = 54,831). The deduced amino acid sequence of Act3 is less related to conventional actins than is the deduced amino acid sequence of Act2, mainly because of three unique hydrophilic [corrected] segments. These segments are found inserted into a part of the sequence corresponding to a surface loop of the known three-dimensional structure of the actin molecule. According to sequence comparison, the basal core structure of conventional actin may well be conserved in Act3. Our findings demonstrate that, unexpectedly, there exist three members of the diverse actin protein family in budding yeast that obviously provide different essential functions for survival. Images PMID:8058791

  19. A gene homologous to beta-type carbonic anhydrase is essential for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, S; Ohnishi, J; Hayashi, M; Ikeda, M

    2004-02-01

    Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the interconversion of CO(2) and bicarbonate. We focused on this enzyme in the amino acid-producing organism Corynebacterium glutamicum in order to assess the availability of bicarbonate for carboxylation reactions essential to growth and for those required for L-lysine overproduction. A whole-genome sequence revealed two genes encoding putative beta-type and gamma-type carbonic anhydrases in C. glutamicum. These genes encode polypeptides containing zinc ligands strictly conserved in each type of carbonic anhydrase and were designated bca and gca, respectively. Internal deletion of the chromosomal bca gene resulted in a phenotype showing severely reduced growth under atmospheric conditions (0.04% CO(2)) on both complete and minimal media. The growth defect of the Delta bca strain was restored under elevated CO(2) conditions (5% CO(2)). Introduction of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum carbonic anhydrase gene ( pca) could compensate for the bca deletion, allowing normal growth under an atmospheric level of CO(2). In contrast, the Delta gca strain behaved identically to the wild-type strain with respect to growth, irrespective of the CO(2) conditions. Attempts to increase the dosage of bca, gca, and pca in the defined L-lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum AHD-2 led to no discernable effects on growth and production. Northern blot analysis indicated that the bca transcript in strain AHD-2 and another L-lysine producer, C. glutamicum B-6, was present at a much higher level than in the wild-type strain, particularly during exponential growth phases. These results indicate that: (1) the bca product is essential to achieving normal growth under ordinary atmospheric conditions, and this effect is most likely due to the bca product's ability to maintain favorable intracellular bicarbonate/CO(2) levels, and (2) the expression of bca is induced during exponential growth phases and also in the case of L-lysine overproduction, both of which are conditions of higher bicarbonate demand. PMID:12937954

  20. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Production Is Essential for Dietary Restriction Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher; Harputlugil, Eylul; Zhang, Yue; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Lee, Byung Cheon; Brace, Lear; Longchamp, Alban; Trevino-Villarreal, Jose H.; Mejia, Pedro; Ozaki, C. Keith; Wang, Rui; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Madeo, Frank; Mair, William B.; Mitchell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine ?-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. SAA supplementation, mTORC1 activation, or chemical/genetic CGL inhibition reduced H2S production and blocked DR-mediated stress resistance. In vitro, the mitochondrial protein SQR was required for H2S-mediated protection during nutrient/oxygen deprivation. Finally, TSP-dependent H2S production was observed in yeast, worm, fruit fly and rodent models of DR-mediated longevity. Together, these data are consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a novel mediator of DR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. PMID:25542313

  1. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production is essential for dietary restriction benefits.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher; Harputlugil, Eylul; Zhang, Yue; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Lee, Byung Cheon; Brace, Lear; Longchamp, Alban; Trevio-Villarreal, Jose H; Mejia, Pedro; Ozaki, C Keith; Wang, Rui; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Madeo, Frank; Mair, William B; Mitchell, James R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine ?-lyase (CGL),resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. SAA supplementation, mTORC1 activation, or chemical/genetic CGL inhibition reduced H2S production and blocked DR-mediated stress resistance. Invitro, the mitochondrial protein SQR was required for H2S-mediated protection during nutrient/oxygen deprivation. Finally, TSP-dependent H2S production was observed in yeast, worm, fruit fly, and rodent models of DR-mediated longevity. Together, these data are consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a mediator ofDR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. PAPERFLICK: PMID:25542313

  2. Screening of candidate regulators for cellulase and hemicellulase production in Trichoderma reesei and identification of a factor essential for cellulase production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The soft rot ascomycetal fungus Trichoderma reesei is utilized for industrial production of secreted enzymes, especially lignocellulose degrading enzymes. T. reesei uses several different enzymes for the degradation of plant cell wall-derived material, including 9 characterized cellulases, 15 characterized hemicellulases and at least 42 genes predicted to encode cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic activities. Production of cellulases and hemicellulases is modulated by environmental and physiological conditions. Several regulators affecting the expression of cellulase and hemicellulase genes have been identified but more factors still unknown are believed to be present in the genome of T. reesei. Results We have used transcriptional profiling data from T. reesei cultures in which cellulase/hemicellulase production was induced by the addition of different lignocellulose-derived materials to identify putative novel regulators for cellulase and hemicellulase genes. Based on this induction data, supplemented with other published genome-wide data on different protein production conditions, 28 candidate regulatory genes were selected for further studies and they were overexpressed in T. reesei. Overexpression of seven genes led to at least 1.5-fold increased production of cellulase and/or xylanase activity in the modified strains as compared to the parental strain. Deletion of gene 77513, here designated as ace3, was found to be detrimental for cellulase production and for the expression of several cellulase genes studied. This deletion also significantly reduced xylanase activity and expression of xylan-degrading enzyme genes. Furthermore, our data revealed the presence of co-regulated chromosomal regions containing carbohydrate-active enzyme genes and candidate regulatory genes. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling results from glycoside hydrolase induction experiments combined with a previous study of specific protein production conditions was shown to be an effective method for finding novel candidate regulatory genes affecting the production of cellulases and hemicellulases. Recombinant strains with improved cellulase and/or xylanase production properties were constructed, and a gene essential for cellulase gene expression was found. In addition, more evidence was gained on the chromatin level regional regulation of carbohydrate-active enzyme gene expression. PMID:24472375

  3. In vivo and in silico determination of essential genes of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli are the most frequent causes of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. While campylobacteriosis is usually a relatively mild infection, it has a significant public health and economic impact, and possible complications include reactive arthritis and the autoimmune diseases Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid developments in "omics" technologies have resulted in the availability of diverse datasets allowing predictions of metabolism and physiology of pathogenic micro-organisms. When combined, these datasets may allow for the identification of potential weaknesses that can be used for development of new antimicrobials to reduce or eliminate C. jejuni and C. coli from the food chain. Results A metabolic model of C. jejuni was constructed using the annotation of the NCTC 11168 genome sequence, a published model of the related bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and extensive literature mining. Using this model, we have used in silico Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) to determine key metabolic routes that are essential for generating energy and biomass, thus creating a list of genes potentially essential for growth under laboratory conditions. To complement this in silico approach, candidate essential genes have been determined using a whole genome transposon mutagenesis method. FBA and transposon mutagenesis (both this study and a published study) predict a similar number of essential genes (around 200). The analysis of the intersection between the three approaches highlights the shikimate pathway where genes are predicted to be essential by one or more method, and tend to be network hubs, based on a previously published Campylobacter protein-protein interaction network, and could therefore be targets for novel antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions We have constructed the first curated metabolic model for the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and have presented the resulting metabolic insights. We have shown that the combination of in silico and in vivo approaches could point to non-redundant, indispensable genes associated with the well characterised shikimate pathway, and also genes of unknown function specific to C. jejuni, which are all potential novel Campylobacter intervention targets. PMID:22044676

  4. In vivo and in silico determination of essential genes of Campylobacter jejuni.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Metris A; Reuter M; Gaskin DJ; Baranyi J; van Vliet AH

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli are the most frequent causes of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. While campylobacteriosis is usually a relatively mild infection, it has a significant public health and economic impact, and possible complications include reactive arthritis and the autoimmune diseases Guillain-Barr syndrome. The rapid developments in "omics" technologies have resulted in the availability of diverse datasets allowing predictions of metabolism and physiology of pathogenic micro-organisms. When combined, these datasets may allow for the identification of potential weaknesses that can be used for development of new antimicrobials to reduce or eliminate C. jejuni and C. coli from the food chain.RESULTS: A metabolic model of C. jejuni was constructed using the annotation of the NCTC 11168 genome sequence, a published model of the related bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and extensive literature mining. Using this model, we have used in silico Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) to determine key metabolic routes that are essential for generating energy and biomass, thus creating a list of genes potentially essential for growth under laboratory conditions. To complement this in silico approach, candidate essential genes have been determined using a whole genome transposon mutagenesis method. FBA and transposon mutagenesis (both this study and a published study) predict a similar number of essential genes (around 200). The analysis of the intersection between the three approaches highlights the shikimate pathway where genes are predicted to be essential by one or more method, and tend to be network hubs, based on a previously published Campylobacter protein-protein interaction network, and could therefore be targets for novel antimicrobial therapy.CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed the first curated metabolic model for the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and have presented the resulting metabolic insights. We have shown that the combination of in silico and in vivo approaches could point to non-redundant, indispensable genes associated with the well characterised shikimate pathway, and also genes of unknown function specific to C. jejuni, which are all potential novel Campylobacter intervention targets.

  5. Synthetic Auxotrophs with Ligand-Dependent Essential Genes for a BL21(DE3) Biosafety Strain.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gabriel; Anderson, J Christopher

    2015-12-18

    Synthetic auxotrophs are organisms engineered to require the presence of a particular molecule for viability. They have potential applications in biocontainment and enzyme engineering. We show that these organisms can be generated by engineering ligand-dependence into essential genes. We demonstrate a method for generating a Synthetic auxotroph based on a Ligand-Dependent Essential gene (SLiDE) using 5 essential genes as test cases: pheS, dnaN, tyrS, metG, and adk. We show that a single SLiDE strain can have a 1 10(8)-fold increase in viability when chemically complemented with the ligand benzothiazole. The optimized SLiDE strain engineering protocol required less than 1 week and $100 USD. We combined multiple SLiDE strain alleles into the industrial Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), yielding an organism that exceeds the biosafety criteria with an escape frequency below the limit of detection of 3 10(-11). PMID:26072987

  6. Locating essential Escherichia coli genes by using mini-Tn10 transposons: the pdxJ operon.

    PubMed Central

    Takiff, H E; Baker, T; Copeland, T; Chen, S M; Court, D L

    1992-01-01

    The mini-Tn10 transposon (delta 16 delta 17Tn10) confers tetracycline resistance. When inserted between a gene and its promoter, it blocks transcription and prevents expression of that gene. Tetracycline in the medium induces divergent transcription of the tetA and tetR genes within the transposon, and this transcription extends beyond the transposon in both directions into the bacterial genes. If the mini-Tn10 inserts between an essential bacterial gene and its promoter, the insertion mutation can cause conditional growth which is dependent on the presence of tetracycline. Two essential genes in adjacent operons of Escherichia coli have been detected by screening for tetracycline dependence among tetracycline-resistant insertion mutants. These essential genes are the era gene in the rnc operon and the dpj gene in the adjacent pdxJ operon. The pdxJ operon has not been described previously. It consists of two genes, pdxJ and dpj. Whereas the dpj gene is essential for E. coli growth in all media tested, pdxJ is not essential. The pdxJ gene encodes a protein required in the biosynthesis of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Images PMID:1537799

  7. Haem uptake is essential for egg production in the haematophagous blood fluke of humans, Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Toh, Shu Qin; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Malagn Martnez, David; Jones, Malcolm K

    2015-09-01

    Schistosomes ingest host erythrocytes, liberating large quantities of haem. Despite its toxicity, haem is an essential factor for numerous biological reactions, and may be an important iron source for these helminths. We used a fluorescence haem analogue, palladium mesoporphyrin, to investigate pathways of haem acquisition, and showed that palladium mesoporphyrin accumulates in the vitellaria (eggshell precursor glands) and ovary of female Schistosoma mansoni. Furthermore, incubation of adult females in 10-100 ?m cyclosporin A (IC50 = 2.3 ?m) inhibits the uptake of palladium mesoporphyrin to these tissues, with tenfold reductions in fluorescence intensity of the ovary. In vitro exposure to cyclosporin A resulted in significant perturbation of egg production, reducing egg output from 34 eggs per female to 5.7 eggs per female over the incubation period, and retardation of egg development. We characterized a S. mansoni homologue of the haem-responsive genes of Caenorhabditis elegans. The gene (Smhrg-1) encodes a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 17 kDa. SmHRG-1 was able to rescue growth in haem transport-deficient HEM1? yeast. Transcriptional suppression of Smhrg-1 in adult S. mansoni worms resulted in significant delay in egg maturation, with 47% of eggs from transcriptionally suppressed worms being identified as immature compared with only 27% of eggs laid by control worms treated with firefly luciferase. Our findings indicate the presence of transmembrane haem transporters in schistosomes, with a high abundance of these molecules being present in tissues involved in oogenesis. PMID:26153121

  8. The most abundantly transcribed human cytomegalovirus gene (beta 2.7) is non-essential for growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    McSharry, Brian P; Tomasec, Peter; Neale, M Lynne; Wilkinson, Gavin W G

    2003-09-01

    The most abundantly transcribed HCMV gene (beta 2.7) encodes a 2.7 kb polyadenylated RNA. Although the laboratory-adapted HCMV strains AD169 and Towne possess two copies of the beta 2.7 gene within an expanded b sequence element, the low passage strain Toledo and all clinical isolates analysed contain only a single copy located within the U(L) region. A beta 2.7 deletion mutant constructed based on a strain Toledo background was shown to replicate with kinetics comparable to those of the parental virus; the beta2.7 gene is therefore not essential for virus replication in vitro. Sequencing the beta 2.7 gene from HCMV clinical isolates and the Toledo strain reveals that although the overall gene sequence is highly conserved (>99 %), the RL4 frame originally assigned in strain AD169 was disrupted in each of these viruses. Consequently, the beta 2.7 transcript does not encode any obvious translation product and thus may not function as an mRNA. PMID:12917473

  9. Identification of a new gene essential for germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with Ca2+-dipicolinate.

    PubMed

    Ragkousi, Katerina; Eichenberger, Patrick; van Ooij, Christiaan; Setlow, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores can germinate with a 1:1 chelate of Ca(2+) and dipicolinic acid (DPA), a compound present at high levels in the spore core. Using a genetic screen to identify genes encoding proteins that are specifically involved in spore germination by Ca(2+)-DPA, three mutations were identified. One was in the gene encoding the cortex lytic enzyme, CwlJ, that was previously shown to be essential for spore germination by Ca(2+)-DPA. The other two were mapped to an open reading frame, ywdL, encoding a protein of unknown function. Analysis of ywdL expression showed that the gene is expressed during sporulation in the mother cell compartment of the sporulating cell and that its transcription is sigma(E) dependent. Functional characterization of YwdL demonstrated that it is a new spore coat protein that is essential for the presence of CwlJ in the spore coat. Assembly of YwdL itself into the spore coat is dependent on the coat morphogenetic proteins CotE and SpoIVA. However, other than lacking CwlJ, ywdL spores have no obvious defect in their spore coat. Because of the role for YwdL in a part of the spore germination process, we propose renaming ywdL as a spore germination gene, gerQ. PMID:12644503

  10. dnaA, an essential host gene, and Tn5 transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J C; Reznikoff, W S

    1987-01-01

    Mutations in dnaA, an essential gene in Escherichia coli, decrease the frequency of transposition of Tn5. An insertion mutation in the dnaA gene does not affect Tn5 gene expression. Therefore, the DnaA protein plays a role either in the transposition reaction itself or in some type of cellular regulation of transposition. Analysis of a mutation in the DnaA box, found at the outside end of IS50, is consistent with a direct interaction of the protein through these bases. IS50 transposition, which utilizes only one end containing a DnaA box, is not affected by dnaA mutations. Overproduction of the DnaA protein does not increase transposition frequencies in wild-type cells, even when the transposase is also overproduced. Images PMID:2820938

  11. Identification of an Essential Gene of Listeria monocytogenes Involved in Teichoic Acid Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dubail, Iharilalao; Bigot, Armelle; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Soldo, Blazenka; Euphrasie, Daniel; Dupuis, Marion; Charbit, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular gram-positive bacterium responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. We had previously identified a gene encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase, a precursor of the teichoic acid linkage unit, in the genome of L monocytogenes strain EGD-e. This gene, now designated lmo2537, encodes a protein that shares 62% identity with the cognate epimerase MnaA of Bacillus subtilis and 55% identity with Cap5P of Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we addressed the role of lmo2537 in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis by constructing a conditional knockout mutant. The data presented here demonstrate that lmo2537 is an essential gene of L. monocytogenes that is involved in teichoic acid biogenesis. In vivo, the conditional mutant is very rapidly eliminated from the target organs of infected mice and thus is totally avirulent. PMID:16952950

  12. A CRISPR-based screen identifies genes essential for West Nile virus-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N.; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-01-01

    Summary West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. PMID:26190106

  13. Regulation of capsule synthesis and cell motility in Salmonella enterica by the essential gene igaA.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, David A; Domnguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Tierrez, Alberto; Garcia-Del Portillo, Francisco; Casadess, Josep

    2002-01-01

    Mutants of Salmonella enterica carrying the igaA1 allele, selected as able to overgrow within fibroblast cells in culture, are mucoid and show reduced motility. Mucoidy is caused by derepression of wca genes (necessary for capsule synthesis); these genes are regulated by the RcsC/YojN/RcsB phosphorelay system and by the RcsA coregulator. The induction of wca expression in an igaA1 mutant is suppressed by mutations in rcsA and rcsC. Reduced motility is caused by lowered expression of the flagellar master operon, flhDC, and is suppressed by mutations in rcsB or rcsC, suggesting that mutations in the igaA gene reduce motility by activating the RcsB/C system. A null igaA allele can be maintained only in an igaA(+)/igaA merodiploid, indicating that igaA is an essential gene. Lethality is suppressed by mutations in rcsB, rcsC, and yojN, but not in rcsA, suggesting that the viability defect of an igaA null mutant is mediated by the RcsB/RcsC system, independently of RcsA (and therefore of the wca genes). Because all the defects associated with igaA mutations are suppressed by mutations that block the RcsB/RcsC system, we propose a functional interaction between the igaA gene product and either the Rcs regulatory network or one of its regulated products. PMID:12524328

  14. Genes, patents, and product development.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, R S

    1992-08-14

    In the past year, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has filed patent applications on more than 2750 partial complementary DNA sequences of unknown function. The rationale for the filings--that patent protection may be necessary to ensure that private firms are willing to invest in developing related products--rests on two premises: first, that NIH may obtain patent rights that will offer effective product monopolies to licensee firms, and second, that unless NIH obtains these rights now, firms will be unable to obtain a comparable degree of exclusivity by other means, such as by obtaining patents on their own subsequent innovations. Neither premise is clearly wrong, although both are subject to doubt in view of statements from industry representatives that the NIH patenting strategy will deter rather than promote product development. PMID:1502556

  15. Non-essential genes form the hubs of genome scale protein function and environmental gene expression networks in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella Typhimurium is an important pathogen of human and animals. It shows a broad growth range and survives in harsh conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze transcriptional responses to a number of growth and stress conditions as well as the relationship of metabolic pathways and/or cell functions at the genome-scale-level by network analysis, and further to explore whether highly connected genes (hubs) in these networks were essential for growth, stress adaptation and virulence. Results De novo generated as well as published transcriptional data for 425 selected genes under a number of growth and stress conditions were used to construct a bipartite network connecting culture conditions and significantly regulated genes (transcriptional network). Also, a genome scale network was constructed for strain LT2. The latter connected genes with metabolic pathways and cellular functions. Both networks were shown to belong to the family of scale-free networks characterized by the presence of highly connected nodes or hubs which are genes whose transcription is regulated when responding to many of the assayed culture conditions or genes encoding products involved in a high number of metabolic pathways and cell functions. The five genes with most connections in the transcriptional network (wraB, ygaU, uspA, cbpA and osmC) and in the genome scale network (ychN, siiF (STM4262), yajD, ybeB and dcoC) were selected for mutations, however mutagenesis of ygaU and ybeB proved unsuccessful. No difference between mutants and the wild type strain was observed during growth at unfavorable temperatures, pH values, NaCl concentrations and in the presence of H2O2. Eight mutants were evaluated for virulence in C57/BL6 mice and none differed from the wild type strain. Notably, however, deviations of phenotypes with respect to the wild type were observed when combinations of these genes were deleted. Conclusion Network analysis revealed the presence of hubs in both transcriptional and functional networks of S. Typhimurium. Hubs theoretically confer higher resistance to random mutation but a greater susceptibility to directed attacks, however, we found that genes that formed hubs were dispensable for growth, stress adaptation and virulence, suggesting that evolution favors non-essential genes as main connectors in cellular networks. PMID:24345035

  16. Discovery of genes essential for heme biosynthesis through large-scale gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Roland; Schultz, Iman J; Pierce, Eric L; Soltis, Kathleen A; Naranuntarat, Amornrat; Ward, Diane M; Baughman, Joshua M; Paradkar, Prasad N; Kingsley, Paul D; Culotta, Valeria C; Kaplan, Jerry; Palis, James; Paw, Barry H; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2009-08-01

    Heme biosynthesis consists of a series of eight enzymatic reactions that originate in mitochondria and continue in the cytosol before returning to mitochondria. Although these core enzymes are well studied, additional mitochondrial transporters and regulatory factors are predicted to be required. To discover such unknown components, we utilized a large-scale computational screen to identify mitochondrial proteins whose transcripts consistently coexpress with the core machinery of heme biosynthesis. We identified SLC25A39, SLC22A4, and TMEM14C, which are putative mitochondrial transporters, as well as C1orf69 and ISCA1, which are iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Targeted knockdowns of all five genes in zebrafish resulted in profound anemia without impacting erythroid lineage specification. Moreover, silencing of Slc25a39 in murine erythroleukemia cells impaired iron incorporation into protoporphyrin IX, and vertebrate Slc25a39 complemented an iron homeostasis defect in the orthologous yeast mtm1Delta deletion mutant. Our results advance the molecular understanding of heme biosynthesis and offer promising candidate genes for inherited anemias. PMID:19656490

  17. Development of Inducible Systems To Engineer Conditional Mutants of Essential Genes of Helicobacter pylori?

    PubMed Central

    Boneca, Ivo G.; Ecobichon, Chantal; Chaput, Catherine; Mathieu, Aurlie; Guadagnini, Stphanie; Prvost, Marie-Christine; Colland, Frdric; Labigne, Agns; de Reuse, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The Escherichia coli-Helicobacter pylori shuttle vector pHeL2 was modified to introduce the inducible LacIq-pTac system of E. coli, in which the promoters were engineered to be under the control of H. pylori RNA polymerase. The amiE gene promoter of H. pylori was taken to constitutively express the LacIq repressor. Expression of the reporter gene lacZ was driven by either pTac (pILL2150) or a modified version of the ureI gene promoter in which one or two LacI-binding sites and/or mutated nucleotides between the ribosomal binding site and the ATG start codon (pILL2153 and pILL2157) were introduced. Promoter activity was evaluated by measuring ?-galactosidase activity. pILL2150 is a tightly regulated expression system suitable for the analysis of genes with low-level expression, while pILL2157 is well adapted for the controlled expression of genes encoding recombinant proteins in H. pylori. To exemplify the usefulness of these tools, we constructed conditional mutants of the putative essential pbp1 and ftsI genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 3 of H. pylori, respectively. Both genes were cloned into pILL2150 and introduced in the parental H. pylori strain N6. The chromosomally harbored pbp1 and ftsI genes were then inactivated by replacing them with a nonpolar kanamycin cassette. Inactivation was strictly dependent upon addition of isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside. Hence, we were able to construct the first conditional mutants of H. pylori. Finally, we demonstrated that following in vitro methylation of the recombinant plasmids, these could be introduced into a large variety of H. pylori isolates with different genetic backgrounds. PMID:18245237

  18. Linkage of the angiotensinogen gene locus to human essential hypertension in African Caribbeans.

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, M; Lavender, P; Newell-Price, J; Farrall, M; Kamdar, S; Daniel, H; Lawson, M; De Freitas, P; Fogarty, P; Clark, A J

    1995-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system regulates blood pressure and sodium balance. The angiotensinogen gene which encodes the key substrate within this system has been linked to essential hypertension in White Europeans. It has been suggested that people of West African ancestry may have a different genetic basis for hypertension. In this study we have tested whether there is linkage of the angiotensinogen gene to essential hypertension in African Caribbeans from St. Vincent and the Grenadines. DNA from 63 affected sibling pairs with hypertension was tested for linkage by analyzing whether there was excess allele sharing among siblings genotyped using an angiotensinogen dinucleotide repeat sequence. There was significant support for linkage (T = 3.07, P = 0.001) and association of this locus to hypertension (chi 2 = 50.2, 12 degrees of freedom, P << 0.001). A DNA polymorphism which alters methionine to threonine at position 235 (M235T) within the angiotensinogen peptide has been associated previously with hypertension. However, we found no association of this variant with hypertension in this study. These findings provide support for linkage and association of the angiotensinogen locus to hypertension in African Caribbeans and suggest some similarities in the genetic basis of essential hypertension in populations of different ethnicity. Images PMID:7635961

  19. Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 Gene and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Markers in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kamna; Narang, Rajiv; Bhatia, Jagriti; Saluja, Daman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is characterized by systemic high blood pressure and is the most common and important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that the circulating levels of certain inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interlukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor suppressor protein-53 (p53) are upregulated and are independently associated with essential hypertension. However, mechanism of increase in the levels of HSP70 protein is not clear. No such studies are reported in the blood circulation of patients with essential hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the expression of circulating HSP70 at mRNA and protein levels and its relationship with other inflammatory markers in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods We recruited 132 patients with essential hypertension and 132 normal controls from similar socio-economic-geographical background. The expression of HSP70 at mRNA levels was determined by Real Time PCR and at protein levels by indirect Elisa and Western Blot techniques. Results We found a significantly higher expression of HSP70 gene expression (approximately 6.45 fold, P < 0.0001) in hypertensive patients as compared to healthy controls. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the protein expression of HSP70 was also observed in plasma of patients as compared to that of controls. Conclusion Higher expression of HSP70 is positively correlated with inflammatory markers in patients with essential hypertension and this correlation could play an important role in essential hypertension. PMID:26989902

  20. Neural stem cell transcriptional networks highlight genes essential for nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Southall, Tony D; Brand, Andrea H

    2009-12-16

    Neural stem cells must strike a balance between self-renewal and multipotency, and differentiation. Identification of the transcriptional networks regulating stem cell division is an essential step in understanding how this balance is achieved. We have shown that the homeodomain transcription factor, Prospero, acts to repress self-renewal and promote differentiation. Among its targets are three neural stem cell transcription factors, Asense, Deadpan and Snail, of which Asense and Deadpan are repressed by Prospero. Here, we identify the targets of these three factors throughout the genome. We find a large overlap in their target genes, and indeed with the targets of Prospero, with 245 genomic loci bound by all factors. Many of the genes have been implicated in vertebrate stem cell self-renewal, suggesting that this core set of genes is crucial in the switch between self-renewal and differentiation. We also show that multiply bound loci are enriched for genes previously linked to nervous system phenotypes, thereby providing a shortcut to identifying genes important for nervous system development. PMID:19851284

  1. Rapid evolution of RNA editing sites in a small non-essential plastid gene

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Andreas; Stegemann, Sandra; Bock, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Chloroplast RNA editing proceeds by C-to-U transitions at highly specific sites. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of RNA editing in a small plastid gene, petL, encoding subunit VI of the cytochrome b6f complex. Analyzing representatives from most major groups of seed plants, we find an unexpectedly high frequency and dynamics of RNA editing. High-frequency editing has previously been observed in plastid ndh genes, which are remarkable in that their mutational inactivation does not produce an obvious mutant phenotype. In order to test the idea that reduced functional constraints allow for more flexible evolution of RNA editing sites, we have created petL knockout plants by tobacco chloroplast transformation. We find that, in the higher plant tobacco, targeted inactivation of petL does not impair plant growth under a variety of conditions markedly contrasting the important role of petL in photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Together with a low number of editing sites in plastid genes that are essential to gene expression and photosynthetic activity, these data suggest that RNA editing sites may evolve more readily in those genes whose transitory loss of function can be tolerated. Accumulated evidence for this relative neutrality hypothesis for the evolution of plastid editing sites is discussed. PMID:15240834

  2. Neural stem cell transcriptional networks highlight genes essential for nervous system development

    PubMed Central

    Southall, Tony D; Brand, Andrea H

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells must strike a balance between self-renewal and multipotency, and differentiation. Identification of the transcriptional networks regulating stem cell division is an essential step in understanding how this balance is achieved. We have shown that the homeodomain transcription factor, Prospero, acts to repress self-renewal and promote differentiation. Among its targets are three neural stem cell transcription factors, Asense, Deadpan and Snail, of which Asense and Deadpan are repressed by Prospero. Here, we identify the targets of these three factors throughout the genome. We find a large overlap in their target genes, and indeed with the targets of Prospero, with 245 genomic loci bound by all factors. Many of the genes have been implicated in vertebrate stem cell self-renewal, suggesting that this core set of genes is crucial in the switch between self-renewal and differentiation. We also show that multiply bound loci are enriched for genes previously linked to nervous system phenotypes, thereby providing a shortcut to identifying genes important for nervous system development. PMID:19851284

  3. Metazoan Remaining Genes for Essential Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Sequence Conservation and Evolutionary Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Igor R.; Thompson, Julie D.; Ortega, Jos Miguel; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Essential amino acids (EAA) consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS) and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL) relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals. PMID:25545100

  4. Senataxin Plays an Essential Role with DNA Damage Response Proteins in Meiotic Recombination and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Becherel, Olivier J.; Yeo, Abrey J.; Stellati, Alissa; Heng, Evelyn Y. H.; Luff, John; Suraweera, Amila M.; Woods, Rick; Fleming, Jean; Carrie, Dianne; McKinney, Kristine; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chuxia; Lavin, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops), and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx−/− revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome. PMID:23593030

  5. Transcriptional Analysis of Essential Genes of the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster by Functional Replacement with the Analogous Salmonella typhimurium Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Cronan, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The genes encoding several key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes (called the fab cluster) are clustered in the order plsX-fabH-fabD-fabG-acpP-fabF at min 24 of the Escherichia coli chromosome. A difficulty in analysis of the fab cluster by the polar allele duplication approach (Y. Zhang and J. E. Cronan, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 178:36143620, 1996) is that several of these genes are essential for the growth of E. coli. We overcame this complication by use of the fab gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium, a close relative of E. coli, to provide functions necessary for growth. The S. typhimurium fab cluster was isolated by complementation of an E. coli fabD mutant and was found to encode proteins with >94% homology to those of E. coli. However, the S. typhimurium sequences cannot recombine with the E. coli sequences required to direct polar allele duplication via homologous recombination. Using this approach, we found that although approximately 60% of the plsX transcripts initiate at promoters located far upstream and include the upstream rpmF ribosomal protein gene, a promoter located upstream of the plsX coding sequence (probably within the upstream gene, rpmF) is sufficient for normal growth. We have also found that the fabG gene is obligatorily cotranscribed with upstream genes. Insertion of a transcription terminator cassette (?-Cm cassette) between the fabD and fabG genes of the E. coli chromosome abolished fabG transcription and blocked cell growth, thus providing the first indication that fabG is an essential gene. Insertion of the ?-Cm cassette between fabH and fabD caused greatly decreased transcription of the fabD and fabG genes and slower cellular growth, indicating that fabD has only a weak promoter(s). PMID:9642179

  6. The CXCR2 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Stroke in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Timasheva, Yanina R.; Nasibullin, Timur R.; Mustafina, Olga E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke, and genetic factors contribute to its development. Inflammation has been hypothesized to be the key link between blood pressure elevation and stroke. We performed an analysis of the association between inflammatory mediator gene polymorphisms and the incidence of stroke in patients with essential hypertension (EH). The study group consisted of 625 individuals (296 patients with noncomplicated EH, 71 hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke, and 258 control subjects). Both patients and controls were ethnic Tatars originating from the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian Federation). The analysis has shown that the risk of ischemic stroke was associated with the CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphism. Our results indicate that among patients with EH, the heterozygous genotype carriers had a higher risk of stroke (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.01-2.92), whereas the CXCR2*C/C genotype was protective against stroke (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.83). As shown by the gene-gene interaction analysis, the CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphism was also present in all genotype/allele combinations associated with the risk of stroke. Genetic patterns associated with stroke also included polymorphisms in the CCL2, CCL18, CX3CR1, CCR5, and CXCL8 (IL8) genes, although no association between these loci and stroke was detected by individual analysis. PMID:26648969

  7. Genome Scanning for Conditionally Essential Genes in Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Khatiwara, Anita; Jiang, Tieshan; Sung, Sam-Sun; Dawoud, Turki; Kim, Jeong Nam; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Kim, Hee-Bal; Ricke, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    As more whole-genome sequences become available, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput methods that link genes to phenotypes, facilitating discovery of new gene functions. In this study, we describe a new version of the Tn-seq method involving a modified EZ:Tn5 transposon for genome-wide and quantitative mapping of all insertions in a complex mutant library utilizing massively parallel Illumina sequencing. This Tn-seq method was applied to a genome-saturating Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium mutant library recovered from selection under 3 different in vitro growth conditions (diluted Luria-Bertani [LB] medium, LB medium plus bile acid, and LB medium at 42°C), mimicking some aspects of host stressors. We identified an overlapping set of 105 protein-coding genes in S. Typhimurium that are conditionally essential under at least one of the above selective conditions. Competition assays using 4 deletion mutants (pyrD, glnL, recD, and STM14_5307) confirmed the phenotypes predicted by Tn-seq data, validating the utility of this approach in discovering new gene functions. With continuously increasing sequencing capacity of next generation sequencing technologies, this robust Tn-seq method will aid in revealing unexplored genetic determinants and the underlying mechanisms of various biological processes in Salmonella and the other approximately 70 bacterial species for which EZ:Tn5 mutagenesis has been established. PMID:22367088

  8. The Essential Role of the Deinococcus radiodurans ssb Gene in Cell Survival and Radiation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, J. Scott; DeVeaux, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has implicated single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) expression level as an important factor in microbial radiation resistance. The genome of the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans contains genes for two SSB homologs: the homodimeric, canonical Ssb, encoded by the gene ssb, and a novel pentameric protein encoded by the gene ddrB. ddrB is highly induced upon exposure to radiation, and deletions result in decreased radiation-resistance, suggesting an integral role of the protein in the extreme resistance exhibited by this organism. Although expression of ssb is also induced after irradiation, Ssb is thought to be involved primarily in replication. In this study, we demonstrate that Ssb in D. radiodurans is essential for cell survival. The lethality of an ssb deletion cannot be complemented by providing ddrB in trans. In addition, the radiation-sensitive phenotype conferred by a ddrB deletion is not alleviated by providing ssb in trans. By altering expression of the ssb gene, we also show that lower levels of transcription are required for optimal growth than are necessary for high radiation resistance. When expression is reduced to that of E. coli, ionizing radiation resistance is similarly reduced. UV resistance is also decreased under low ssb transcript levels where growth is unimpaired. These results indicate that the expression of ssb is a key component of both normal cellular metabolism as well as pathways responsible for the high radiation tolerance of D. radiodurans. PMID:23951213

  9. Functional Domains of ZFP809 Essential for Nuclear Localization and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ichida, Yu; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Yasuda, Toru; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Sato, Toshinori; Onodera, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) is a member of the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family, and is highly expressed in mouse immature cells. ZFP809 is known to inhibit the expression of transduced genes driven by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-typed retroviral vectors by binding to the primer binding site (PBS) located downstream of the MLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) of the vectors and recruiting protein complexes that introduce epigenetic silencing marks such as histone modifications and DNA methylation at the MLV-LTR. However, it remains undetermined what domains of ZFP809 among the KRAB domain at N-terminus and the seven zinc fingers are critical for gene silencing. In this study, we assessed subcellular localization, gene silencing ability, and binding ability to the PBS of a series of truncated and mutated ZFP809 proteins. We revealed the essential role of the KRAB A box for all functions assessed, together with the accessory roles of a subset of zinc fingers. Our data also suggest that interaction between KAP1 and the KRAB A box of ZFP809 is critical in KAP1-dependent control of gene silencing for ZFP809 targets. PMID:26417948

  10. Ribosome-controlled transcription termination is essential for the production of antibiotic microcin C

    PubMed Central

    Zukher, Inna; Novikova, Maria; Tikhonov, Anton; Nesterchuk, Mikhail V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Sergiev, Petr V.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Microcin C (McC) is a peptidenucleotide antibiotic produced by Escherichia coli cells harboring a plasmid-borne operon mccABCDE. The heptapeptide MccA is converted into McC by adenylation catalyzed by the MccB enzyme. Since MccA is a substrate for MccB, a mechanism that regulates the MccA/MccB ratio likely exists. Here, we show that transcription from a promoter located upstream of mccA directs the synthesis of two transcripts: a short highly abundant transcript containing the mccA ORF and a longer minor transcript containing mccA and downstream ORFs. The short transcript is generated when RNA polymerase terminates transcription at an intrinsic terminator located in the intergenic region between the mccA and mccB genes. The function of this terminator is strongly attenuated by upstream mcc sequences. Attenuation is relieved and transcription termination is induced when ribosome binds to the mccA ORF. Ribosome binding also makes the mccA RNA exceptionally stable. Together, these two effectsribosome-induced transcription termination and stabilization of the messageaccount for very high abundance of the mccA transcript that is essential for McC production. The general scheme appears to be evolutionary conserved as ribosome-induced transcription termination also occurs in a homologous operon from Helicobacter pylori. PMID:25274735

  11. Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF11 Is Essential for Budded-Virus Production and Occlusion-Derived-Virus Envelopment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xue Ying; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Woo Jin; An, Saes Byeol; Liu, Qin; Kim, Song Eun; Lee, Seok Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Woo, Soo Dong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT ORF11 (ac11) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly conserved gene with unknown function. To determine the role of ac11 in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac11 knockout mutant of AcMNPV, Ac11KO, was constructed. Northern blot and 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analyses revealed that ac11 is an early gene in the life cycle. Microscopy, titration assays, and Western blot analysis revealed that budded viruses (BVs) were not produced in Ac11KO-transfected Sf9 cells. However, quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis demonstrated that the deletion of ac11 did not affect viral DNA replication. Furthermore, electron microscopy revealed that there was no nucleocapsid in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of Ac11KO-transfected cells, which demonstrates that the defect in BV production in Ac11KO-transfected cells is due to the inefficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In addition, electron microscopy observations showed that the nucleocapsids in the nucleus were not enveloped to form occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) and that their subsequent embedding into occlusion bodies (OBs) was also blocked in Ac11KO-transfected cells, demonstrating that ac11 is required for ODV envelopment. These results therefore demonstrate that ac11 is an early gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment. IMPORTANCE Baculoviruses have been extensively used not only as specific, environmentally benign insecticides but also as helper-independent protein expression vectors. Although the function of baculovirus genes in viral replication has been studied by using gene knockout technology, the functions of more than one-third of viral genes, which include some highly conserved genes, are still unknown. In this study, ac11 was proven to play a crucial role in BV production and ODV envelopment. These results will lead to a better understanding of baculovirus infection cycles. PMID:25320313

  12. Sall4 is essential for mouse primordial germ cell specification by suppressing somatic cell program genes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yasuka L; Tanaka, Satomi S; Kumagai, Maho; Fujimoto, Yuka; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    The Spalt-like 4 (Sall4) zinc finger protein is a critical transcription factor for pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). It is also involved in the formation of a variety of organs, in mice, and humans. We report the essential roles of Sall4 in mouse primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. PGC specification is accompanied by the activation of the stem cell program and repression of the somatic cell program in progenitor cells. Conditional inactivation of Sall4 during PGC specification led to a reduction in the number of PGCs in embryonic gonads. Sall4(del/del) PGCs failed to translocate from the mesoderm to the endoderm and underwent apoptosis. In Sall4(del/del) PGC progenitors, somatic cell program genes (Hoxa1 and Hoxb1) were derepressed, while activation of the stem cell program was not impaired. We demonstrated that in differentiated ESCs, Sall4 bound to these somatic cell program gene loci, which are reportedly occupied by Prdm1 in embryonic carcinoma cells. Given that Sall4 and Prdm1 are known to associate with the histone deacetylase repressor complex, our findings suggest that Sall4 suppresses the somatic cell program possibly by recruiting the repressor complex in conjunction with Prdm1; therefore, it is essential for PGC specification. PMID:25263278

  13. Yeast spindle pole body duplication gene MPS1 encodes an essential dual specificity protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lauz, E; Stoelcker, B; Luca, F C; Weiss, E; Schutz, A R; Winey, M

    1995-01-01

    The MPS1 gene has been previously identified by a mutant allele that shows defects in spindle pole body (SPB) duplication and cell cycle control. The SPB is the centrosome-equivalent organelle in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it nucleates all the microtubules in the cell. We report the isolation of the MPS1 gene, which encodes an essential protein kinase homolog. The MPS1 open reading frame has been fused to those that encode the LexA protein or the GST protein and both of these constructs function in yeast. The fusion proteins have been affinity-purified from yeast extracts and the GST chimeric protein has been found to be a phosphoprotein. Both proteins have been used to demonstrate intrinsic in vitro protein kinase activity of Mps1p against exogenous substrates and itself (autophosphorylation). A mutation predicted to abolish kinase function not only eliminates in vitro protein kinase activity, but also behaves like a null mutation in vivo, suggesting that kinase activity contributes to the essential function of the protein. Phosphoamino acid analysis of substrates phosphorylated by Mps1p indicates that this kinase can phosphorylate serine, threonine and tyrosine residues, identifying Mps1p as a dual specificity protein kinase. Images PMID:7737118

  14. Complex interactions among members of an essential subfamily of hsp70 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Washburne, M; Stone, D E; Craig, E A

    1987-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a large family of genes related to hsp70, the major heat shock-inducible gene of Drosophila melanogaster. One subfamily, identified by sequence homology, contains four genes, SSA1, SSA2, SSA3, and SSA4 (formerly YG100, YG102, YG106, and YG107, respectively). Previous studies showed that strains containing mutations in SSA1 and SSA2 are temperature sensitive for growth. SSA4, which is normally heat inducible and not expressed during vegetative growth, is expressed at high levels in ssa1 ssa2 strains at 23 degrees C. We constructed mutations in SSA3 and SSA4 and analyzed strains carrying mutations in the four genes. Strains carrying mutations in SSA3 SSA4 or SSA3 and SSA4 were indistinguishable from the wild type. However, ssa1 ssa2 ssa4 strains were inviable. SSA3, like SSA4, is a heat-inducible gene that is not normally expressed at 23 degrees C. Nevertheless, an intact copy of SSA3 regulated by the constitutive SSA2 promoter was capable of rescuing a ssa1 ssa2 ssa4 strain. This indicates that SSA3 encodes a functional protein and that the SSA1, SSA2, SSA3, and SSA4 gene products are functionally similar. Images PMID:3302682

  15. ZCURVE 3.0: identify prokaryotic genes with higher accuracy as well as automatically and accurately select essential genes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yan; Yuan, Ya-Zhou; Yang, De-Chang; Wei, Wen; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-07-01

    In 2003, we developed an ab initio program, ZCURVE 1.0, to find genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes. In this work, we present the updated version (i.e. ZCURVE 3.0). Using 422 prokaryotic genomes, the average accuracy was 93.7% with the updated version, compared with 88.7% with the original version. Such results also demonstrate that ZCURVE 3.0 is comparable with Glimmer 3.02 and may provide complementary predictions to it. In fact, the joint application of the two programs generated better results by correctly finding more annotated genes while also containing fewer false-positive predictions. As the exclusive function, ZCURVE 3.0 contains one post-processing program that can identify essential genes with high accuracy (generally >90%). We hope ZCURVE 3.0 will receive wide use with the web-based running mode. The updated ZCURVE can be freely accessed from http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/zcurve/ or http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/zcurveb/ without any restrictions. PMID:25977299

  16. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine). PMID:24679256

  17. Identification of an essential gene responsible for D-Asp incorporation in the Lactococcus lactis peptidoglycan crossbridge.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Patrick; Piquet, Sandra; Maisons, Aurlie; Furlan, Sylviane; Courtin, Pascal; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Kulakauskas, Saulius

    2006-12-01

    Bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis have D-aspartate (D-Asp) or its amidated derivative D-asparagine (D-Asn), in their peptidoglycan (PG) interpeptide crossbridge. We performed a subtractive genome analysis to identify L. lactis gene yxbA, orthologues of which being present only in bacteria containing D-amino acids in their PG crossbridge, but absent from those that instead insert L-amino acids or glycine. Inactivation of yxbA required a complementing Streptococcus pneumoniae murMN genes, which express enzymes that incorporate L-Ser-L-Ala or L-Ala-L-Ala in the PG crossbridge. Our results show that (i) yxbA encodes D-Asp ligase responsible for incorporation of D-Asp in the PG crossbridge, and we therefore renamed it as aslA, (ii) it is an essential gene, which makes its product a potential target for specific antimicrobials, (iii) the absence of D-Asp may be complemented by L-Ser-L-Ala or L-Ala-L-Ala in the L. lactis PG, indicating that the PG synthesis machinery is not selective for the side-chain residues, and (iv) lactococcal strains having L-amino acids in their PG crossbridge display defects in cell wall integrity, but are able to efficiently anchor cell wall proteins, indicating relative flexibility of lactococcal transpeptidation reactions with respect to changes in PG sidechain composition. PMID:17083466

  18. Allelic variants in the interleukin-6 gene and essential hypertension in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Ota, N; Yoshida, H; Watanabe, S; Suzuki, T; Emi, M

    1999-11-01

    Genes that can be implicated in hypertension in experimental animals are plausible candidates in the pathogenesis of human hypertension. A recent genome-wide search for quantitative-trait loci (QTL) in hypertensive rats revealed a strong correlation between the interleukin-6 (IL-6) locus on rat chromosome 4 and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure in this mammalian species. To investigate a possible association between genetic variations of the IL-6 gene and hypertension in humans, we identified two novel single-nucleotide sequence variations, a C/G substitution at -634 in the promoter region and a G/A substitution at 4391 in a 3' non-coding portion of exon 5, and a previous reported sequence variant, an A/T variation in the composition of the AnTn tract around -447 in the promoter region (Fishman D et al. J Clin Invest 1998; 102: 1369-1376), within a test population of 96 Japanese subjects. Allelic associations involving these variations were analyzed in 150 hypertensive and 143 normotensive Japanese women. The distribution of alleles of the three polymorphisms, as well as a dinucleotide repeat present at the IL-6 locus, was similar in the two groups. Therefore, the IL-6 gene appears to play a minimal role in the genetic etiology of essential hypertension in Japanese women. PMID:11196657

  19. Six4, a putative myogenin gene regulator, is not essential for mouse embryonal development.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, H; Watanabe, Y; Takahashi, K; Kitamura, K; Tanaka, A; Urase, K; Momoi, T; Sudo, K; Sakagami, J; Asano, M; Iwakura, Y; Kawakami, K

    2001-05-01

    Six4 is a member of the Six family genes, homologues of Drosophila melanogaster sine oculis. The gene is thought to be involved in neurogenesis, myogenesis, and development of other organs, based on its specific expression in certain neuronal cells of the developing embryo and in adult skeletal muscles. To elucidate the biological roles of Six4, we generated Six4-deficient mice by replacing the Six homologous region and homeobox by the beta-galactosidase gene. 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside staining of the heterozygous mutant embryos revealed expression of Six4 in cranial and dorsal root ganglia, somites, otic and nasal placodes, branchial arches, Rathke's pouch, apical ectodermal ridges of limb buds, and mesonephros. The expression pattern was similar to that of Six1 except at the early stage of embryonic day 8.5. Six4-deficient mice were born according to the Mendelian rule with normal gross appearance and were fertile. No hearing defects were detected. Six4-deficient embryos showed no morphological abnormalities, and the expression patterns of several molecular markers, e.g., myogenin and NeuroD3 (neurogenin1), were normal. Our results indicate that Six4 is not essential for mouse embryogenesis and suggest that other members of the Six family seem to compensate for the loss of Six4. PMID:11313460

  20. Intrinsic biocontainment: multiplex genome safeguards combine transcriptional and recombinational control of essential yeast genes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yizhi; Agmon, Neta; Choi, Woo Jin; Ubide, Alba; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Caravelli, Katrina; Hao, Haiping; Bader, Joel S; Boeke, Jef D

    2015-02-10

    Biocontainment may be required in a wide variety of situations such as work with pathogens, field release applications of engineered organisms, and protection of intellectual properties. Here, we describe the control of growth of the brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using both transcriptional and recombinational "safeguard" control of essential gene function. Practical biocontainment strategies dependent on the presence of small molecules require them to be active at very low concentrations, rendering them inexpensive and difficult to detect. Histone genes were controlled by an inducible promoter and controlled by 30 nM estradiol. The stability of the engineered genes was separately regulated by the expression of a site-specific recombinase. The combined frequency of generating viable derivatives when both systems were active was below detection (<10(-10)), consistent with their orthogonal nature and the individual escape frequencies of <10(-6). Evaluation of escaper mutants suggests strategies for reducing their emergence. Transcript profiling and growth test suggest high fitness of safeguarded strains, an important characteristic for wide acceptance. PMID:25624482

  1. Intrinsic biocontainment: Multiplex genome safeguards combine transcriptional and recombinational control of essential yeast genes

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yizhi; Agmon, Neta; Choi, Woo Jin; Ubide, Alba; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Caravelli, Katrina; Hao, Haiping; Bader, Joel S.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2015-01-01

    Biocontainment may be required in a wide variety of situations such as work with pathogens, field release applications of engineered organisms, and protection of intellectual properties. Here, we describe the control of growth of the brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using both transcriptional and recombinational “safeguard” control of essential gene function. Practical biocontainment strategies dependent on the presence of small molecules require them to be active at very low concentrations, rendering them inexpensive and difficult to detect. Histone genes were controlled by an inducible promoter and controlled by 30 nM estradiol. The stability of the engineered genes was separately regulated by the expression of a site-specific recombinase. The combined frequency of generating viable derivatives when both systems were active was below detection (<10−10), consistent with their orthogonal nature and the individual escape frequencies of <10−6. Evaluation of escaper mutants suggests strategies for reducing their emergence. Transcript profiling and growth test suggest high fitness of safeguarded strains, an important characteristic for wide acceptance. PMID:25624482

  2. Expression of essential genes for biosynthesis of antimicrobial peptides of Bacillus is modulated by inactivated cells of target microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leães, Fernanda Leal; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Ritter, Ana Carolina; Tsai, Siu Mui; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Certain Bacillus strains are important producers of antimicrobial peptides with great potential for biological control. Antimicrobial peptide production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens P11 was investigated in the presence of heat-inactivated cells of bacteria and fungi. B. amyloliquefaciens P11 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity in the presence of inactivated cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus parasiticus compared to other conditions tested. Expression of essential genes related to biosynthesis of the antimicrobial peptides surfactin (sfp), iturin A (lpa-14 and ituD), subtilosin A (sboA) and fengycin (fenA) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The genes lpa-14 and ituD were highly expressed in the presence of S. aureus (inactivated cells), indicating induction of iturin A production by B. amyloliquefaciens P11. The other inducing condition (inactivated cells of A. parasiticus) suppressed expression of lpa-14, but increased expression of ituD. A twofold increase in fenA expression was observed for both conditions, while strong suppression of sboA expression was observed in the presence of inactivated cells of S. aureus. An increase in antimicrobial activity was observed, indicating that synthesis of antimicrobial peptides may be induced by target microorganisms. PMID:26577655

  3. Gene PA2449 Is Essential for Glycine Metabolism and Pyocyanin Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Thornton, William; Dornan, Mark H.; Villegas-Pearanda, Luis Roberto; Boddy, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Many pseudomonads produce redox active compounds called phenazines that function in a variety of biological processes. Phenazines are well known for their toxicity against non-phenazine-producing organisms, which allows them to serve as crucial biocontrol agents and virulence factors during infection. As for other secondary metabolites, conditions of nutritional stress or limitation stimulate the production of phenazines, but little is known of the molecular details underlying this phenomenon. Using a combination of microarray and metabolite analyses, we demonstrate that the assimilation of glycine as a carbon source and the biosynthesis of pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 are both dependent on the PA2449 gene. The inactivation of the PA2449 gene was found to influence the transcription of a core set of genes encoding a glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and serine dehydratase. PA2449 also affected the transcription of several genes that are integral in cell signaling and pyocyanin biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. This study sheds light on the unexpected relationship between the utilization of an unfavorable carbon source and the production of pyocyanin. PA2449 is conserved among pseudomonads and might be universally involved in the assimilation of glycine among this metabolically diverse group of bacteria. PMID:23457254

  4. CYP2E1 gene promoter polymorphism -1293G>C increases the risk of essential hypertension in men with alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Solodilova, M A

    2013-10-01

    We studied the association between of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) gene polymorphism and risk of essential hypertension development depending on alcohol drinking habit in unrelated men in Russian population (patients with essential hypertension and healthy volunteers). All participants were genotyped for four CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms -1293G>C (rs3813867), -1053C>T (rs2031920), 7632T>A (rs6413432), and 9896C>G (rs2070676) by PCR and restriction analysis. We found statistically significant associations between -1293C allele (OR=5.04, 95% CI=1.23-20.70, p=0.03) and -1293GC genotype (OR=5.36, 95% CI=1.28-22.50, p=0.03) with increased risk of essential hypertension in men. Stratified analysis on alcohol drinking habit showed that the presence of -1293C allele (OR=6.82, 95% CI=1.12-41.70, p=0.04) and -1293GC genotype (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.2-48.4, p=0.03) in men with alcohol abuse increases the risk of essential hypertension. The obtained data suggest that excessive alcohol consumption and increased induction of cytochrome in the carriers of -1293C allele of CYP2E1 gene lead to generation of highly reactive free radical oxidation products. These processes induced oxidative stress and endothelial induction, which served as the pathogenetic basis for essential hypertension. PMID:24288753

  5. surA, an Escherichia coli gene essential for survival in stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Tormo, A; Almirón, M; Kolter, R

    1990-08-01

    Mutations in genes not required for exponential growth but essential for survival in stationary phase were isolated in an effort to understand the ability of wild-type Escherichia coli cells to remain viable during prolonged periods of nutritional deprivation. The phenotype of these mutations is referred to as Sur- (survival) and the genes are designated sur. The detailed analysis of one of these mutations is presented here. The mutation (surA1) caused by insertion of a mini-Tn10 element defined a new gene located near 1 min on the E. coli chromosome. It was located directly upstream of pdxA and formed part of a complex operon. Evidence is presented supporting the interpretation that cells harboring the surA1 mutation die during stationary phase while similar insertion mutations in other genes of the operon do not lead to a Sur- phenotype. Strains harboring surA1 had a normal doubling time in both rich and minimal medium, but cultures lost viability after several days in stationary phase. Analysis of revertants and suppressors of surA1, which arose after prolonged incubation in stationary phase, indicates that DNA rearrangements (excisions and duplications) occurred in cultures of this strain even when the viable-cell counts were below 10(2) cells per ml. Cells containing suppressing mutations then grew in the same culture to 10(8) cells per ml, taking over the population. The implications of these observations to our understanding of stationary-phase mutagenesis are discussed. PMID:2165476

  6. surA, an Escherichia coli gene essential for survival in stationary phase.

    PubMed Central

    Tormo, A; Almirón, M; Kolter, R

    1990-01-01

    Mutations in genes not required for exponential growth but essential for survival in stationary phase were isolated in an effort to understand the ability of wild-type Escherichia coli cells to remain viable during prolonged periods of nutritional deprivation. The phenotype of these mutations is referred to as Sur- (survival) and the genes are designated sur. The detailed analysis of one of these mutations is presented here. The mutation (surA1) caused by insertion of a mini-Tn10 element defined a new gene located near 1 min on the E. coli chromosome. It was located directly upstream of pdxA and formed part of a complex operon. Evidence is presented supporting the interpretation that cells harboring the surA1 mutation die during stationary phase while similar insertion mutations in other genes of the operon do not lead to a Sur- phenotype. Strains harboring surA1 had a normal doubling time in both rich and minimal medium, but cultures lost viability after several days in stationary phase. Analysis of revertants and suppressors of surA1, which arose after prolonged incubation in stationary phase, indicates that DNA rearrangements (excisions and duplications) occurred in cultures of this strain even when the viable-cell counts were below 10(2) cells per ml. Cells containing suppressing mutations then grew in the same culture to 10(8) cells per ml, taking over the population. The implications of these observations to our understanding of stationary-phase mutagenesis are discussed. Images PMID:2165476

  7. Amplification-control element ACE-3 is important but not essential for autosomal chorion gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Swimmer, C; Delidakis, C; Kafatos, F C

    1989-01-01

    We have further characterized the cis-acting elements that control the amplification of the third chromosomal cluster of chorion genes in Drosophila melanogaster; these include the amplification-control element ACE-3 and four amplification-enhancing regions (AER-a to -d). We have used two types of deletions in the chorion cluster: the first was in vitro generated deletions of the ACE-3 region that were subsequently introduced into the germ line, and the second was deletions induced in vivo within a transposon at a preexisting chromosomal location, thus avoiding the complication of position effects. Some of the lines bearing deletions of either type showed amplification, albeit at drastically reduced levels. These unexpected results indicate that, despite its importance, ACE-3 is not essential for low-level amplification and that cis-acting amplification elements are functionally redundant within the autosomal chorion replicon. Images PMID:2554333

  8. Early estrogen-induced gene 1, a novel RANK signaling component, is essential for osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Han Kyoung; Kang, Hye Ri; Jung, Eutteum; Kim, Tae Eon; Lin, Jing Jing; Lee, Soo Young

    2013-01-01

    The receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing adaptors are essential factors involved in regulating osteoclast formation and bone remodeling. Here, we identify early estrogen-induced gene 1 (EEIG1) as a novel RANK ligand (RANKL)-inducible protein that physically interacts with RANK and further associates with Gab2, PLCγ2 and Tec/Btk kinases upon RANKL stimulation. EEIG1 positively regulates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, likely due to its ability to facilitate RANKL-stimulated PLCγ2 phosphorylation and NFATc1 induction. In addition, an inhibitory peptide designed to block RANK-EEIG1 interaction inhibited RANKL-induced bone destruction by reducing osteoclast formation. Together, our results identify EEIG1 as a novel RANK signaling component controlling RANK-mediated osteoclast formation, and suggest that targeting EEIG1 might represent a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pathological bone resorption. PMID:23478294

  9. Genome-Wide Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Genes Essential for Bacterial Replication during Experimental Meningitis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Molzen, T. E.; Burghout, P.; Bootsma, H. J.; Brandt, C. T.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E.; Eleveld, M. J.; Verbeek, M. M.; Frimodt-Møller, N.; Østergaard, C.; Hermans, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Meningitis is the most serious of invasive infections caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines protect only against a limited number of serotypes, and evolving bacterial resistance to antimicrobials impedes treatment. Further insight into the molecular pathogenesis of invasive pneumococcal disease is required in order to enable the development of new or adjunctive treatments and/or pneumococcal vaccines that are efficient across serotypes. We applied genomic array footprinting (GAF) in the search for S. pneumoniae genes that are essential during experimental meningitis. A total of 6,000 independent TIGR4 marinerT7 transposon mutants distributed over four libraries were injected intracisternally into rabbits, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected after 3, 9, and 15 h. Microarray analysis of mutant-specific probes from CSF samples and inocula identified 82 and 11 genes mutants of which had become attenuated or enriched, respectively, during infection. The results point to essential roles for capsular polysaccharides, nutrient uptake, and amino acid biosynthesis in bacterial replication during experimental meningitis. The GAF phenotype of a subset of identified targets was followed up by detailed studies of directed mutants in competitive and noncompetitive infection models of experimental rat meningitis. It appeared that adenylosuccinate synthetase, flavodoxin, and LivJ, the substrate binding protein of a branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter, are relevant as targets for future therapy and prevention of pneumococcal meningitis, since their mutants were attenuated in both models of infection as well as in competitive growth in human cerebrospinal fluid in vitro. PMID:21041497

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pep5, a Gene Essential for Vacuolar Biogenesis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, C. A.; Dixon, C. K.; Manolson, M. F.; Wright, R.; Jones, E. W.

    1990-01-01

    pep5 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulate inactive precursors to the vacuolar hydrolases. The PEP5 gene was isolated from a genomic DNA library by complementation of the pep5-8 mutation. Deletion analysis localized the complementing activity to a 3.3-kb DNA fragment. DNA sequence analysis of the PEP5 gene revealed an open reading frame of 1029 codons with a calculated molecular mass for the encoded protein of 117,403 D. Deletion/disruption of the PEP5 gene did not kill the cells. The resulting strains grow very slowly at 37. The disruption mutant showed greatly decreased activities of all vacuolar hydrolases examined, including PrA, PrB, CpY, and the repressible alkaline phosphatase. Apparently normal precursor forms of the proteases accumulated in pep5 mutants, as did novel forms of PrB antigen. Antibodies raised to a fusion protein that contained almost half of the PEP5 open reading frame allowed detection by immunoblot of a protein of relative molecular mass 107 kD in extracts prepared from wild-type cells. Cell fractionation showed the PEP5 gene product is enriched in the vacuolar fraction and appears to be a peripheral vacuolar membrane protein. PMID:2204580

  11. The MIDASIN and NOTCHLESS genes are essential for female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chantha, Sier-Ching; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Houde, Jose; Matton, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis thaliana follows a well-defined program that involves many fundamental cellular processes. In this study, we report the involvement of the Arabidopsis thaliana MIDASIN1 (AtMDN1) gene during female gametogenesis through the phenotypic characterization of plants heterozygous for an insertional mdn1 mutant allele. The MDN1 yeast ortholog has previously been shown to encode a non-ribosomal protein involved in the maturation and assembly of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Heterozygous MDN1/mdn1 plants were semisterile and mdn1 allele transmission through the female gametophyte was severely affected. Development of mdn1 female gametophyte was considerably delayed compared to their wild-type siblings. However, delayed mdn1 female gametophytes were able to reach maturity and a delayed pollination experiment showed that a small proportion of the female gametophytes were functional. We also report that the Arabidopsis NOTCHLESS (AtNLE) gene is also required for female gametogenesis. The NLE protein has been previously shown to interact with MDN1 and to be also involved in 60S subunit biogenesis. The introduction of an AtNLE-RNA interference construct in Arabidopsis led to semisterility defects. Defective female gametophytes were mostly arrested at the one-nucleate (FG1) developmental stage. These data suggest that the activity of both AtMDN1 and AtNLE is essential for female gametogenesis progression. PMID:23572950

  12. Characterization of the cis and trans elements essential for rat insulin II gene expression.

    PubMed

    Crowe, D T; Hwung, Y P; Tsai, S Y; Tsai, M J

    1988-01-01

    We have constructed 14 different linker-scanner (LS) mutants throughout the enhancer and promoter of a rat insulin II-CAT fusion gene. These LS mutants were transiently transfected into an insulin-producing (HIT) cell line and three mutants (LS-261/252, LS-102/91, LS-54/45) displayed drastically reduced levels of CAT activity. Therefore, at least three regions are essential for the in vivo expression of an insulin-CAT fusion gene. To identify the trans-acting factors which interact with this cell-specific promoter, we performed band-shifting assays with either HIT or HeLa nuclear extracts and an end-labelled insulin fragment (-100 to +49). Three binding activities were common to both extracts, and another one was unique to HIT cells. DNase I protection studies localized one binding activity to -60 to -40 bp 5' to the cap site. We show that this factor is common to both cell lines and is identical to a previously characterized transcription factor (COUP) which binds to the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter. PMID:3064102

  13. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes Polymorphisms and Essential Hypertension in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tchelougou, Damhan; Kologo, Jonas K.; Karou, Simplice D.; Yamogo, Valentin N.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Compaor, Tegwind R.; Assih, Malki; Pietra, Virginio; Zabsonr, Patrice; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between three polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system and the essential hypertension in the population of Burkina Faso. Methodology. This was a case-control study including 202 cases and 204 matched controls subjects. The polymorphisms were identified by a classical and a real-time PCR. Results. The AGT 235M/T and AT1R 1166A/C polymorphisms were not associated with the hypertension while the genotype frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls (DD: 66.83% and 35.78%, ID: 28.22% and 50.98%, II: 4.95% and 13.24%, resp.) were significantly different (p < 10?4). The genotype DD of ACE gene (OR = 3.40, p < 0.0001), the increasing age (OR = 3.83, p < 0.0001), obesity (OR = 4.84, p < 0.0001), dyslipidemia (OR = 3.43, p = 0.021), and alcohol intake (OR = 2.76, p < 0.0001) were identified as the independent risk factors for hypertension by multinomial logistic regression. Conclusion. The DD genotype of the ACE gene is involved in susceptibility to hypertension. Further investigations are needed to better monitor and provide individualized care for hypertensive patients. PMID:26351579

  14. Transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ishikane, Shin; Kawabe, Shinya; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in various tissues, mainly in the adrenal glands and gonads. Because these lipid-soluble steroid hormones immediately diffuse through the cells in which they are produced, their secretion directly reflects the activity of the genes related to their production. Progesterone is important not only for luteinization and maintenance of pregnancy, but also as a substrate for most other steroids. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?(5)-?(4) isomerase (3?-HSD) are well-known proteins essential for progesterone production. In addition to them, glutathione S-transferase A1-1 and A3-3 are shown to exert ?(5)-?(4) isomerization activity to produce progesterone in a cooperative fashion with 3?-HSD. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1, ferredoxin 1, and ferredoxin reductase also play a role in steroidogenesis as accessory factors. Members of the nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family (steroidogenic factor 1 and liver receptor homolog 1) play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The NR5A family activates these genes by binding to NR5A responsive elements present within their promoter regions, as well as to the elements far from their promoters. In addition, various NR5A-interacting proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (DAX-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are involved in the transcription of NR5A target genes and regulate the transcription either positively or negatively under both basal and tropic hormone-stimulated conditions. In this review, we describe the transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production. PMID:26135521

  15. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids: the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple horizontal gene transfers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosomatids of the genera Angomonas and Strigomonas live in a mutualistic association characterized by extensive metabolic cooperation with obligate endosymbiotic Betaproteobacteria. However, the role played by the symbiont has been more guessed by indirect means than evidenced. Symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids, in contrast to their counterparts lacking symbionts, exhibit lower nutritional requirements and are autotrophic for essential amino acids. To evidence the symbiont’s contributions to this autotrophy, entire genomes of symbionts and trypanosomatids with and without symbionts were sequenced here. Results Analyses of the essential amino acid pathways revealed that most biosynthetic routes are in the symbiont genome. By contrast, the host trypanosomatid genome contains fewer genes, about half of which originated from different bacterial groups, perhaps only one of which (ornithine cyclodeaminase, EC:4.3.1.12) derived from the symbiont. Nutritional, enzymatic, and genomic data were jointly analyzed to construct an integrated view of essential amino acid metabolism in symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids. This comprehensive analysis showed perfect concordance among all these data, and revealed that the symbiont contains genes for enzymes that complete essential biosynthetic routes for the host amino acid production, thus explaining the low requirement for these elements in symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids. Phylogenetic analyses show that the cooperation between symbionts and their hosts is complemented by multiple horizontal gene transfers, from bacterial lineages to trypanosomatids, that occurred several times in the course of their evolution. Transfers occur preferentially in parts of the pathways that are missing from other eukaryotes. Conclusion We have herein uncovered the genetic and evolutionary bases of essential amino acid biosynthesis in several trypanosomatids with and without endosymbionts, explaining and complementing decades of experimental results. We uncovered the remarkable plasticity in essential amino acid biosynthesis pathway evolution in these protozoans, demonstrating heavy influence of horizontal gene transfer events, from Bacteria to trypanosomatid nuclei, in the evolution of these pathways. PMID:24015778

  16. Effects of selected essential oils on the growth and production of ochratoxin A by Penicillium verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Jerek, Barbara; Poklar Ulrih, Nataa; Skrt, Mihaela; Gavari?, Neda; Boin, Biljana; Smole Moina, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), and pine (Abies alba Mill.) needles and cones, and their active substances thymol, carvacrol, menthol, and anisaldehyde were tested for antifungal activity against Penicillium verrucosum. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were achieved for essential oil of oregano, followed by carvacrol, thymol, and menthol. These antifungal components were further investigated, as the main aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of natural antifungals on ochratoxin A production. During 21 days of exposure, the growth of P. verrucosum, and subsequently the production of ochratoxin A, was fully inhibited by thymol at MIC (0.0625 mg mL-1), but menthol at and MIC (0.1875 and 3750 mg mL-1) showed no growth inhibition. After 21 days of incubation, the greatest inhibitory effect on ochratoxin production (inhibition was 96.9 %) was also achieved with thymol at MIC (0.0313 mg mL-1). Essential oil of oregano ( MIC, 0.2930 ?L mL-1) and carvacrol ( MIC, 0.1953 ?L mL-1) stimulate production of ochratoxin A at 13.9 % to 28.8 %, respectively. The observed antifungal effects depended on the agent, the concentration used, and the time of interaction between the agent and P. verrucosum. Our results indicate the possibility of using oregano essential oil as a substitute for artificial preservatives in certain foods, but further research is needed. PMID:24945417

  17. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  18. Identification of a Wee1Like Kinase Gene Essential for Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei Survival

    PubMed Central

    Boynak, Natalia Y.; Rojas, Federico; DAlessio, Cecilia; Vilchez Larrea, Salom C.; Rodriguez, Vanina; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Tllez-In, Mara T.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic cell cycle progression requires sequential activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Activation of the cyclin B-cdc2 kinase complex is a pivotal step in mitotic initiation and the tyrosine kinase Wee1 is a key regulator of cell cycle sequence during G2/M transition and inhibits mitotic entry by phosphorylating the inhibitory tyrosine 15 on the cdc2 M-phase-inducing kinase. Wee1 degradation is essential for the exit from the G2 phase. In trypanosomatids, little is known about the genes that regulate cyclin B-cdc2 complexes at the G2/M transition of their cell cycle. Although canonical tyrosine kinases are absent in the genome of trypanosomatids, phosphorylation on protein tyrosine residues has been reported in Trypanosoma brucei. Here, we characterized a Wee1-like protein kinase gene from T. brucei. Expression of TbWee1 in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain null for Wee1 inhibited cell division and caused cell elongation. This demonstrates the lengthening of G2, which provided cells with extra time to grow before dividing. The Wee1-like protein kinase was expressed in the procyclic and bloodstream proliferative slender forms of T. brucei and the role of Wee1 in cell cycle progression was analyzed by generating RNA interference cell lines. In the procyclic form of T. brucei, the knock-down of TbWee1 expression by RNAi led to inhibition of parasite growth. Abnormal phenotypes showing an increase in the percentage of cells with 1N0K, 0N1K and 2N1K were observed in these RNAi cell lines. Using parasites with a synchronized cell cycle, we demonstrated that TbWee1 is linked to the G2/M phase. We also showed that TbWee1 is an essential gene necessary for proper cell cycle progression and parasite growth in T. brucei. Our results provide evidence for the existence of a functional Wee1 in T. brucei with a potential role in cell division at G2/M. PMID:24223931

  19. siRNAs with decreased off-target effect facilitate the identification of essential genes in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wensheng; Wang, Di; Dong, Encheng; Wang, Yu; Wu, Chung-I; Lu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Since the essential genes are crucial to the proliferation and survival of cancer cells, the interference of these genes is promising to be an option for cancer therapy to overcome heterogeneity. However, the essential genes are highly overestimated by RNA interference (RNAi) screenings, which is mainly caused by the pervasive off-target effect of small interference RNA (siRNA) and short hairpin RNA (shRNA). In the present study, we designed Match-Mismatch paired siRNAs to discriminate the on-target effect from off-target effect of siRNAs on cell viability. Only one of the 7 potential essential genes was validated as essential to cell viability, which demonstrates the high false positive rate in RNAi screenings. We modified the siRNA by introducing random nucleotides (N) into the guide strand to mitigate the off-target effect, without significantly compromising the on-target effect. The whole transcriptome profile analysis of cells transfected with siRNAs with or without Nindicates that siRNA-dN (with Ns on both the 2nd and the 18th bases of the guide strand) weakens the off-target effect by decreasing the unintended targets. The optimized siRNAs can be applied in the characterization of essential genes in cancer cells. PMID:26057633

  20. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Plants Against Three Stored-Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 µl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  1. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hbner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  2. Genome-Wide Saturation Mutagenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 Predicts Essential Genes and Novel Targets for Antimicrobial Development

    PubMed Central

    Moule, Madeleine G.; Hemsley, Claudia M.; Seet, Qihui; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Lim, Jiali; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Clark, Taane G.; Tan, Patrick B. O.; Titball, Richard W.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease for which there is no vaccine. B. pseudomallei is listed as a tier 1 select agent, and as current therapeutic options are limited due to its natural resistance to most antibiotics, the development of new antimicrobial therapies is imperative. To identify drug targets and better understand the complex B. pseudomallei genome, we sought a genome-wide approach to identify lethal gene targets. As B. pseudomallei has an unusually large genome spread over two chromosomes, an extensive screen was required to achieve a comprehensive analysis. Here we describe transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) of a library of over 106 transposon insertion mutants, which provides the level of genome saturation required to identify essential genes. Using this technique, we have identified a set of 505 genes that are predicted to be essential in B. pseudomallei K96243. To validate our screen, three genes predicted to be essential, pyrH, accA, and sodB, and a gene predicted to be nonessential, bpss0370, were independently investigated through the generation of conditional mutants. The conditional mutants confirmed the TraDIS predictions, showing that we have generated a list of genes predicted to be essential and demonstrating that this technique can be used to analyze complex genomes and thus be more widely applied. PMID:24520057

  3. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5?days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22?days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5?days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4?>?O1?>?O6?>?O5?>?O2?>?O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5?days of treatment and decreased after 22?days. PMID:23409841

  4. Regulation of photoreceptor gene expression by the retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I.; Lou, Chih-Hong; Nekkalapudi, Srivamsi; Kelly, Lisa E.; Sater, Amy K.; El-Hodiri, Heithem M.

    2010-01-01

    The retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product is essential for eye development. However little is known about its molecular function. It has been demonstrated that Rx binds to photoreceptor conserved element (PCE-1), a highly conserved element found in the promoter region of photoreceptor-specific genes such as rhodopsin and red cone opsin. We verify that Rx is co-expressed with rhodopsin and red cone opsin in maturing photoreceptors and demonstrate that Rx binds to the rhodopsin and red cone opsin promoters in vivo. We also find that Rx can cooperate with the Xenopus analogs of Crx and Nrl, otx5b and XLMaf (respectively), to activate a Xenopus opsin promoter-dependent reporter. Finally, we demonstrate that reduction of Rx expression in tadpoles results in decreases in expression of several PCE-1 containing photoreceptor genes, abnormal photoreceptor morphology, and impaired vision. Our data suggests that Rx, in combination with other transcription factors, is necessary for normal photoreceptor gene expression, maintenance, and function. This establishes a direct role for Rx in regulation of genes expressed in a differentiated cell type. PMID:20060393

  5. Regulatory Oversight of Cell and Gene Therapy Products in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Anthony; Agbanyo, Francisca; Wang, Jian; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Health Canada regulates gene therapy products and many cell therapy products as biological drugs under the Canadian Food and Drugs Act and its attendant regulations. Cellular products that meet certain criteria, including minimal manipulation and homologous use, may be subjected to a standards-based approach under the Safety of Human Cells, Tissues and Organs for Transplantation Regulations. The manufacture and clinical testing of cell and gene therapy products (CGTPs) presents many challenges beyond those for protein biologics. Cells cannot be subjected to pathogen removal or inactivation procedures and must frequently be administered shortly after final formulation. Viral vector design and manufacturing control are critically important to overall product quality and linked to safety and efficacy in patients through concerns such as replication competence, vector integration, and vector shedding. In addition, for many CGTPs, the value of nonclinical studies is largely limited to providing proof of concept, and the first meaningful data relating to appropriate dosing, safety parameters, and validity of surrogate or true determinants of efficacy must come from carefully designed clinical trials in patients. Addressing these numerous challenges requires application of various risk mitigation strategies and meeting regulatory expectations specifically adapted to the product types. Regulatory cooperation and harmonisation at an international level are essential for progress in the development and commercialisation of these products. However, particularly in the area of cell therapy, new regulatory paradigms may be needed to harness the benefits of clinical progress in situations where the resources and motivation to pursue a typical drug product approval pathway may be lacking. PMID:26374212

  6. Herpes simplex virus gene products: the accessories reflect her lifestyle well.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yukihiro

    2004-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) genomic DNA contains at least 74 distinct genes. A set of 40 genes, termed the 'core genes', is commonly found in all herpesviruses; their products include four capsid proteins, six DNA replication proteins, seven DNA packaging/cleavage proteins, four envelope glycoproteins, as well as several others. Although approximately half of the HSV genes are not essential for replication in cell cultures, all accessory gene products are predicted to play indispensable roles for viral replication and dissemination in vivo. Intensive studies have been undertaken to elucidate the functions and roles of HSV gene products, and we are now able to address, at least partially, the biological aspects of all HSV encoded proteins. This article is a brief summary of our present knowledge of the functions and roles of HSV gene products with special attention focused on UL14, UL34, UL51, UL56 and US3, all of which are thought to be involved in HSV egress. Furthermore, efforts are discussed to generate replication-competent HSV lacking a single or multiple accessory gene(s) for potential use in gene therapy or as anti-cancer therapeutics. Finally, specific HSV gene products are being explored as therapeutic agents. PMID:14716690

  7. Gender specific association of RAS gene polymorphism with essential hypertension: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dhanachandra Singh, Kh; Jajodia, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet; Kukreti, Ritushree; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms have been studied as candidate risk factors for hypertension with inconsistent results, possibly due to heterogeneity among various genetic and environmental factors. A case-control association study was conducted to investigate a possible involvement of polymorphisms of three RAS genes: AGT M235T (rs699), ACE I/D (rs4340) and G2350A (rs4343), and AGTR1 A1166C (rs5186) in essential hypertensive patients. A total of 211 cases and 211 controls were recruited for this study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP method. The genotype and allele distribution of the M235T variant differed significantly in hypertensives and normotensives (OR-CI = 2.62 (1.24-5.76), P = 0.006; OR-CI = 0.699 (0.518-0.943), P = 0.018), respectively. When the samples were segregated based on sex, the 235TT genotype and T allele were predominant in the female patients (OR-CI = 5.68 (1.60-25.10), P = 0.002; OR-CI = 0.522 (0.330-0.826), P = 0.005) as compare to the male patients (OR-CI = 1.54 (1.24-5.76), P = 0.34; OR-CI = 0.874 (0.330-0.826), P = 0.506), respectively. For ACE DD variant, we found overrepresentation of "I"-allele (homozygous II and heterozygous ID) in unaffected males which suggest its protective role in studied population (OR-CI = 0.401 (0.224-0.718); P = 0.0009). The M235T variant of the AGT is significantly associated with female hypertensives and ACE DD variant could be a risk allele for essential hypertension in south India. PMID:24860821

  8. Gender Specific Association of RAS Gene Polymorphism with Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhanachandra Singh, Kh.; Jajodia, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet; Kukreti, Ritushree; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms have been studied as candidate risk factors for hypertension with inconsistent results, possibly due to heterogeneity among various genetic and environmental factors. A case-control association study was conducted to investigate a possible involvement of polymorphisms of three RAS genes: AGT M235T (rs699), ACE I/D (rs4340) and G2350A (rs4343), and AGTR1 A1166C (rs5186) in essential hypertensive patients. A total of 211 cases and 211 controls were recruited for this study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP method. The genotype and allele distribution of the M235T variant differed significantly in hypertensives and normotensives (OR-CI = 2.62 (1.245.76), P = 0.006; OR-CI = 0.699 (0.5180.943), P = 0.018), respectively. When the samples were segregated based on sex, the 235TT genotype and T allele were predominant in the female patients (OR-CI = 5.68 (1.60-25.10), P = 0.002; OR-CI = 0.522 (0.3300.826), P = 0.005) as compare to the male patients (OR-CI = 1.54 (1.245.76), P = 0.34; OR-CI = 0.874 (0.3300.826), P = 0.506), respectively. For ACE DD variant, we found overrepresentation of I-allele (homozygous II and heterozygous ID) in unaffected males which suggest its protective role in studied population (OR-CI = 0.401 (0.2240.718); P = 0.0009). The M235T variant of the AGT is significantly associated with female hypertensives and ACE DD variant could be a risk allele for essential hypertension in south India. PMID:24860821

  9. Getting essential health products to their end users: Subsidize, but how much?

    PubMed Central

    Dupas, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    Although coverage rates and health outcomes are improving, many poor people around the world still do not benefit from essential health products. An estimated two-thirds of child deaths could be prevented with increased coverage of products such as vaccines, point-of-use water treatment, iron fortification, and insecticide-treated bednets. What limits the flow of products from the producer's laboratory bench to the end users, and what can be done about it? Recent empirical research suggests a crucial role for heavy subsidies. PMID:25214612

  10. Using Gene Essentiality and Synthetic Lethality Information to Correct Yeast and CHO Cell Genome-Scale Models

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Ratul; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D.

    2015-01-01

    Essentiality (ES) and Synthetic Lethality (SL) information identify combination of genes whose deletion inhibits cell growth. This information is important for both identifying drug targets for tumor and pathogenic bacteria suppression and for flagging and avoiding gene deletions that are non-viable in biotechnology. In this study, we performed a comprehensive ES and SL analysis of two important eukaryotic models (S. cerevisiae and CHO cells) using a bilevel optimization approach introduced earlier. Information gleaned from this study is used to propose specific model changes to remedy inconsistent with data model predictions. Even for the highly curated Yeast 7.11 model we identified 50 changes (metabolic and GPR) leading to the correct prediction of an additional 28% of essential genes and 36% of synthetic lethals along with a 53% reduction in the erroneous identification of essential genes. Due to the paucity of mutant growth phenotype data only 12 changes were made for the CHO 1.2 model leading to an additional correctly predicted 11 essential and eight non-essential genes. Overall, we find that CHO 1.2 was 76% less accurate than the Yeast 7.11 metabolic model in predicting essential genes. Based on this analysis, 14 (single and double deletion) maximally informative experiments are suggested to improve the CHO cell model by using information from a mouse metabolic model. This analysis demonstrates the importance of single and multiple knockout phenotypes in assessing and improving model reconstructions. The advent of techniques such as CRISPR opens the door for the global assessment of eukaryotic models. PMID:26426067

  11. ABG1, a Novel and Essential Candida albicans Gene Encoding a Vacuolar Protein Involved in Cytokinesis and Hyphal Branching

    PubMed Central

    Veses, Verónica; Casanova, Manuel; Murgui, Amelia; Domínguez, Ángel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Martínez, José P.

    2005-01-01

    Immunoscreening of a Candida albicans expression library resulted in the isolation of a novel gene encoding a 32.9-kDa polypeptide (288 amino acids), with 27.7% homology to the product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YGR106c, a putative vacuolar protein. Heterozygous mutants in this gene displayed an altered budding growth pattern, characterized by the formation of chains of buds, decreasingly in size towards the apex, without separation of the daughter buds. Consequently, this gene was designated ABG1. A conditional mutant for ABG1 with the remaining allele under the control of the MET3 promoter did not grow in the presence of methionine and cysteine, demonstrating that ABG1 was essential for viability. Western analysis revealed the presence of a major 32.9-kDa band, mainly in a particulate fraction (P40) enriched in vacuoles, and tagging with green fluorescent protein confirmed that Abg1p localized to the vacuole. Vacuole inheritance has been linked to the regulation of branching frequency in C. albicans. Under repressing conditions, the conditional mutant had an increased frequency of branching under hyphal inducing conditions and an altered sensitivity to substances that interfered with cell wall assembly. Repression of ABG1 in the conditional mutant strain caused disturbance of normal size and number of vacuoles both in yeast and mycelial cells and also in the asymmetric vacuole inheritance associated with the characteristic pattern of germ tubes and branching in C. albicans. These observations indicate that ABG1 plays a key role in vacuole biogenesis, cytokinesis, and hyphal branching. PMID:15947201

  12. A fungal conserved gene from the basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum is essential for efficient ectomycorrhiza formation.

    PubMed

    Dor, Jeanne; Marmeisse, Roland; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    We used Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis to identify genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum that are essential for efficient mycorrhiza formation. One of the mutants presented a dramatically reduced ability to form ectomycorrhizas when grown in the presence of Pinus pinaster. It failed to form mycorrhizas in the presence of glucose at 0.5 g liter(-1), a condition favorable for mycorrhiza formation by the wild-type strain. However, it formed few mycorrhizas when glucose was replaced by fructose or when glucose concentration was increased to 1 g liter(-1). Scanning electron microscopy examination of these mycorrhizas revealed that this mutant was unable to differentiate true fungal sheath and Hartig net. Molecular analyses showed that the single-copy disrupting T-DNA was integrated 6,884 bp downstream from the start codon, of an open reading frame potentially encoding a 3,096-amino-acid-long protein. This gene, which we named HcMycE1, has orthologs in numerous fungi as well as different other eukaryotic microorganisms. RNAi inactivation of HcMycE1 in the wild-type strain also led to a mycorrhizal defect, demonstrating that the nonmycorrhizal phenotype of the mutant was due to mutagenic T-DNA integration in HcMycE1. In the wild-type strain colonizing P. pinaster roots, HcMycE1 was transiently upregulated before symbiotic structure differentiation. Together with the inability of the mutant to differentiate these structures, this suggests that HcMycE1 plays a crucial role upstream of the fungal sheath and Hartig net differentiation. This study provides the first characterization of a fungal mutant altered in mycorrhizal ability. PMID:24918768

  13. The Unconserved Groucho Central Region Is Essential for Viability and Modulates Target Gene Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Turki-Judeh, Wiam; Courey, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Groucho (Gro) is a Drosophila corepressor required by numerous DNA-binding repressors, many of which are distributed in gradients and provide positional information during development. Gro contains well-conserved domains at its N- and C-termini, and a poorly conserved central region that includes the GP, CcN, and SP domains. All lethal point mutations in gro map to the conserved regions, leading to speculation that the unconserved central domains are dispensable. However, our sequence analysis suggests that the central domains are disordered leading us to suspect that the lack of lethal mutations in this region reflects a lack of order rather than an absence of essential functions. In support of this conclusion, genomic rescue experiments with Gro deletion variants demonstrate that the GP and CcN domains are required for viability. Misexpression assays using these same deletion variants show that the SP domain prevents unrestrained and promiscuous repression by Gro, while the GP and CcN domains are indispensable for repression. Deletion of the GP domain leads to loss of nuclear import, while deletion of the CcN domain leads to complete loss of repression. Changes in Gro activity levels reset the threshold concentrations at which graded repressors silence target gene expression. We conclude that co-regulators such as Gro are not simply permissive components of the repression machinery, but cooperate with graded DNA-binding factors in setting borders of gene expression. We suspect that disorder in the Gro central domains may provide the flexibility that allows this region to mediate multiple interactions required for repression. PMID:22319573

  14. Methylation silencing of ULK2, an autophagy gene, is essential for astrocyte transformation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sudhanshu; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Patil, Vikas; Shwetha, Shivayogi D; Hegde, Alangar S; Chandramouli, Bangalore A; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Santosh, Vani; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2014-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and shows very poor prognosis. Here, using genome-wide methylation analysis, we show that G-CIMP+ and G-CIMP-subtypes enrich distinct classes of biological processes. One of the hypermethylated genes in GBM, ULK2, an upstream autophagy inducer, was found to be down-regulated in GBM. Promoter hypermethylation of ULK2 was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. GBM and glioma cell lines had low levels of ULK2 transcripts, which could be reversed upon methylation inhibitor treatment. ULK2 promoter methylation and transcript levels showed significant negative correlation. Ectopic overexpression of ULK2-induced autophagy, which further enhanced upon nutrient starvation or temozolomide chemotherapy. ULK2 also inhibited the growth of glioma cells, which required autophagy induction as kinase mutant of ULK2 failed to induce autophagy and inhibit growth. Furthermore, ULK2 induced autophagy and inhibited growth in Ras-transformed immortalized Baby Mouse Kidney (iBMK) ATG5(+/+) but not in autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) cells. Growth inhibition due to ULK2 induced high levels of autophagy under starvation or chemotherapy utilized apoptotic cell death but not at low levels of autophagy. Growth inhibition by ULK2 also appears to involve catalase degradation and reactive oxygen species generation. ULK2 overexpression inhibited anchorage independent growth, inhibited astrocyte transformation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Of all autophagy genes, we found ULK2 and its homologue ULK1 were only down-regulated in all grades of glioma. Thus these results altogether suggest that inhibition of autophagy by ULK1/2 down-regulation is essential for glioma development. PMID:24923441

  15. Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase is not a rate-determining enzyme for essential oil production in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muoz-Bertomeu, Jess; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) is an economically important aromatic plant producing essential oils, whose components (mostly monoterpenes) are mainly synthesized through the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS), that catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, plays a crucial role in monoterpene precursors biosynthesis in spike lavender. To date, however, it is not known whether the DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), that catalyzes the conversion of DXP into MEP, is also a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in spike lavender. To investigate it, we generated transgenic spike lavender plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana DXR gene. Although two out of the seven transgenic T0 plants analyzed accumulated more essential oils than the controls, this is hardly imputable to the DXR transgene effect since a clear correlation between transcript accumulation and monoterpene production could not be established. Furthermore, these increased essential oil phenotypes were not maintained in their respective T1 progenies. Similar results were obtained when total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in both T0 transgenic plants and their progenies were analyzed. Our results then demonstrate that DXR enzyme does not play a crucial role in the synthesis of plastidial monoterpene precursors, suggesting that the control flux of the MEP pathway in spike lavender is primarily exerted by the DXS enzyme. PMID:25151124

  16. The zebrafish detour gene is essential for cranial but not spinal motor neuron induction.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, A; Schauerte, H E; Haffter, P; Kuwada, J Y

    1999-06-01

    The zebrafish detour (dtr) mutation generates a novel neuronal phenotype. In dtr mutants, most cranial motor neurons, especially the branchiomotor, are missing. However, spinal motor neurons are generated normally. The loss of cranial motor neurons is not due to aberrant hindbrain patterning, failure of neurogenesis, increased cell death or absence of hh expression. Furthermore, activation of the Hh pathway, which normally induces branchiomotor neurons, fails to induce motor neurons in the dtr hindbrain. Despite this, not all Hh-mediated regulation of hindbrain development is abolished since the regulation of a neural gene by Hh is intact in the dtr hindbrain. Finally, dtr can function cell autonomously to induce branchiomotor neurons. These results suggest that detour encodes a component of the Hh signaling pathway that is essential for the induction of motor neurons in the hindbrain but not in the spinal cord and that dtr function is required for the induction of only a subset of Hh-mediated events in the hindbrain. PMID:10331983

  17. Genetic variants of the class A scavenger receptor gene are associated with essential hypertension in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Han, Zhijun; Yan, Zihe; Cui, Qichen; Jiang, Yuhai; Gao, Mingzhu; Yu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The class A scavenger receptor, which is encoded by the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) gene, is a pattern recognition receptor (PPR) primarily expressed in macrophages. It has been reported that genetic polymorphisms of MSR1 are significantly associated with many cardiovascular events. However, whether it links genetically to essential hypertension (EH) in Chinese is not defined. Methods We performed an independent case-control study in a Chinese population consisting of 617 EH cases and 620 controls by genotyping three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MSR1. Results We found that rs13306541 and rs3747531 were significantly associated with an increased risk of EH with per allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-2.09; P<0.001] and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.09-1.52; P=0.003), respectively. Individuals with 2-4 risk alleles had a 2.03-fold (95% CI: 1.48-2.78) increased risk of EH compared with those having none of the risk alleles (P for trend <0.001). Conclusions Our results indicate that genetic variants of MSR1 may serve as predictive markers for the risk of EH in combination with traditional risk factors of EH in Chinese population. PMID:26716027

  18. Impact of obesity and nitric oxide synthase gene G894T polymorphism on essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, M; Sokal, M; Sawicka, A; Wlodarczyk, M; Glowala, M; Wrzosek, M; Kosior, M; Talalaj, M; Biecek, P; Nowicka, G

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension is a multifactorial disease caused by environmental, metabolic and genetic factors, but little is currently known on the complex interplay between these factors and blood pressure. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential impact of obesity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) 4a/4b, G894T and -T786C variants on the essential hypertension. The study group consisted of 1,027 Caucasian adults of Polish nationality (45.5 13.6 years old), of which 401 met the criteria for hypertension. Body weight, height and blood pressure were measured and data on self-reported smoking status were collected. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides were determined by standard procedures. The ACE I/D polymorphism and three polymorphisms in NOS3 gene (4a/4b, G894T, -T786C) were detected by the PCR method. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that age above 45 years, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking and male sex are important risk factors for hypertension and no significant influence of variants in ACE and NOS3 genes on this risk was recognized. Obese subjects had a 3.27-times higher risk (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.37 - 4.52) of hypertension than non-obese, and in obese the NOS3 894T allele was associated with 1.37 fold higher risk of hypertension (P = 0.031). The distribution of NOS3 G894T genotypes supported the co-dominant (OR = 1.35, P = 0.034, Pfit = 0.435) or recessive (OR = 2.00, P = 0.046, Pfit = 0.286), but not dominant model of inheritance (P = 0.100). The study indicates that in obese NOS3 G894T polymorphism may enhance hypertension risk. However, in the presence of such strong risk factors as age, diabetes and smoking, the impact of this genetic variant seems to be attenuated. Further studies are needed to reveal the usefulness of G894T polymorphism in hypertension risk assessment in obese. PMID:26579574

  19. Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Cells of Patients with Human Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Korkor, Melvin T.; Meng, Fan Bo; Xing, Shen Yang; Zhang, Mu Chun; Guo, Jin Rui; Zhu, Xiao Xue; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The polygenic nature of essential hypertension and its dependence on environmental factors pose a challenge for biomedical research. We hypothesized that the analysis of gene expression profiles from peripheral blood cells would distinguish patients with hypertension from normotensives. In order to test this, total RNA from peripheral blood cells was isolated. RNA was reversed-transcribed and labeled and gene expression analyzed using significance Analysis Microarrays (Stanford University, CA, USA). Briefly, Significance Analysis Microarrays (SAM) thresholding identified 31 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated genes with fold changes of ?2 or?0.5 and q-value ?5 % in expression. Statistically significantly gene ontology (GO) function and biological process differentially expressed in essential hypertension were MHC class II receptor activity and immune response respectively. Biological pathway analysis identified several related pathways which are associated with immune/inflammatory responses. Quantitative Real- Time RT-PCR results were consistent with the microarray results. The levels of C - reactive protein were higher in hypertensive patients than normotensives and inflammation-related genes were increased as well. In conclusion, genes enriched for immune/inflammatory responses may be associated with essential hypertension. In addition, there is a correlation between systemic inflammation and hypertension. It is anticipated that these findings may provide accurate and efficient strategies for prevention, diagnosis and control of this disorder. PMID:21369372

  20. The Histone-Like Protein Hlp Is Essential for Growth of Streptococcus pyogenes: Comparison of Genetic Approaches To Study Essential Genes?

    PubMed Central

    Bugrysheva, Julia V.; Froehlich, Barbara J.; Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; Scott, June R.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of possible targets for vaccine and drug development requires an understanding of the physiology of bacterial pathogens, for which the ability to manipulate expression of essential genes is critical. For Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus [GAS]), an important human pathogen, the lack of genetic tools for such studies has seriously hampered research. To address this problem, we characterized variants of the inducible Ptet cassette, in both sense and antisense contexts, as tools to regulate transcription from GAS genes. We found that although the three-operator Ptet construct [Ptet(O)3] had low uninduced expression, its induction level was low, while the two-operator construct [Ptet(O)2] was inducible to a high level but showed significant constitutive expression. Use of Ptet(O)3 in the chromosome allowed us to demonstrate previously that RNases J1 and J2 are required for growth of GAS. Here we report that the uninduced level from the chromosomally inserted Ptet(O)2 construct was too high for us to observe differential growth. For the highly expressed histone-like protein (Hlp) of GAS, neither chromosomal insertion of Ptet(O)2 or Ptet(O)3 nor their use on a high-copy-number plasmid to produce antisense RNA specific to hlp resulted in adequate differential expression. However, by replacing the ribosome binding site of hlp with an engineered riboswitch to control translation of Hlp, we demonstrated for the first time that this protein is essential for GAS growth. PMID:21531823

  1. The art gene product of human immunodeficiency virus is required for replication.

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, E; Burghoff, R; Sia, R; Sodroski, J; Haseltine, W; Rosen, C

    1988-01-01

    A mutation that alters the initiation codon of the art gene of the human immunodeficiency virus renders the virus replication defective. The replication defect of this mutation can be complemented in trans by the art gene product. These findings indicate that the art protein is essential for replication and, as such, represents a good target for development of new antiviral agents that could be useful in the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Images PMID:3257271

  2. Bifunctional Gene Cluster lnqBCDEF Mediates Bacteriocin Production and Immunity with Differential Genetic Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Iwatani, Shun; Horikiri, Yuko; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive gene disruption of lacticin Q biosynthetic cluster lnqQBCDEF was carried out. The results demonstrated the necessity of the complete set of lnqQBCDEF for lacticin Q production, whereas immunity was flexible, with LnqEF (ABC transporter) being essential for and LnqBCD partially contributing to immunity. PMID:23335763

  3. Transposon Mutagenesis Identified Chromosomal and Plasmid Genes Essential for Adaptation of the Marine Bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae to Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Matthias; Laa, Sebastian; Burghartz, Melanie; Petersen, Jrn; Komehl, Sebastian; Whlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Wittmann, Christoph; Jahn, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic growth and survival are integral parts of the life cycle of many marine bacteria. To identify genes essential for the anoxic life of Dinoroseobacter shibae, a transposon library was screened for strains impaired in anaerobic denitrifying growth. Transposon insertions in 35 chromosomal and 18 plasmid genes were detected. The essential contribution of plasmid genes to anaerobic growth was confirmed with plasmid-cured D. shibae strains. A combined transcriptome and proteome approach identified oxygen tension-regulated genes. Transposon insertion sites of a total of 1,527 mutants without an anaerobic growth phenotype were determined to identify anaerobically induced but not essential genes. A surprisingly small overlap of only three genes (napA, phaA, and the Na+/Pi antiporter gene Dshi_0543) between anaerobically essential and induced genes was found. Interestingly, transposon mutations in genes involved in dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction (napA, nasA) and corresponding cofactor biosynthesis (genomic moaB, moeB, and dsbC and plasmid-carried dsbD and ccmH) were found to cause anaerobic growth defects. In contrast, mutation of anaerobically induced genes encoding proteins required for the later denitrification steps (nirS, nirJ, nosD), dimethyl sulfoxide reduction (dmsA1), and fermentation (pdhB1, arcA, aceE, pta, acs) did not result in decreased anaerobic growth under the conditions tested. Additional essential components (ferredoxin, cccA) of the anaerobic electron transfer chain and central metabolism (pdhB) were identified. Another surprise was the importance of sodium gradient-dependent membrane processes and genomic rearrangements via viruses, transposons, and insertion sequence elements for anaerobic growth. These processes and the observed contributions of cell envelope restructuring (lysM, mipA, fadK), C4-dicarboxylate transport (dctM1, dctM3), and protease functions to anaerobic growth require further investigation to unravel the novel underlying adaptation strategies. PMID:23974024

  4. Repression of Lateral Organ Boundary Genes by PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH Is Essential for Meristem Maintenance and Flowering in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Madiha; Ragni, Laura; Tabb, Paul; Salasini, Brenda C.; Chatfield, Steven; Datla, Raju; Lock, John; Kuai, Xiahezi; Desprs, Charles; Proveniers, Marcel; Yongguo, Cao; Xiang, Daoquan; Morin, Halima; Rullire, Jean-Pierre; Citerne, Sylvie; Hepworth, Shelley R.; Pautot, Vronique

    2015-01-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), endogenous and environmental signals acting on the shoot apical meristem cause acquisition of inflorescence meristem fate. This results in changed patterns of aerial development seen as the transition from making leaves to the production of flowers separated by elongated internodes. Two related BEL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF), fulfill this transition. Loss of function of these genes impairs stem cell maintenance and blocks internode elongation and flowering. We show here that pny pnf apices misexpress lateral organ boundary genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 (KNAT6) together with ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1). Inactivation of genes in this module fully rescues pny pnf defects. We further show that BOP1 directly activates ATH1, whereas activation of KNAT6 is indirect. The pny pnf restoration correlates with renewed accumulation of transcripts conferring floral meristem identity, including FD, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes, LEAFY, and APETALA1. To gain insight into how this module blocks flowering, we analyzed the transcriptome of BOP1-overexpressing plants. Our data suggest a central role for the microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE-microRNA172 module in integrating stress signals conferred in part by promotion of jasmonic acid biosynthesis. These data reveal a potential mechanism by which repression of lateral organ boundary genes by PNY-PNF is essential for flowering. PMID:26417006

  5. Repression of Lateral Organ Boundary Genes by PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH Is Essential for Meristem Maintenance and Flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Madiha; Ragni, Laura; Tabb, Paul; Salasini, Brenda C; Chatfield, Steven; Datla, Raju; Lock, John; Kuai, Xiahezi; Després, Charles; Proveniers, Marcel; Yongguo, Cao; Xiang, Daoquan; Morin, Halima; Rullière, Jean-Pierre; Citerne, Sylvie; Hepworth, Shelley R; Pautot, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), endogenous and environmental signals acting on the shoot apical meristem cause acquisition of inflorescence meristem fate. This results in changed patterns of aerial development seen as the transition from making leaves to the production of flowers separated by elongated internodes. Two related BEL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF), fulfill this transition. Loss of function of these genes impairs stem cell maintenance and blocks internode elongation and flowering. We show here that pny pnf apices misexpress lateral organ boundary genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 (KNAT6) together with ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1). Inactivation of genes in this module fully rescues pny pnf defects. We further show that BOP1 directly activates ATH1, whereas activation of KNAT6 is indirect. The pny pnf restoration correlates with renewed accumulation of transcripts conferring floral meristem identity, including FD, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes, LEAFY, and APETALA1. To gain insight into how this module blocks flowering, we analyzed the transcriptome of BOP1-overexpressing plants. Our data suggest a central role for the microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE-microRNA172 module in integrating stress signals conferred in part by promotion of jasmonic acid biosynthesis. These data reveal a potential mechanism by which repression of lateral organ boundary genes by PNY-PNF is essential for flowering. PMID:26417006

  6. 59 FR- Gene Therapy Production Issues; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Gene Therapy Production Issues; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... gene therapy production issues. The meeting is designed to obtain public testimony from biomedical... INFORMATION: The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving. New approaches to genetic modification of...

  7. Functional analysis of UMOD gene and its effect on inflammatory cytokines in serum of essential hypertension patients

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Liguo; Fa, Xianen; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to investigate the function of uromodulin (UMOD) gene and its effect on inflammatory cytokines in serum of essential hypertension patients. Methods: The online database and software of computer were used for bioinformatics analysis on UMOD gene as well as the structure and function of its encoding proteins. Moreover, radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was adopted to validate the content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients and their serum inflammatory cytokines. Results: As an alkaline and hydrophilic protein, UMOD has no transmembrane region, but it does have a signal peptide sequence. It is mainly located extracellularly, belonging to a secreted protein, whose secondary structure was based mainly on Random coil which account for 58.44%. According to function prediction, it is found that the UMOD protein has stress response which may be participate in the inflammatory reaction. It has been observed from the experiment which was designed on the basis of the correlation between inflammation reaction and essential hypertension that the content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients who is in stage I was (28.7110.53) mg/24 h and when compared with the control groups content (30.1514.10 mg/24 h), the difference was not obviously; The content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients whos in stage II and III was (18.246.12) mg/24 h and (9.433.16) mg/24 h, respectively, which were obviously lower than that of the control group (P<0.01). Additionally, the serum inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-?, IL-6 and IL1-? content of essential hypertension patients were all markedly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: For essential hypertension patients, theres a close relationship between the expression level of UMOD gene and inflammatory cytokines, which were manifested as the negative correlation between the level of the genes expression and inflammatory cytokines. That has certain reference value to realize the targeted treatment for essential hypertension through regulated blood pressure conversely in the view of expression level of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26617860

  8. Bacteriophage P22 virion protein which performs an essential early function. II. Characterization of the gene 16 function.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, B; Levine, M

    1975-01-01

    P16 is a virion protein and, as such, is incorporated into the phage head as a step in morphogenesis. The role of P16 in assembly is not essential since particles are formed without this protein which appear normal by electron microscopy. P16 is essential when the particle infects a cell in the following cycle of infection. In the absence of functional P16, the infection does not appear to proceed beyond release of phage DNA from the capsid. No known genes are expressed, no DNA is transcribed, and the host cell survives the infection, continuing to grow and divide normally. The P16 function is required only during infection for the expression of phage functions. Induction in the absence of P16 proceeds with the expression of early and late genes and results in particle formation. P16 must be incorporated during morphogenesis into progeny particles after both infection and induction for the progeny to be infectious. The P16 function is necessary for transduction as well as for infection. Its activity is independent of new protein synthesis and it is not under immunity control. P16 can act in trans, but appears to act preferentially on the phage or phage DNA with which it is packaged. The data from complementation studies are compatible with P16 release from the capsid with the phage DNA. In the absence of P16 the infection is blocked, but the phage genome is not degraded. The various roles which have been ruled out for P16 are: (i) an early regulatory function, (ii) an enzymatic activity necessary for phage production, (iii) protection of phage DNA from host degradation enzymes, (iv) any generalized alteration of the host cell, (v) binding parental DNA to the replication complex, and (vi) any direct involvement in the replication of P22 DNA. P16 can be responsible for: (i) complete release of the DNA and disengagement from the capsid, (ii) bringing the released DNA to some necessary cell site or compartment such as the cytoplasm, (iii) removal of other virion proteins from the injected DNA, and (iv) alterations of the structure of the injected DNA. PMID:1104894

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Aspergillus ochraceus Growth and Ochratoxin A Production

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150–250 µL/L with fumigation and 250–500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ≥100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ≥75 µg/mL and ≥150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn’t fully inhibit OTA production at ≤200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  10. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus growth and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Hua, Huijuan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150-250 L/L with fumigation and 250-500 L/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ? 100 g/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 g/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 g/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ? 75 g/mL and ? 150 g/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn't fully inhibit OTA production at ? 200 g/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  11. CO2?-?Intrinsic Product, Essential Substrate, and Regulatory Trigger of Microbial and Mammalian Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Bastian; Takors, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide formation mirrors the final carbon oxidation steps of aerobic metabolism in microbial and mammalian cells. As a consequence, [Formula: see text] dissociation equilibria arise in fermenters by the growing culture. Anaplerotic reactions make use of the abundant [Formula: see text] levels for refueling citric acid cycle demands and for enabling oxaloacetate-derived products. At the same time, CO2 is released manifold in metabolic reactions via decarboxylation activity. The levels of extracellular [Formula: see text] depend on cellular activities and physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressures, aeration, and the efficiency of mixing in large-scale bioreactors. Besides, local [Formula: see text] levels might also act as metabolic inhibitors or transcriptional effectors triggering regulatory events inside the cells. This review gives an overview about fundamental physicochemical properties of [Formula: see text] in microbial and mammalian cultures effecting cellular physiology, production processes, metabolic activity, and transcriptional regulation. PMID:26284242

  12. Identification of a novel vinyl reductase gene essential for the biosynthesis of monovinyl chlorophyll in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisashi; Yokono, Makio; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2008-04-01

    The vast majority of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use monovinyl chlorophyll for their photosynthetic reactions. For the biosynthesis of this type of chlorophyll, the reduction of the 8-vinyl group that is located on the B-ring of the macrocycle is essential. Previously, we identified the gene encoding 8-vinyl reductase responsible for this reaction in higher plants and termed it DVR. Among the sequenced genomes of cyanobacteria, only several Synechococcus species contain DVR homologues. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that many other cyanobacteria producing monovinyl chlorophyll should contain a vinyl reductase that is unrelated to the higher plant DVR. To identify the cyanobacterial gene that is responsible for monovinyl chlorophyll synthesis, we developed a bioinformatics tool, correlation coefficient calculation tool, which calculates the correlation coefficient between the distributions of a certain phenotype and genes among a group of organisms. The program indicated that the distribution of a gene encoding a putative dehydrogenase protein is best correlated with the distribution of the DVR-less cyanobacteria. We subsequently knocked out the corresponding gene (Slr1923) in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and characterized the mutant. The knock-out mutant lost its ability to synthesize monovinyl chlorophyll and accumulated 3,8-divinyl chlorophyll instead. We concluded that Slr1923 encodes the vinyl reductase or a subunit essential for monovinyl chlorophyll synthesis. The function and evolution of 8-vinyl reductase genes are discussed. PMID:18230620

  13. GCN5 is essential for IRF-4 gene expression followed by transcriptional activation of Blimp-1 in immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Nakayama, Masami; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Nishitoh, Hideki; Takami, Yasunari; Nakayama, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    During B-cell differentiation, the gene expression of B-cell differentiation-related transcription factors must be strictly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation and deacetylation, to complete the differentiation pathway. GCN5, one of the most important histone acetyltransferases, is involved in epigenetic events for transcriptional regulation through alterations in the chromatin structure. In this study, by analyzing the homozygous DT40 mutants GCN5(-/-), generated with gene targeting techniques, we found that GCN5 was necessary for transcriptional activation of IRF-4, an essential transcription factor for plasma cell differentiation. GCN5 deficiency caused drastic decreases in both the mRNA and the protein levels of Blimp-1 and IRF-4. The ectopic expression of Blimp-1 and IRF-4 suggests that IRF-4, but not Blimp-1, is the target gene of GCN5 in immature B cells. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that GCN5 bound to the IRF-4 gene around its 5'-flanking region and acetylated H3K9 residues within chromatin surrounding the region in vivo, suggesting that gene expression of IRF-4 is certainly regulated by GCN5. These results reveal that GCN5 is essential for IRF-4 gene expression, followed by transcriptional activation of Blimp-1, and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of B-cell differentiation. PMID:24072880

  14. The tumor suppressor gene, RASSF1A, is essential for protection against inflammation -induced injury.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Marilyn; El-Kalla, Mohamed; Zhao, Yuewen; Fiteih, Yahya; Law, Jennifer; Volodko, Natalia; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Mohamed, Anwar; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Liu, Lei; Odenbach, Jeff; Thiesen, Aducio; Onyskiw, Christina; Ghazaleh, Haya Abu; Park, Jikyoung; Lee, Sean Bong; Yu, Victor C; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Alexander, R Todd; Wine, Eytan; Baksh, Shairaz

    2013-01-01

    Ras association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) is a tumor suppressor gene silenced in cancer. Here we report that RASSF1A is a novel regulator of intestinal inflammation as Rassf1a(+/-) , Rassf1a(-/-) and an intestinal epithelial cell specific knockout mouse (Rassf1a (IEC-KO) ) rapidly became sick following dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) administration, a chemical inducer of colitis. Rassf1a knockout mice displayed clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease including: increased intestinal permeability, enhanced cytokine/chemokine production, elevated nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF?B) activity, elevated colonic cell death and epithelial cell injury. Furthermore, epithelial restitution/repair was inhibited in DSS-treated Rassf1a(-/-) mice with reduction of several makers of proliferation including Yes associated protein (YAP)-driven proliferation. Surprisingly, tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP was detected which coincided with increased nuclear p73 association, Bax-driven epithelial cell death and p53 accumulation resulting in enhanced apoptosis and poor survival of DSS-treated Rassf1a knockout mice. We can inhibit these events and promote the survival of DSS-treated Rassf1a knockout mice with intraperitoneal injection of the c-Abl and c-Abl related protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib/gleevec. However, p53 accumulation was not inhibited by imatinib/gleevec in the Rassf1a(-/-) background which revealed the importance of p53-dependent cell death during intestinal inflammation. These observations suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP (to drive p73 association and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax) and accumulation of p53 are consequences of inflammation-induced injury in DSS-treated Rassf1a(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, we can detect robust associations of RASSF1A with membrane proximal Toll-like receptor (TLR) components to suggest that RASSF1A may function to interfere and restrict TLR-driven activation of NF?B. Failure to restrict NF?B resulted in the inflammation-induced DNA damage driven tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP, subsequent p53 accumulation and loss of intestinal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:24146755

  15. The Tumor Suppressor Gene, RASSF1A, Is Essential for Protection against Inflammation -Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fiteih, Yahya; Law, Jennifer; Volodko, Natalia; Mohamed, Anwar; El-Kadi, Ayman O. S.; Liu, Lei; Odenbach, Jeff; Thiesen, Aducio; Onyskiw, Christina; Ghazaleh, Haya Abu; Park, Jikyoung; Lee, Sean Bong; Yu, Victor C.; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Alexander, R. Todd; Wine, Eytan; Baksh, Shairaz

    2013-01-01

    Ras association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) is a tumor suppressor gene silenced in cancer. Here we report that RASSF1A is a novel regulator of intestinal inflammation as Rassf1a+/−, Rassf1a−/− and an intestinal epithelial cell specific knockout mouse (Rassf1a IEC-KO) rapidly became sick following dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) administration, a chemical inducer of colitis. Rassf1a knockout mice displayed clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease including: increased intestinal permeability, enhanced cytokine/chemokine production, elevated nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NFκB) activity, elevated colonic cell death and epithelial cell injury. Furthermore, epithelial restitution/repair was inhibited in DSS-treated Rassf1a−/− mice with reduction of several makers of proliferation including Yes associated protein (YAP)-driven proliferation. Surprisingly, tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP was detected which coincided with increased nuclear p73 association, Bax-driven epithelial cell death and p53 accumulation resulting in enhanced apoptosis and poor survival of DSS-treated Rassf1a knockout mice. We can inhibit these events and promote the survival of DSS-treated Rassf1a knockout mice with intraperitoneal injection of the c-Abl and c-Abl related protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib/gleevec. However, p53 accumulation was not inhibited by imatinib/gleevec in the Rassf1a−/− background which revealed the importance of p53-dependent cell death during intestinal inflammation. These observations suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP (to drive p73 association and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax) and accumulation of p53 are consequences of inflammation-induced injury in DSS-treated Rassf1a−/− mice. Mechanistically, we can detect robust associations of RASSF1A with membrane proximal Toll-like receptor (TLR) components to suggest that RASSF1A may function to interfere and restrict TLR-driven activation of NFκB. Failure to restrict NFκB resulted in the inflammation-induced DNA damage driven tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP, subsequent p53 accumulation and loss of intestinal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:24146755

  16. Efficacy of Cuminum cyminum essential oil on FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides strains

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Mokhtari, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) essential oil on the growth and FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides) strains isolated from maize. Materials and Methods: All fungal strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slopes at 30C for 7 days. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. One set of primers was F. verticillioides species specific, which selectively amplified the intergenic space region of rDNA. The other set of primers was specific to FUM1 gene region of fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides. FUM1 transcript levels were quantified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of C. cyminum oil against F. verticillioides strains varied from 0.195 to 0.781 l.ml-1 (mean MIC value: 0.461 l.ml-1) indicating 54.5% of the fungal strains inhibited at 0.390 l.ml-1. PCR analysis of FUM1 gene expression revealed that DNA fragment of 183 bp was amplified in all the isolates of F. verticillioides before treatment with C. cyminum essential oil. Based on RT-PCR analyses, reduction in the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes was significant only for FUM1 gene (p<0.05), while no effect was observed on ITS gene. Conclusions: This study showed that all F. verticillioides isolates were susceptible to C. cyminum essential oil, indicating a significant reduction in the growth of fungal isolates. In addition, this oil completely inhibited the expression of FUM1 gene in concentrations dose-dependently. PMID:25767755

  17. [Science of evaluating the characteristics, quality and safety of biotechnological products: RDNA-derived products, cell culture technology-derived products, gene therapy products, cellular therapy products, and transgenic animal-derived protein products and cellular products].

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in biotechnology, including recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology and cell culture technology, has enabled us to produce new medically useful agents intended for human use. These agents include therapeutic peptides and proteins derived from rDNA-modified cell substrates, continuous cell lines, diploid cell lines, and hybridoma cell lines, gene therapy products, cellular therapy products, and therapeutic protein products and cellular products derived from transgenic animals. To enable these products to be of use in human therapy, it is essential that suitable measures be taken by manufacturers and regulatory authorities to assure their quality, efficacy, and safety. This article describes points based on the latest sound scientific principles to be considered when producing, testing, evaluating and controlling biotechnology products for human therapy, especially with respect to their characteristics, quality, and safety. PMID:10859934

  18. Comparison of the Essential Cellular Functions of the Two murA Genes of Bacillus anthracis▿

    PubMed Central

    Kedar, G. C.; Brown-Driver, Vickie; Reyes, Daniel R.; Hilgers, Mark T.; Stidham, Mark A.; Shaw, Karen Joy; Finn, John; Haselbeck, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted antisense and gene replacement mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that only the murA1 gene and not the murA2 gene is required for the normal cellular growth of Bacillus anthracis. Antisense-based modulation of murA1 gene expression hypersensitizes cells to the MurA-specific antibiotic fosfomycin despite the normally high resistance of B. anthracis to this drug. PMID:18378720

  19. The RNase III Enzyme DROSHA Is Essential for MicroRNA Production and Spermatogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiuxia; Song, Rui; Ortogero, Nicole; Zheng, Huili; Evanoff, Ryan; Small, Chris L.; Griswold, Michael D.; Namekawa, Satoshi H.; Royo, Helene; Turner, James M.; Yan, Wei

    2012-01-01

    DROSHA is a nuclear RNase III enzyme responsible for cleaving primary microRNAs (miRNAs) into precursor miRNAs and thus is essential for the biogenesis of canonical miRNAs. DICER is a cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme that not only cleaves precursor miRNAs to produce mature miRNAs but also dissects naturally formed/synthetic double-stranded RNAs to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). To investigate the role of canonical miRNA and/or endogenous siRNA production in spermatogenesis, we generated Drosha or Dicer conditional knock-out (cKO) mouse lines by inactivating Drosha or Dicer exclusively in spermatogenic cells in postnatal testes using the Cre-loxp strategy. Both Drosha and Dicer cKO males were infertile due to disrupted spermatogenesis characterized by depletion of spermatocytes and spermatids leading to oligoteratozoospermia or azoospermia. The developmental course of spermatogenic disruptions was similar at morphological levels between Drosha and Dicer cKO males, but Drosha cKO testes appeared to be more severe in spermatogenic disruptions than Dicer cKO testes. Microarray analyses revealed transcriptomic differences between Drosha- and Dicer-null pachytene spermatocytes or round spermatids. Although levels of sex-linked mRNAs were mildly elevated, meiotic sex chromosome inactivation appeared to have occurred normally. Our data demonstrate that unlike DICER, which is required for the biogenesis of several small RNA species, DROSHA is essential mainly for the canonical miRNA production, and DROSHA-mediated miRNA production is essential for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:22665486

  20. Determination of enzymes from Colletotrichum sp. AHU9748 essential for lepidimoide production from okra polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Saranpuetti, Chayaporn; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2006-11-01

    The allelopathic substance lepidimoide (Lp), which exhibits multiple functions in the growth and development of plants, was produced by Colletotrichum sp. AHU9748 from okra polysaccharide. Okra polysaccharide has the repeating structure (1-->4)-O-alpha-(d-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-->2)-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranose in its hexasaccharide repeating unit of its main chain. To determine the enzymes essential for Lp production, the supernatant of a culture broth was fractionated by repeated column chromatographies to identify two serial fractions responsible for Lp production and non-Lp production by measuring Lp production together with beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), rhamnogalacturonan lyase (RG-lyase) and acetylesterase (AE) activities, which we hypothesized to be necessary for Lp production from the structure of Lp. We confirmed the presence of these three enzymatic activities in the highest-Lp-producing fraction. The addition of purified RG-lyase to fractions producing no or a small amount of Lp demonstrated that beta-gal and RG-lyase activities are necessary for Lp production. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three separated proteins on SDS-PAGE confirmed the presence of enzymes identical to beta-gal, RG-lyase and AE in the Lp-producing fractions. PMID:17189174

  1. Lower ADD1 Gene Promoter DNA Methylation Increases the Risk of Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Xu, Leiting; Xin, Yanfei; Fei, Li-Juan; Zhong, Qi-Long; Huang, Yi; Xu, Limin; Hao, Ling-Mei; Qiu, Xu-Jun; Le, Yanping; Ye, Meng; Duan, Shiwei

    2013-01-01

    The goal of our study is to investigate the contribution of promoter DNA methylation of α-adducin (ADD1) gene to the risk of essential hypertension (EH). Using the bisulphite pyrosequencing technology, DNA methylation levels of five CpG dinucleotides on ADD1 promoter were measured among 33 EH cases and 28 healthy controls. Significantly higher ADD1 DNA methylation levels were observed in the females than in the males (CpG1: P = 0.016; CpG2-5: P = 0.021). A breakdown analysis by gender showed that lower CpG1 methylation was associated with an increased risk of EH in females (adjusted P = 0.042). A much more significant association between lower CpG2-5 methylation levels and the increased risk of EH was found in males (adjusted P = 0.008). CpG1 methylation was inversely correlated with age in females (r = −0.407, P = 0.019) but not in males. ADD1 CpG1 and CpG2-5 methylation levels were significantly lower in post-menopausal (>50 years) women than pre-menopausal (≤50 years) women (CpG1: P = 0.006; CpG2-5: P = 0.034). A significant interaction between CpG1 methylation and age was found in females (CpG1*age: P = 0.029). CpG2-5 methylation was shown as a significant predictor of EH in males [area under curve (AUC) = 0.855, P = 0.001], in contrast that CpG1 methylation was a trend toward indicator in females (AUC = 0.699, P = 0.054). In addition, significant differences were observed between males and females for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.005) and uric acid (P<0.001). The concentration of AST was inversely correlated with ADD1 CpG2-5 methylation levels in female controls (r = −0.644, P = 0.024). These observations may bring new hints to elaborate the pathogenesis of EH. PMID:23691048

  2. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

    PubMed Central

    Kalagatur, Naveen K.; Mudili, Venkataramana; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Gupta, Vijai K.; Natarajan, Gopalan; Sreepathi, Murali H.; Vardhan, Batra H.; Putcha, Venkata L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO) on growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. GC–MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%). DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of OSEO was determined to be 8.5 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 and 1800 μg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 μg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 μg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13) revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250–1500 μg/mL) significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers. PMID:26388846

  3. A High-Resolution C. elegans Essential Gene Network Based on Phenotypic Profiling of a Complex Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rebecca; Kao, Huey-Ling; Audhya, Anjon; Arur, Swathi; Mayers, Jonathan R.; Fridolfsson, Heidi; Schulman, Monty; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Niessen, Sherry; Laband, Kimberley; Wang, Shaohe; Starr, Daniel; Hyman, Anthony; Schedl, Tim; Desai, Arshad; Piano, Fabio; Gunsalus, Kristin C.; Oegema, Karen

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY High-content screening for gene profiling has generally been limited to single cells. Here, we explore an alternative approachprofiling gene function by analyzing effects of gene knockdowns on the architecture of a complex tissue in a multicellular organism. We profile 554 essential C. elegans genes by imaging gonad architecture and scoring 94 phenotypic features. To generate a reference for evaluating methods for network construction, genes were manually partitioned into 102 phenotypic classes, predicting functions for uncharacterized genes across diverse cellular processes. Using this classification as a benchmark, we developed a robust computational method for constructing gene networks from high-content profiles based on a network context-dependent measure that ranks the significance of links between genes. Our analysis reveals that multi-parametric profiling in a complex tissue yields functional maps with a resolution similar to genetic interaction-based profiling in unicellular eukaryotespinpointing subunits of macromolecular complexes and components functioning in common cellular processes. PMID:21529718

  4. Screen for mitochondrial DNA copy number maintenance genes reveals essential role for ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoh, Atsushi; Cannino, Giuseppe; Gerards, Mike; Buckley, Suzanne; Kazancioglu, Selena; Scialo, Filippo; Lihavainen, Eero; Ribeiro, Andre; Dufour, Eric; Jacobs, Howard T

    2014-01-01

    The machinery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance is only partially characterized and is of wide interest due to its involvement in disease. To identify novel components of this machinery, plus other cellular pathways required for mtDNA viability, we implemented a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells, assaying for loss of fluorescence of mtDNA nucleoids stained with the DNA-intercalating agent PicoGreen. In addition to previously characterized components of the mtDNA replication and transcription machineries, positives included many proteins of the cytosolic proteasome and ribosome (but not the mitoribosome), three proteins involved in vesicle transport, some other factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or nuclear gene expression, > 30 mainly uncharacterized proteins and most subunits of ATP synthase (but no other OXPHOS complex). ATP synthase knockdown precipitated a burst of mitochondrial ROS production, followed by copy number depletion involving increased mitochondrial turnover, not dependent on the canonical autophagy machinery. Our findings will inform future studies of the apparatus and regulation of mtDNA maintenance, and the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and signaling in modulating mtDNA copy number. PMID:24952591

  5. Intronic and 5' flanking sequences of the Drosophila beta 3 tubulin gene are essential to confer ecdysone responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bruhat, A; Drau, D; Drake, M E; Tourmente, S; Chapel, S; Couderc, J L; Dastugue, B

    1993-07-01

    The expression of the beta 3 tubulin gene is regulated, at the transcriptional level, by the steroid hormone ecdysone, in Drosophila Kc cells. Using a transient expression assay, we show that 360 bp from the first intron of the beta 3 tubulin gene, associated with the 5' flanking sequences, are essential to confer ecdysone inducibility on a minimum promoter driving the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene. The 5' flanking region contains ecdysone-independent cis-positive elements located in proximity to the promoter. Deletion analysis of the 360 bp intronic region reveals that a fragment of 57 bp is crucial for the ecdysone response of the beta 3 tubulin gene. This fragment contains 5'-TGA(A/C)C-3' motifs homologous to ecdysone responsive elements (EcRE) half sites. Band shift assays show that this 57-bp fragment is bound by three specific complexes. One of them appears to be involved in the level of the ecdysone response. PMID:8375576

  6. The Wilms’ Tumor Suppressor Gene (wt1) Product Regulates Dax-1 Gene Expression during Gonadal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungho; Prawitt, Dirk; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Torban, Elena; Vicaner, Caroline; Goodyer, Paul; Zabel, Bernard; Pelletier, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    Gonadal differentiation is dependent upon a molecular cascade responsible for ovarian or testicular development from the bipotential gonadal ridge. Genetic analysis has implicated a number of gene products essential for this process, which include Sry, WT1, SF-1, and DAX-1. We have sought to better define the role of WT1 in this process by identifying downstream targets of WT1 during normal gonadal development. We have noticed that in the developing murine gonadal ridge, wt1 expression precedes expression of Dax-1, a nuclear receptor gene. We document here that the spatial distribution profiles of both proteins in the developing gonad overlap. We also demonstrate that WT1 can activate the Dax-1 promoter. Footprinting analysis, transient transfections, promoter mutagenesis, and mobility shift assays suggest that WT1 regulates Dax-1 via GC-rich binding sites found upstream of the Dax-1 TATA box. We show that two WT1-interacting proteins, the product of a Denys-Drash syndrome allele of wt1 and prostate apoptosis response-4 protein, inhibit WT1-mediated transactivation of Dax-1. In addition, we demonstrate that WT1 can activate the endogenous Dax-1 promoter. Our results indicate that the WT1–DAX-1 pathway is an early event in the process of mammalian sex determination. PMID:10022915

  7. An Essential Role for Katanin p80 and Microtubule Severing in Male Gamete Production

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Liza; Rhodes, Danielle; Smith, Stephanie J.; Merriner, D. Jo; Clark, Brett J.; Borg, Claire; Whittle, Belinda; O'Connor, Anne E.; Smith, Lee B.; McNally, Francis J.; de Kretser, David M.; Goodnow, Chris C.; Ormandy, Chris J.; Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Bryan, Moira K.

    2012-01-01

    Katanin is an evolutionarily conserved microtubule-severing complex implicated in multiple aspects of microtubule dynamics. Katanin consists of a p60 severing enzyme and a p80 regulatory subunit. The p80 subunit is thought to regulate complex targeting and severing activity, but its precise role remains elusive. In lower-order species, the katanin complex has been shown to modulate mitotic and female meiotic spindle dynamics and flagella development. The in vivo function of katanin p80 in mammals is unknown. Here we show that katanin p80 is essential for male fertility. Specifically, through an analysis of a mouse loss-of-function allele (the Taily line), we demonstrate that katanin p80, most likely in association with p60, has an essential role in male meiotic spindle assembly and dissolution and the removal of midbody microtubules and, thus, cytokinesis. Katanin p80 also controls the formation, function, and dissolution of a microtubule structure intimately involved in defining sperm head shaping and sperm tail formation, the manchette, and plays a role in the formation of axoneme microtubules. Perturbed katanin p80 function, as evidenced in the Taily mouse, results in male sterility characterized by decreased sperm production, sperm with abnormal head shape, and a virtual absence of progressive motility. Collectively these data demonstrate that katanin p80 serves an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in several aspects of male germ cell development. PMID:22654669

  8. K-ras is an essential gene in the mouse with partial functional overlap with?N-ras

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leisa; Greenbaum, Doron; Cichowski, Karen; Mercer, Kim; Murphy, Elizabeth; Schmitt, Eric; Bronson, Roderick T.; Umanoff, Heywood; Edelmann, Windfried; Kucherlapati, Raju; Jacks, Tyler

    1997-01-01

    Mammalian ras genes are thought to be critical in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation and are mutated in ?30% of all human tumors. However, N-ras and H-ras are nonessential for mouse development. To characterize the normal role of K-ras in growth and development, we have mutated it by gene targeting in the mouse. On an inbred genetic background, embryos homozygous for this mutation die between 12 and 14 days of gestation, with fetal liver defects and evidence of anemia. Thus, K-ras is the only member of the ras gene family essential for mouse embryogenesis. We have also investigated the effect of multiple mutations within the ras gene family. Most animals lacking N-ras function and heterozygous for the K-ras mutation exhibit abnormal hematopoietic development and die between days 10 and 12 of embryogenesis. Thus, partial functional overlap appears to occur within the ras gene family, but K-ras provides a unique and essential function. PMID:9334313

  9. ROS Production Is Essential for the Apoptotic Function of E2F1 in Pheochromocytoma and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator. PMID:23251571

  10. By-product metals are technologically essential but have problematic supply.

    PubMed

    Nassar, N T; Graedel, T E; Harper, E M

    2015-04-01

    The growth in technological innovation that has occurred over the past decades has, in part, been possible because an increasing number of metals of the periodic table are used to perform specialized functions. However, there have been increasing concerns regarding the reliability of supply of some of these metals. A main contributor to these concerns is the fact that many of these metals are recovered only as by-products from a limited number of geopolitically concentrated ore deposits, rendering their supplies unable to respond to rapid changes in demand. Companionality is the degree to which a metal is obtained largely or entirely as a by-product of one or more host metals from geologic ores. The dependence of companion metal availability on the production of the host metals introduces a new facet of supply risk to modern technology. We evaluated companionality for 62 different metals and metalloids, and show that 61% (38 of 62) have companionality greater than 50%. Eighteen of the 38-including such technologically essential elements as germanium, terbium, and dysprosium-are further characterized as having geopolitically concentrated production and extremely low rates of end-of-life recycling. It is this subset of companion metals-vital in current technologies such as electronics, solar energy, medical imaging, energy-efficient lighting, and other state-of-the-art products-that may be at the greatest risk of supply constraints in the coming decades. PMID:26601159

  11. Gene Network Rewiring to Study Melanoma Stage Progression and Elements Essential for Driving Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Abhinav; Bhatia, Yashuma; Ali, Shakir; Gupta, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma patients have a poor prognosis, mainly attributable to the underlying heterogeneity in melanoma driver genes and altered gene expression profiles. These characteristics of melanoma also make the development of drugs and identification of novel drug targets for metastatic melanoma a daunting task. Systems biology offers an alternative approach to re-explore the genes or gene sets that display dysregulated behaviour without being differentially expressed. In this study, we have performed systems biology studies to enhance our knowledge about the conserved property of disease genes or gene sets among mutually exclusive datasets representing melanoma progression. We meta-analysed 642 microarray samples to generate melanoma reconstructed networks representing four different stages of melanoma progression to extract genes with altered molecular circuitry wiring as compared to a normal cellular state. Intriguingly, a majority of the melanoma network-rewired genes are not differentially expressed and the disease genes involved in melanoma progression consistently modulate its activity by rewiring network connections. We found that the shortlisted disease genes in the study show strong and abnormal network connectivity, which enhances with the disease progression. Moreover, the deviated network properties of the disease gene sets allow ranking/prioritization of different enriched, dysregulated and conserved pathway terms in metastatic melanoma, in agreement with previous findings. Our analysis also reveals presence of distinct network hubs in different stages of metastasizing tumor for the same set of pathways in the statistically conserved gene sets. The study results are also presented as a freely available database at http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/m3db/. The web-based database resource consists of results from the analysis presented here, integrated with cytoscape web and user-friendly tools for visualization, retrieval and further analysis. PMID:26558755

  12. Essential drugs production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS): opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ezziane, Zoheir

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines. PMID:25489593

  13. Essential drugs production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS): opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ezziane, Zoheir

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines. PMID:25489593

  14. Integration of two essential virulence modulating signals at the Erwinia chrysanthemi pel gene promoters: a role for Fis in the growth-phase regulation.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Thomas; Blot, Nicolas; Muskhelishvili, Georgi; Nasser, William

    2007-12-01

    Production of the essential virulence factors, called pectate lyases (Pels), in the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi is controlled by a complex regulation system and responds to various stimuli, such as the presence of pectin or plant extracts, growth phase, temperature and iron concentration. The presence of pectin and growth phase are the most important signals identified. Eight regulators modulating the expression of the pel genes (encoding Pels) have been characterized. These regulators are organized in a network allowing a sequential functioning of the regulators during infection. Although many studies have been carried out, the mechanisms of control of Pel production by growth phase have not yet been elucidated. Here we report that a fis mutant of E. chrysanthemi showed a strong increase in transcription of the pel genes during exponential growth whereas induction of expression in the parental strain occurred at the end of exponential growth. This reveals that Fis acts to prevent an efficient transcription of pel genes at the beginning of exponential growth and also provides evidence of the involvement of Fis in the growth-phase regulation of the pel genes. By using in vitro DNA-protein interactions and transcription experiments, we find that Fis directly represses the pel gene expression at the transcription initiation step. In addition, we show that Fis acts in concert with KdgR, the main repressor responding to the presence of pectin compounds, to shut down the pel gene transcription. Finally, we find that active Fis is required for the efficient translocation of the Pels in growth medium. Together, these data indicate that Fis tightly controls the availability of Pels during pathogenesis by acting on both their production and their translocation in the external medium. PMID:18028312

  15. Identification of Arabidopsis GPAT9 (At5g60620) as an Essential Gene Involved in Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Browse, John

    2016-01-01

    The first step in the biosynthesis of nearly all plant membrane phospholipids and storage triacylglycerols is catalyzed by a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). The requirement for an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized GPAT for both of these critical metabolic pathways was recognized more than 60 years ago. However, identification of the gene(s) encoding this GPAT activity has remained elusive. Here, we present the results of a series of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico experiments in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) designed to assign this essential function to AtGPAT9. This gene has been highly conserved throughout evolution and is largely present as a single copy in most plants, features consistent with essential housekeeping functions. A knockout mutant of AtGPAT9 demonstrates both male and female gametophytic lethality phenotypes, consistent with the role in essential membrane lipid synthesis. Significant expression of developing seed AtGPAT9 is required for wild-type levels of triacylglycerol accumulation, and the transcript level is directly correlated to the level of microsomal GPAT enzymatic activity in seeds. Finally, the AtGPAT9 protein interacts with other enzymes involved in ER glycerolipid biosynthesis, suggesting the possibility of ER-localized lipid biosynthetic complexes. Together, these results suggest that GPAT9 is the ER-localized GPAT enzyme responsible for plant membrane lipid and oil biosynthesis. PMID:26586834

  16. Identification of Arabidopsis GPAT9 (At5g60620) as an Essential Gene Involved in Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shockey, Jay; Regmi, Anushobha; Cotton, Kimberly; Adhikari, Neil; Browse, John; Bates, Philip D

    2016-01-01

    The first step in the biosynthesis of nearly all plant membrane phospholipids and storage triacylglycerols is catalyzed by a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). The requirement for an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized GPAT for both of these critical metabolic pathways was recognized more than 60 years ago. However, identification of the gene(s) encoding this GPAT activity has remained elusive. Here, we present the results of a series of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico experiments in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) designed to assign this essential function to AtGPAT9. This gene has been highly conserved throughout evolution and is largely present as a single copy in most plants, features consistent with essential housekeeping functions. A knockout mutant of AtGPAT9 demonstrates both male and female gametophytic lethality phenotypes, consistent with the role in essential membrane lipid synthesis. Significant expression of developing seed AtGPAT9 is required for wild-type levels of triacylglycerol accumulation, and the transcript level is directly correlated to the level of microsomal GPAT enzymatic activity in seeds. Finally, the AtGPAT9 protein interacts with other enzymes involved in ER glycerolipid biosynthesis, suggesting the possibility of ER-localized lipid biosynthetic complexes. Together, these results suggest that GPAT9 is the ER-localized GPAT enzyme responsible for plant membrane lipid and oil biosynthesis. PMID:26586834

  17. Application of microencapsulated essential oils in cosmetic and personal healthcare products - a review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, I T; Estevinho, B N; Santos, L

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the consumers around the world are increasingly focused on health and beauty. The renewed consumer interest in natural cosmetic products creates the demand for new products and reformulated others with botanical and functional ingredients. In cosmetic products, essential oils (EOs) play a major role as fragrance ingredients. They can optimize its proprieties and preservation, as well as the marketing image of the final product. Microencapsulation of EOs can protect and prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients and improve the controlled release and stability of this core materials. The importance of EOs for cosmetic industry and its microencapsulation was reviewed in this study. Also a briefly introduction about the preparation of microparticles was presented. Some of the most important and usual microencapsulation techniques of EOs, as well as the conventional encapsulating agents, were discussed. Despite the fact that microencapsulation of EOs is a very promising and extremely attractive application area for cosmetic industry, further basic research needs to be carried out, for a better understanding of the biofunctional activities of microencapsulated EOs and its release modulation, as well as the effects of others cosmetic ingredients and the storage time in the microparticles properties. PMID:25923295

  18. By-product metals are technologically essential but have problematic supply

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, N. T.; Graedel, T. E.; Harper, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The growth in technological innovation that has occurred over the past decades has, in part, been possible because an increasing number of metals of the periodic table are used to perform specialized functions. However, there have been increasing concerns regarding the reliability of supply of some of these metals. A main contributor to these concerns is the fact that many of these metals are recovered only as by-products from a limited number of geopolitically concentrated ore deposits, rendering their supplies unable to respond to rapid changes in demand. Companionality is the degree to which a metal is obtained largely or entirely as a by-product of one or more host metals from geologic ores. The dependence of companion metal availability on the production of the host metals introduces a new facet of supply risk to modern technology. We evaluated companionality for 62 different metals and metalloids, and show that 61% (38 of 62) have companionality greater than 50%. Eighteen of the 38—including such technologically essential elements as germanium, terbium, and dysprosium—are further characterized as having geopolitically concentrated production and extremely low rates of end-of-life recycling. It is this subset of companion metals—vital in current technologies such as electronics, solar energy, medical imaging, energy-efficient lighting, and other state-of-the-art products—that may be at the greatest risk of supply constraints in the coming decades. PMID:26601159

  19. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a closely related process or occupation directly essential to production of goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General Engaging in the Production of Goods for Commerce... process or occupation directly essential to the production thereof, in any State. 77 Prior to the Fair... pertains; whether its performance is with a view to aiding production or for some different purpose;...

  20. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a closely related process or occupation directly essential to production of goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General Engaging in the Production of Goods for Commerce... process or occupation directly essential to the production thereof, in any State. 77 Prior to the Fair... pertains; whether its performance is with a view to aiding production or for some different purpose;...

  1. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  2. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P; Cooper, Jacob C; Frizzell, Kimberly A; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-18

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers, such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle-regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids resulting from a cross between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and nonmodel systems. PMID:26680200

  3. Identification and isolation of genes essential for H sub 2 oxidation in Rhodobacter capsulatus. [Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.W.; Love, J.; Borghese, R.; Wall, J.D. )

    1989-02-01

    Mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus unable to grow photoautotrophically with H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were isolated. Those lacking uptake hydrogenase activity as measured by H{sub 2}-dependent methylene blue reduction were analyzed genetically and used in complementation studies for the isolation of the wild-type genes. Results of further subcloning and transposon Tn5 mutagenesis suggest the involvement of a minimum of five genes. Hybridization to the 2.2-kilobase-pair SstI fragment that lies within the coding region for the large and small subunits of Bradyrhizobium japonicum uptake hydrogenase showed one region of strong homology among the R. capsulatus fragments isolated, which we interpret to mean that one or both structural genes were among the genes isolated.

  4. MicroRNA regulation of human protease genes essential for influenza virus replication.

    PubMed

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Andersen, Lauren E; Brooks, Paula; Yan, Xiuzhen; Bakre, Abhijeet; Coleman, J Keegan; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-?B), cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB), and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies. PMID:22606348

  5. Highly expressed amino acid biosynthesis genes revealed by global gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during growth in whole egg are not essential for this growth.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the most common cause of egg borne salmonellosis in many parts of the world. This study analyzed gene expression of this bacterium during growth in whole egg, and whether highly expressed genes were essential for the growth. High quality RNA was extracted from S. Enteritidis using a modified RNA-extraction protocol. Global gene expression during growth in whole egg was compared to growth in LB-medium using DNA array method. Twenty-six genes were significantly upregulated during growth in egg; these belonged to amino acid biosynthesis, di/oligopeptide transport system, biotin synthesis, ferrous iron transport system, and type III secretion system. Significant downregulation of 15 genes related to formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) and trehalose metabolism was observed. The results suggested that S. Enteritidis is starved for amino-acids, biotin and iron when growing in egg. However, site specific mutation of amino acid biosynthesis genes asnA (17.3 fold upregulated), asnB (18.6 fold upregulated), asnA/asnB and, serA (12.0 fold upregulated) and gdhA (3.7 fold upregulated), did not result in growth attenuation, suggesting that biosynthesis using the enzymes encoded from these genes may represent the first choice for S. Enteritidis when growing in egg, but when absent, the bacterium could use alternative ways to obtain the amino acids. PMID:26945769

  6. Evolution of Mutational Robustness in the Yeast Genome: A Link to Essential Genes and Meiotic Recombination Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Philipp J.; Knop, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Deleterious mutations inevitably emerge in any evolutionary process and are speculated to decisively influence the structure of the genome. Meiosis, which is thought to play a major role in handling mutations on the population level, recombines chromosomes via non-randomly distributed hot spots for meiotic recombination. In many genomes, various types of genetic elements are distributed in patterns that are currently not well understood. In particular, important (essential) genes are arranged in clusters, which often cannot be explained by a functional relationship of the involved genes. Here we show by computer simulation that essential gene (EG) clustering provides a fitness benefit in handling deleterious mutations in sexual populations with variable levels of inbreeding and outbreeding. We find that recessive lethal mutations enforce a selective pressure towards clustered genome architectures. Our simulations correctly predict (i) the evolution of non-random distributions of meiotic crossovers, (ii) the genome-wide anti-correlation of meiotic crossovers and EG clustering, (iii) the evolution of EG enrichment in pericentromeric regions and (iv) the associated absence of meiotic crossovers (cold centromeres). Our results furthermore predict optimal crossover rates for yeast chromosomes, which match the experimentally determined rates. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae conditional mutator strain, we show that haploid lethal phenotypes result predominantly from mutation of single loci and generally do not impair mating, which leads to an accumulation of mutational load following meiosis and mating. We hypothesize that purging of deleterious mutations in essential genes constitutes an important factor driving meiotic crossover. Therefore, the increased robustness of populations to deleterious mutations, which arises from clustered genome architectures, may provide a significant selective force shaping crossover distribution. Our analysis reveals a new aspect of the evolution of genome architectures that complements insights about molecular constraints, such as the interference of pericentromeric crossovers with chromosome segregation. PMID:19557188

  7. NEON Data Products: Supporting the Validation of GCOS Essential Climate Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroy, S. B.; Fox, A. M.; Metzger, S.; Thorpe, A.; Meier, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale ecological observation platform designed to collect and disseminate data that contributes to understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON will collect in-situ and airborne data over 60 sites across the US, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The NEON Biomass, Productivity, and Biogeochemistry protocols currently direct the collection of samples from distributed, gradient, and tower plots at each site, with sampling occurring either multiple times during the growing season, annually, or on three- or five-year centers (e.g. for coarse woody debris). These data are processed into a series of field-derived data products (e.g. Biogeochemistry, LAI, above ground Biomass, etc.), and when combined with the NEON airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR imagery, are used support validation efforts of algorithms for deriving vegetation characteristics from the airborne data. Sites are further characterized using airborne data combined with in-situ tower measurements, to create additional data products of interest to the GCOS community, such as Albedo and fPAR. Presented here are a summary of tower/field/airborne sampling and observation protocols and examples of provisional datasets collected at NEON sites that may be used to support the ongoing validation of GCOS Essential Climate Variables.

  8. Survivin is essential for fertile egg production and female fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z-Z; Hu, M-W; Wang, Z-B; Huang, L; Lin, F; Qi, S-T; Ouyang, Y-C; Fan, H-Y; Schatten, H; Mak, T W; Sun, Q-Y

    2014-01-01

    Survivin is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family and acts as a bifunctional protein involved in mitosis regulation and apoptosis inhibition. To identify the physiological role of Survivin in female reproduction, we selectively disrupted Survivin expression in oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs), two major cell types in the ovary, by two different Cre-Loxp conditional knockout systems, and found that both led to defective female fertility. Survivin deletion in oocytes did not affect oocyte growth, viability and ovulation, but caused tetraploid egg production and thus female infertility. Further exploration revealed that Survivin was essential for regulating proper meiotic spindle organization, spindle assembly checkpoint activity, timely metaphase-to-anaphase transition and cytokinesis. Mutant mice with Survivin depleted in GCs showed reduced ovulation and subfertility, caused by defective follicular growth, increased follicular atresia and impaired luteinization. These findings suggest that Survivin has an important role in regulating folliculogenesis and oogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. PMID:24675472

  9. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Werdin Gonzlez, Jorge Omar; Gutirrez, Mara Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernndez Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter<235 nm (PDI<0.280) and a loading efficacy>75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control. PMID:24359912

  10. Non-Hsp genes are essential for HSF1-mediated maintenance of whole body homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian tissues are always exposed to diverse threats from pathological conditions and aging. Therefore, the molecular systems that protect the cells from these threats are indispensable for cell survival. A variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cause intracellular damage and disturb homeostasis. Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) positively regulates heat shock protein (Hsp) and maintains the precise folding of proteins. Moreover, HSF1 induces the non-Hsp genes expression, and degrades damaged/misfolded protein. Recently, my colleagues and I revealed non-Hsp genes have more protective roles than Hsps at the cellular level. However, whether these protective systems are similarly important to cellular defense in each tissue is still elusive. In this study, I compared polyglutamine (polyQ) protein aggregations/inclusion development in each tissue of WT- and HSF1KO-Huntingtons disease (HD) mice, and examined the expression of the eight non-Hsp HSF1 target genes that have a strong suppressive effect on polyQ protein aggregation. Of these genes, Nfatc2, Pdzk3, Cryab, Csrp2, and Prame were detected in most tissues, but the other genes were not. Surprisingly, the obvious effect of HSF1 deficiency on the expression of these five genes was detected in only heart, spleen, and stomach. In addition, polyQ protein aggregations/inclusion was not detected in any tissues of WT-HD and HSF1KO-HD mice, but higher level of pre-aggregative polyQ protein was detected in HSF1KO-HD tissues. These results indicate non-Hsp genes are indispensable for the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis in mammalian tissues, resulting in whole body homeostasis. PMID:26251235

  11. Identification of a gene essential for protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kazushige; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Sano, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Hosaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX during the synthesis of tetrapyrrole molecules. Protox is encoded by the hemY gene in eukaryotes and by the hemG gene in many ?-proteobacteria, including Escherichia coli. It has been suggested that other bacteria possess a yet unidentified type of Protox. To identify a unique bacterial gene encoding Protox, we first introduced the Arabidopsis hemY gene into the genome of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We subsequently mutagenized the cells by transposon tagging and screened the tagged lines for mutants that were sensitive to acifluorfen, which is a specific inhibitor of the hemY-type Protox. Several cell lines containing the tagged slr1790 locus exhibited acifluorfen sensitivity. The slr1790 gene encodes a putative membrane-spanning protein that is distantly related to the M subunit of NADH dehydrogenase complex I. We attempted to disrupt this gene in the wild-type background of Synechocystis, but we were only able to obtain heteroplasmic disruptants. These cells accumulated a substantial amount of protoporphyrin IX, suggesting that the slr1790 gene is essential for growth and Protox activity of cells. We found that most cyanobacteria and many other bacteria possess slr1790 homologs. We overexpressed an slr1790 homolog of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in Escherichia coli and found that this recombinant protein possesses Protox activity in vitro. These results collectively demonstrate that slr1790 encodes a unique Protox enzyme and we propose naming the slr1790 gene hemJ. PMID:20823222

  12. Live imaging RNAi screen reveals genes essential for meiosis in mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pfender, Sybille; Kuznetsov, Vitaliy; Pasternak, Micha?; Tischer, Thomas; Santhanam, Balaji; Schuh, Melina

    2015-08-13

    During fertilization, an egg and a sperm fuse to form a new embryo. Eggs develop from oocytes in a process called meiosis. Meiosis in human oocytes is highly error-prone, and defective eggs are the leading cause of pregnancy loss and several genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome. Which genes safeguard accurate progression through meiosis is largely unclear. Here we develop high-content phenotypic screening methods for the systematic identification of mammalian meiotic genes. We targeted 774 genes by RNA interference within follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes to block protein expression from an early stage of oocyte development onwards. We then analysed the function of several genes simultaneously by high-resolution imaging of chromosomes and microtubules in live oocytes and scored each oocyte quantitatively for 50 phenotypes, generating a comprehensive resource of meiotic gene function. The screen generated an unprecedented annotated data set of meiotic progression in 2,241 mammalian oocytes, which allowed us to analyse systematically which defects are linked to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis, identifying progression into anaphase with misaligned chromosomes as well as defects in spindle organization as risk factors. This study demonstrates how high-content screens can be performed in oocytes, and allows systematic studies of meiosis in mammals. PMID:26147080

  13. Live imaging RNAi screen reveals genes essential for meiosis in mammalian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tischer, Thomas; Santhanam, Balaji; Schuh, Melina

    2015-01-01

    During fertilization, an egg and a sperm fuse to form a new embryo. Eggs develop from oocytes in a process called meiosis. Meiosis in human oocytes is highly error-prone1,2, and defective eggs are the leading cause of pregnancy loss and several genetic disorders such as Downs syndrome3-5. Which genes safeguard accurate progression through meiosis is largely unclear. Here, we developed high-content phenotypic screening methods for the systematic identification of mammalian meiotic genes. We targeted 774 genes by RNAi within follicle-enclosed mouse oocytes to block protein expression from an early stage of oocyte development onwards. We then analysed the function of several genes simultaneously by high-resolution imaging of chromosomes and microtubules in live oocytes and scored each oocyte quantitatively for 50 phenotypes, generating a comprehensive resource of meiotic gene function. The screen generated an unprecedented annotated dataset of meiotic progression in 2,241 mammalian oocytes, which allowed us to analyse systematically which defects are linked to abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis, identifying progression into anaphase with misaligned chromosomes as well as defects in spindle organization as risk factors. This study demonstrates how high-content screens can be performed in oocytes, and now allows systematic studies of meiosis in mammals. PMID:26147080

  14. RAP1 Is Essential for Silencing Telomeric Variant Surface Glycoprotein Genes in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Figueiredo, Luisa M.; Espinal, Amin; Okubo, Eiji; Li, Bibo

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma brucei expresses Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes in a strictly monoallelic fashion in its mammalian hosts, but it is unclear how this important virulence mechanism is enforced. Telomere position effect (TPE), an epigenetic phenomenon, has been proposed to play a critical role in VSG regulation, yet no telomeric protein has been identified whose disruption led to VSG derepression. We now identify tbRAP1 as an intrinsic component of the T. brucei telomere complex and a major regulator for silencing VSG expression sites (ESs). Knockdown of tbRAP1 led to derepression of all VSGs in silent ESs, but not VSGs located elsewhere, and resulted in stronger derepression of genes located within 10 kb from telomeres than genes located further upstream. This graduated silencing pattern suggests that telomere integrity plays a key role in tbRAP1-dependent silencing and VSG regulation. PMID:19345190

  15. The eIF2?/ATF4 pathway is essential for stress-induced autophagy gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Bchir, Wafa; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Carraro, Valrie; Averous, Julien; Jousse, Cline; Muranishi, Yuki; Parry, Laurent; Stepien, Georges; Fafournoux, Pierre; Bruhat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In response to different environmental stresses, eIF2? phosphorylation represses global translation coincident with preferential translation of ATF4, a master regulator controlling the transcription of key genes essential for adaptative functions. Here, we establish that the eIF2?/ATF4 pathway directs an autophagy gene transcriptional program in response to amino acid starvation or endoplasmic reticulum stress. The eIF2?-kinases GCN2 and PERK and the transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP are also required to increase the transcription of a set of genes implicated in the formation, elongation and function of the autophagosome. We also identify three classes of autophagy genes according to their dependence on ATF4 and CHOP and the binding of these factors to specific promoter cis elements. Furthermore, different combinations of CHOP and ATF4 bindings to target promoters allow the trigger of a differential transcriptional response according to the stress intensity. Overall, this study reveals a novel regulatory role of the eIF2?ATF4 pathway in the fine-tuning of the autophagy gene transcription program in response to stresses. PMID:23804767

  16. In vivo gene silencing identifies the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome as essential for the bacteria to persist in mice.

    PubMed

    Gandotra, Sheetal; Schnappinger, Dirk; Monteleone, Mercedes; Hillen, Wolfgang; Ehrt, Sabine

    2007-12-01

    The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as a human pathogen relies on its ability to resist eradication by the immune system. The identification of mechanisms that enable Mtb to persist is key for finding ways to limit latent tuberculosis, which affects one-third of the world's population. Here we show that conditional gene silencing can be used to determine whether an Mtb gene required for optimal growth in vitro is also important for virulence and, if so, during which phase of an infection it is required. Application of this approach to the prcBA genes, which encode the core of the mycobacterial proteasome, revealed an unpredicted requirement of the core proteasome for the persistence of Mtb during the chronic phase of infection in mice. Proteasome depletion also attenuated Mtb in interferon-gamma-deficient mice, pointing to a function of the proteasome beyond defense against the adaptive immune response. Genes that are essential for growth in vitro, in vivo or both account for approximately 20% of Mtb's genome. Conditional gene silencing could therefore facilitate the validation of up to 800 potential Mtb drug targets and improve our understanding of host-pathogen dynamics. PMID:18059281

  17. Epistasisthe essential role of gene interactions in the structure and evolution of genetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Patrick C.

    2009-01-01

    Epistasis, or interactions between genes, has long been recognized to be fundamentally important to understanding both the structure and function of genetic pathways and the evolutionary dynamics of complex genetic systems. With the advent of high throughput functional genomics and the emergence of systems approaches to biology, as well as a newfound ability to pursue the genetic basis of evolution down to specific molecular changes, there is a renewed appreciation both for the importance of studying gene interactions and for addressing these questions in a unified, quantitative manner. PMID:18852697

  18. The hrp genes of Pseudomonas cichorii are essential for pathogenicity on eggplant but not on lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Hojo, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kajihara, Shigeru; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii causes necrotic lesions in eggplant and rot in lettuce. Through transposon insertion into P. cichorii strain SPC9018 we produced two mutants, 4-57 and 2-99, that lost virulence on eggplant but not lettuce. Analyses showed that a transposon was inserted into the hrpG gene in 4-57 and the hrcT gene in 2-99. Nucleotide sequences of the hrp genes of SPC9018 are homologous to those of Pseudomonas viridiflava BS group strains. The pathogenicity of 4-57 on eggplant was restored by transformation with an hrpF operon, originating from either SPC9018 or the BS group member P. viridiflava strain 9504 (Pv9504). These data suggested the involvement of hrp genes in the pathogenicity of SPC9018 on eggplant, and functional conservation of hrpF operons between SPC9018 and Pv9504. Both the hrpS mutant and the hrpL mutant were unable to cause necrotic lesions on eggplant leaves but retained their pathogenicity against lettuce. These results suggest that the pathogenicity of P. cichorii is hrp-dependent in eggplant, but not in lettuce. PMID:18832299

  19. EXPORTIN1 Genes are Essential for Development and Function of the Gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gametes are produced in plants through mitotic divisions in the haploid gametophytes. We investigated the role of EXPORTIN1 (XPO1) genes during the development of both female and male gametophytes of Arabidopsis. Exportins exclude target proteins from the nucleus and are also part of a complex recru...

  20. Haploinsufficiency screen highlights two distinct groups of ribosomal protein genes essential for embryonic stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Simon; MacRae, Tara; Bilodeau, Mlanie; Sargeant, Tobias; Sauvageau, Guy

    2015-02-17

    In a functional genomics screen of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with nested hemizygous chromosomal deletions, we reveal that ribosomal protein (RP) genes are the most significant haploinsufficient determinants for embryoid body (EB) formation. Hemizygocity for three RP genes (Rps5, Rps14, or Rps28), distinguished by the proximity of their corresponding protein to the ribosome's mRNA exit site, is associated with the most profound phenotype. This EB phenotype was fully rescued by BAC or cDNA complementation but not by the reduction of p53 levels, although such reduction was effective with most other RP-deleted clones corresponding to non-mRNA exit-site proteins. RNA-sequencing studies further revealed that undifferentiated ESCs hemizygous for Rps5 showed reduced expression levels of several mesoderm-specific genes as compared with wild-type counterparts. Together, these results reveal that RP gene dosage limits the differentiation, not the self-renewal, of mouse ESCs. They also highlight two separate mechanisms underlying this process, one of which is p53 independent. PMID:25646475

  1. Female Aging Alters Expression of Human Cumulus Cells Genes that Are Essential for Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Assou, Said; Ferrires, Alice; Bringer Deutsch, Sophie; Gala, Anna; Lecellier, Charles-Henri; At-Ahmed, Ounissa; Hamamah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Impact of female aging is an important issue in human reproduction. There was a need for an extensive analysis of age impact on transcriptome profile of cumulus cells (CCs) to link oocyte quality and developmental potential with patient's age. CCs from patients of three age groups were analyzed individually using microarrays. RT-qPCR validation was performed on independent CC cohorts. We focused here on pathways affected by aging in CCs that may explain the decline of oocyte quality with age. In CCs collected from patients >37 years, angiogenic genes including ANGPTL4, LEPR, TGFBR3, and FGF2 were significantly overexpressed compared to patients of the two younger groups. In contrast genes implicated in TGF-? signaling pathway such as AMH, TGFB1, inhibin, and activin receptor were underexpressed. CCs from patients whose ages are between 31 and 36 years showed an overexpression of genes related to insulin signaling pathway such as IGFBP3, PIK3R1, and IGFBP5. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the microRNAs that are potential regulators of the differentially expressed genes of the study. It revealed that the pathways impacted by age were potential targets of specific miRNAs previously identified in our CCs small RNAs sequencing. PMID:25276836

  2. Essential role of the cytochrome P450 CYP4F22 in the production of acylceramide, the key lipid for skin permeability barrier formation

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yusuke; Nakamichi, Shota; Ohkuni, Aya; Kamiyama, Nozomi; Naoe, Ayano; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Yokose, Urara; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Ishikawa, Junko; Akiyama, Masashi; Kihara, Akio

    2015-01-01

    A skin permeability barrier is essential for terrestrial animals, and its impairment causes several cutaneous disorders such as ichthyosis and atopic dermatitis. Although acylceramide is an important lipid for the skin permeability barrier, details of its production have yet to be determined, leaving the molecular mechanism of skin permeability barrier formation unclear. Here we identified the cytochrome P450 gene CYP4F22 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 22) as the long-sought fatty acid ?-hydroxylase gene required for acylceramide production. CYP4F22 has been identified as one of the autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis-causative genes. Ichthyosis-mutant proteins exhibited reduced enzyme activity, indicating correlation between activity and pathology. Furthermore, lipid analysis of a patient with ichthyosis showed a drastic decrease in acylceramide production. We determined that CYP4F22 was a type I membrane protein that locates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that the ?-hydroxylation occurs on the cytoplasmic side of the ER. The preferred substrate of the CYP4F22 was fatty acids with a carbon chain length of 28 or more (?C28). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CYP4F22 is an ultra-long-chain fatty acid ?-hydroxylase responsible for acylceramide production and provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of skin permeability barrier formation. Furthermore, based on the results obtained here, we proposed a detailed reaction series for acylceramide production. PMID:26056268

  3. Essential role of the cytochrome P450 CYP4F22 in the production of acylceramide, the key lipid for skin permeability barrier formation.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yusuke; Nakamichi, Shota; Ohkuni, Aya; Kamiyama, Nozomi; Naoe, Ayano; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Yokose, Urara; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Ishikawa, Junko; Akiyama, Masashi; Kihara, Akio

    2015-06-23

    A skin permeability barrier is essential for terrestrial animals, and its impairment causes several cutaneous disorders such as ichthyosis and atopic dermatitis. Although acylceramide is an important lipid for the skin permeability barrier, details of its production have yet to be determined, leaving the molecular mechanism of skin permeability barrier formation unclear. Here we identified the cytochrome P450 gene CYP4F22 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 22) as the long-sought fatty acid ?-hydroxylase gene required for acylceramide production. CYP4F22 has been identified as one of the autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis-causative genes. Ichthyosis-mutant proteins exhibited reduced enzyme activity, indicating correlation between activity and pathology. Furthermore, lipid analysis of a patient with ichthyosis showed a drastic decrease in acylceramide production. We determined that CYP4F22 was a type I membrane protein that locates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that the ?-hydroxylation occurs on the cytoplasmic side of the ER. The preferred substrate of the CYP4F22 was fatty acids with a carbon chain length of 28 or more (?C28). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CYP4F22 is an ultra-long-chain fatty acid ?-hydroxylase responsible for acylceramide production and provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of skin permeability barrier formation. Furthermore, based on the results obtained here, we proposed a detailed reaction series for acylceramide production. PMID:26056268

  4. NMD is essential for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and for eliminating by-products of programmed DNA rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Damgaard, Inge; Bryder, David; Theilgaard-Mnch, Kim; Thoren, Lina A.; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.; Nerlov, Claus; Porse, Bo Torben

    2008-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a post-transcriptional surveillance process that eliminates mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs). NMD has been hypothesized to impact on several aspects of cellular function; however, its importance in the context of a mammalian organism has not been addressed in detail. Here we use mouse genetics to demonstrate that hematopoietic-specific deletion of Upf2, a core NMD factor, led to the rapid, complete, and lasting cell-autonomous extinction of all hematopoietic stem and progenitor populations. In contrast, more differentiated cells were only mildly affected in Upf2-null mice, suggesting that NMD is mainly essential for proliferating cells. Furthermore, we show that UPF2 loss resulted in the accumulation of nonproductive rearrangement by-products from the Tcrb locus and that this, as opposed to the general loss of NMD, was particularly detrimental to developing T-cells. At the molecular level, gene expression analysis showed that Upf2 deletion led to a profound skewing toward up-regulated mRNAs, highly enriched in transcripts derived from processed pseudogenes, and that NMD impacts on regulated alternative splicing events. Collectively, our data demonstrate a unique requirement of NMD for organismal survival. PMID:18483223

  5. The stum gene is essential for mechanical sensing in proprioceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Desai, Bela S; Chadha, Abhishek; Cook, Boaz

    2014-03-14

    Animal locomotion depends on proprioceptive feedback, which is generated by mechanosensory neurons. We performed a genetic screen for impaired walking in Drosophila and isolated a gene, stumble (stum). The Stum protein has orthologs in animals ranging from nematodes to mammals and is predicted to contain two transmembrane domains. Expression of the mouse orthologs of stum in mutant flies rescued their phenotype, which demonstrates functional conservation. Dendrites of stum-expressing neurons in legs were stretched by both flexion and extension of corresponding joints. Joint angles that induced dendritic stretching also elicited elevation of cellular Ca(2+) levels-not seen in stum mutants. Thus, we have identified an evolutionarily conserved gene, stum, which is required for transduction of mechanical stimuli in a specific subpopulation of Drosophila proprioceptive neurons that sense joint angles. PMID:24626929

  6. Listeriolysin O is essential for virulence of Listeria monocytogenes: direct evidence obtained by gene complementation.

    PubMed Central

    Cossart, P; Vicente, M F; Mengaud, J; Baquero, F; Perez-Diaz, J C; Berche, P

    1989-01-01

    The role of listeriolysin O in the intracellular multiplication of Listeria monocytogenes and, therefore, its pathogenicity was questioned through a genetic complementation study. A nonhemolytic mutant was generated by inserting a single copy of transposon Tn917 in the bacterial chromosome. This insertion was localized by DNA sequence analysis in hlyA, the gene coding for listeriolysin O. As was another mutant that we previously characterized, this mutant was avirulent in the mouse. It was transformed with a plasmid carrying only hlyA, able to replicate in L. monocytogenes, and stably maintained in vitro and in vivo. The complemented strain displayed a hemolytic phenotype identical to that of the wild-type strain and was fully virulent, therefore attributing a crucial role to listeriolysin O in virulence and excluding the hypothesis of a polar effect of the transposon insertion on genes adjacent to hlyA and possibly involved in virulence. Images PMID:2509366

  7. Repellency of an Over-the-counter Essential Oil Product from China against Workers of Red Imported Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repellency of an over-the-counter essential oil product from China, and its major components against workers of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was evaluated using an ant digging bioassay. Three concentrations (1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 mg/kg in sand) of the product were tested. At 10...

  8. Inducible product gene expression technology tailored to bioprocess engineering.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Bioprocess engineering has developed as a discipline to design optimal culture conditions and bioreactor operation protocols for production cell lines engineered for constitutive expression of desired protein pharmaceuticals. With the advent of heterologous gene regulation systems it has become possible to fine-tune expression of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals to optimal levels and to conditionally engineer cell metabolism for the best production performance. However, most of the small-molecules used to trigger expression of product or metabolic engineering product genes are incompatible with downstream processing regulations or process economics. Recent progress in product gene control design has resulted in the development of bioprocess-compatible regulation systems, which are responsive to physical parameters such as temperature or physiologic trigger molecules that are either an inherent part of host cell metabolism or intrinsic components of licensed protein-free cell culture media, such as redox status, vitamin H and gaseous acetaldehyde. While all of these systems have been shown to fine-tune product gene expression independent of the host cell metabolism some of them can be plugged into metabolic networks to capture critical physiologic parameters and convert them into an optimal production response. Assembly of individual product gene control modalities into synthetic networks has recently enabled construction of autonomously regulated time-delay or cell density-sensitive gene circuits, which trigger population-wide induction of product gene expression at a predefined time or culture density. We provide a comprehensive overview on the latest developments in the design of bioprocess-compatible product gene control systems. PMID:17933507

  9. The Association of Mitofusion-2 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility of Essential Hypertension in Northern Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Bei; Li, Chuang; Liu, Jielin; Liu, Ya; Sun, Dongdong; Ma, Hanying; Wen, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mitofusion-2 (Mfn2) played an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, which were found to be involved in the development of hypertension. So we inferred that the Mfn2 gene may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mfn2 gene were associated with essential hypertension (EH) in northern Han Chinese. Methods: We genotyped 6 tagging SNPs of Mfn2 gene (rs2336384, rs2295281, rs17037564, rs2236057, rs2236058 and rs3766741) with the TaqMan assay in 626 hypertensive patients and 618 controls. Results: Logistic regression analysis indicated that CC+CA genotype of rs2336384 and AA+AG genotype of rs2236057 were significantly associated with increased risk of EH (OR=1.617, P=0.005; OR=1.418, P=0.031, respectively). GG genotype of rs2236058 and GG+CG genotype of rs3766741 were found to be significantly associated with decreased risk of EH (OR=0.662, P=0.023; OR=0.639, P=0.024).When stratified by gender, for rs2336384, rs2236057 and rs2236058, significant association was observed in males, but not in females. Haplotype analysis indicated that the CCAACC haplotype was positively correlated with EH and there was a negative correlation between ACAGGG haplotype and EH. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Mfn2 gene polymorphisms were associated with essential hypertension in northern Han Chinese population, especially in male subjects. PMID:26816493

  10. RONIN Is an Essential Transcriptional Regulator of Genes Required for Mitochondrial Function in the Developing Retina.

    PubMed

    Poch, Ross A; Zhang, Min; Rueda, Elda M; Tong, Xuefei; McElwee, Melissa L; Wong, Leeyean; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Dejosez, Marion; Burns, Alan R; Fox, Donald A; Martin, James F; Zwaka, Thomas P; Dickinson, Mary E

    2016-02-23

    A fundamental principle governing organ size and function is the fine balance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Here, we identify RONIN (THAP11) as a key transcriptional regulator of retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation. RPC-specific loss of Ronin results in a phenotype strikingly similar to that resulting from the G1- to S-phase arrest and photoreceptor degeneration observed in the Cyclin D1 null mutants. However, we determined that, rather than regulating canonical cell-cycle genes, RONIN regulates a cohort of mitochondrial genes including components of the electron transport chain (ETC), which have been recently implicated as direct regulators of the cell cycle. Coincidentally, with premature cell-cycle exit, Ronin mutants exhibited deficient ETC activity, reduced ATP levels, and increased oxidative stress that we ascribe to specific loss of subunits within complexes I, III, and IV. These data implicate RONIN as a positive regulator of mitochondrial gene expression that coordinates mitochondrial activity and cell-cycle progression. PMID:26876175

  11. Transcriptional profiling of endogenous germ layer precursor cells identifies dusp4 as an essential gene in zebrafish endoderm specification

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jamie L.; Snir, Mirit; Noushmehr, Houtan; Kirby, Martha; Hong, Sung-Kook; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Feldman, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A major goal for developmental biologists is to define the behaviors and molecular contents of differentiating cells. We have devised a strategy for isolating cells from diverse embryonic regions and stages in the zebrafish, using computer-guided laser photoconversion of injected Kaede protein and flow cytometry. This strategy enabled us to perform a genome-wide transcriptome comparison of germ layer precursor cells. Mesendoderm and ectoderm precursors cells isolated by this method differentiated appropriately in transplantation assays. Microarray analysis of these cells reidentified known genes at least as efficiently as previously reported strategies that relied on artificial mesendoderm activation or inhibition. We also identified a large set of uncharacterized mesendoderm-enriched genes as well as ectoderm-enriched genes. Loss-of-function studies revealed that one of these genes, the MAP kinase inhibitor dusp4, is essential for early development. Embryos injected with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides that targeted Dusp4 displayed necrosis of head tissues. Marker analysis during late gastrulation revealed a specific loss of sox17, but not of other endoderm markers, and analysis at later stages revealed a loss of foregut and pancreatic endoderm. This specific loss of sox17 establishes a new class of endoderm specification defect. PMID:18719100

  12. A Conditional Mouse Model for Measuring the Frequency of Homologous Recombination Events In Vivo in the Absence of Essential Genes?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adam D.; Claybon, Alison B.; Bishop, Alexander J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and repair DNA damage is crucial to the prevention of various diseases. Loss of function of genes involved in these processes is known to result in significant developmental defects and/or predisposition to cancer. One such DNA repair mechanism, homologous recombination, has the capacity to repair a wide variety of lesions. Knockout mouse models of genes thought to be involved in DNA repair processes are frequently lethal, making in vivo studies very difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, we set out to develop an in vivo conditional mouse model system to facilitate investigations into the involvement of essential genes in homologous recombination. To test our model, we measured the frequency of spontaneous homologous recombination using the pink-eyed unstable mouse model, in which we conditionally excised either Blm or full-length Brca1 (breast cancer 1, early onset). These two genes are hypothesized to have opposing roles in homologous recombination. In summary, our in vivo data supports in vitro studies suggesting that BLM suppresses homologous recombination, while full-length BRCA1 promotes this process. PMID:21709021

  13. The MET13 Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Essential for Infection-Related Morphogenesis in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Congcong; Li, Ya; Yue, Xiaofeng; Ma, Zhonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Wang, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs) play a key role in the biosynthesis of methionine in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we report the identification of a novel T-DNA-tagged mutant WH672 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, which was defective in vegetative growth, conidiation and pathogenicity. Analysis of the mutation confirmed a single T-DNA insertion upstream of MET13, which encodes a 626-amino-acid protein encoding a MTHFR. Targeted gene deletion of MET13 resulted in mutants that were non-pathogenic and significantly impaired in aerial growth and melanin pigmentation. All phenotypes associated with Δmet13 mutants could be overcome by addition of exogenous methionine. The M. oryzae genome contains a second predicted MTHFR-encoding gene, MET12. The deduced amino acid sequences of Met13 and Met12 share 32% identity. Interestingly, Δmet12 mutants produced significantly less conidia compared with the isogenic wild-type strain and grew very poorly in the absence of methionine, but were fully pathogenic. Deletion of both genes resulted in Δmet13Δmet12 mutants that showed similar phenotypes to single Δmet13 mutants. Taken together, we conclude that the MTHFR gene, MET13, is essential for infection-related morphogenesis by the rice blast fungus M. oryzae. PMID:24116181

  14. Characterization of a Multisubunit Transcription Factor Complex Essential for Spliced-Leader RNA Gene Transcription in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Schimanski, Bernd; Nguyen, Tu N.; Gnzl, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    In the unicellular human parasites Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania spp., the spliced-leader (SL) RNA is a key molecule in gene expression donating its 5?-terminal region in SL addition trans splicing of nuclear pre-mRNA. While there is no evidence that this process exists in mammals, it is obligatory in mRNA maturation of trypanosomatid parasites. Hence, throughout their life cycle, these organisms crucially depend on high levels of SL RNA synthesis. As putative SL RNA gene transcription factors, a partially characterized small nuclear RNA-activating protein complex (SNAPc) and the TATA-binding protein related factor 4 (TRF4) have been identified thus far. Here, by tagging TRF4 with a novel epitope combination termed PTP, we tandem affinity purified from crude T. brucei extracts a stable and transcriptionally active complex of six proteins. Besides TRF4 these were identified as extremely divergent subunits of SNAPc and of transcription factor IIA (TFIIA). The latter finding was unexpected since genome databases of trypanosomatid parasites appeared to lack general class II transcription factors. As we demonstrate, the TRF4/SNAPc/TFIIA complex binds specifically to the SL RNA gene promoter upstream sequence element and is absolutely essential for SL RNA gene transcription in vitro. PMID:16055738

  15. Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M

    1993-01-01

    A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

  16. Cross-Ontological Analytics: Combining Associative and Hierarchical Relations in the Gene Ontologies to Assess Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.

    2006-05-28

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the gene ontologies, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes/gene products is obtained by comparing gene ontology (GO) annotations associated with the gene/gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene ontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene ontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy.

  17. Autophagy-related gene Atg5 is essential for astrocyte differentiation in the developing mouse cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shukun; Li, Baoguo; Qiao, Huimin; Lv, Xiaohui; Liang, Qingli; Shi, Zixiao; Xia, Wenlong; Ji, Fen; Jiao, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte differentiation is essential for late embryonic brain development, and autophagy is active during this process. However, it is unknown whether and how autophagy regulates astrocyte differentiation. Here, we show that Atg5, which is necessary for autophagosome formation, regulates astrocyte differentiation. Atg5 deficiency represses the generation of astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, Atg5 overexpression increases the number of astrocytes substantially. We show that Atg5 activates the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by degrading the inhibitory protein SOCS2. The astrocyte differentiation defect caused by Atg5 loss can be rescued by human Atg5 overexpression, STAT3 overexpression, and SOCS2 knockdown. Together, these data demonstrate that Atg5 regulates astrocyte differentiation, with potential implications for brain disorders with autophagy deficiency. PMID:25227738

  18. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5' UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

  19. Circadian Clock Genes Are Essential for Normal Adult Neurogenesis, Differentiation, and Fate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Kondratov, Roman V.; Jamasbi, Roudabeh J.

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis creates new neurons and glia from stem cells in the human brain throughout life. It is best understood in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Circadian rhythms have been identified in the hippocampus, but the role of any endogenous circadian oscillator cells in hippocampal neurogenesis and their importance in learning or memory remains unclear. Any study of stem cell regulation by intrinsic circadian timing within the DG is complicated by modulation from circadian clocks elsewhere in the brain. To examine circadian oscillators in greater isolation, neurosphere cultures were prepared from the DG of two knockout mouse lines that lack a functional circadian clock and from mPer1::luc mice to identify circadian oscillations in gene expression. Circadian mPer1 gene activity rhythms were recorded in neurospheres maintained in a culture medium that induces neurogenesis but not in one that maintains the stem cell state. Although the differentiating neural stem progenitor cells of spheres were rhythmic, evidence of any mature neurons was extremely sparse. The circadian timing signal originated in undifferentiated cells within the neurosphere. This conclusion was supported by immunocytochemistry for mPER1 protein that was localized to the inner, more stem cell-like neurosphere core. To test for effects of the circadian clock on neurogenesis, media conditions were altered to induce neurospheres from BMAL1 knockout mice to differentiate. These cultures displayed unusually high differentiation into glia rather than neurons according to GFAP and NeuN expression, respectively, and very few BetaIII tubulin-positive, immature neurons were observed. The knockout neurospheres also displayed areas visibly devoid of cells and had overall higher cell death. Neurospheres from arrhythmic mice lacking two other core clock genes, Cry1 and Cry2, showed significantly reduced growth and increased astrocyte proliferation during differentiation, but they generated normal percentages of neuronal cells. Neuronal fate commitment therefore appears to be controlled through a non-clock function of BMAL1. This study provides insight into how cell autonomous circadian clocks and clock genes regulate adult neural stem cells with implications for treating neurodegenerative disorders and impaired brain functions by manipulating neurogenesis. PMID:26439128

  20. Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encodes a serine peptidase essential for colonisation.

    PubMed

    Karlyshev, A V; Thacker, G; Jones, M A; Clements, M O; Wren, B W

    2014-01-01

    According to MEROPS peptidase database, Campylobacter species encode 64 predicted peptidases. However, proteolytic properties of only a few of these proteins have been confirmed experimentally. In this study we identified and characterised a Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encoding a novel peptidase. The proteolytic activity associated with this enzyme was demonstrated in cell lysates. Moreover, enzymatic studies conducted with a purified protein confirmed a prediction of it being a serine peptidase. Furthermore, cj0511 mutant was found to be severely attenuated in chicken colonisation model, suggesting a role of the Cj0511 protein in infection. PMID:24918062

  1. Individual Constituents from Essential Oils Inhibit Biofilm Mass Production by Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; Pagn, Rafael; Lpez, Daniel; Garca-Gonzalo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus represents a problem in both the medical field and the food industry, because the biofilm structure provides protection to embedded cells and it strongly attaches to surfaces. This circumstance is leading to many research programs seeking new alternatives to control biofilm formation by this pathogen. In this study we show that a potent inhibition of biofilm mass production can be achieved in community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive strains using plant compounds, such as individual constituents (ICs) of essential oils (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene). The Crystal Violet staining technique was used to evaluate biofilm mass formation during 40 h of incubation. Carvacrol is the most effective IC, abrogating biofilm formation in all strains tested, while CA-MRSA was the most sensitive phenotype to any of the ICs tested. Inhibition of planktonic cells by ICs during initial growth stages could partially explain the inhibition of biofilm formation. Overall, our results show the potential of EOs to prevent biofilm formation, especially in strains that exhibit resistance to other antimicrobials. As these compounds are food additives generally recognized as safe, their anti-biofilm properties may lead to important new applications, such as sanitizers, in the food industry or in clinical settings. PMID:26102069

  2. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

  3. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Bi, Ruiye; Densmore, Michael J; Sato, Tadatoshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Yuan, Quan; Zhou, Xuedong; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid-hormone-type 1 receptor (PTH1R) is extensively expressed in key regulatory organs for systemic mineral ion homeostasis, including kidney and bone. We investigated the bone-specific functions of PTH1R in modulating mineral ion homeostasis by generating a novel mouse model in which PTH1R is ablated in the limb mesenchyme using Prx1Cre transgenic mice. Such ablation decreased FGF23 protein and serum levels by 50%, despite normal Fgf23 mRNA levels in long bones. Circulating calcium and PTH levels were unchanged, but inorganic phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were significantly decreased and accompanied by elevated urinary calcium and phosphate wasting. Key renal genes for balancing mineral ion homeostasis, calbindinD28k, Klotho, and Napi2a were suppressed by 30-40%. Intermittent hPTH(1-34) injections increased Fgf23 mRNA (7.3-fold), Nurr1 mRNA (3.1-fold), and serum intact-FGF23 (1.6-fold) in controls, but failed to induce Fgf23, Nurr1 mRNA, or intact FGF23 production in mutants. Moreover, a significant elevation in serum C-terminal-FGF23 levels (4-fold) was detected in both genotypes. PTH markedly downregulated Galnt3 expression (2.7-fold) in controls but not in mutants. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of PTH1R in long bones to regulate systemic mineral ion homeostasis and the direct induction of FGF23 by PTH1R signaling.-Fan, Y., Bi, R., Densmore, M. J., Sato, T., Kobayashi, T., Yuan, Q., Zhou, X., Erben, R. G., Lanske, B. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:26428657

  4. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples. PMID:20401550

  5. The Tolkin Gene Is a Tolloid/Bmp-1 Homologue That Is Essential for Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, A. L.; Xie, T.; Bossie, C. A.; Blackman, R. K.; Padgett, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene, a member of the tranforming growth factor ? superfamily of growth factors, is critical for specification of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, for proper formation of the midgut, and for formation of Drosophila adult structures. The Drosophila tolloid gene has been shown to genetically interact with dpp. The genetic interaction between tolloid and dpp suggests a model in which the tolloid protein participates in a complex containing the DPP ligand, its protease serving to activate DPP, either directly or indirectly. We report here the identification and cloning of another Drosophila member of the tolloid/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 1 family, tolkin, which is located 700 bp 5' to tolloid. Its overall structure is like tolloid, with an N-terminal metalloprotease domain, five complement subcomponents C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1 (CUB) repeats and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats. Its expression pattern overlaps that of tolloid and dpp in early embryos and diverges in later stages. In larval tissues, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed uniformly in the imaginal disks. In the brain, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed in the outer proliferation center, whereas tolkin has another stripe of expression near the outer proliferation center. Analysis of lethal mutations in tolkin indicate it is vital during larval and pupal stages. Analysis of its mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggests that its functions may be mostly independent of tolloid and dpp. PMID:8536976

  6. Sperm-Associated Antigen17 Gene Is Essential for Motile Cilia Function and Neonatal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Maria Eugenia; Zhang, Zhibing; Costanzo, Richard M.; Henderson, Scott C.; Corwin, Frank D.; Zweit, Jamal; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Subler, Mark; Salloum, Fadi N.; Rubin, Bruce K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), resulting from defects in cilia assembly or motility, is caused by mutations in a number of genes encoding axonemal proteins. PCD phenotypes are variable, and include recurrent respiratory tract infections, bronchiectasis, hydrocephaly, situs inversus, and male infertility. We generated knockout mice for the sperm-associated antigen17 (Spag17) gene, which encodes a central pair (CP) protein present in the axonemes of cells with 9 + 2 motile cilia or flagella. The targeting of Spag17 resulted in a severe phenotype characterized by immotile nasal and tracheal cilia, reduced clearance of nasal mucus, profound respiratory distress associated with lung fluid accumulation and disruption of the alveolar epithelium, cerebral ventricular expansion consistent with emerging hydrocephalus, failure to suckle, and neonatal demise within 12 hours of birth. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the loss of one CP microtubule in approximately one quarter of tracheal cilia axonemes, an absence of a C1 microtubule projection, and other less frequent CP structural abnormalities. SPAG6 and SPAG16 (CP proteins that interact with SPAG17) were increased in tracheal tissue from SPAG17-deficient mice. We conclude that Spag17 plays a critical role in the function and structure of motile cilia, and that neonatal lethality is likely explained by impaired airway mucociliary clearance. PMID:23418344

  7. cor, a Novel Carbon Monoxide Resistance Gene, Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, Vineetha M.; Manzanillo, Paolo S.; Nair, Vidhya R.; Marciano, Denise K.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Grishin, Nick V.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Shiloh, Michael U.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. PMID:24255121

  8. Involvement of the Haemophilus ducreyi gmhA Gene Product in Lipooligosaccharide Expression and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Beth A.; Stevens, Marla K.; Hansen, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) present in the outer membrane of Haemophilus ducreyi is likely a virulence factor for this sexually transmitted pathogen. An open reading frame in H. ducreyi 35000 was found to encode a predicted protein that had 87% identity with the protein product of the gmhA (isn) gene of Haemophilus influenzae. In H. influenzae type b, inactivation of the gmhA gene caused the synthesis of a significantly truncated LOS which possessed only lipid A and a single 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid molecule (A. Preston, D. J. Maskell, A. Johnson, and E. R. Moxon, J. Bacteriol. 178:396402, 1996). The H. ducreyi gmhA gene was able to complement a gmhA-deficient Escherichia coli strain, a result which confirmed the identity of this gene. When the gmhA gene of H. ducreyi was inactivated by insertion of a cat cartridge, the resultant H. ducreyi gmhA mutant, 35000.252, expressed a LOS that migrated much faster than wild-type LOS in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the wild-type H. ducreyi strain and its isogenic gmhA mutant were used in the temperature-dependent rabbit model for dermal lesion production by H. ducreyi, the gmhA mutant was found to be substantially less virulent than the wild-type parent strain. The H. ducreyi gmhA gene was amplified by PCR from the H. ducreyi chromosome and cloned into the pLS88 vector. When the H. ducreyi gmhA gene was present in trans in gmhA mutant 35000.252, expression of the gmhA gene product restored the virulence of this mutant to wild-type levels. These results indicate that the gmhA gene product of H. ducreyi is essential for the expression of wild-type LOS by this pathogen. PMID:9712780

  9. The ORF012 Gene of Marek's Disease Virus Type 1 Produces a Spliced Transcript and Encodes a Novel Nuclear Phosphoprotein Essential for Virus Growth

    PubMed Central

    Schippers, Timo; Jarosinski, Keith

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marek's disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in chickens characterized by generalized nerve inflammation and rapid lymphoma development. The extensive colinearity of the MDV genome with those of related herpesviruses has eased functional characterization of many MDV genes. However, MDV carries a number of unique open reading frames (ORFs) that have not yet been investigated regarding their coding potentials and the functions of their products. Among these unique ORFs are two putative ORFs, ORF011 and ORF012, which are found at the extreme left end of the MDV unique long region. Using reverse transcriptase PCR, we showed that ORF011 and ORF012 are not individual genes but form a single gene through mRNA splicing of a small intron, resulting in the novel ORF012. We generated an ORF012-null virus using an infectious clone of MDV strain RB-1B. The deletion virus had a marked growth defect in vitro and could not be passaged in cultured cells, suggesting an essential role for the ORF012 product in virus replication. Further studies revealed that protein 012 (p012) localized to the nucleus in transfected and infected cells, and we identified by site-directed mutagenesis and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusion assays a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that was mapped to a 23-amino-acid sequence at the protein's C terminus. Nuclear export was blocked using leptomycin B, suggesting a potential role for p012 as a nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling protein. Finally, p012 is phosphorylated at multiple residues, a modification that could possibly regulate its subcellular distribution. IMPORTANCE Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes a devastating oncogenic disease in chickens with high morbidity and mortality. The costs for disease prevention reach several billion dollars annually. The functional investigation of MDV genes is necessary to understand its complex replication cycle, which eventually could help us to interfere with MDV and herpesviral pathogenesis. We have identified a previously unidentified phosphoprotein encoded by MDV ORF012. We were able to show experimentally that predicted splicing of the gene based on bioinformatics data does indeed occur during replication. The newly identified p012 is essential for MDV replication and localizes to the nucleus due to the presence of a transferable nuclear localization signal at its C terminus. Our results also imply that p012 could constitute a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, a feature that could prove interesting and important. PMID:25392220

  10. The RAD7 and RAD16 genes, which are essential for pyrimidine dimer removal from the silent mating type loci, are also required for repair of the nontranscribed strand of an active gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; de Groot, N; Gleig, F; Bang, D D; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1994-09-01

    The rad16 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was previously shown to be impaired in removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent mating-type loci (D. D. Bang, R. A. Verhage, N. Goosen, J. Brouwer, and P. van de Putte, Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3925-3931, 1992). Here we show that rad7 as well as rad7 rad16 double mutants have the same repair phenotype, indicating that the RAD7 and RAD16 gene products might operate in the same nucleotide excision repair subpathway. Dimer removal from the genome overall is essentially incomplete in these mutants, leaving about 20 to 30% of the DNA unrepaired. Repair analysis of the transcribed RPB2 gene shows that the nontranscribed strand is not repaired at all in rad7 and rad16 mutants, whereas the transcribed strand is repaired in these mutants at a fast rate similar to that in RAD+ cells. When the results obtained with the RPB2 gene can be generalized, the RAD7 and RAD16 proteins not only are essential for repair of silenced regions but also function in repair of nontranscribed strands of active genes in S. cerevisiae. The phenotype of rad7 and rad16 mutants closely resembles that of human xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells, suggesting that RAD7 and RAD16 in S. cerevisiae function in the same pathway as the XPC gene in human cells. RAD4, which on the basis of sequence homology has been proposed to be the yeast XPC counterpart, seems to be involved in repair of both inactive and active yeast DNA, challenging the hypothesis that RAD4 and XPC are functional homologs. PMID:8065346

  11. The Drosophila Clathrin Heavy Chain Gene: Clathrin Function Is Essential in a Multicellular Organism

    PubMed Central

    Bazinet, C.; Katzen, A. L.; Morgan, M.; Mahowald, A. P.; Lemmon, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The clathrin heavy chain (HC) is the major structural polypeptide of the cytoplasmic surface lattice of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. As a genetic approach to understanding the role of clathrin in cellular morphogenesis and developmental signal transduction, a clathrin heavy chain (Chc) gene of Drosophila melanogaster has been identified by a combination of molecular and classical genetic approaches. Using degenerate primers based on mammalian and yeast clathrin HC sequences, a small fragment of the HC gene was amplified from genomic Drosophila DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic and cDNA clones from phage libraries were isolated and analyzed using this fragment as a probe. The amino acid sequence of the Drosophila clathrin HC deduced from cDNA sequences is 80%, 57% and 49% identical, respectively, with the mammalian, Dictyostelium and yeast HCs. Hybridization in situ to larval polytene chromosomes revealed a single Chc locus at position 13F2 on the X chromosome. A 13-kb genomic Drosophila fragment including the Chc transcription unit was reintroduced into the Drosophila genome via P element-mediated germline transformation. This DNA complemented a group of EMS-induced lethal mutations mapping to the same region of the X chromosome, thus identifying the Chc complementation group. Mutant individuals homozygous or hemizygous for the Chc(1), Chc(2) or Chc(3) alleles developed to a late stage of embryogenesis, but failed to hatch to the first larval stage. A fourth allele, Chc(4), exhibited polyphasic lethality, with a significant number of homozygous and hemizygous offspring surviving to adulthood. Germline clonal analysis of Chc mutant alleles indicated that the three tight lethal alleles were autonomous cell-lethal mutations in the female germline. In contrast, Chc(4) germline clones were viable at a rate comparable to wild type, giving rise to viable adult progeny. However, hemizygous Chc(4) males were invariably sterile. The sterility was efficiently rescued by an autosomal copy of the wild-type Chc gene reintroduced on a P element. These findings suggest a specialized role for clathrin in spermatogenesis. PMID:8375651

  12. Association between Polymorphisms in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Genes and Essential Hypertension in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Fei, Lijuan; Wang, Lin; Su, Jia; Lazar, Lissy; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the most important endocrine blood pressure control mechanism in our body, genes encoding components of this system have been strong candidates for the investigation of the genetic basis of hypertension. However, previous studies mainly focused on limited polymorphisms, thus we carried out a case-control study in the Han Chinese population to systemically investigate the association between polymorphisms in the RAAS genes and essential hypertension. Methods 905 essential hypertensive cases and 905 normotensive controls were recruited based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. All 41 tagSNPs within RAAS genes were retrieved from HapMap, and the genotyping was performed using the GenomeLab SNPstream Genotyping System. Logistic regression analysis, Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), stratified analysis and crossover analysis were used to identify and characterize interactions among the SNPs and the non-genetic factors. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG), and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control group. Of 41 SNPs genotyped, rs3789678 and rs2493132 within AGT, rs4305 within ACE, rs275645 within AGTR1, rs3802230 and rs10086846 within CYP11B2 were shown to associate with hypertension. The MDR analysis demonstrated that the interaction between BMI and rs4305 increased the susceptibility to hypertension. Crossover analysis and stratified analysis further indicated that BMI has a major effect, and rs4305 has a minor effect. Conclusion These novel findings indicated that together with non-genetic factors, these genetic variants in the RAAS may play an important role in determining an individuals susceptibility to hypertension in the Han Chinese. PMID:24015270

  13. A FUSCA gene of Arabidopsis encodes a novel protein essential for plant development.

    PubMed Central

    Castle, L A; Meinke, D W

    1994-01-01

    Arabidopsis fusca mutants display striking purple coloration due to anthocyanin accumulation in their cotyledons. We describe six recessive fusca mutants isolated from Agrobacterium-transformed Arabidopsis families. These mutants first become defective during embryogenesis and exhibit limited seedling development. Double mutant constructs revealed that developmental defects were not simply a consequence of anthocyanin accumulation. fusca seedlings showed altered responses to several environmental and endogenous factors. Allelism tests established that three fusca loci are represented by mutants previously described as defective in light-regulated responses. To study the molecular basis of the fusca phenotype, we cloned the FUS6 gene. FUS6 encodes a novel protein that is hydrophilic, alpha-helical, and contains potential protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. The FUSCA proteins appear to act in a network of signal transduction pathways critical for plant development. PMID:8130643

  14. PFP1, a Gene Encoding an Epc-N Domain-Containing Protein, Is Essential for Pathogenicity of the Barley Pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Siersleben, Sylvia; Penselin, Daniel; Wenzel, Claudia; Albert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune is an important foliar disease of barley. Insertion mutagenesis of R. commune generated a nonpathogenic fungal mutant which carries the inserted plasmid in the upstream region of a gene named PFP1. The characteristic feature of the gene product is an Epc-N domain. This motif is also found in homologous proteins shown to be components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes of fungi and animals. Therefore, PFP1 is suggested to be the subunit of a HAT complex in R. commune with an essential role in the epigenetic control of fungal pathogenicity. Targeted PFP1 disruption also yielded nonpathogenic mutants which showed wild-type-like growth ex planta, except for the occurrence of hyphal swellings. Complementation of the deletion mutants with the wild-type gene reestablished pathogenicity and suppressed the hyphal swellings. However, despite wild-type-level PFP1 expression, the complementation mutants did not reach wild-type-level virulence. This indicates that the function of the protein complex and, thus, fungal virulence are influenced by a position-affected long-range control of PFP1 expression. PMID:24906413

  15. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF6 Gene Is Essential in Viral Lytic Replication

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Can; Chen, Jungang; Tang, Wei; Liu, Chunlan; Chen, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposis's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes at least 8 open reading frames (ORFs) that play important roles in its lytic DNA replication. Among which, ORF6 of KSHV encodes an ssDNA binding protein that has been proved to participate in origin-dependent DNA replication in transient assays. To define further the function of ORF6 in the virus life cycle, we constructed a recombinant virus genome with a large deletion within the ORF6 locus by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type) and BAC?6 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T-BAC36 and 293T-BAC?6 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, infectious virus was detected from the 293T-BAC36 cell supernatants only and not from the 293T- BAC?6 cell supernatants. DNA synthesis was defective in 293T-BAC?6 cells. Expression of ORF6 in trans in BAC?6-containing cells was able to rescue both defects. Our results provide genetic evidence that ORF6 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. The stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 and BAC?6 genomes could be used as tools to investigate the detailed functions of ORF6 in the lytic replication of KSHV. PMID:24911362

  16. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  17. Addition of Escherichia coli K-12 Growth Observation and Gene Essentiality Data to the EcoCyc Database

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Amanda; Paley, Suzanne; Keseler, Ingrid M.; Shearer, Alexander; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    The sets of compounds that can support growth of an organism are defined by the presence of transporters and metabolic pathways that convert nutrient sources into cellular components and energy for growth. A collection of known nutrient sources can therefore serve both as an impetus for investigating new metabolic pathways and transporters and as a reference for computational modeling of known metabolic pathways. To establish such a collection for Escherichia coli K-12, we have integrated data on the growth or nongrowth of E. coli K-12 obtained from published observations using a variety of individual media and from high-throughput phenotype microarrays into the EcoCyc database. The assembled collection revealed a substantial number of discrepancies between the high-throughput data sets, which we investigated where possible using low-throughput growth assays on soft agar and in liquid culture. We also integrated six data sets describing 16,119 observations of the growth of single-gene knockout mutants of E. coli K-12 into EcoCyc, which are relevant to antimicrobial drug design, provide clues regarding the roles of genes of unknown function, and are useful for validating metabolic models. To make this information easily accessible to EcoCyc users, we developed software for capturing, querying, and visualizing cellular growth assays and gene essentiality data. PMID:24363340

  18. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Shamina M. . E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan; Lindsley, Loren; Wang, Xiaomei; Shaughnessy, Stacey; Daniels, Thomas G.; Szustakowski, Joseph; Nirmala, N.R.; Wu, Zhidan; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2007-05-25

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Helicobacter pylori fliD Gene, an Essential Factor in Flagellar Structure and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Seong Kim, Jang; Hoon Chang, Ji; Il Chung, Soo; Sun Yum, Jung

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and can cause gastroduodenal disease. Flagellar motility is regarded as a major factor in the colonizing ability of H. pylori. The functional roles of flagellar structural proteins other than FlaA, FlaB, and FlgE are not well understood. The fliD operon of H. pylori consists of flaG, fliD, and fliS genes, in the order stated, under the control of a ?28-dependent promoter. In an effort to elucidate the function of the FliD protein, a hook-associated protein 2 homologue, in flagellar morphogenesis and motility, the fliD gene (2,058 bp) was cloned and isogenic mutants were constructed by disruption of the fliD gene with a kanamycin resistance cassette and electroporation-mediated allelic-exchange mutagenesis. In the fliD mutant, morphologically abnormal flagellar appendages in which very little filament elongation was apparent were observed. The fliD mutant strain was completely nonmotile, indicating that these abnormal flagella were functionally defective. Furthermore, the isogenic fliD mutant of H. pylori SS1, a mouse-adapted strain, was not able to colonize the gastric mucosae of host mice. These results suggest that H. pylori FliD is an essential element in the assembly of the functional flagella that are required for colonization of the gastric mucosa. PMID:10559162

  20. Essential Roles for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rel beyond the Production of (p)ppGpp

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the stringent response to amino acid starvation is mediated by the M. tuberculosis Rel (RelMtb) enzyme, which transfers a pyrophosphate from ATP to GDP or GTP to synthesize ppGpp and pppGpp, respectively. (p)ppGpp then influences numerous metabolic processes. RelMtb also encodes a second, distinct catalytic domain that hydrolyzes (p)ppGpp into pyrophosphate and GDP or GTP. RelMtb is required for chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice; however, it is unknown which catalytic activity of RelMtb mediates pathogenesis and whether (p)ppGpp itself is necessary. In order to individually investigate the roles of (p)ppGpp synthesis and hydrolysis during M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, we generated RelMtb point mutants that were either synthetase dead (RelMtbH344Y) or hydrolase dead (RelMtbH80A). M. tuberculosis strains expressing the synthetase-dead RelMtbH344Y mutant did not persist in mice, demonstrating that the RelMtb (p)ppGpp synthetase activity is required for maintaining bacterial titers during chronic infection. Deletion of a second predicted (p)ppGpp synthetase had no effect on pathogenesis, demonstrating that RelMtb was the major contributor to (p)ppGpp production during infection. Interestingly, expression of an allele encoding the hydrolase-dead RelMtb mutant, RelMtbH80A, that is incapable of hydrolyzing (p)ppGpp but still able to synthesize (p)ppGpp decreased the growth rate of M. tuberculosis and changed the colony morphology of the bacteria. In addition, RelMtbH80A expression during acute or chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice was lethal to the infecting bacteria. These findings highlight a distinct role for RelMtb-mediated (p)ppGpp hydrolysis that is essential for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:24123821

  1. Assignment of an essential role for the Neurospora frequency gene in circadian entrainment to temperature cycles

    PubMed Central

    Pregueiro, Antonio M.; Price-Lloyd, Nathan; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah; Heintzen, Christian; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2005-01-01

    Circadian systems include slave oscillators and central pacemakers, and the cores of eukaryotic circadian clocks described to date are composed of transcription and translation feedback loops (TTFLs). In the model system Neurospora, normal circadian rhythmicity requires a TTFL in which a White Collar complex (WCC) activates expression of the frequency (frq) gene, and the FRQ protein feeds back to attenuate that activation. To further test the centrality of this TTFL to the circadian mechanism in Neurospora, we used low-amplitude temperature cycles to compare WT and frq-null strains under conditions in which a banding rhythm was elicited. WT cultures were entrained to these temperature cycles. Unlike those normal strains, however, frq-null mutants did not truly entrain to the same cycles. Their peaks and troughs always occurred in the cold and warm periods, respectively, strongly suggesting that the rhythm in Neurospora lacking frq function simply is driven by the temperature cycles. Previous reports suggested that a FRQ-less oscillator (FLO) could be entrained to temperature cycles, rather than being driven, and speculated that the FLO was the underlying circadian-rhythm generator. These inferences appear to derive from the use of a phase reference point affected by both the changing waveform and the phase of the oscillation. Examination of several other phase markers as well as results of additional experimental tests indicate that the FLO is, at best, a slave oscillator to the TTFL, which underlies circadian rhythm generation in Neurospora. PMID:15677317

  2. Bioactivity of essential oil from Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Komar. and its main compounds against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia stolonifera, a perennial herb, is widely distrbuted in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from the aerial parts of Artemisia stolonifera, as well as to evaluate the bioactivity of the oil and its main constituents. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 22 compounds. The main components were eucalyptol (32.93%), ?-pinene (8.18%), camphor (6.12%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.11%), and obtained from the essential oil after a further isolation. During the contact toxicity tests, the essential oil (LD50 = 8.60 ?g/adult) exhibited stronger toxicity against Tribolium castaneum adults than those isolated constituents, however, camphor and terpinen-4-ol showed 1 and 2 times toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults than the essential oil (LD50 = 12.68 ?g/adult) with LD50 values of 11.30 and 5.42 ?g/adult, respectively. In the fumigant toxicity tests, especially on Tribolium castaneum, the essential oil (LC50 = 1.86 mg/L air) showed almost the same level toxicity as positive control, methyl bromide (LC50 = 1.75 mg/L air). Moreover, the essential oil and its four isolated constituents also exhibited strong repellency against two stored-product insects. PMID:25757434

  3. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosisevents that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  4. IL-17A is Essential for Cell Activation and Inflammatory Gene Circuits in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, James G.; Fretzin, Scott; Surez-Farias, Mayte; Haslett, Patrick A.; Phipps, Krista M.; Cameron, Gregory S.; McColm, Juliet; Katcherian, Artemis; Cueto, Inna; White, Traci; Banerjee, Subhashis; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background In psoriasis, inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia are thought to be controlled by T cell-derived cytokines. Evidence suggests that the Th17 cell cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Objective To understand the impact that neutralization of IL-17 has on the clinical features of psoriasis and to understand the role that IL-17 has in inflammatory pathways underlying psoriasis in human subjects. Methods We examined skin lesions obtained from 40 subjects participating in a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody, ixekizumab (previously LY2439821), in which subjects received subcutaneous 5mg, 15mg, 50mg or 150mg ixekizumab or placebo at weeks 0, 2, and 4. Results There were significant, dose-dependent reductions from baseline in keratinocyte proliferation, hyperplasia, epidermal thickness, infiltration into the dermis and epidermis by T cells and dendritic cells and keratinocyte expression of innate defense peptides at 2 weeks. By week 6, the skin appeared normal. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and microarrays revealed an ablation of the disease-defining mRNA expression profile by 2 weeks after the first dose of study drug. The effect of IL-17 blockade on expression of genes synergistically regulated by IL-17 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was of higher magnitude at 2 weeks than in prior studies with TNF antagonism. Conclusion Our data suggest that IL-17 is a key driver cytokine in psoriasis that activates pathogenic inflammation. Neutralizing IL-17 with ixekizumab may be a successful therapeutic strategy. PMID:22677045

  5. The sf32 Unique Gene of Spodoptera frugiperda Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) Is a Non-Essential Gene That Could Be Involved in Nucleocapsid Organization in Occlusion-Derived Virions

    PubMed Central

    Beperet, Inés; Barrera, Gloria; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Gasmi, Laila; Herrero, Salvador; Caballero, Primitivo

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null), unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV), was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac). Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration), speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity) to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs. PMID:24204916

  6. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients. PMID:26374219

  7. Essential Oil of Amomum maximum Roxb. and Its Bioactivities against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be ?-pinene (23.39%), ?-caryophyllene (16.43%), ?-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and -cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 ?g/adult and LC50 = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 67.46 ?g/cm(2)). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm(2) against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm(2) against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. PMID:26582152

  8. Novel Essential Role of Ethanol Oxidation Genes at Low Temperature Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis in the Antarctic Bacterium Pseudomonas extremaustralis

    PubMed Central

    Tribelli, Paula M.; Solar Venero, Esmeralda C.; Ricardi, Martiniano M.; Gómez-Lozano, Maria; Raiger Iustman, Laura J.; Molin, Søren; López, Nancy I.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors for bacterial growth and development. Cold environments are widely distributed on earth, and psychrotolerant and psychrophilic microorganisms have developed different adaptation strategies to cope with the stress derived from low temperatures. Pseudomonas extremaustralis is an Antarctic bacterium able to grow under low temperatures and to produce high amounts of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In this work, we analyzed the genome-wide transcriptome by RNA deep-sequencing technology of early exponential cultures of P. extremaustralis growing in LB (Luria Broth) supplemented with sodium octanoate to favor PHA accumulation at 8°C and 30°C. We found that genes involved in primary metabolism, including tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) related genes, as well as cytochromes and amino acid metabolism coding genes, were repressed at low temperature. Among up-regulated genes, those coding for transcriptional regulatory and signal transduction proteins were over-represented at cold conditions. Remarkably, we found that genes involved in ethanol oxidation, exaA, exaB and exaC, encoding a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase, the cytochrome c550 and an aldehyde dehydrogenase respectively, were up-regulated. Along with RNA-seq experiments, analysis of mutant strains for pqqB (PQQ biosynthesis protein B) and exaA were carried out. We found that the exaA and pqqB genes are essential for growth under low temperature in LB supplemented with sodium octanoate. Additionally, p-rosaniline assay measurements showed the presence of alcohol dehydrogenase activity at both 8°C and 30°C, while the activity was abolished in a pqqB mutant strain. These results together with the detection of ethanol by gas chromatography in P. extremaustralis cultures grown at 8°C support the conclusion that this pathway is important under cold conditions. The obtained results have led to the identification of novel components involved in cold adaptation mechanisms in this bacterium, suggesting for the first time a role of the ethanol oxidation pathway for bacterial growth at low temperatures. PMID:26671564

  9. Chemical Composition and Bioactivities of the Essential Oil from Etlingera yunnanensis against Two Stored Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Etlingera yunnanensis rhizomes and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel) were investigated. The essential oil obtained from E. yunnanensis rhizomes with hydrodistillation was performed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be estragole (65.2%), ?-caryophyllene (6.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), limonene (5.2%), and ?-pinene (2.4%). It was found that the essential oil of E. yunnanensis rhizomes possessed contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 23.33 ?g/adult and LD50 = 47.38 ?g/cm, respectively). Estragole, 1,8-cineole, and limonene exhibited stronger contact toxicity (LD50 values of 20.41, 18.86, and 13.40 ?g/adult, respectively) than ?-caryophyllene (LD50 = 41.72 ?g/adult) against T. castaneum adults. Estragole possessed stronger contact toxicity (LD50 = 30.22 g/cm) than ?-caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene (LD50 values of 74.11, 321.20, and 239.62 ?g/adult, respectively) against L. bostrychophila adults. Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. The essential oil and constituents possessed strong repellent activity against T. castaneum adults. The four individual constituents showed weaker repellent activity than the essential oil against L. bostrychophila adults. The results indicated that the essential oil of E. yunnanensis rhizomes and the individual constituents had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for the control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. PMID:26343627

  10. Effects of essential oils on milk production, milk composition, and rumen microbiota in Chios dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Giannenas, I; Skoufos, J; Giannakopoulos, C; Wiemann, M; Gortzi, O; Lalas, S; Kyriazakis, I

    2011-11-01

    The effect of the addition of an essential oil (EO) preparation (containing a mixture of natural and nature-identical EO) on the performance of dairy ewes of the Chios breed was investigated. Eighty lactating ewes were allocated into 4 equal groups in a randomized block design, each with 4 replicates of 5 ewes housed in the same pen. The 4 groups were fed the same total mixed ration allowance, the roughage being a mixture of corn silage, lucerne hay, and wheat straw, and the concentrate based on cereals and oil cakes. Control ewes were fed their daily allowance of total mixed ration without any EO. The other 3 groups were supplemented with EO at levels of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the concentrated feed, respectively. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and feed refusals were recorded on a pen basis weekly during the first 5 mo of lactation. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition, somatic cell count, and urea content. Rumen samples were analyzed for pH, NH(3)-N content, and protozoa, cellulolytic, hyper-ammonia-producing, and total viable bacteria counts. Results showed that inclusion of EO increased milk production per ewe, the effect being dose dependent [1.565, 1.681, 1.876, and 2.119 L/d (standard error of the difference 0.176) for the control, 50, 100, and 150 mg of EO/kg of concentrate diets, respectively], and thus improved feed utilization. Although the inclusion of EO did not affect milk composition, it lowered urea concentration and somatic cell count in milk samples at the highest supplementation level compared with the control. Total counts of viable and cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa were not influenced by EO supplementation; however, counts of hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria were decreased at the 2 highest supplementation levels compared with the control group. Rumen pH was not affected by EO supplementation, but rumen NH(3)-N was reduced at the highest EO supplementation level, and acetate rumen concentrations tended to decrease and propionate to increase in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, EO supplementation may improve feed utilization and performance of the high-yielding dairy Chios ewes; however, the underlying mechanisms leading to this improvement merit further investigation. PMID:22032380

  11. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, against three storedproduct insects.

    PubMed

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT?? tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10-20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, ?-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  12. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 l/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 l/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 l/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5?336.297 l/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  13. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5?h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25??L/mL, 0.5??L/mL, 1??L/mL, 2??L/mL, and 4??L/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1??L/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2??L/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75??L/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297??L/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  14. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  15. Association of TNF-? G308A gene polymorphism in essential hypertensive patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ghodsian, N; Akhlaghi, M; Ramachandran, V; Heidari, F; Haghvirdizadeh, P; Eshkoor, S A; Etemad, A; Jamaluddin, J A; Ismail, P

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) G308A gene polymorphism on essential hypertension (EHT) with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The project was conducted on buccal epithelial and blood cells for case and control patients, respectively. Epithelial cells were obtained from the inner part of the cheeks. Techniques including DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were utilized to assess biomarkers of DNA damage. Our results demonstrated significant differences between wild and mutated genotypes among EHT patients without T2DM. We also found a significant association between wild and mutated allele frequencies in EHT patients (P < 0.05). Clinical characteristics between the groups (EHT with or without T2DM and controls) showed statistically significant association (P < 0.05). Overall, we show that G308A polymorphism of the TNF-?gene may be a significant genetic risk factor for EHT without T2DM patients in Malaysia. PMID:26782547

  16. Intrachromosomal tandem duplication and repeat expansion during attempts to inactivate the subtelomeric essential gene GSH1 in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Angana; Langston, Lance D.; Ouellette, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase encoded by GSH1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of glutathione and trypanothione in Leishmania. Attempts to generate GSH1 null mutants by gene disruption failed in Leishmania infantum. Removal of even a single allele invariably led to the generation of an extra copy of GSH1, maintaining two intact wild-type alleles. In the second and even third round of inactivation, the markers integrated at the homologous locus but always preserved two intact copies of GSH1. We probed into the mechanism of GSH1 duplication. GSH1 is subtelomeric on chromosome 18 and Southern blot analysis indicated that a 10-kb fragment flanked by 466-bp direct repeated sequences was duplicated in tandem on the same chromosomal allele each time GSH1 was targeted. Polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing confirmed the generation of novel junctions created at the level of the 466-bp repeats consequent to locus duplication. In loss of heterozygosity attempts, the same repeated sequences were utilized for generating extrachromosomal circular amplicons. Our results are consistent with break-induced replication as a mechanism for the generation of this regional polyploidy to compensate for the inactivation of an essential gene. This chromosomal repeat expansion through repeated sequences could be implicated in locus duplication in Leishmania. PMID:21693561

  17. Plastid tRNA genes trnC-GCA and trnN-GUU are essential for plant cell development.

    PubMed

    Legen, Julia; Wanner, Gerhard; Herrmann, Reinhold G; Small, Ian; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Higher plant chloroplast genomes code for a conserved set of 30 tRNAs. This set is believed to be sufficient to support translation, although import of cytosolic tRNA has been proposed to provide additional tRNA species to the chloroplast. Previous knock-outs of tRNA genes, or the pronounced reduction of the level of selected tRNAs, has not led to severe phenotypes. We deleted the two tRNA genes trnN-GUU and trnC-GCA independently from the plastid chromosome of tobacco. No homoplastomic tissue of either DeltatrnN or DeltatrnC plants could be isolated. Both mutants exhibit occasional loss of leaf sectors, and mutant plastid chromosomes are rapidly lost upon relief of selective pressure. This suggests that the knock-out of both trn genes is lethal, and that both tRNA species are required for cell survival. Surprisingly, the impact on chloroplast and cell development differs pronouncedly between the two mutants. Heteroplastomic DeltatrnC and DeltatrnN tissue exhibit different aberrations of the internal membrane systems and, more importantly, heteroplastomic DeltatrnN plants are variegated. Accumulation of tRNA-N and plastid-encoded proteins is reduced in white sectors of DeltatrnN plants, and differentiation of palisade cells is abolished. Our data demonstrate that plastid tRNAs are essential, i.e. not complemented by cytosolic tRNA, and have a differential impact on chloroplast and plant cell development. PMID:17573798

  18. Use of Genomics To Identify Bacterial Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthetase: Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of the Essential uppS Gene

    PubMed Central

    Apfel, Christian M.; Takcs, Bla; Fountoulakis, Michael; Stieger, Martin; Keck, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    The prenyltransferase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase (di-trans,poly-cis-decaprenylcistransferase; EC 2.5.1.31) was purified from the soluble fraction of Escherichia coli by TSK-DEAE, ceramic hydroxyapatite, TSK-ether, Superdex 200, and heparin-Actigel chromatography. The protein was labeled with the photolabile analogue of the farnesyl pyrophosphate analogue (E,E)-[1-3H]-(2-diazo-3-trifluoropropionyloxy)geranyl diphos-phate and was detected on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa. This protein band was cut out from the gel, trypsin digested, and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric analysis. Comparison of the experimental data with computer-simulated trypsin digest data for all E. coli proteins yielded a single match with a protein of unassigned function (SWISS-PROT Q47675; YAES_ECOLI). Sequences with strong similarity indicative of homology to this protein were identified in 25 bacterial species, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in Caenorhabditis elegans. The homologous genes (uppS) were cloned from E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, expressed in E. coli as amino-terminal His-tagged fusion proteins, and purified over a Ni2+ affinity column. An untagged version of the E. coli uppS gene was also cloned and expressed, and the protein purified in two chromatographic steps. We were able to detect Upp synthetase activity for all purified enzymes. Further, biochemical characterization revealed no differences between the recombinant untagged E. coli Upp synthetase and the three His-tagged fusion proteins. All enzymes were absolutely Triton X-100 and MgCl2 dependent. With the use of a regulatable gene disruption system, we demonstrated that uppS is essential for growth in S. pneumoniae R6. PMID:9882662

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene 2350 G/A polymorphism is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy but not essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Jiang, Wen-Ping; Cui, Zhi-Chu; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xiang-Jun

    2007-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene (ACE) is one of the most studied candidate genes related to essential hypertension (EH) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). ACE rs4343 synonymous coding polymorphism (2350 G/A) is known among the polymorphisms of this gene to have the most significant effect on plasma ACE concentrations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of this polymorphism with EH and LVH in 440 subjects (246 EH patients and 194 controls) from a Chinese Han population. In this study, 2350 G/A genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion in all study participants, and left ventricular mass was assessed by 2-mode echocardiography in 178 untreated EH patients. There was no significant difference in either genotype distribution (p=0.3659) or allele frequency (p=0.1453) between EH and control groups. In addition, the 2350 G/A polymorphism had no effect on blood pressure in either controls or untreated EH patients. The distribution of genotypes differed significantly when patients with LVH were examined, i.e., 14.71% GG, 54.41% GA, and 30.88% AA patients had this complication, and 36.36% GG, 42.73% GA, and 20.91% AA patients did not (p=0.0070). The LVH patients had a higher A allele frequency (58.09%) than patients without LVH (42.27%) (p=0.0037). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the association between the A allele and LVH was independent of age, blood pressure, and body mass index. The relative risk of LVH in patients bearing the A allele (GA+AA group) compared with that of GG hypertensive patients was 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43 to 7.68). These findings suggest an association between LVH and the 2350A allele in hypertensive patients. PMID:17460369

  20. Use of genomics to identify bacterial undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase: cloning, expression, and characterization of the essential uppS gene.

    PubMed

    Apfel, C M; Takcs, B; Fountoulakis, M; Stieger, M; Keck, W

    1999-01-01

    The prenyltransferase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase (di-trans,poly-cis-decaprenylcistransferase; EC 2.5.1.31) was purified from the soluble fraction of Escherichia coli by TSK-DEAE, ceramic hydroxyapatite, TSK-ether, Superdex 200, and heparin-Actigel chromatography. The protein was labeled with the photolabile analogue of the farnesyl pyrophosphate analogue (E, E)-[1-3H]-(2-diazo-3-trifluoropropionyloxy)geranyl diphosphate and was detected on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa. This protein band was cut out from the gel, trypsin digested, and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric analysis. Comparison of the experimental data with computer-simulated trypsin digest data for all E. coli proteins yielded a single match with a protein of unassigned function (SWISS-PROT Q47675; YAES_ECOLI). Sequences with strong similarity indicative of homology to this protein were identified in 25 bacterial species, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in Caenorhabditis elegans. The homologous genes (uppS) were cloned from E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, expressed in E. coli as amino-terminal His-tagged fusion proteins, and purified over a Ni2+ affinity column. An untagged version of the E. coli uppS gene was also cloned and expressed, and the protein purified in two chromatographic steps. We were able to detect Upp synthetase activity for all purified enzymes. Further, biochemical characterization revealed no differences between the recombinant untagged E. coli Upp synthetase and the three His-tagged fusion proteins. All enzymes were absolutely Triton X-100 and MgCl2 dependent. With the use of a regulatable gene disruption system, we demonstrated that uppS is essential for growth in S. pneumoniae R6. PMID:9882662

  1. Pathogens and gene product normalization in the biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Vishnyakova, Dina; Pasche, Emilie; Teodoro, Douglas; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for pathogens and gene product normalization in the biomedical literature. The idea of this approach was motivated by needs such as literature curation, in particular applied to the field of infectious diseases thus, variants of bacterial species (S. aureus, Staphyloccocus aureus, ...) and their gene products (protein ArsC, Arsenical pump modifier, Arsenate reductase, ...). Our approach is based on the use of an Ontology Look-up Service, a Gene Ontology Categorizer (GOCat) and Gene Normalization methods. In the pathogen detection task the use of OLS disambiguates found pathogen names. GOCat results are incorporated into overall score system to support and to confirm the decisionmaking in normalization process of pathogens and their genomes. The evaluation was done on two test sets of BioCreativeIII benchmark: gold standard of manual curation (50 articles) and silver standard (507 articles) curated by collective results of BCIII participants. For the cross-species GN we achieved the precision of 46% for silver and 27% for gold sets. Pathogen normalization results showed 95% of precision and 93% of recall. The impact of GOCat explicitly improves results of pathogen and gene normalization, basically confirming identified pathogens and boosting correct gene identifiers on the top of the results' list ranked by confidence. A correct identification of the pathogen is able to improve significantly normalization effectiveness and to solve the disambiguation problem of genes. PMID:22491118

  2. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil of Curcuma longa L. and curcumin on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Link.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Arrotia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Janeiro, Vanderly; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-15

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food and commodities poses serious hazards to the health of humans and animals. Turmeric, Curcuma longa L., is a native plant of Southeast Asia and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal properties. This paper reports the antiaflatoxigenic activities of the essential oil of C. longa and curcumin. The medium tests were prepared with the oil of C. longa, and the curcumin standard at concentrations varied from 0.01% to 5.0%. All doses of the essential oil of the plant and the curcumin standard interfered with mycotoxin production. Both the essential oil and curcumin significantly inhibited the production of aflatoxins; the 0.5% level had a greater than 96% inhibitory effect. The levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production were 1.0 and 42.7 ?g/mL, respectively, for the samples treated with the essential oil of C. longa L. and curcumin at a concentration of 0.5%. PMID:23122128

  3. Regulatory Oversight of Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapeutic Products and Gene Therapy Products in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, Choon Wee; Kellathur, Srinivasan N; Ong, Lee Lee; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory environment for cell- and tissue-based therapeutic products and gene therapy products is rapidly evolving and drug regulatory agencies are working towards establishing a risk-based system in the regulatory framework. Similarly in Singapore, a risk-based tiered approach has been applied whereby clinical trials and product licence of high-risk cell- and tissue-based therapeutic products (substantially manipulated products, products intended for nonhomologous use or combined products) and gene therapy products are regulated as medicinal products under the Medicines Act. There is no legal definition for cell- and tissue-based therapeutic and gene therapy products. The current working definition for a cell- and tissue-based therapeutic product is an article containing or consisting of an autologous or allogeneic human cell or tissue that are used for or administered to, or intended to be used for or administered to, human beings for the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of human diseases or conditions. Gene therapy products are included under the current biological medicinal product definition. PMID:26374220

  4. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated molecular biology platform for production of optimized synthetic genes and improved industrial strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of synthetic assembled gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-bas...

  5. Bracovirus gene products are highly divergent from insect proteins.

    PubMed

    Bzier, Annie; Herbinire, Juline; Serbielle, Cline; Lesobre, Jrome; Wincker, Patrick; Huguet, Elisabeth; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2008-04-01

    Recently, several polydnavirus (PDV) genomes have been completely sequenced. The dsDNA circles enclosed in virus particles and injected by wasps into caterpillars appear to mainly encode virulence factors potentially involved in altering host immunity and/or development, thereby allowing the survival of the parasitoid larvae within the host tissues. Parasitoid wasps generally inject virulence factors produced in the venom gland. As PDV genomes are inherited vertically by wasps through a proviral form, wasp virulence genes may have been transferred to this chromosomal form, leading to their incorporation into virus particles. Indeed, many gene products from Cotesia congregata bracovirus (CcBV), such as PTPs, IkappaB-like, and cystatins, contain protein domains conserved in metazoans. Surprisingly however, CcBV virulence gene products are not more closely related to insect proteins than to human proteins. To determine whether the distance between CcBV and insect proteins is a specific feature of BV proteins or simply reflects a general high divergence of parasitoid wasp products, which might be due to parasitic lifestyle, we have analyzed the sequences of wasp genes obtained from a cDNA library. Wasp sequences having a high similarity with Apis mellifera genes involved in a variety of biological functions could be identified indicating that the high level of divergence observed for BV products is a hallmark of these viral proteins. We discuss how this divergence might be explained in the context of the current hypotheses on the origin and evolution of wasp-bracovirus associations. PMID:18348209

  6. Functional characterisation of the non-essential protein kinases and phosphatases regulating Aspergillus nidulans hydrolytic enzyme production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in the understanding of lignocellulolytic enzyme regulation, less is known about how different carbon sources are sensed and the signaling cascades that result in the adaptation of cellular metabolism and hydrolase secretion. Therefore, the role played by non-essential protein kinases (NPK) and phosphatases (NPP) in the sensing of carbon and/or energetic status was investigated in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Results Eleven NPKs and seven NPPs were identified as being involved in cellulase, and in some cases also hemicellulase, production in A. nidulans. The regulation of CreA-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in the parental strain was determined by fluorescence microscopy, utilising a CreA::GFP fusion protein. The sensing of phosphorylated glucose, via the RAS signalling pathway induced CreA repression, while carbon starvation resulted in derepression. Growth on cellulose represented carbon starvation and derepressing conditions. The involvement of the identified NPKs in the regulation of cellulose-induced responses and CreA derepression was assessed by genome-wide transcriptomics (GEO accession 47810). CreA::GFP localisation and the restoration of endocellulase activity via the introduction of the ?creA mutation, was assessed in the NPK-deficient backgrounds. The absence of either the schA or snfA kinase dramatically reduced cellulose-induced transcriptional responses, including the expression of hydrolytic enzymes and transporters. The mechanism by which these two NPKs controlled gene transcription was identified, as the NPK-deficient mutants were not able to unlock CreA-mediated carbon catabolite repression under derepressing conditions, such as carbon starvation or growth on cellulose. Conclusions Collectively, this study identified multiple kinases and phosphatases involved in the sensing of carbon and/or energetic status, while demonstrating the overlapping, synergistic roles of schA and snfA in the regulation of CreA derepression and hydrolytic enzyme production in A. nidulans. The importance of a carbon starvation-induced signal for CreA derepression, permitting transcriptional activator binding, appeared paramount for hydrolase secretion. PMID:23800192

  7. Aspergillus Fabm Encodes an Essential Product That Is Related to Poly(a)-Binding Proteins and Activates Development When Overexpressed

    PubMed Central

    Marhoul, J. F.; Adams, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Overexpression of several different Aspergillus nidulans developmental regulatory genes has been shown to cause inappropriate developmental activation and growth inhibition. We previously exploited this observation that induced development caused growth inhibition in designing a screen to identify other genes that could activate development when overexpressed. We identified 16 mutants in which induced expression of different random genomic DNA sequences caused growth inhibition, accumulation of mRNA corresponding to the brlA developmental regulatory locus, and in several cases sporulation. This phenotype was designated FAB for Forced expression Activation of brlA and the genes were called fabA through fabP. Here we describe one of these genes, fabM, which is predicted to encode a poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) that is constitutively expressed and is essential for viability. While it is unclear why overexpression of the fabM caused sporulation, we showed that this activity required other known early developmental regulators including brlA?, flbA, flbB, flbC, and fluG. We propose that fabM is an example of a gene that is not only required for growth, but also has specific functions early in development that assist developmental induction, presumably by allowing translation of specific mRNAs like brlA. PMID:8978035

  8. NODULE INCEPTION Directly Targets NF-Y Subunit Genes to Regulate Essential Processes of Root Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Soyano, Takashi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Hirota, Atsuko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of legumes with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria cause the formation of specialized lateral root organs called root nodules. It has been postulated that this root nodule symbiosis system has recruited factors that act in early signaling pathways (common SYM genes) partly from the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis. However, the origins of factors needed for root nodule organogenesis are largely unknown. NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) is a nodulation-specific gene that encodes a putative transcription factor and acts downstream of the common SYM genes. Here, we identified two Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) subunit genes, LjNF-YA1 and LjNF-YB1, as transcriptional targets of NIN in Lotus japonicus. These genes are expressed in root nodule primordia and their translational products interact in plant cells, indicating that they form an NF-Y complex in root nodule primordia. The knockdown of LjNF-YA1 inhibited root nodule organogenesis, as did the loss of function of NIN. Furthermore, we found that NIN overexpression induced root nodule primordium-like structures that originated from cortical cells in the absence of bacterial symbionts. Thus, NIN is a crucial factor responsible for initiating nodulation-specific symbiotic processes. In addition, ectopic expression of either NIN or the NF-Y subunit genes caused abnormal cell division during lateral root development. This indicated that the Lotus NF-Y subunits can function to stimulate cell division. Thus, transcriptional regulation by NIN, including the activation of the NF-Y subunit genes, induces cortical cell division, which is an initial step in root nodule organogenesis. Unlike the legume-specific NIN protein, NF-Y is a major CCAAT box binding protein complex that is widespread among eukaryotes. We propose that the evolution of root nodules in legume plants was associated with changes in the function of NIN. NIN has acquired functions that allow it to divert pathways involved in the regulation of cell division to root nodule organogenesis. PMID:23555278

  9. Investigation of the Genes Involved in Antigenic Switching at the vlsE Locus in Borrelia burgdorferi: An Essential Role for the RuvAB Branch Migrase

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Ashley R.; Hardy, Pierre-Olivier; Chaconas, George

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection by pathogenic organisms requires effective strategies for the defense of these organisms against the host immune response. A common strategy employed by many pathogens to escape immune recognition and clearance is to continually vary surface epitopes through recombinational shuffling of genetic information. Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, encodes a surface-bound lipoprotein, VlsE. This protein is encoded by the vlsE locus carried at the right end of the linear plasmid lp28-1. Adjacent to the expression locus are 15 silent cassettes carrying information that is moved into the vlsE locus through segmental gene conversion events. The protein players and molecular mechanism of recombinational switching at vlsE have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the independent disruption of 17 genes that encode factors involved in DNA recombination, repair or replication on recombinational switching at the vlsE locus during murine infection. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 10 such genes have been implicated in recombinational switching at the pilE locus. Eight of these genes, including recA, are either absent from B. burgdorferi, or do not show an obvious requirement for switching at vlsE. The only genes that are required in both organisms are ruvA and ruvB, which encode subunits of a Holliday junction branch migrase. Disruption of these genes results in a dramatic decrease in vlsE recombination with a phenotype similar to that observed for lp28-1 or vls-minus spirochetes: productive infection at week 1 with clearance by day 21. In SCID mice, the persistence defect observed with ruvA and ruvB mutants was fully rescued as previously observed for vlsE-deficient B. burgdorferi. We report the requirement of the RuvAB branch migrase in recombinational switching at vlsE, the first essential factor to be identified in this process. These findings are supported by the independent work of Lin et al. in the accompanying article, who also found a requirement for the RuvAB branch migrase. Our results also indicate that the mechanism of switching at vlsE in B. burgdorferi is distinct from switching at pilE in N. gonorrhoeae, which is the only other organism analyzed genetically in detail. Finally, our findings suggest a unique mechanism for switching at vlsE and a role for currently unidentified B. burgdorferi proteins in this process. PMID:19997508

  10. Characterization of the Bacillus subtilis ywsC Gene, Involved in ?-Polyglutamic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Urushibata, Yuji; Tokuyama, Shinji; Tahara, Yasutaka

    2002-01-01

    The genes required for ?-polyglutamic acid (PGA) production were cloned from Bacillus subtilis IFO16449, a strain isolated from fermented soybeans. There were four open reading frames in the cloned 4.2-kb DNA fragment, and they were almost identical to those in the ywsC and ywtABC genes of B. subtlis 168. Northern blot analysis showed that the four genes constitute an operon. Three genes, ywsC, ywtA, and ywtB, were disrupted to determine which gene plays a central role in PGA biosynthesis. No PGA was produced in ?ywsC and ?ywtA strains, indicating that both of these genes are essential for PGA production. To clarify the function of the YwsC protein, histidine-tagged YwsC (YwsC-His) was produced in the ?ywsC strain and purified from the lysozyme-treated lysate of the transformant by Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that the YwsC-His protein consists of two subunits, the 44-kDa and 33-kDa proteins, which are encoded by in-phase overlapping in the ywsC gene. 14C-labeled PGA was synthesized by the purified proteins from l-[14C]-glutamate in the presence of ATP and MnCl2, through an acylphosphate intermediate, indicating that the ywsC gene encodes PGA synthetase (EC 6.3.2), a crucial enzyme in PGA biosynthesis. PMID:11751809

  11. CEACAM1 induces B-cell survival and is essential for protective antiviral antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Seifert, Marc; Pozdeev, Vitaly; Xu, Haifeng C.; Sharma, Piyush; Baldin, Fabian; Marquardsen, Florian; Merches, Katja; Lang, Elisabeth; Kirschning, Carsten; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Hussinger, Dieter; Lang, Florian; Dittmer, Ulf; Kppers, Ralf; Recher, Mike; Hardt, Cornelia; Scheffrahn, Inka; Beauchemin, Nicole; Gthert, Joachim R.; Singer, Bernhard B.; Lang, Philipp A.; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    B cells are essential for antiviral immune defence because they produce neutralizing antibodies, present antigen and maintain the lymphoid architecture. Here we show that intrinsic signalling of CEACAM1 is essential for generating efficient B-cell responses. Although CEACAM1 exerts limited influence on the proliferation of B cells, expression of CEACAM1 induces survival of proliferating B cells via the BTK/Syk/NF-?B-axis. The absence of this signalling cascade in naive Ceacam1?/? mice limits the survival of B cells. During systemic infection with cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, Ceacam1?/? mice can barely induce neutralizing antibody responses and die early after infection. We find, therefore, that CEACAM1 is a crucial regulator of B-cell survival, influencing B-cell numbers and protective antiviral antibody responses. PMID:25692415

  12. Characterization of essential genes by parasexual genetics in the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: impact of genomic rearrangements associated with electroporation of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Firon, Arnaud; Beauvais, Anne; Latg, Jean-Paul; Couv, Elisabeth; Grosjean-Cournoyer, Marie-Claire; D'Enfert, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of parasexual genetics in the identification of genes essential for the growth of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. First, essentiality of the A. fumigatus AfFKS1 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of the beta-(1,3)-glucan synthase complex, was assessed by inactivating one allele of AfFKS1 in a diploid strain of A. fumigatus obtained using adequate selectable markers in spore color and nitrate utilization pathways and by performing haploidization under conditions that select for the occurrence of the disrupted allele. Haploid progeny could not be obtained, demonstrating that AfFKS1 and, hence, beta-(1,3)-glucan synthesis are essential in A. fumigatus. Second, random heterozygous insertional mutants were generated by electroporation of diploid conidia with a heterologous plasmid. A total of 4.5% of the transformants failed to produce haploid progeny on selective medium. Genomic analysis of these heterozygous diploids led in particular to the identification of an essential A. fumigatus gene encoding an SMC-like protein resembling one in Schizosacccharomyces pombe involved in chromosome condensation and cohesion. However, significant plasmid and genomic DNA rearrangements were observed at many of the identified genomic loci where plasmid integration had occurred, thus suggesting that the use of electroporation to build libraries of A. fumigatus insertional mutants has relatively limited value and cannot be used in an exhaustive search of essential genes. PMID:12136012

  13. Identification of potential target genes for Adr1p through characterization of essential nucleotides in UAS1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C; Kacherovsky, N; Dombek, K M; Camier, S; Thukral, S K; Rhim, E; Young, E T

    1994-01-01

    Adr1p is a regulatory protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that binds to and activates transcription from two sites in a perfect 22-bp inverted repeat, UAS1, in the ADH2 promoter. Binding requires two C2H2 zinc fingers and a region amino terminal to the fingers. The importance for DNA binding of each position within UAS1 was deduced from two types of assays. Both methods led to an identical consensus sequence containing only four essential base pairs: GG(A/G)G. The preferred sequence, TTGG(A/G)GA, is found in both halves of the inverted repeat. The region of Adr1p amino terminal to the fingers is important for phosphate contacts in the central region of UAS1. However, no base-specific contacts in this portion of UAS1 are important for DNA binding or for ADR1-dependent transcription in vivo. When the central 6 bp were deleted, only a single monomer of Adr1p was able to bind in vitro and activation in vivo was severely reduced. On the basis of these results and previous knowledge about the DNA binding site requirements, including constraints on the spacing and orientation of sites that affect activation in vivo, a consensus binding site for Adr1p was derived. By using this consensus site, potential Adr1p binding sites were located in the promoters of genes known to show ADR1-dependent expression. In addition, this consensus allowed the identification of new potential target genes for Adr1p. Images PMID:8196627

  14. Reovirus guanylyltransferase is L2 gene product lambda 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, D R; Zarbl, H; Millward, S

    1986-01-01

    Reovirus guanylyltransferase, studied as a covalent enzyme-GMP intermediate, was used to guanylate appropriate acceptor molecules in vitro to produce authentic cap structures. Guanylyltransferase activity was associated with lambda 2, the 140-kilodalton product of the L2 gene segment of reovirus serotypes 1 and 3. Images PMID:3018296

  15. Anode Biofilm Transcriptomics Reveals Outer Surface Components Essential for High Density Current Production in Geobacter sulfurreducens Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Glaven, Richard H.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Meth, Barbara A.; DiDonato, Raymond J.; Covalla, Sean F.; Franks, Ashley E.; Liu, Anna; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 m) biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes. PMID:19461962

  16. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    DOEpatents

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-08-19

    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  17. Effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on growth and gene expression of enterotoxins A, C and E in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Misaghi, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Gandomi, Hassan; Hosseini, Hedayat

    2013-05-15

    Staphylococcal food poisoning results from the consumption of food in which enterotoxigenic staphylococci have grown and produced toxins. The present study was conducted with three principal aims: i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ii) to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (subMIC) of EO on the growth of bacteria over 72 h (at 25 and 35 C), and iii) to investigate the expression of genes involved in the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA, SEC and SEE over 72 h at 35 C. The MIC and MBC of Z. multiflora Boiss. EO were 0.03 and 0.04%, respectively. Colony counting at 24, 48 and 72 h of 3 day cultures grown in the presence of 75%MIC of the EO showed that the growth rate was reduced 2.16, 2.78 and 2.91 log 10 cfu/ml at 25 C, and 1.34, 2.35 and 2.57 log 10 cfu/ml at 35 C, respectively, compared to control cultures. SubMIC levels of EO also significantly decreased the expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)-related genes and therefore the production of SEs in a dose dependent manner. For example, when cultured with 75% MIC, the transcriptional levels of sea, sec, see and agrA were decreased 11.7, 9.3, 10.45 and 10.3 fold after 18 h and 13.9, 11.21, 12.44 and 12.52 fold after 72 h in comparison to control, respectively. PMID:23558199

  18. Role of osteoprotegerin and its gene polymorphisms in the occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Anna; Hou, Xuwei; Yang, Deguang; Liu, Tingrong; Zheng, Dezhong; Deng, Liehua; Zhou, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) development in patients with essential hypertension (EH). A total of 1092 patients diagnosed with EH were recruited. The LVHs were determined and OPG gene polymorphisms were genotyped. Patients with LVH had a significantly higher mean serum OPG level than those without LVH. The 1181CC genotype carriers had significantly lower risk for LVH compared with GC and GG genotype carriers. The serum OPG level and OPG 1181 G>C polymorphism were found to be independent risk factors for the occurrence of LVH in hypertensive patients. In vitro study shows that OPG overexpression upregulates cell surface size, protein synthesis per cell, and hypertrophy- and fibrosis-related proteins in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, whereas OPG inhibition can abolish the above-mentioned changes. Consistent with the in vitro data, our in vivo study revealed that the OPG administration induced the LVH in hypertensive rats. This study is the first to report the close association between OPG and LVH development in EH patients and the regulatory effect of OPG on cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:25546658

  19. The VELVET A Orthologue VEL1 of Trichoderma reesei Regulates Fungal Development and Is Essential for Cellulase Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Lea; Fekete, Erzsébet; Paholcsek, Melinda; Sándor, Erzsébet; Aquino, Benigno; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Karaffa, Levente; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei is the industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases for biorefinery processes. Their expression is obligatorily dependent on the function of the protein methyltransferase LAE1. The Aspergillus nidulans orthologue of LAE1 - LaeA - is part of the VELVET protein complex consisting of LaeA, VeA and VelB that regulates secondary metabolism and sexual as well as asexual reproduction. Here we have therefore investigated the function of VEL1, the T. reesei orthologue of A. nidulans VeA. Deletion of the T. reesei vel1 locus causes a complete and light-independent loss of conidiation, and impairs formation of perithecia. Deletion of vel1 also alters hyphal morphology towards hyperbranching and formation of thicker filaments, and with consequently reduced growth rates. Growth on lactose as a sole carbon source, however, is even more strongly reduced and growth on cellulose as a sole carbon source eliminated. Consistent with these findings, deletion of vel1 completely impaired the expression of cellulases, xylanases and the cellulase regulator XYR1 on lactose as a cellulase inducing carbon source, but also in resting mycelia with sophorose as inducer. Our data show that in T. reesei VEL1 controls sexual and asexual development, and this effect is independent of light. VEL1 is also essential for cellulase gene expression, which is consistent with the assumption that their regulation by LAE1 occurs by the VELVET complex. PMID:25386652

  20. Drosophila melanogaster cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal protein essential for fly development

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski-Nimmerfall, Elisabeth; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Rendic, Dubravko; Krämer, Helmut; Mach, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. The genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative orthologue (dCREG), suggesting evolutionarily conserved physiological functions of this protein. In D. melanogaster S2 cells, dCREG was found to localize in lysosomes. Further studies revealed that intracellular dCREG is subject of proteolytic maturation. Processing and turnover could be substantially reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of cathepsin L. In contrast to mammalian cells, lysosomal delivery of dCREG does not depend on its carbohydrate moiety. Furthermore, depletion of the putative D. melanogaster lysosomal sorting receptor lysosomal enzyme receptor protein did not compromise cellular retention of dCREG. We also investigated the developmental consequences of dCREG ablation in whole D. melanogaster flies. Ubiquitous depletion of dCREG proved lethal at the late pupal stage once a knock-down efficiency of > 95% was achieved. These results demonstrate that dCREG is essential for proper completion of fly development. PMID:25173815

  1. Role of Osteoprotegerin and Its Gene Polymorphisms in the Occurrence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Essential Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Anna; Hou, Xuwei; Yang, Deguang; Liu, Tingrong; Zheng, Dezhong; Deng, Liehua; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) development in patients with essential hypertension (EH). A total of 1092 patients diagnosed with EH were recruited. The LVHs were determined and OPG gene polymorphisms were genotyped. Patients with LVH had a significantly higher mean serum OPG level than those without LVH. The 1181CC genotype carriers had significantly lower risk for LVH compared with GC and GG genotype carriers. The serum OPG level and OPG 1181 G>C polymorphism were found to be independent risk factors for the occurrence of LVH in hypertensive patients. In vitro study shows that OPG overexpression upregulates cell surface size, protein synthesis per cell, and hypertrophy- and fibrosis-related proteins in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, whereas OPG inhibition can abolish the above-mentioned changes. Consistent with the in vitro data, our in vivo study revealed that the OPG administration induced the LVH in hypertensive rats. This study is the first to report the close association between OPG and LVH development in EH patients and the regulatory effect of OPG on cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:25546658

  2. Incorporation of essential oils and nanoparticles in pullulan films to control foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Khalaf, Hassan H; Sharoba, Ashraf M; El-Tanahi, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2014-04-01

    The incorporation of essential oils and nanotechnology into edible films has the potential to improve the microbiological safety of foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan films containing essential oils and nanoparticles against 4 foodborne pathogens. Initial experiments using plate overlay assays demonstrated that 2% oregano essential oil was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not inhibited. Two percent rosemary essential oil was active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 1%. Zinc oxide nanoparticles at 110 nm were active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 100 or 130 nm. Conversely, 100 nm silver (Ag) nanoparticles were more active against S. aureus than L. monocytogenes. Using the results from these experiments, the compounds exhibiting the greatest activity were incorporated into pullulan films and found to inhibit all or some of the 4 pathogens in plate overlay assays. In challenge studies, pullulan films containing the compounds effectively inhibited the pathogens associated with vacuum packaged meat and poultry products stored at 4 C for up to 3 wk, as compared to control films. Additionally, the structure and cross-section of the films were evaluated using electron microscopy. The results from this study demonstrate that edible films made from pullulan and incorporated with essential oils or nanoparticles may improve the safety of refrigerated, fresh or further processed meat and poultry products. PMID:24621108

  3. Association of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor (A1166C) Gene Polymorphism and Its Increased Expression in Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sudhir; Narang, Rajiv; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Bhatia, Jagriti; Saluja, Daman; Srivastava, Kamna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is one of the major cardiovascular diseases. It affects nearly 1.56 billion people worldwide. The present study is about a particular genetic polymorphism (A1166C), gene expression and protein expression of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) (SNP ID: rs5186) and its association with essential hypertension in a Northern Indian population. Methods We analyzed the A1166C polymorphism and expression of AT1R gene in 250 patients with essential hypertension and 250 normal healthy controls. Results A significant association was found in the AT1R genotypes (AC+CC) with essential hypertension (?2?=?22.48, p?=?0.0001). Individuals with CC genotypes were at 2.4 times higher odds (p?=?0.0001) to develop essential hypertension than individuals with AC and AA genotypes. The statistically significant intergenotypic variation in the systolic blood pressure was found higher in the patients with CC (169.436.3 mmHg) as compared to that of AA (143.528.1 mmHg) and AC (153.930.5 mmHg) genotypes (p?=?0.0001). We found a significant difference in the average delta-CT value (p?=?0.0001) wherein an upregulated gene expression (approximately 16 fold) was observed in case of patients as compared to controls. Furthermore, higher expression of AT1R gene was observed in patients with CC genotype than with AC and AA genotypes. A significant difference (p?=?0.0001) in the protein expression of angiotensin II Type 1 receptor was also observed in the plasma of patients (1.490.27) as compared to controls (0.800.24). Conclusion Our findings suggest that C allele of A1166C polymorphism in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene is associated with essential hypertension and its upregulation could play an important role in essential hypertension. PMID:24992666

  4. Epigenetic engineering of ribosomal RNA genes enhances protein production.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Raffaella; Lienemann, Philipp; Fussenegger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Selection of mammalian high-producer cell lines remains a major challenge for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes encode the major component of the ribosome but many rRNA gene copies are not transcribed due to epigenetic silencing by the nucleolar remodelling complex (NoRC) [6], which may limit the cell's full production capacity. Here we show that the knockdown of TIP5, a subunit of NoRC, decreases the number of silent rRNA genes, upregulates rRNA transcription, enhances ribosome synthesis and increases production of recombinant proteins. However, general enhancement of rRNA transcription rate did not stimulate protein synthesis. Our data demonstrates that the number of transcriptionally competent rRNA genes limits efficient ribosome synthesis. Epigenetic engineering of ribosomal RNA genes offers new possibilities for improving biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides novel insights into the complex regulatory network which governs the translation machinery in normal cellular processes as well as in pathological conditions like cancer. PMID:19680546

  5. The rpoN gene product of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for expression of diverse genes, including the flagellin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Totten, P A; Lara, J C; Lory, S

    1990-01-01

    The product of the rpoN gene is an alternative sigma factor of RNA polymerase which is required for transcription of a number of genes in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including those that specify enzymes of nitrogen assimilation, amino acid uptake, and degradation of a variety of organic molecules. We have previously shown that transcription of the pilin gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa also requires RpoN (K. S. Ishimoto and S. Lory, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1954-1957, 1989) and have undertaken a more extensive survey of genes under RpoN control. Strains of P. aeruginosa that carry an insertionally inactivated rpoN gene were constructed and shown to be nonmotile because of the inability of these mutants to synthesize flagellin. The mutation in rpoN had no effect on expression of extracellular polypeptides, outer membrane proteins, and the alginate capsule. However, the rpoN mutants were glutamine auxotrophs and were defective in glutamine synthetase, indicating defects in nitrogen assimilation. In addition, the P. aeruginosa rpoN mutants were defective in urease activity. These findings indicate that the sigma factor encoded by the rpoN gene is used by P. aeruginosa for transcription of a diverse set of genes that specify biosynthetic enzymes, degradative enzymes, and surface components. These rpoN-controlled genes include pili and flagella which are required for full virulence of the organism. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2152909

  6. Neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells requires the junB and fra-1 gene induction which is dependent on the HMGI-C gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, D; Battista, S; Pierantoni, G M; Fedele, M; Casalino, L; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Fusco, A; Verde, P

    1997-01-01

    The expression of the high mobility group I (HMGI)-C chromatin component was shown previously to be essential for the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype in retrovirally transformed thyroid cell lines. To identify possible targets of the HMGI-C gene product, we have analyzed the AP-1 complex in normal, fully transformed and antisense HMGI-C-expressing rat thyroid cells. We show that neoplastic transformation is associated with a drastic increase in AP-1 activity, which reflects multiple compositional changes. The strongest effect is represented by the dramatic junB and fra-1 gene induction, which is prevented in cell lines expressing the antisense HMGI-C. These results indicate that the HMGI-C gene product is essential for the junB and fra-1 transcriptional induction associated with neoplastic transformation. The inhibition of Fra-1 protein synthesis by stable transfection with a fra-1 antisense RNA vector significantly reduces the malignant phenotype of the transformed thyroid cells, indicating a pivotal role for the fra-1 gene product in the process of cellular transformation. PMID:9311991

  7. Deduced products of C4-dicarboxylate transport regulatory genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum are homologous to nitrogen regulatory gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Ronson, C W; Astwood, P M; Nixon, B T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    We have sequenced two genes dctB and dctD required for the activation of the C4-dicarboxylate transport structural gene dctA in free-living Rhizobium leguminosarum. The hydropathic profile of the dctB gene product (DctB) suggested that its N-terminal region may be located in the periplasm and its C-terminal region in the cytoplasm. The C-terminal region of DctB was strongly conserved with similar regions of the products of several regulatory genes that may act as environmental sensors, including ntrB, envZ, virA, phoR, cpxA, and phoM. The N-terminal domains of the products of several regulatory genes thought to be transcriptional activators, including ntrC, ompR, virG, phoB and sfrA. In addition, the central and C-terminal regions of DctD were strongly conserved with the products of ntrC and nifA, transcriptional activators that require the alternate sigma factor rpoN (ntrA) as co-activator. The central region of DctD also contained a potential ATP-binding domain. These results are consistent with recent results that show that rpoN product is required for dctA activation, and suggest that DctB plus DctD-mediated transcriptional activation of dctA may be mechanistically similar to NtrB plus NtrC-mediated activation of glnA in E. coli. PMID:3671068

  8. Natural Products Version 2.0: Connecting Genes to Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher T.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products have played a prominent role in the history of organic chemistry, and they continue to be important as drugs, biological probes, and targets of study for synthetic and analytical chemists. In this perspective, we explore how connecting Nature’s small molecules to the genes that encode them has sparked a renaissance in natural product research, focusing primarily on the biosynthesis of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. We survey monomer biogenesis, coupling chemistries from templated and non-templated pathways, and the broad set of tailoring reactions and hybrid pathways that give rise to the diverse scaffolds and functionalization patterns of natural products. We conclude by considering two questions: What would it take to find all natural product scaffolds? What kind of scientists will be studying natural products in the future? PMID:20121095

  9. An essential role for IFN-? in the induction of IFN-stimulated gene expression by LPS in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Faruk; Dickensheets, Harold; Gamero, Ana M.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Donnelly, Raymond P.

    2014-01-01

    TLR agonists such as LPS and poly(I:C) induce expression of type I IFNs, such as IFN-? and -?, by macrophages. To examine the role of IFN-? in the induction of ISGs by LPS, we compared the ability of LPS to induce ISGF3 activity and ISG expression in bone marrowderived macrophages from WT and Ifnb1?/? mice. We found that LPS treatment activated ISGF3 and induced expression of ISGs such as Oas1, Mx1, Ddx58 (RIG-I), and Ifih1 (MDA5) in WT macrophages, but not in macrophages derived from Ifnb1?/? mice or Ifnar1?/? mice. The inability of LPS to induce activation of ISGF3 and ISG expression in Ifnb1?/? macrophages correlated with the failure of LPS to induce activation of STAT1 and -2 in these cells. Consistent with these findings, LPS treatment also failed to induce ISG expression in bone marrowderived macrophages from Stat2 KO mice. Although activation of ISGF3 and induction of ISG expression by LPS was abrogated in Ifnb1?/? and Ifnar1?/? macrophages, activation of NF-?B and induction of NF-?B-responsive genes, such as Tnf (TNF-?) and Il1b (IL-1?), were not affected by deletion of either the IFN-? or IFN-?R1 genes. These findings demonstrate that induction of ISGF3 activity and ISG expression by LPS is critically dependent on intermediate production of IFN-? and autocrine signaling through type I IFN receptors. PMID:25024400

  10. Genome-wide high-throughput screening to investigate essential genes involved in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 survival.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Mette T; Kaas, Rolf S; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Holmes, Mark A; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2014-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Sequence Type 398 (ST398) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to colonize and cause disease in several animal species including humans. To better understand the adaptation, evolution, transmission and pathogenic capacity, further investigations into the importance of the different genes harboured by LA-MRSA ST398 are required. In this study we generated a genome-wide transposon mutant library in an LA-MRSA ST398 isolate to evaluate genes important for bacterial survival in laboratory and host-specific environments. The transposon mutant library consisted of approximately 1 million mutants with around 140,000 unique insertion sites and an average number of unique inserts per gene of 44.8. We identified LA-MRSA ST398 essential genes comparable to other high-throughput S. aureus essential gene studies. As ST398 is the most common MRSA isolated from pigs, the transposon mutant library was screened in whole porcine blood. Twenty-four genes were specifically identified as important for bacterial survival in porcine blood. Mutations in 23 of these genes resulted in attenuated bacterial fitness. Seven of the 23 genes were of unknown function, whereas 16 genes were annotated with functions predominantly related to carbon metabolism, pH shock and a variety of regulations and only indirectly to virulence factors. Mutations in one gene of unknown function resulted in a hypercompetitive mutant. Further evaluation of these genes is required to determine their specific relevance in blood survival. PMID:24563689

  11. Genome-Wide High-Throughput Screening to Investigate Essential Genes Involved in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 Survival

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Mette T.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holmes, Mark A.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Sequence Type 398 (ST398) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to colonize and cause disease in several animal species including humans. To better understand the adaptation, evolution, transmission and pathogenic capacity, further investigations into the importance of the different genes harboured by LA-MRSA ST398 are required. In this study we generated a genome-wide transposon mutant library in an LA-MRSA ST398 isolate to evaluate genes important for bacterial survival in laboratory and host-specific environments. The transposon mutant library consisted of approximately 1 million mutants with around 140,000 unique insertion sites and an average number of unique inserts per gene of 44.8. We identified LA-MRSA ST398 essential genes comparable to other high-throughput S. aureus essential gene studies. As ST398 is the most common MRSA isolated from pigs, the transposon mutant library was screened in whole porcine blood. Twenty-four genes were specifically identified as important for bacterial survival in porcine blood. Mutations in 23 of these genes resulted in attenuated bacterial fitness. Seven of the 23 genes were of unknown function, whereas 16 genes were annotated with functions predominantly related to carbon metabolism, pH shock and a variety of regulations and only indirectly to virulence factors. Mutations in one gene of unknown function resulted in a hypercompetitive mutant. Further evaluation of these genes is required to determine their specific relevance in blood survival. PMID:24563689

  12. Chemoprevention by essential oil of turmeric leaves (Curcuma longa L.) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, S; Chempakam, B; Leela, N K; Suseela Bhai, R

    2011-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for a wide range of medicinal properties. Essential oil of turmeric leaves (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated at varying concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) broth inoculated with spore suspension of Aspergillus flavus of 10(6)conidia/ml. These were evaluated for their potential in the control of aflatoxigenic fungus A. flavus and aflatoxin production. Turmeric leaf oil exhibited 95.3% and 100% inhibition of toxin production respectively at 1.0% and 1.5%. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the concentration of essential oil used. The oil exhibited significant inhibition of fungal growth as well as aflatoxins B(1) and G(1) production. The LD(50) and LD(90) were also determined. GC-MS analysis of the oil showed ?-phellandrene, p-cymene and terpinolene as the major components in turmeric leaf oil. The possibility of using these phytochemical components as bio-preservatives for storage of spices is discussed. PMID:21354246

  13. Integrated in silico analyses of regulatory and metabolic networks of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 reveal relationships between gene centrality and essentiality

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyun-Seob; McClure, Ryan S.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Overall, Christopher C.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2015-03-27

    Cyanobacteria dynamically relay environmental inputs to intracellular adaptations through a coordinated adjustment of photosynthetic efficiency and carbon processing rates. The output of such adaptations is reflected through changes in transcriptional patterns and metabolic flux distributions that ultimately define growth strategy. To address interrelationships between metabolism and regulation, we performed integrative analyses of metabolic and gene co-expression networks in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Centrality analyses using the gene co-expression network identified a set of key genes, which were defined here as ‘topologically important.’ Parallel in silico gene knock-out simulations, using the genome-scale metabolic network, classified what we termed as ‘functionally important’ genes, deletion of which affected growth or metabolism. A strong positive correlation was observed between topologically and functionally important genes. Functionally important genes exhibited variable levels of topological centrality; however, the majority of topologically central genes were found to be functionally essential for growth. Subsequent functional enrichment analysis revealed that both functionally and topologically important genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 are predominantly associated with translation and energy metabolism, two cellular processes critical for growth. This research demonstrates how synergistic network-level analyses can be used for reconciliation of metabolic and gene expression data to uncover fundamental biological principles.

  14. Integrated in silico Analyses of Regulatory and Metabolic Networks of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 Reveal Relationships between Gene Centrality and Essentiality

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Seob; McClure, Ryan S.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Overall, Christopher C.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria dynamically relay environmental inputs to intracellular adaptations through a coordinated adjustment of photosynthetic efficiency and carbon processing rates. The output of such adaptations is reflected through changes in transcriptional patterns and metabolic flux distributions that ultimately define growth strategy. To address interrelationships between metabolism and regulation, we performed integrative analyses of metabolic and gene co-expression networks in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Centrality analyses using the gene co-expression network identified a set of key genes, which were defined here as topologically important. Parallel in silico gene knock-out simulations, using the genome-scale metabolic network, classified what we termed as functionally important genes, deletion of which affected growth or metabolism. A strong positive correlation was observed between topologically and functionally important genes. Functionally important genes exhibited variable levels of topological centrality; however, the majority of topologically central genes were found to be functionally essential for growth. Subsequent functional enrichment analysis revealed that both functionally and topologically important genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 are predominantly associated with translation and energy metabolism, two cellular processes critical for growth. This research demonstrates how synergistic network-level analyses can be used for reconciliation of metabolic and gene expression data to uncover fundamental biological principles. PMID:25826650

  15. Integrated in silico analyses of regulatory and metabolic networks of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 reveal relationships between gene centrality and essentiality

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Hyun-Seob; McClure, Ryan S.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Overall, Christopher C.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2015-03-27

    Cyanobacteria dynamically relay environmental inputs to intracellular adaptations through a coordinated adjustment of photosynthetic efficiency and carbon processing rates. The output of such adaptations is reflected through changes in transcriptional patterns and metabolic flux distributions that ultimately define growth strategy. To address interrelationships between metabolism and regulation, we performed integrative analyses of metabolic and gene co-expression networks in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Centrality analyses using the gene co-expression network identified a set of key genes, which were defined here as ‘topologically important.’ Parallel in silico gene knock-out simulations, using the genome-scale metabolic network, classified what we termedmore » as ‘functionally important’ genes, deletion of which affected growth or metabolism. A strong positive correlation was observed between topologically and functionally important genes. Functionally important genes exhibited variable levels of topological centrality; however, the majority of topologically central genes were found to be functionally essential for growth. Subsequent functional enrichment analysis revealed that both functionally and topologically important genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 are predominantly associated with translation and energy metabolism, two cellular processes critical for growth. This research demonstrates how synergistic network-level analyses can be used for reconciliation of metabolic and gene expression data to uncover fundamental biological principles.« less

  16. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  17. The pgpA and pgpB genes of Escherichia coli are not essential: evidence for a third phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C R; Zimniak, L; Dowhan, W

    1992-01-01

    To further define the genes and gene products responsible for the in vivo conversion of phosphatidylglycerophosphate to phosphatidylglycerol in Escherichia coli, we disrupted two genes (pgpA and pgpB) which had previously been shown to encode gene products which carried out this reaction in vitro (T. Icho and C. R. H. Raetz, J. Bacteriol. 153:722-730, 1983). Strains with either gene or both genes disrupted had the same properties as the original mutants isolated with mutations in these genes, i.e., reduced in vitro phospholipid phosphatase activities, normal growth properties, and an increase in the level of phosphatidylglycerophosphate (1.6% versus less than 0.1% in wild-type strains). These results demonstrate that these genes are not required for either normal cell growth or the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol in vivo. In addition, the total phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase activity in the doubly disrupted mutant was reduced by only 50%, which indicates that there is at least one other gene that encodes such an activity and thus accounts for the lack of a dramatic effect on the biosynthesis of anionic phospholipids in these mutant strains. The phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase activities of the pgpB gene product were also significantly reduced in gene-interrupted mutants, but the detection of residual phosphatase activities in these mutants indicated that additional genes encoding such phosphatases exist. The lack of a significant phenotype resulting from disruption of the pgpA and pgpB genes indicates that these genes may be required only for nonessential cell function and leaves the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerophosphate as the only step in E. coli phospholipid biosynthesis for which a gene locus has not been identified. Images PMID:1309518

  18. The Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Gene and Essential Hypertension: The Joint Effect of Polymorphism E158K and Cigarette Smoking on Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bushueva, Olga; Solodilova, Maria; Churnosov, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir; Polonikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Gene encoding flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), a microsomal antioxidant defense enzyme, has been suggested to contribute to essential hypertension (EH). The present study was designed to investigate whether common functional polymorphism E158K (rs2266782) of the FMO3 gene is associated with EH susceptibility in a Russian population. A total of 2 995 unrelated subjects from Kursk (1 362 EH patients and 843 healthy controls) and Belgorod (357 EH patients and 422 population controls) regions of Central Russia were recruited for this study. DNA samples from all study participants were genotyped for the FMO3 gene polymorphism through PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We found that the polymorphism E158K is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in both discovery population from Kursk region (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.09–1.69, P = 0.01) and replication population from Belgorod region (OR 1.54 95% CI 1.07–1.89, P = 0.02) after adjustment for gender and age using logistic regression analysis. Further analysis showed that the increased hypertension risk in carriers of genotype 158KK gene occurred in cigarette smokers, whereas nonsmoker carriers of this genotype did not show the disease risk. This is the first study reporting the association of the FMO3 gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:25243081

  19. The Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Gene and Essential Hypertension: The Joint Effect of Polymorphism E158K and Cigarette Smoking on Disease Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bushueva, Olga; Solodilova, Maria; Churnosov, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir; Polonikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Gene encoding flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), a microsomal antioxidant defense enzyme, has been suggested to contribute to essential hypertension (EH). The present study was designed to investigate whether common functional polymorphism E158K (rs2266782) of the FMO3 gene is associated with EH susceptibility in a Russian population. A total of 2 995 unrelated subjects from Kursk (1 362 EH patients and 843 healthy controls) and Belgorod (357 EH patients and 422 population controls) regions of Central Russia were recruited for this study. DNA samples from all study participants were genotyped for the FMO3 gene polymorphism through PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We found that the polymorphism E158K is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in both discovery population from Kursk region (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.09-1.69, P = 0.01) and replication population from Belgorod region (OR 1.54 95% CI 1.07-1.89, P = 0.02) after adjustment for gender and age using logistic regression analysis. Further analysis showed that the increased hypertension risk in carriers of genotype 158KK gene occurred in cigarette smokers, whereas nonsmoker carriers of this genotype did not show the disease risk. This is the first study reporting the association of the FMO3 gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:25243081

  20. piRNAs and piRNA-Dependent siRNAs Protect Conserved and Essential C. elegans Genes from Misrouting into the RNAi Pathway.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Carolyn M; Brown, Kristen C; Montgomery, Brooke E; Ruvkun, Gary; Montgomery, Taiowa A

    2015-08-24

    piRNAs silence foreign genes, such as transposons, to preserve genome integrity, but they also target endogenous mRNAs by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans piRNAs interact with both transposon and nontransposon mRNAs to initiate sustained silencing via the RNAi pathway. To assess the dysregulation of gene silencing caused by lack of piRNAs, we restored RNA silencing in RNAi-defective animals in the presence or absence of piRNAs. In the absence of piRNAs and a cellular memory of piRNA activity, essential and conserved genes are misrouted into the RNAi pathway to produce siRNAs that bind the nuclear Argonaute HRDE-1, resulting in dramatic defects in germ cell proliferation and function such that the animals are sterile. Inactivation of RNAi suppresses sterility, indicating that aberrant siRNAs produced in the absence of piRNAs target essential genes for silencing. Thus, by reanimating RNAi, we uncovered a role for piRNAs in protecting essential genes from RNA silencing. PMID:26279487

  1. The PBN1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an essential gene that is required for the post-translational processing of the protease B precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Naik, R R; Jones, E W

    1998-01-01

    The vacuolar hydrolase protease B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is synthesized as an inactive precursor (Prb1p). The precursor undergoes post-translational modifications while transiting the secretory pathway. In addition to N- and O-linked glycosylations, four proteolytic cleavages occur during the maturation of Prb1p. Removal of the signal peptide by signal peptidase and the autocatalytic cleavage of the large amino-terminal propeptide occur in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two carboxy-terminal cleavages of the post regions occur in the vacuole: the first cleavage is catalyzed by protease A and the second results from autocatalysis. We have isolated a mutant, pbn1-1, that exhibits a defect in the ER processing of Prb1p. The autocatalytic cleavage of the propeptide from Prb1p does not occur and Prb1p is rapidly degraded in the cytosol. PBN1 was cloned and is identical to YCL052c on chromosome III. PBN1 is an essential gene that encodes a novel protein. Pbn1p is predicted to contain a sub-C-terminal transmembrane domain but no signal sequence. A functional HA epitope-tagged Pbn1p fusion localizes to the ER. Pbn1p is N-glycosylated in its amino-terminal domain, indicating a lumenal orientation despite the lack of a signal sequence. Based on these results, we propose that one of the functions of Pbn1p is to aid in the autocatalytic processing of Prb1p. PMID:9649520

  2. The ectD gene, which is involved in the synthesis of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine, is essential for thermoprotection of the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens.

    PubMed

    Garca-Estepa, Ral; Argandoa, Montserrat; Reina-Bueno, Mercedes; Capote, Nieves; Iglesias-Guerra, Fernando; Nieto, Joaqun J; Vargas, Carmen

    2006-06-01

    The halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens synthesizes and accumulates compatible solutes in response to salt and temperature stress. (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of cells grown in minimal medium at the limiting temperature of 45 degrees C revealed the presence of hydroxyectoine, ectoine, glutamate, trehalose (not present in cells grown at 37 degrees C), and the ectoine precursor, Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyric acid. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that the levels of ectoine and hydroxyectoine were maximal during the stationary phase of growth. Accumulation of hydroxyectoine was up-regulated by salinity and temperature, whereas accumulation of ectoine was up-regulated by salinity and down-regulated by temperature. The ectD gene, which is involved in the conversion of ectoine to hydroxyectoine, was isolated as part of a DNA region that also contains a gene whose product belongs to the AraC-XylS family of transcriptional activators. Orthologs of ectD were found within the sequenced genomes of members of the proteobacteria, firmicutes, and actinobacteria, and their products were grouped into the ectoine hydroxylase subfamily, which was shown to belong to the superfamily of Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. Analysis of the ectoine and hydroxyectoine contents of an ectABC ectD mutant strain fed with 1 mM ectoine or hydroxyectoine demonstrated that ectD is required for the main ectoine hydroxylase activity in C. salexigens. Although in minimal medium at 37 degrees C the wild-type strain grew with 0.5 to 3.0 M NaCl, with optimal growth at 1.5 M NaCl, at 45 degrees C it could not cope with the lowest (0.75 M NaCl) or the highest (3.0 M NaCl) salinity, and it grew optimally at 2.5 M NaCl. The ectD mutation caused a growth defect at 45 degrees C in minimal medium with 1.5 to 2.5 M NaCl, but it did not affect growth at 37 degrees C at any salinity tested. With 2.5 M NaCl, the ectD mutant synthesized 38% (at 37 degrees C) and 15% (at 45 degrees C) of the hydroxyectoine produced by the wild-type strain. All of these data reveal that hydroxyectoine synthesis mediated by the ectD gene is thermoregulated and essential for thermoprotection of C. salexigens. PMID:16707670

  3. Carotenoid-based phenotypic screen of the yeast deletion collection reveals new genes with roles in isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    zayd?n, Bilge; Burd, Helcio; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Beside their essential cellular functions, isoprenoids have value as pharmaceuticals, nutriceuticals, pesticides, and fuel alternatives. Engineering microorganisms for production of isoprenoids is relatively easy, sustainable, and cost effective in comparison to chemical synthesis or extraction from natural producers. We introduced genes encoding carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes into the haploid yeast deletion collection to identify gene deletions that improved isoprenoid production. Deletions that showed significant improvement in carotenoid production were further screened for production of bisabolene, an isoprenoid alternative to petroleum-derived diesel. Combining those deletions with other mevalonate pathway modifications increased production of bisabolene from 40mg/L to 800mg/L in shake-flask cultures. In a fermentation process, this engineered strain produced 5.2g/L of bisabolene. PMID:22918085

  4. Functional analyses and identification of two arginine residues essential to the ATP-utilizing activity of the triple gene block protein 1 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus.

    PubMed

    Liou, D Y; Hsu, Y H; Wung, C H; Wang, W H; Lin, N S; Chang, B Y

    2000-11-25

    The TGBp1 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) is encoded by the first overlapping gene of the triple-gene-block (TGB), whose products are thought to play roles in virus movement between plant cells. This protein forms cytoplasmic inclusions associated with virus particles in the BaMV-infected tissues. It has been proposed that the inclusion is one of the active forms of TGBp1. To prove this idea, we purified the TGBp1 inclusions from both the BaMV-infected Chenopodium quinoa and Escherichia coli cells overexpressing this protein to test some of their biochemical activities. We found that the TGBp1 inclusions isolated from the infected plant leaves, but not from E. coli, possess the NTP-binding and NTPase activities. However, they lack the RNA-binding activity possessed by the soluble TGBp1. These results indicate that the TGBp1 proteins in the BaMV-infected tissues assume two different functional forms. Mutational analyses and competition experiments show that the two arginine residues, Arg-16 and Arg-21, essential to RNA binding, are also required for the ATP-utilizing activity of the soluble TGBp1. This indicates that a same-structure motif is required for the two functions of the soluble TGBp1. The location of the two arginine residues outside the seven conserved motifs of the NTP-utilizing superfamily I RNA helicases, to which TGBp1 belongs, suggests that an extra-structure motif, besides the seven conserved ones, is required for the NTP-utilizing activity of the TGBp1 protein of BaMV. PMID:11080481

  5. Ci-Rga, a gene encoding an MtN3/saliva family transmembrane protein, is essential for tissue differentiation during embryogenesis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mayuko; Wada, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Satoh, Nori

    2005-09-01

    A novel gene (Ci-Rga) essential for tissue differentiation during embryogenesis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis is reported here. This gene was identified through functional screening of Ciona genes required for development by translational inhibition experiments with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. The deduced protein of Ci-Rga contains two copies of a domain with unknown function called the MtN3/saliva domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Ci-Rga belongs to the MtN3/saliva family of genes conserved among metazoans and plants, and is an ortholog of mouse Rga (Recombination-activating gene 1 gene activation). During Ciona embryogenesis, both maternal and zygotic transcripts of Ci-Rga were expressed. Translational inhibition of Ci-Rga with specific morpholino resulted in abnormal embryos in which the cleavage pattern became atypical and expression of marker genes for each of the six major tissues, namely the endoderm, muscle, mesenchyme, notochord, neural tissue, and epidermis, was lost or suppressed at the tailbud stage. Although differentiation of all the six major tissues was affected by Ci-Rga knock-down, the degree of abnormalities and the timing of appearance of abnormalities were different among tissues. Expression analysis of developmentally important genes involved in the fate specification, such as Ci-Bra, Ci-Twist-like1a, Ci-Otx, Ci-Fgf9/16/20, Ci-Lhx3, Ci-FoxD, and Ci-Tbx6b, showed that an initial step of the fate specification of notochord, mesenchyme, and neural tissue, but not of endoderm or muscle, is impaired in the knock-down embryo. These results showed that Ci-Rga is a multifunctional gene essential for tissue differentiation during embryogenesis, and is primarily required for the fate specification of notochord, mesenchyme, and neural tissue, and provide some insights into the function of this little-known group of genes. PMID:16219040

  6. Plasmid genes required for microcin B17 production.

    PubMed Central

    San Millán, J L; Kolter, R; Moreno, F

    1985-01-01

    The production of the antibiotic substance microcin B17 (Mcc) is determined by a 3.5-kilobase DNA fragment from plasmid pMccB17. Several Mcc- mutations on plasmid pMccB17 were obtained by both transposon insertion and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Plasmids carrying these mutations were tested for their ability to complement Mcc- insertion or deletion mutations on pMM102 (pMM102 is a pBR322 derivative carrying the region encoding microcin B17). Results from these experiments indicate that at least four plasmid genes are required for microcin production. PMID:2993228

  7. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a review of research accomplished in the first two years of funding for the above mentioned project. The work performed is a molecular characterization of nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which are deficient in different stages in the post-transcriptional expression of a single chloroplast encoded polypeptide, the D2 protein of Photosystem II. Our long-term goals are to understand the molecular mechanisms by which nuclear gene products affect the expression of chloroplast genes. Specifically, we which to understand how specific nuclear gene products affect the turnover rate of the D2 encoding mRNA (psbD), how other nuclear encoded factors work to promote the translation of psbD mRNA and/or stabilize the D2 protein, and what the role of the D2 protein itself is in Photosystem II assembly and in the control of expression of other chloroplast genes. This progress report will be organized into four major sections concerning (I) The characterization of nuclear mutants affected in D2 translation/turnover, (II) The study of trans-acting factors which associate with the 5{prime} end of the psbD mRNA, (III) In vitro mutagenesis of the psbD gene, and (IV) Additional studies.

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ Coactivator-1α Controls Transcription of the Sirt3 Gene, an Essential Component of the Thermogenic Brown Adipocyte Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Giralt, Albert; Hondares, Elayne; Villena, Josep A.; Ribas, Francesc; Díaz-Delfín, Julieta; Giralt, Marta; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Sirt3 (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog 3), a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases with multiple actions on metabolism and gene expression is expressed in association with brown adipocyte differentiation. Using Sirt3-null brown adipocytes, we determined that Sirt3 is required for an appropriate responsiveness of cells to noradrenergic, cAMP-mediated activation of the expression of brown adipose tissue thermogenic genes. The transcriptional coactivator Pgc-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α) induced Sirt3 gene expression in white adipocytes and embryonic fibroblasts as part of its overall induction of a brown adipose tissue-specific pattern of gene expression. In cells lacking Sirt3, Pgc-1α failed to fully induce the expression of brown fat-specific thermogenic genes. Pgc-1α activates Sirt3 gene transcription through coactivation of the orphan nuclear receptor Err (estrogen-related receptor)-α, which bound the proximal Sirt3 gene promoter region. Errα knockdown assays indicated that Errα is required for full induction of Sirt3 gene expression in response to Pgc-1α. The present results indicate that Pgc-1α controls Sirt3 gene expression and this action is an essential component of the overall mechanisms by which Pgc-1α induces the full acquisition of a brown adipocyte differentiated phenotype. PMID:21454513

  9. Stock-outs of essential health products in Mozambique-longitudinal analyses from 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Gimbel, Sarah; Hoek, Roxanne; Pfeiffer, James; Michel, Cathy; Manuel, Joo Luis; Cuembelo, Fatima; Quembo, Titos; Afonso, Pires; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    objectives To assess the relationship between health system factors and facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique. methods Service provisions were assessed in 26 health facilities and 13 district warehouses in Sofala Province, Mozambique, from July to August in 20112013. Generalised estimating equations were used to model factors associated with facility-level availability of essential drugs, supplies and equipment. results Stock-out rates for drugs ranged from 1.3% for oral rehydration solution to 20.5% for Depo-Provera and condoms, with a mean stock-out rate of 9.1%; mean stock-out rates were 15.4% for supplies and 4.1% for equipment. Stock-outs at the district level accounted for 27.1% (29/107) of facility-level drug stock-outs and 44.0% (37/84) of supply stock-outs. Each 10-km increase in the distance from district distribution warehouses was associated with a 31% (CI: 2242%), 28% (CI: 1740%) or 27% (CI: 750%) increase in rates of drug, supply or equipment stock-outs, respectively. The number of heath facility staff was consistently negatively associated with the occurrence of stock-outs. conclusions Facility-level stock-outs of EHPs in Mozambique are common and appear to disproportionately affect those living far from district capitals and near facilities with few health staff. The majority of facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique occur when stock exists at the district distribution centre. Innovative methods are urgently needed to improve EHP supply chains, requesting and ordering of drugs, facility and district communication, and forecasting of future EHP needs in Mozambique. Increased investments in public-sector human resources for health could potentially decrease the occurrence of EHP stock-outs. PMID:24724617

  10. Potential of Cultivated Ganoderma lucidum Mushrooms for the Production of Supplements Enriched with Essential Elements.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Mleczek, Miros?aw; Niedzielski, Przemys?aw; Siwulski, Marek; G?secka, Monika

    2016-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is an important medicinal mushroom species and there is continuous interest in its bioactive properties. This study evaluated whether it may additionally serve as a nutritional supplement for the trace elements: selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Mushrooms were cultivated on substrates enriched with 0.1 to 0.8 mM of inorganic Se alone or in combination with Zn and/or Cu. Supplementation increased accumulation of the elements in fruiting bodies regardless of the applied cultivation model. G. lucidum demonstrated the ability to accumulate significant amounts of organic Se, maximally amounting to (i) over 44 mg/kg when the substrate was supplemented only with Se, (ii) over 20 mg/kg in the Se+Cu model, (iii) over 25 mg/kg in the Se+Zn model, and (iv) 15 mg/kg in the Se+Cu+Zn model. The accumulation of Cu and Zn steadily increased with their initial substrate concentrations. Maximum concentrations found after supplementation with 0.8 mM amounted to over 55 mg/kg (Se+Zn) and 52 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Zn, and 29 mg/kg (Se+Cu) and over 31 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Cu. The greater the supplemented concentration and number of supplemented elements, the lower the biomass of G. lucidum fruiting bodies. Nevertheless, it still remained high when the substrate was supplemented up to 0.4 mM with each element. These results highlight that G. lucidum can easily incorporate elements from the substrate and that, when biofortified, its dried fruiting bodies may serve as a nutritional source of these essential elements. PMID:26799621

  11. Angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, AGT T174M and Angiotensin-1-Converting Enzyme (ACE) I/D Gene Polymorphisms in Essential Hypertension: Effects on Ramipril Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Vana; Lagou, Evangelia; Mihas, Constantinos; Vasiliki, Giannakopoulou; Katsiki, Niki; Kollia, Aikaterini; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Degiannis, Dimitris; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension, one of the most important risk factors for premature cardiovascular disease, is a major worldwide public health problem. Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms are thought to be associated with primary hypertension. In the present study, we examined the frequency of these gene polymorphisms in an adult population with and without essential hypertension. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms on ramipril treatment efficacy in the hypertensive patients. Methods: A total of 166 adults (83 hypertensives and 83 normotensives) were involved in the study and genotyped for AGTM235T (rs699), AGTT174M (rs4762) and ACEI/D (rs1799752) gene polymorphisms. Results: The genotype and allele distribution of the AGTM235T variant significantly differed between hypertensives and normotensives [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57% (T vs M allele), 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.01 - 2.44; p=0.045 for hypertensives]. However, none of the 3 studied Simple Nucleotide Polymorphisms were associated with the blood pressure-lowering response to ramipril. Conclusion: These results suggest that AGTM235T gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension. However, none of the AGTM235T, AGTT174M and ACEI/D gene polymorphisms influenced ramipril effectiveness.

  12. SPT5, an essential gene important for normal transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes an acidic nuclear protein with a carboxy-terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, M S; Malone, E A; Winston, F

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the SPT5 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated previously as suppressors of delta insertion mutations at HIS4 and LYS2. In this study we have shown that spt5 mutations suppress the his4-912 delta and lys2-128 delta alleles by altering transcription. We cloned the SPT5 gene and found that either an increase or a decrease in the copy number of the wild-type SPT5 gene caused an Spt- phenotype. Construction and analysis of an spt5 null mutation demonstrated that SPT5 is essential for growth, suggesting that SPT5 may be required for normal transcription of a large number of genes. The SPT5 DNA sequence was determined; it predicted a 116-kDa protein with an extremely acidic amino terminus and a novel six-amino-acid repeat at the carboxy terminus (consensus = S-T/A-W-G-G-A/Q). By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy we showed that a bifunctional SPT5-beta-galactosidase protein was located in the yeast nucleus. This molecular analysis of the SPT5 gene revealed a number of interesting similarities to the previously characterized SPT6 gene of S. cerevisiae. These results suggest that SPT5 and SPT6 act in a related fashion to influence essential transcriptional processes in S. cerevisiae. Images PMID:1840633

  13. The Steroid Content of Adrenal Adenomas and Measurements of Aldosterone Production in Patients with Essential Hypertension and Primary Aldosteronism*

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Norman M.

    1967-01-01

    The content of aldosterone, corticosterone, and cortisol has been assayed in normal adrenal tissue obtained at autopsy and in adrenal adenomas from both normotensive and hypertensive patients obtained at autopsy and from patients with primary aldosteronism obtained at surgery. The content of aldosterone and corticosterone in the adenomas of patients with essential hypertension was similar to that of normal adrenal tissue and much less than that of adenomas from patients with primary aldosteronism. Since these results do not appear to reflect various extraneous factors such as assay technique, degradation of steroids, and patient selection, they suggest that most adrenal adenomas found in patients with essential hypertension are not associated with increased aldosterone production. The presence of such adenomas should not, in itself, be considered evidence for primary aldosteronism. The excretion or secretion of aldosterone in 43 hypertensive patients was found to be similar to that of 39 normotensive patients. These results suggest that primary aldosteronism is rarely the cause of essential hypertension. PMID:6025479

  14. Essential role of ER-alpha-dependent NO production in resveratrol-mediated inhibition of restenosis.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Alok R; Hebert, Valeria Y; Dugas, Tammy R

    2010-11-01

    Resveratrol (Resv), a red wine polyphenol, is known to exhibit vascular protective effects and reduce vascular smooth muscle cell mitogenesis. Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of restenosis, the renarrowing of vessels that often occurs after angioplasty and/or stent implantation. Although Resv has been shown to be an estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, the role of the ER in Resv-mediated protection against restenosis has not yet been elucidated in vivo. Therefore, with the use of a mouse carotid artery injury model, our objective was to determine the role of ER in modulating Resv-mediated effects on neointimal hyperplasia. Female wild-type and ER-?(-/-) mice were administered a high-fat diet Resv for 2 wk. A carotid artery endothelial denudation procedure was conducted, and the mice were administered a high-fat diet Resv for an additional 2 wk. Resv-treated wild-type mice exhibited a dramatic decrease in restenosis, with an increased arterial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity and NO production. However, in the ER-?(-/-) mice, Resv failed to afford protection and failed to increase NO production, apparently because of a decreased availability of the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. To verify the role of NO in Resv-mediated effects, mice were coadministered Resv plus a nonselective NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Cotreatment with l-NAME significantly attenuated the antirestenotic properties of Resv. These data thus suggest that Resv inhibits vascular proliferative responses after injury, predominately through an ER-?-dependent increase in NO production. PMID:20709862

  15. Modular optimization of multi-gene pathways for fumarate production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Zhu, Pan; Liu, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fumarate production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here, we report a modular engineering approach that systematically removed metabolic pathway bottlenecks and led to significant titer improvements in a multi-gene fumarate metabolic pathway. On the basis of central pathway architecture, yeast fumarate biosynthesis was re-cast into three modules: reduction module, oxidation module, and byproduct module. We targeted reduction module and oxidation module to the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, respectively. Combinatorially tuning pathway efficiency by constructing protein fusions RoMDH-P160A and KGD2-SUCLG2 and optimizing metabolic balance by controlling genes RoPYC, RoMDH-P160A, KGD2-SUCLG2 and SDH1 expression strengths led to significantly improved fumarate production (20.46g/L). In byproduct module, synthetizing DNA-guided scaffolds and designing sRNA switchs enabled further production improvement up to 33.13g/L. These results suggest that modular pathway engineering can systematically optimize biosynthesis pathways to enable an efficient production of fumarate. PMID:26241189

  16. Characterization of plant eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 (eIF6) genes: The essential role in embryogenesis and their differential expression in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuki; Konishi, Mineko; Shigyo, Mikao; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2010-07-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is an essential component of ribosome biogenesis. In our present study, we characterize plant eIF6 genes for the first time. Although a single gene encodes eIF6 in yeast and animals, two genes were found to encode proteins homologous to animal and yeast eIF6 in Arabidopsis and rice, denoted At-eIF6;1 and At-eIF6;2, and Os-eIF6;1 and Os-eIF6;2, respectively. Analysis of the yeast eif6 (tif6) mutant suggested that plant eIF6, at least in the case of At-eIF6;1, can complement the essential function of eIF6 in yeast. Evidence for the essential role of eIF6 in plants was also provided by the embryonic-lethal phenotype of the at-eif6;1 mutant. In contrast, At-eIF6;2 appears not to be essential due to its very low expression level and the normal growth phenotype of the eif6;2 mutants. Consistent with the putative role of plant eIF6 in ribosome biogenesis, At-eIF6;1 is predominately expressed in tissues where cell division actively proceeds under the control of intronic cis-regulatory elements. On the other hand, both Os-eIF6;1 and Os-eIF6;2 are probably active genes because they are expressed at significant expression levels. Interestingly, the supply of ammonium nitrate as a plant nutrient was found to induce specifically the expression of Os-eIF6;2. Our present findings indicate that the eIF6 genes have differently evolved in plant and animal kingdoms and also in distinct plant species. PMID:20570652

  17. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guiyang; Zhou, Li; Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Three new sesquiterpenes including a new elemane-type sesquiterpene, 5βH-elem-1,3,7,8-tetraen-8,12-olide (1), and two new carabrane-type sesquiterpenes, 7α,11-epoxy-6α-methoxy-carabrane-4,8-dione (2) and 8,11-epidioxy-8-hydroxy-4-oxo-6-carabren (3), together with eight known sesquiterpenes (4-11) were isolated from Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. A possible biogenetic scheme for the related compounds was postulated. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds are discussed. PMID:25819782

  18. Determination of elemental toxicity migration limits, bioaccessibility and risk assessment of essential childcare products.

    PubMed

    Aboel Dahab, Ali; Elhag, Dhia Eldin A; Ahmed, Ammar Bourai; Al-Obaid, Humaida A

    2016-02-01

    Children especially infants are particularly sensitive to contaminant exposure, they are exposed to toxic substances including heavy metals via multiple pathways, i.e. food, air, water, soil and childcare products. To date, determination of metal bioaccessibility in teethers and feeding teats is missing in the literature; therefore, it is vitally important to assess their metal bioaccessibility and characterise the risk for children. The aim of this study is to determine the migration levels of toxic elements in teethers and feeding teats of different brands as a measure of metal bioaccessibility and characterise the risk for children exposed to these products. The migration limits of several heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Zn) in different brands of teethers and feeding teats were determined simultaneously using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) adopting a protocol in the European standards for safety of toys. With the exception of Pb, the migration limits of all elements in all brands of teethers and feeding teats were below the specified limits. However, in the case of Pb, the migration was above the specified limits in all samples except one brand of feeding teats. Risk assessment expressed as hazard index (HI) was calculated for detected elements and all samples. Although HI was below 1.0 for all samples except one sample, the high Pb concentration would pose a considerable risk to children. Therefore, we recommend a more thorough research and risk characterisation taking into consideration the factors that affect HI values. Graphical Abstract Determination of metal bioaccessibility and risk characterisation of teethers and feeding teats ensure children safety against metal toxicity. PMID:26490916

  19. CO2 – Intrinsic Product, Essential Substrate, and Regulatory Trigger of Microbial and Mammalian Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Bastian; Takors, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide formation mirrors the final carbon oxidation steps of aerobic metabolism in microbial and mammalian cells. As a consequence, CO2/HCO3− dissociation equilibria arise in fermenters by the growing culture. Anaplerotic reactions make use of the abundant CO2/HCO3− levels for refueling citric acid cycle demands and for enabling oxaloacetate-derived products. At the same time, CO2 is released manifold in metabolic reactions via decarboxylation activity. The levels of extracellular CO2/HCO3− depend on cellular activities and physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressures, aeration, and the efficiency of mixing in large-scale bioreactors. Besides, local CO2/HCO3− levels might also act as metabolic inhibitors or transcriptional effectors triggering regulatory events inside the cells. This review gives an overview about fundamental physicochemical properties of CO2/HCO3− in microbial and mammalian cultures effecting cellular physiology, production processes, metabolic activity, and transcriptional regulation. PMID:26284242

  20. Identification of the neurofibromatosis type 1 gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, D.H.; Wood, D.L.; Collins, F.S. )

    1991-11-01

    The gene for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was recently identified by positional cloning. The complete cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 2818 amino acids. To study the NF1 gene product, antibodies were raised against both fusion proteins and synthetic peptides. Initial characterization of two anti-peptide antibodies and one fusion-protein antibody demonstrated a specific protein of {approx}250 kDa by both immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. This protein was found in all tissues and cell lines examined and is detected in human, rat, and mouse tissues. To demonstrate that these antibodies specifically recognize the NF1 protein, additional fusion proteins containing the sequence specific to the synthetic peptide were generated. Both peptide antisera recognize the proper specific fusion proteins so generated. Immunoprecipitates using the peptide antisera were shown to recognize the same protein detected by immunoblotting with either the other peptide antiserum or the fusion-protein antiserum. Immunoblotting using antiserum specific to spatially distinct epitopes conducted on tissue homogenates demonstrated the NF1 protein in all adult tissues. Based on the homology between the NF1 gene product and members of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) superfamily, the name NF1-GAP-related protein (NF1GRP) is suggested.

  1. Production of CoQ10 in fission yeast by expression of genes responsible for CoQ10 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Daisuke; Hosono, Kouji; Fujii, Makoto; Washida, Motohisa; Nanba, Hirokazu; Kaino, Tomohiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential for energy production and has become a popular supplement in recent years. In this study, CoQ10 productivity was improved in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Ten CoQ biosynthetic genes were cloned and overexpressed in S. pombe. Strains expressing individual CoQ biosynthetic genes did not produce higher than a 10% increase in CoQ10 production. In addition, simultaneous expression of all ten coq genes did not result in yield improvements. Genes responsible for the biosynthesis of p-hydroxybenzoate and decaprenyl diphosphate, both of which are CoQ biosynthesis precursors, were also overexpressed. CoQ10 production was increased by overexpression of Eco_ubiC (encoding chorismate lyase), Eco_aroF(FBR) (encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase), or Sce_thmgr1 (encoding truncated HMG-CoA reductase). Furthermore, simultaneous expression of these precursor genes resulted in two fold increases in CoQ10 production. PMID:25647499

  2. A gene and its product required for transposition of resistance transposon Tn2603.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Harafuji, H; Yamamoto, T

    1982-01-01

    Tn2603 is a multiple-resistance transposon encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury and having a molecular size of 20 kilobase pairs, with 200-base-pair inverted repeats at both ends. The essential sites and functions of Tn2603 which are required for its transposition were determined through construction and characterization of various deletion mutants affecting the efficiency of transposition. Deletions were introduced in plasmid pMK1::Tn2603 by partial digestion with restriction endonuclease EcoRI in vitro. Analysis of deletion mutants showed that the inverted repeat segments at both ends of the trans-acting diffusible product(s) encoded in the right-hand side of the central portion were required for the transposition of Tn2603. An essential gene product was revealed as a protein having a molecular weight of 110,000 by analysis of polypeptides synthesized in Escherichia coli minicells. This protein was assumed to be the so-called transposase. Images PMID:6284710

  3. dcp gene of Escherichia coli: cloning, sequencing, transcript mapping, and characterization of the gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, B; Becker, S; Schroeder, U; Plapp, R

    1993-01-01

    Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase is a C-terminal exopeptidase of Escherichia coli. We have isolated the respective gene, dcp, from a low-copy-number plasmid library by its ability to complement a dcp mutation preventing the utilization of the unique substrate N-benzoyl-L-glycyl-L-histidyl-L-leucine. Sequence analysis of a 2.9-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 2,043 nucleotides which was assigned to the dcp gene by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and electrophoretic molecular mass determination of the purified dcp product. Transcript mapping by primer extension and S1 protection experiments verified the physiological significance of potential initiation and termination signals for dcp transcription and allowed the identification of a single species of monocistronic dcp mRNA. The codon usage pattern and the effects of elevated gene copy number indicated a relatively low level of dcp expression. The predicted amino acid sequence of dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, containing a potential zinc-binding site, is highly homologous (78.8%) to the corresponding enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. It also displays significant homology to the products of the S. typhimurium opdA and the E. coli prlC genes and to some metalloproteases from rats and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No potential export signals could be inferred from the amino acid sequence. Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase was enriched 80-fold from crude extracts of E. coli and used to investigate some of its biochemical and biophysical properties. Images PMID:8226676

  4. Characterization and localization of the Huntington disease gene product.

    PubMed

    Hoogeveen, A T; Willemsen, R; Meyer, N; de Rooij, K E; Roos, R A; van Ommen, G J; Galjaard, H

    1993-12-01

    The recent identification of the Huntington's disease (HD) gene, enabled us to synthesize oligopeptides corresponding with the carboxy-terminal end of the predicted HD-gene (IT15) product. Immunobiochemcial studies with polyclonal antibodies directed against this synthetic peptide (position 3114-3141) on lymphoblastoid cells from normal individuals and patients with Huntington disease, revealed the presence of a protein (huntingtin) with a molecular mass of approximately 330 kDa. Immunocytochemical studies showed a cytoplasmic localization of huntingtin in various cell types including neurons. In most of the neuronal cells the protein was also present in the nucleus. No difference in molecular mass or intracellular localization was found between normal and mutant cells. PMID:8111375

  5. Involvement of distinct PKC gene products in T cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Christa; Thuille, Nikolaus; Baier, Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family seem to have important roles in T cells. Focusing on the physiological and non-redundant PKC functions established in primary mouse T cells via germline gene-targeting approaches, our current knowledge defines two particularly critical PKC gene products, PKCθ and PKCα, as the “flavor of PKC” in T cells that appear to have a positive role in signaling pathways that are necessary for full antigen receptor-mediated T cell activation ex vivo and T cell-mediated immunity in vivo. Consistently, in spite of the current dogma that PKCθ inhibition might be sufficient to achieve complete immunosuppressive effects, more recent results have indicated that the pharmacological inhibition of PKCθ, and additionally, at least PKCα, appears to be needed to provide a successful approach for the prevention of allograft rejection and treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22888329

  6. The Leishmania nicotinamidase is essential for NAD+ production and parasite proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gazanion, E; Garcia, D; Silvestre, R; Grard, C; Guichou, J F; Labesse, G; Seveno, M; Cordeiro-Da-Silva, A; Ouaissi, A; Sereno, D; Vergnes, B

    2011-10-01

    NAD+ is a central cofactor that plays important roles in cellular metabolism and energy production in all living cells. Genomics-based reconstruction of NAD+ metabolism revealed that Leishmania protozoan parasites are NAD+ auxotrophs. Consequently, these parasites require assimilating NAD+ precursors (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside) from their host environment to synthesize NAD+ by a salvage pathway. Nicotinamidase is a key enzyme of this salvage pathway that catalyses conversion of nicotinamide (NAm) to nicotinic acid (Na), and that is absent in higher eukaryotes. We present here the biochemical and functional characterizations of the Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase (LiPNC1). Generation of Lipnc1 null mutants leads to a decrease in NAD+ content, associated with a metabolic shutdown-like phenotype with an extensive lag phase of growth. Both phenotypes could be rescued by an add-back construct or by addition of exogenous Na. In addition, Lipnc1 null mutants were unable to establish a sustained infection in a murine experimental model. Altogether, these results illustrate that NAD+ homeostasis is a fundamental component of Leishmania biology and virulence, and that NAm constitutes its main NAD+ source in the mammalian host. The crystal structure of LiPNC1 we solved allows now the design of rational inhibitors against this new promising therapeutic target. PMID:21819459

  7. 73 FR 59635 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-10-09

    ... Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated October 2008. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with...

  8. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  9. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Nguyen, Diep M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Benn, Robert A.; Prybol, Cameron J.; Vaccaro, Brian J.; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  10. Reference genes selection and relative expression analysis from Shiraia sp. SUPER-H168 productive of hypocrellin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huaxiang; Gao, Ruijie; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2016-04-10

    Shiraia bambusicola is an essential pharmaceutical fungus due to its production of hypocrellin with antiviral, antidepressant, and antiretroviral properties. Based on suitable reference gene (RG) normalization, gene expression analysis enables the exploitation of significant genes relative to hypocrellin biosynthesis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We selected and assessed nine candidate RGs in the presence and absence of hypocrellin biosynthesis using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. After stepwise exclusion of unstable genes, GeNorm analysis identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and cytochrome oxidase (CyO) as the most stable expression, while NormFinder determined 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) as the most appropriate candidate gene for normalization. Tubulin (Tub) was observed to be the least stable gene and should be avoided for relative expression analysis. We further analyzed relative expression levels of essential proteins correlative with hypocrellin biosynthesis, including polyketide synthase (PKS), O-methyltransferase (Omef), FAD/FMN-dependent oxidoreductase (FAD), and monooxygenase (Mono). Compared to PKS, Mono kept a similar expression pattern and simulated PKS expression, while FAD remained constantly expressed. Omef presented lower transcript levels and had no relation to PKS expression. These relative expression analyses will pave the way for further interpretation of the hypocrellin biosynthesis pathway. PMID:26779826

  11. Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

  12. Ubiquinone-10 production using Agrobacterium tumefaciens dps gene in Escherichia coli by coexpression system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Shrestha, Binaya; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q; abbreviation, UQ) acts as a mobile component of the respiratory chain by playing an essential role in the electron transport system, and has been widely used in pharmaceuticals. The biosynthesis of UQ involves 10 sequential reactions brought about by various enzymes. In this study we have cloned, expressed the decaprenyl diphosphate synthase, designated dps gene, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and succeeded in detecting UQ-10 in addition to innate UQ-8 in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the production of UQ-10 was higher than UQ-8. To establish an efficient expression system for UQ- 10 production, we used genes, including ubiC, ubiA, and ubiG involved in UQ biosynthesis in E. coli, to construct a better co-expression system. The expression coupled by dps and ubiCA was effective for increasing UQ-10 production by five times than that by expressing single dps gene in the shake flask culture. To study for a large-scale production of UQ-10 in E. coli, fed-batch fermentations were implemented to achieve a high cell density culture. A cell concentration of 85.40 g/L and 94.58 g/L dry cell weight (DCW), and UQ-10 content of 50.29 mg/L and 45.86 mg/L was obtained after 32.5 h and 27.5 h of cultivation, subsequent to isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and lactose induction, respectively. In addition, plasmid stability was maintained at high level throughout the fermentation. PMID:17401144

  13. rFTR1 is Required for Pathogenesis, and appears to be an Essential Gene, of Rhizopus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Rhizopus oryzae is a multinucleated fungus responsible for the majority of cases of mucormycosis. The high affinity iron permease gene (rFTR1) is required for R. oryzae iron transport in iron-limited environments. We sought to disrupt the gene to define its role in virulence. METHODS: ...

  14. Recombinant protein production by transient gene transfer into Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Geisse, Sabine; Fux, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    The timely availability of recombinant proteins in sufficient quantity and of validated quality is of utmost importance in driving drug discovery and the development of low molecular weight compounds, as well as for biotherapeutics. Transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cells has emerged as a promising technology for protein generation over the past decade as TGE meets all the prerequisites with respect to quantity and quality of the product as well as cost-effectiveness and speed of the process. Optimized protocols have been developed for both HEK293 and CHO cell lines which allow protein production at any desired scale up to >100 l and in milligram to gram quantities. Along with an overview on current scientific and technological knowledge, detailed protocols for expression of recombinant proteins on small, medium, and large scale are discussed in the following chapter. PMID:19892175

  15. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  16. Genetic subtraction profiling identifies genes essential for Arabidopsis reproduction and reveals interaction between the female gametophyte and the maternal sporophyte

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Amal J; Meier, Patrick; Gheyselinck, Jacqueline; Wuest, Samuel EJ; Federer, Michael; Schlagenhauf, Edith; Becker, Jrg D; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2007-01-01

    Background The embryo sac contains the haploid maternal cell types necessary for double fertilization and subsequent seed development in plants. Large-scale identification of genes expressed in the embryo sac remains cumbersome because of its inherent microscopic and inaccessible nature. We used genetic subtraction and comparative profiling by microarray between the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and a sporophytic mutant lacking an embryo sac in order to identify embryo sac expressed genes in this model organism. The influences of the embryo sac on the surrounding sporophytic tissues were previously thought to be negligible or nonexistent; we investigated the extent of these interactions by transcriptome analysis. Results We identified 1,260 genes as embryo sac expressed by analyzing both our dataset and a recently reported dataset, obtained by a similar approach, using three statistical procedures. Spatial expression of nine genes (for instance a central cell expressed trithorax-like gene, an egg cell expressed gene encoding a kinase, and a synergid expressed gene encoding a permease) validated our approach. We analyzed mutants in five of the newly identified genes that exhibited developmental anomalies during reproductive development. A total of 527 genes were identified for their expression in ovules of mutants lacking an embryo sac, at levels that were twofold higher than in the wild type. Conclusion Identification of embryo sac expressed genes establishes a basis for the functional dissection of embryo sac development and function. Sporophytic gain of expression in mutants lacking an embryo sac suggests that a substantial portion of the sporophytic transcriptome involved in carpel and ovule development is, unexpectedly, under the indirect influence of the embryo sac. PMID:17915010

  17. A Weighted Multipath Measurement Based on Gene Ontology for Estimating Gene Products Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lizhen; Dai, Xuemin; Song, Wei; Lu, Jingli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many different methods have been proposed for calculating the semantic similarity of term pairs based on gene ontology (GO). Most existing methods are based on information content (IC), and the methods based on IC are used more commonly than those based on the structure of GO. However, most IC-based methods not only fail to handle identical annotations but also show a strong bias toward well-annotated proteins. We propose a new method called weighted multipath measurement (WMM) for estimating the semantic similarity of gene products based on the structure of the GO. We not only considered the contribution of every path between two GO terms but also took the depth of the lowest common ancestors into account. We assigned different weights for different kinds of edges in GO graph. The similarity values calculated by WMM can be reused because they are only relative to the characteristics of GO terms. Experimental results showed that the similarity values obtained by WMM have a higher accuracy. We compared the performance of WMM with that of other methods using GO data and gene annotation datasets for yeast and humans downloaded from the GO database. We found that WMM is more suited for prediction of gene function than most existing IC-based methods and that it can distinguish proteins with identical annotations (two proteins are annotated with the same terms) from each other. PMID:25229994

  18. A weighted multipath measurement based on gene ontology for estimating gene products similarity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhen; Dai, Xuemin; Wang, Hanshi; Song, Wei; Lu, Jingli

    2014-12-01

    Many different methods have been proposed for calculating the semantic similarity of term pairs based on gene ontology (GO). Most existing methods are based on information content (IC), and the methods based on IC are used more commonly than those based on the structure of GO. However, most IC-based methods not only fail to handle identical annotations but also show a strong bias toward well-annotated proteins. We propose a new method called weighted multipath measurement (WMM) for estimating the semantic similarity of gene products based on the structure of the GO. We not only considered the contribution of every path between two GO terms but also took the depth of the lowest common ancestors into account. We assigned different weights for different kinds of edges in GO graph. The similarity values calculated by WMM can be reused because they are only relative to the characteristics of GO terms. Experimental results showed that the similarity values obtained by WMM have a higher accuracy. We compared the performance of WMM with that of other methods using GO data and gene annotation datasets for yeast and humans downloaded from the GO database. We found that WMM is more suited for prediction of gene function than most existing IC-based methods and that it can distinguish proteins with identical annotations (two proteins are annotated with the same terms) from each other. PMID:25229994

  19. Early sporulation gene spo0F: nucleotide sequence and analysis of gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Shimotsu, H; Kawamura, F; Kobayashi, Y; Saito, H

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the sequence of a 1,162-base-pair DNA fragment containing a spo0F gene which is required for an early stage of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. The sequence has only one long open reading frame consisting of 173 codons, which has been confirmed to be the spo0F cistron by DNA-mediated transformation and in vitro transcription. In UV-irradiated "maxicells" containing pUBSF13, the plasmid that carries cloned spo0F gene, we have observed the synthesis of a 20-kilodalton polypeptide that is absent from cells carrying a vector plasmid pUB110. The molecular weight of this protein is in agreement with the calculated molecular weight of the spo0F gene product (Mr, 19,065). The putative promoter sequences of spo0F gene were 5' T-A-T-A-A-T 3' at -10 and 5' T-T-G-A-T-T 3' at -35. An octamer sequence, 5' A-A-A-G-G-A-G-G 3', situated 8 base pairs prior to the initiation codon was found to be perfectly complementary with the 3' end of 16S ribosomal RNA. This result offers additional evidence for the proposal by Rabinowitz's group that an extensive mRNA-rRNA interaction is a requirement for efficient translation by B. subtilis ribosomes. Images PMID:6402773

  20. Essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders throughout the world, with prevalence in the general population of 0.4% to 3.9%. Although most people with essential tremor are only mildly affected, those who seek medical care are disabled to some extent, and most are socially handicapped by the tremor. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of drug treatments in people with essential tremor of the hand? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 41 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding mirtazepine to other antitremor drugs; benzodiazepines; beta-blockers other than propranolol; botulinum A toxin-haemagglutinin complex; calcium channel blockers; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; clonidine; flunarizine; gabapentin; isoniazid; Phenobarbital; primidone; propranolol; and topiramate. PMID:19454072

  1. Antifungal activity and inhibition of fumonisin production by Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil in Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg.

    PubMed

    da Silva Bomfim, Natalia; Nakassugi, Lydiana Polis; Faggion Pinheiro Oliveira, Jessica; Kohiyama, Cassia Yumie; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Grespan, Renata; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Alves Abreu Filho, Benicio; Machinski, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO) was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The main compounds of the REO were 1.8 cineole (52.2%), camphor (15.2%) and α-pinene (12.4%). The mycelial growth of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg was reduced significantly by 150 μg/mL of REO. Significant microscopic morphological changes were visualised, such as the rupture of the cell wall and the leakage of cytoplasm at 300 μg/mL of REO. At lower concentrations of REO, the effects on the production of ergosterol and the biomass of mycelium varied, as did the effects on the production of fumonisins, but at ≥300 μg/mL of REO, these processes were significantly inhibited, showing the effectiveness of the REO as an antifungal agent. The results suggested that the REO acts against F. verticillioides by disrupting the cell wall and causing the loss of cellular components, subsequently inhibiting the production of fumonisins and ergosterol. PMID:25053064

  2. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world. PMID:26465977

  3. Functional annotation of human cytomegalovirus gene products: an update

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Ellen; Van Loock, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic double-stranded DNA virus with one of the largest viral genomes known. The 235 kB genome is divided in a unique long (UL) and a unique short (US) region which are flanked by terminal and internal repeats. The expression of HCMV genes is highly complex and involves the production of protein coding transcripts, polyadenylated long non-coding RNAs, polyadenylated anti-sense transcripts and a variety of non-polyadenylated RNAs such as microRNAs. Although the function of many of these transcripts is unknown, they are suggested to play a direct or regulatory role in the delicately orchestrated processes that ensure HCMV replication and life-long persistence. This review focuses on annotating the complete viral genome based on three sources of information. First, previous reviews were used as a template for the functional keywords to ensure continuity; second, the Uniprot database was used to further enrich the functional database; and finally, the literature was manually curated for novel functions of HCMV gene products. Novel discoveries were discussed in light of the viral life cycle. This functional annotation highlights still poorly understood regions of the genome but more importantly it can give insight in functional clusters and/or may be helpful in the analysis of future transcriptomics and proteomics studies. PMID:24904534

  4. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells’ Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription. PMID:26642061

  5. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription. PMID:26642061

  6. The Podospora rmp1 gene implicated in nucleus-mitochondria cross-talk encodes an essential protein whose subcellular location is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Contamine, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Picard, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    It has been previously reported that, at the time of death, the Podospora anserina AS1-4 mutant strains accumulate specific deleted forms of the mitochondrial genome and that their life spans depend on two natural alleles (variants) of the rmp1 gene: AS1-4 rmp1-2 strains exhibit life spans strikingly longer than those of AS1-4 rmp1-1. Here, we show that rmp1 is an essential gene. In silico analyses of eight rmp1 natural alleles present in Podospora isolates and of the putative homologs of this orphan gene in other filamentous fungi suggest that rmp1 evolves rapidly. The RMP1 protein is localized in the mitochondrial and/or the cytosolic compartment, depending on cell type and developmental stage. Strains producing RMP1 without its mitochondrial targeting peptide are viable but exhibit vegetative and sexual defects. PMID:15020413

  7. The impact of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum) essential oil and carvacrol on virulence gene transcription by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Mith, Hasika; Clinquart, Antoine; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Delcenserie, Vronique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and carvacrol, its major component, on the expression of virulence-associated genes in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC strain 35150. Both oregano oil and carvacrol demonstrated their efficacy firstly, by inhibiting the transcription of the ler gene involved in upregulation of the LEE2, LEE3 and LEE4 promoters and of attaching and effacing lesions and secondly by decreasing both Shiga toxin and fliC genes expression. In addition, a decrease in luxS gene transcription involved in quorum sensing was observed. These results were dose dependent and showed a specific effect of O. heracleoticum and carvacrol in downregulating the expression of virulence genes in EHEC O157:H7. These findings suggest that oregano oil and carvacrol have the potential to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by virulence gene expression in EHEC O157:H7, through the use of these substances as natural antibacterial additives in foods or as an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:25790499

  8. Jasmonate and ethylene dependent defence gene expression and suppression of fungal virulence factors: two essential mechanisms of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium species like F. graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol produced by the fungus affect plant and animal health, and cause significant reductions of grain yield and quality. Resistant varieties are the only effective way to control this disease, but the molecular events leading to FHB resistance are still poorly understood. Transcriptional profiling was conducted for the winter wheat cultivars Dream (moderately resistant) and Lynx (susceptible). The gene expressions at 32 and 72 h after inoculation with Fusarium were used to trace possible defence mechanisms and associated genes. A comparative qPCR was carried out for selected genes to analyse the respective expression patterns in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3 (Chinese spring wheat). Results Among 2,169 differentially expressed genes, two putative main defence mechanisms were found in the FHB-resistant Dream cultivar. Both are defined base on their specific mode of resistance. A non-specific mechanism was based on several defence genes probably induced by jasmonate and ethylene signalling, including lipid-transfer protein, thionin, defensin and GDSL-like lipase genes. Additionally, defence-related genes encoding jasmonate-regulated proteins were up-regulated in response to FHB. Another mechanism based on the targeted suppression of essential Fusarium virulence factors comprising proteases and mycotoxins was found to be an essential, induced defence of general relevance in wheat. Moreover, similar inductions upon fungal infection were frequently observed among FHB-responsive genes of both mechanisms in the cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Conclusions Especially ABC transporter, UDP-glucosyltransferase, protease and protease inhibitor genes associated with the defence mechanism against fungal virulence factors are apparently active in different resistant genetic backgrounds, according to reports on other wheat cultivars and barley. This was further supported in our qPCR experiments on seven genes originating from this mechanism which revealed similar activities in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Finally, the combination of early-stage and steady-state induction was associated with resistance, while transcript induction generally occurred later and temporarily in the susceptible cultivars. The respective mechanisms are attractive for advanced studies aiming at new resistance and toxin management strategies. PMID:22857656

  9. Genes for biosynthesis of butenolide-like signalling molecules in Streptomyces ghanaensis, their role in moenomycin production

    PubMed Central

    Mutenko, H.; Makitrinskyy, R.; Tsypik, O.; Walker, S.; Ostash, B.; Fedorenko, V.

    2015-01-01

    Moenomycins (Mm) phosphoglycolipid compounds produced by Streptomyces ghanaensis ATCC14672 are considered a promising model for development of novel class of antibiotics. In this regard it is important to generate Mm overproducing strains which would be a basis for economically justified production of this antibiotic. In this work a set of genes for synthesis and reception of low-molecular weight signaling molecules (LSM) in ATCC14672 were described and their significance for Mm production was studied. The ATCC14672 genome carries structural and regulatory genes for production of LSMs of avenolide and ?-butyrolactone families. Additional copies of LSM biosynthetic genes ssfg_07848 and ssfg_07725 did not alter the Mm production level. ATCC14672 LSMs are not capable of restoring the sporulation of butyrolactone-nonproducing mutant of S. griseus. Likewise, while the heterologous host S. lividans 1326 produced Mm, its mutant M707 (deficient in the butyrolactone synthase gene scbA) did not. Thus, while the natural level of LSMs production by ATCC14672 does not limit Mm synthesis, the former is essential for the synthesis of moenomycins. PMID:25624748

  10. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, Andr; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L.; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production. PMID:23610393

  11. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, Andr; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

    2013-05-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production. PMID:23610393

  12. Functional circadian clock genes are essential for the overwintering diapause of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Meuti, Megan E.; Stone, Mary; Ikeno, Tomoko; Denlinger, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The short day lengths of late summer are used to program the overwintering adult diapause (dormancy) of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens. Here, we investigated the role of clock genes in initiating this diapause and asked whether the circadian cycling of clock gene expression persists during diapause. We provide evidence that the major circadian clock genes continue to cycle throughout diapause and after diapause has been terminated. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to knock down the core circadian clock genes and to then assess the impact of the various clock genes on the ability of females to enter diapause. RNAi directed against negative circadian regulators (period, timeless and cryptochrome2) caused females that were reared under diapause-inducing, short day conditions to avert diapause. In contrast, knocking down the circadian-associated gene pigment dispersing factor caused females that were reared under diapause-averting, long day conditions to enter a diapause-like state. Our results implicate the circadian clock in the initiation of diapause in C. pipiens. PMID:25653422

  13. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5` UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

  14. Associations between human aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 (-344T/C) gene polymorphism and antihypertensive response to valsartan in Chinese patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xu; Qi, Hua; Li, Dong-Bao; Liu, Rong-Kun; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Hai-Ling; Guo, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to the potent mineralocorticoid aldosterone. The gene encoding aldosterone synthase, CYP11B2, is associated with essential hypertension. But if the genetic variations in aldosterone synthesis could influence the antihypertensive response to Valsartan is not clear. A Chinese sample of 502 persons (217 women) was studied, which was divided into the hypertensive group (EH) of 345 persons and the normotensive group (NB) of 157 persons. Subjects were genotyped through the use of the polymerase chain reaction for the diallelic polymorphisms in CYP11B2. 98 persons of the essential hypertension group received 4 weeks therapy with valsartan. Blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, biochemical index were also determined. The frequency of CC+CT genotypes in hypertensive group was significantly higher than that in normotensive group (P<0.05), the frequency of C allele of gene CYP11B2 (-344T/C) in hypertensive group was significantly higher than that in normotensive group (P<0.01). The descending values of SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), MAP (mean arterial pressure), 24 h SBP (mean SBP of 24 hours), 24 h DBP (mean DBP of 24 hours), 24 h MAP (mean arterial pressure of 24 hours) of CC+CT genotype group were significantly higher than those of the TT genotype group (P<0.05). The aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 (-344T/C) gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension in Chinese. And the aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 (-344T/C) gene polymorphism may be the predictor of the antihypertensive response to Valsartan. PMID:25785110

  15. Repellency of an over-the-counter essential oil product in China against workers of red imported fire ants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian

    2009-01-28

    Repellency of an over-the-counter essential oil product from China, and its major components against workers of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was evaluated using an ant digging bioassay. Three concentrations (1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 mg/kg in sand) of the product were tested. At 100.0 mg/kg, the digging suppress index (DSI) was 1.0 +/- 0.00 (mean +/- SE) for all six test colonies, indicating this product produced a complete digging suppression; at 10 mg/kg, DSI was 0.22 +/- 0.089 to 0.75 +/- 0.12 and significant repellency occurred against five of six colonies; and at 1.0 mg/kg, DSI was 0.21 +/- 0.091 to 0.38 +/- 0.14 and significant repellency occurred against four of six colonies. The chemical components of this product were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Camphor, eucalyptol, eugenol, menthol, methyl salicylate, and phenylethanol were identified. A digging bioassay was also conducted on each of those identified compounds at concentrations of 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 mg/kg. Based on pooled data from three colonies, each component significantly suppressed the digging behavior at 100 mg/kg. Eugenol, menthol, and methyl salicylate significantly suppressed the digging at 10 mg/kg. At 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, DSI for eucalyptol was -0.039 +/- 0.032 and -0.050 +/- 0.021, respectively. The negative DSI indicated a digging facilitation. However, only at 10.0 mg/kg, was such facilitation statistically significant. PMID:19123820

  16. Inhibition of aflatoxin production and growth of Aspergillus parasiticus by Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa essential oils.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Minooeianhaghighi, Mohammadhassan

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may control the production of aflatoxins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the essential oils (EOs) of Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa on growth and aflatoxins production by A. parasiticus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs were determined and compared with each other. Determination of aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) was performed by immunoaffinity column extraction using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The major oil components were ?-pinene (30%) in C. cyminum, pulegone (37%) in Z. clinopodioides, and trans-anthol (38.9%) in N. sativa oils. In broth microdilution method, C. cyminum oil exhibited the strongest activity (MIC(90): 1.6; MFC: 3.5?mg/mL), followed by Z. clinopodioides (MIC(90): 2.1; MFC: 5.5?mg/mL) and N. sativa (MIC(90): 2.75; MFC: 6.25?mg/mL) oils against A. parasiticus (p<0.05). Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 0.25?mg/mL of C. cyminum and Z. clinopodioides oils, of which that of C. cyminum was a stronger inhibitor. C. cyminum EO caused significant reductions in values of 94.2% for AFB(1), 100% for AFB(2), 98.9% for AFG(1), 100% for AFG(2), and 97.5% for total aflatoxin. It is concluded that the EOs of C. cyminum, Z. clinopodioides, and N. sativa could be used as natural inhibitors in foods at low concentrations to protect from fungal and toxin contaminations by A. parasiticus. PMID:21861703

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of gene product 44 from bacteriophage Mu

    SciTech Connect

    Kondou, Youhei; Kitazawa, Daisuke; Takeda, Shigeki; Yamashita, Eiki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kawano, Keiichi; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophage Mu baseplate protein gene product 44 was crystallized. The crystal belongs to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 126.6, c = 64.2 . Bacteriophage Mu baseplate protein gene product 44 (gp44) is an essential protein required for the assembly of viable phages. To investigate the roles of gp44 in baseplate assembly and infection, gp44 was crystallized at pH 6.0 in the presence of 20% 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol. The crystals belong to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.47, c = 63.97 . The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 2.1 resolution and are stable in the X-ray beam and are therefore appropriate for structure determination. Native data have been collected to 2.1 resolution using a DIP6040 image-plate system at beamline BL44XU at the SPring-8 facility in Japan.

  18. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  19. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  20. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  1. Vertical stratification of matrix production is essential for physical integrity and architecture of macrocolony biofilms of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Serra, Diego O; Klauck, Gisela; Hengge, Regine

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial macrocolony biofilms grow into intricate three-dimensional structures that depend on self-produced extracellular polymers conferring protection, cohesion and elasticity to the biofilm. In Escherichia coli, synthesis of this matrix - consisting of amyloid curli fibres and cellulose - requires CsgD, a transcription factor regulated by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS, and occurs in the nutrient-deprived cells of the upper layer of macrocolonies. Is this asymmetric matrix distribution functionally important or is it just a fortuitous by-product of an unavoidable nutrient gradient? In order to address this question, the RpoS-dependent csgD promoter was replaced by a vegetative promoter. This re-wiring of csgD led to CsgD and matrix production in both strata of macrocolonies, with the lower layer transforming into a rigid 'base plate' of growing yet curli-connected cells. As a result, the two strata broke apart followed by desiccation and exfoliation of the top layer. By contrast, matrix-free cells at the bottom of wild-type macrocolonies maintain colony contact with the humid agar support by flexibly filling the space that opens up under buckling areas of the macrocolony. Precisely regulated stratification in matrix-free and matrix-producing cell layers is thus essential for the physical integrity and architecture of E.?coli macrocolony biofilms. PMID:26234179

  2. Transition to farming more likely for small, conservative groups with property rights, but increased productivity is not essential.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Elizabeth M; Shennan, Stephen J; Thomas, Mark G

    2015-11-17

    Theories for the origins of agriculture are still debated, with a range of different explanations offered. Computational models can be used to test these theories and explore new hypotheses; Bowles and Choi [Bowles S, Choi J-K (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(22):8830-8835] have developed one such model. Their model shows the coevolution of farming and farming-friendly property rights, and by including climate variability, replicates the timings for the emergence of these events seen in the archaeological record. Because the processes modeled occurred a long time ago, it can be difficult to justify exact parameter values; hence, we propose a fitting to idealized outcomes (FIO) method to explore the model's parameter space in more detail. We have replicated the model of Bowles and Choi, and used the FIO method to identify complexities and interactions of the model previously unidentified. Our results indicate that the key parameters for the emergence of farming are group structuring, group size, conservatism, and farming-friendly property rights (lending further support to Bowles and Choi's original proposal). We also find that although advantageous, it is not essential that farming productivity be greater than foraging productivity for farming to emerge. In addition, we highlight how model behaviors can be missed when gauging parameter sensitivity via a fix-all-but-one variation approach. PMID:26578766

  3. Composition and repellency of the essential oils of Evodia calcicola Chun ex Huang and Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre against three stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-?-pinene (44.02%), ?-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects. PMID:25341501

  4. Positive Autoregulation of a KNOX Gene Is Essential for Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance in Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Katsutoshi; Ito, Yukihiro; Sato, Yutaka; Kurata, Nori

    2011-01-01

    Self-maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), from which aerial organs are formed throughout the life cycle, is crucial in plant development. Class I Knotted1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes restrict cell differentiation and play an indispensable role in maintaining the SAM. However, the mechanism that positively regulates their expression is unknown. Here, we show that expression of a rice (Oryza sativa) KNOX gene, Oryza sativa homeobox1 (OSH1), is positively regulated by direct autoregulation. Interestingly, loss-of-function mutants of OSH1 lose the SAM just after germination but can be rescued to grow until reproductive development when they are regenerated from callus. Double mutants of osh1 and d6, a loss-of-function mutant of OSH15, fail to establish the SAM both in embryogenesis and regeneration. Expression analyses in these mutants reveal that KNOX gene expression is positively regulated by the phytohormone cytokinin and by KNOX genes themselves. We demonstrate that OSH1 directly binds to five KNOX loci, including OSH1 and OSH15, through evolutionarily conserved cis-elements and that the positive autoregulation of OSH1 is indispensable for its own expression and SAM maintenance. Thus, the maintenance of the indeterminate state mediated by positive autoregulation of a KNOX gene is an indispensable mechanism of self-maintenance of the SAM. PMID:22207572

  5. Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Basil and Spearmint Against Two Major Pyralid Pests of Stored Products.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, P A; Hassiotis, C N; Andreadis, S S; Porichi, A-E E

    2015-04-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. and spearmint Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) were tested against two major stored products pests Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Various oil doses (0.5, 2.5, 5, 50, 250, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µl/liter air), for an exposure period of 24 h, were tested. The essential oils were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed that the major compounds were for spearmint oil carvone (67.1%) and limonene (+1,8 cineole; 14.3%) and for basil oil linalool (45.9%), 1,8 cineole (16.7%) and eugenol (10.3%). Apart from a few exceptions, no significant differences in insecticidal action were observed between basil and spearmint oil. Both oils were highly effective against adult moths, given that notable mortality (>80%) was recorded after exposure to low doses such as 2.5 µl/liter. Noteworthy, egg mortality was also recorded, reaching 73-79% for basil and 56-60% for spearmint. Toxicity data indicated that larvae and pupae were the most tolerant stages in all cases. Larval mortality never exceeded 21 and 18%, for basil and spearmint, respectively, irrespective of moth species. Basil and spearmint oils displayed mortalities as high as 38 and 28% in pupae. Lethal doses (LD50 and LD99) values were estimated via probit analysis. Developmental stage proved to be a significant factor, whereas the effect of oil species on insect mortality was insignificant. With the exception of adult individuals, basil and spearmint oils did not show satisfactory overall insecticidal activity against E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella. PMID:26470193

  6. RAD25 (SSL2), the yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, E.; Prakash, L. ); Guzder, S.N.; Prakash, S. ); Koken, M.H.M.; Jaspers-Dekker, I.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and seven complementation groups, A-G, have been identified. Homologs of human excision repair genes ERCC1, XPDC/ERCC2, and XPAC have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since no homolog of human XPBC/ERCC3 existed among the known yeast genes, we cloned the yeast homolog by using XPBC cDNA as a hybridization probe. The yeast homolog, RAD25 (SSL2), encodes a protein of 843 amino acids (M[sub r] 95,356). The RAD25 (SSL2)- and XPCX-encoded proteins share 55% identical and 72% conserved amino acid residues, and the two proteins resemble one another in containing the conserved DNA helicase sequence motifs. A nonsense mutation at codon 799 that deletes the 45 C-terminal amino acid residues in RAD25 (SSL2) confers UV sensitivity. This mutation shows epistasis with genes in the excision repair group, whereas a synergistic increase in UN sensitivity occurs when it is combined with mutations in genes in other DNA repair pathways, indicating that RAD25 (SSL2) functions in excision repair but not in other repair pathways. We also show that RAD25 (SSL2) is an essential gene. A mutation of the Lys[sup 392] residue to arginine in the conserved Walker type A nucleotide-binding motif is lethal, suggesting an essential role of the putative RAD 25 (SSL2) ATPase/DNA helicase activity in viability. 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Significance of calcium binding, tyrosine phosphorylation, and lysine trimethylation for the essential function of calmodulin in vertebrate cells analyzed in a novel gene replacement system.

    PubMed

    Panina, Svetlana; Stephan, Alexander; la Cour, Jonas M; Jacobsen, Kivin; Kallerup, Line K; Bumbuleviciute, Rasita; Knudsen, Kristoffer V K; Snchez-Gonzlez, Pablo; Villalobo, Antonio; Olesen, Uffe H; Berchtold, Martin W

    2012-05-25

    Calmodulin (CaM) was shown to be essential for survival of lower eukaryotes by gene deletion experiments. So far, no CaM gene deletion was reported in higher eukaryotes. In vertebrates, CaM is expressed from several genes, which encode an identical protein, making it difficult to generate a model system to study the effect of CaM gene deletion. Here, we present a novel genetic system based on the chicken DT40 cell line, in which the two functional CaM genes were deleted and one allele replaced with a CaM transgene that can be artificially regulated. We show that CaM is essential for survival of vertebrate cells as they die in the absence of CaM expression. Reversal of CaM repression or ectopic expression of HA-tagged CaM rescued the cells. Cells exclusively expressing HA-CaM with impaired individual calcium binding domains as well as HA-CaM lacking the ability to be phosphorylated at residues Tyr(99)/Tyr(138) or trimethylated at Lys(115) survived and grew well. CaM mutated at both Ca(2+) binding sites 3 and 4 as well as at both sites 1 and 2, but to a lesser degree, showed decreased ability to support cell growth. Cells expressing CaM with all calcium binding sites impaired died with kinetics similar to that of cells expressing no CaM. This system offers a uni