Sample records for essential gene products

  1. Genes essential for morphological development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor are targets

    E-print Network

    Buttner, Mark

    Genes essential for morphological development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor essential for mor- phological development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here we of Streptomyces development. Sequence analysis of the upstream regions of the complete regulon identified a 15 bp

  2. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Albertini, A.; Amati, G.; Andersen, K. K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S.; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S. C.; Bron, S.; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J.; Christiansen, L. C.; Danchin, A.; Débarbouillé, M.; Dervyn, E.; Deuerling, E.; Devine, K.; Devine, S. K.; Dreesen, O.; Errington, J.; Fillinger, S.; Foster, S. J.; Fujita, Y.; Galizzi, A.; Gardan, R.; Eschevins, C.; Fukushima, T.; Haga, K.; Harwood, C. R.; Hecker, M.; Hosoya, D.; Hullo, M. F.; Kakeshita, H.; Karamata, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kawamura, F.; Koga, K.; Koski, P.; Kuwana, R.; Imamura, D.; Ishimaru, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ishio, I.; Le Coq, D.; Masson, A.; Mauël, C.; Meima, R.; Mellado, R. P.; Moir, A.; Moriya, S.; Nagakawa, E.; Nanamiya, H.; Nakai, S.; Nygaard, P.; Ogura, M.; Ohanan, T.; O'Reilly, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Pragai, Z.; Pooley, H. M.; Rapoport, G.; Rawlins, J. P.; Rivas, L. A.; Rivolta, C.; Sadaie, A.; Sadaie, Y.; Sarvas, M.; Sato, T.; Saxild, H. H.; Scanlan, E.; Schumann, W.; Seegers, J. F. M. L.; Sekiguchi, J.; Sekowska, A.; Séror, S. J.; Simon, M.; Stragier, P.; Studer, R.; Takamatsu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Thomaides, H. B.; Vagner, V.; van Dijl, J. M.; Watabe, K.; Wipat, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamane, K.; Yata, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zuber, U.; Ogasawara, N.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among ?4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life. PMID:12682299

  3. Vaccinia virus A17L gene product is essential for an early step in virion morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, D; Esteban, M; Rodríguez, J R

    1995-08-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) A17L gene encodes a 23-kDa protein that is proteolytically cleaved to generate a 21-kDa product that is incorporated into the viral particles. We have previously shown that the 21-kDa protein forms a stable complex with the VV 14-kDa envelope protein and suggested that the 21-kDa protein may serve to anchor the 14-kDa protein to the envelope of the virion (D. Rodríguez, J. R. Rodríguez, and M. Esteban, J. Virol. 67:3435-3440, 1993). To study the role of the 21-kDa protein in virion assembly, in this investigation we generated a VV recombinant, VVindA17L, that contains an inducible A17L gene regulated by the E. coli repressor/operator system. In the absence of the inducer, shutoff of the A17L gene was complete, and this shutoff correlated with a reduction in virus yields of about 3 log units. Although early and late viral polypeptides are normally synthesized in the absence of the A17L gene product, proteolytic processing of the major p4a and p4b core proteins was clearly impaired under these conditions. Electron microscopy examination of cells infected in the absence of isopropylthiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) revealed that virion morphogenesis was completely arrested at a very early stage, even prior to the formation of crescent-shaped membranes, which are the first distinguishable viral structures. Only electron-dense structures similar to rifampin bodies, but devoid of membranes, could be observed in the cytoplasm of cells infected with VVindA17L under nonpermissive conditions. Considering the most recent assembly model presented by Sodeik et al. (B. Sodeik, R. W. Doms, M. Ericsson, G. Hiller, C. E. Machamer, W. van't Hof, G. van Meer, B. Moss, and G. Griffiths, J. Cell Biol. 121:521-541, 1993), we propose that this protein is targeted to the intermediate compartment and is involved in the recruitment of these membranes to the viral factories, where it forms the characteristic crescent structures that subsequently result in the formation of virions. PMID:7609028

  4. Essential Learning Products

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Formerly TeacherNet, Essential Learning Products caters to the educational resource needs of K-8 educators, and is certainly one that is worth taking some time to browse through. Developed by the Highlights educational products group, the site contains opportunities for educators to join various discussion lists, classroom resources (such as lesson plans), and links to the webpages of various classrooms around the United States. One potentially entertaining (and also therapeutic) feature is the "Laugh Lines" section, were educators can submit their various humorous classroom experiences. The bulletin boards are also worth checking out, as they can offer quick answers to any number of topics, such as handwriting, use of the Internet in the classroom, and literature. The site is rounded out by a nice area set aside for discussion and resources specifically designated for student teachers.

  5. Genes essential for morphological development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor are targets of BldD during vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    den Hengst, Chris D; Tran, Ngat T; Bibb, Maureen J; Chandra, Govind; Leskiw, Brenda K; Buttner, Mark J

    2010-10-01

    BldD is a transcriptional regulator essential for morphological development and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here we identify the BldD regulon by means of chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray analysis (ChIP-chip). The BldD regulon encompasses ~167 transcriptional units, of which more than 20 are known to play important roles in development (e.g. bldA, bldC, bldH/adpA, bldM, bldN, ssgA, ssgB, ftsZ, whiB, whiG, smeA-ssfA) and/or secondary metabolism (e.g. nsdA, cvn9, bldA, bldC, leuA). Strikingly, 42 BldD target genes (~25% of the regulon) encode regulatory proteins, stressing the central, pleiotropic role of BldD. Almost all BldD binding sites identified by ChIP-chip are present in the promoters of the target genes. An exception is the tRNA gene bldA, where BldD binds within the region encoding the primary transcript, immediately downstream of the position corresponding to the processed, mature 3 end of the tRNA. Through gene overexpression, we identified a novel BldD target gene (cdgA) that influences differentiation and antibiotic production. cdgA encodes a GGDEF domain protein, implicating c-di-GMP in the regulation of Streptomyces development. Sequence analysis of the upstream regions of the complete regulon identified a 15 bp inverted repeat that functions as a high-affinity binding site for BldD, as was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting analysis. High-scoring copies of the BldD binding site were found at relevant positions in the genomes of other bacteria containing a BldD homologue, suggesting the role of BldD is conserved in sporulating actinomycetes. PMID:20979333

  6. A highly conserved baculovirus gene p48 (ac103) is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Meijin; Wu Wenbi; Liu Chao; Wang Yanjie; Hu Zhaoyang [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yang Kai [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)], E-mail: yangkai@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Pang Yi [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) p48 (ac103) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene of unknown function. In the present study, we generated a knockout of the p48 gene in an AcMNPV bacmid and investigated the role of P48 in baculovirus life cycle. The p48-null Bacmid vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to propagate in cell culture, while a 'repair' Bacmid vAc{sup P48-REP-PH-GFP} was able to replicate in a manner similar to a wild-type Bacmid vAc{sup PH-GFP}. Titration assays and Western blotting confirmed that vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to produce budded viruses (BVs). qPCR analysis showed that p48 deletion did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy indicated that P48 was required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) and their subsequent occlusion. Confocal analysis showed that P48 prominently condensed in the centre of the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that P48 plays an essential role in BV production and ODV envelopment in the AcMNPV life cycle.

  7. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A.R.; Shahbazzadeh, D.; Khalaj, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity. PMID:24294264

  8. The T3R alpha gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Fraichard, A; Chassande, O; Plateroti, M; Roux, J P; Trouillas, J; Dehay, C; Legrand, C; Gauthier, K; Kedinger, M; Malaval, L; Rousset, B; Samarut, J

    1997-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormones are thought to be mediated by two nuclear receptors, T3R alpha1 and T3R beta, encoded by the genes T3R alpha and T3R beta respectively. The T3R alpha gene also produces a non-ligand-binding protein T3R alpha2. The in vivo functions of these receptors are still unclear. We describe here the homozygous inactivation of the T3R alpha gene which abrogates the production of both T3R alpha1 and T3R alpha2 isoforms and that leads to death in mice within 5 weeks after birth. After 2 weeks of life, the homozygous mice become progressively hypothyroidic and exhibit a growth arrest. Small intestine and bones showed a strongly delayed maturation. In contrast to the negative regulatory function of the T3R beta gene on thyroid hormone production, our data show that the T3R alpha gene products are involved in up-regulation of thyroid hormone production at weaning time. Thus, thyroid hormone production might be balanced through a positive T3R alpha and a negative T3R beta pathway. The abnormal phenotypes observed on the homozygous mutant mice strongly suggest that the T3R alpha gene is essential for the transformation of a mother-dependent pup to an 'adult' mouse. These data define crucial in vivo functions for thyroid hormones through a T3R alpha pathway during post-natal development. PMID:9250685

  9. Genome-wide essential gene identification in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Ge, Xiuchun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaojing; Dou, Yuetan; Xu, Jerry Z.; Patel, Jenishkumar R.; Stone, Victoria; Trinh, My; Evans, Karra; Kitten, Todd; Bonchev, Danail; Buck, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    A clear perception of gene essentiality in bacterial pathogens is pivotal for identifying drug targets to combat emergence of new pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, for synthetic biology, and for understanding the origins of life. We have constructed a comprehensive set of deletion mutants and systematically identified a clearly defined set of essential genes for Streptococcus sanguinis. Our results were confirmed by growing S. sanguinis in minimal medium and by double-knockout of paralogous or isozyme genes. Careful examination revealed that these essential genes were associated with only three basic categories of biological functions: maintenance of the cell envelope, energy production, and processing of genetic information. Our finding was subsequently validated in two other pathogenic streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans and in two other gram-positive pathogens, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our analysis has thus led to a simplified model that permits reliable prediction of gene essentiality. PMID:22355642

  10. Regulation of essential oil production in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Sangwan; A. H. A. Farooqi; F. Shabih; R. S. Sangwan

    2001-01-01

    This review provides a summary of the physiological dynamics andregulation of essential oil production, from the literature and availableinformation on diverse volatile oil crops. Essential oil production is highlyintegrated with the physiology of the whole plant and so depends on themetabolic state and preset developmental differentiation programme of thesynthesising tissue. Essential oil productivity is ecophysiologically andenvironmentally friendly. These and other

  11. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B. [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada); Theilmann, David A. [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada)], E-mail: TheilmannD@agr.gc.ca

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  12. Protein-protein association and cellular localization of four essential gene products encoded by tellurite resistance-conferring cluster "ter" from pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Valkovicova, Lenka; Vavrova, Silvia Minarikova; Mravec, Jozef; Grones, Jozef; Turna, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Gene cluster "ter" conferring high tellurite resistance has been identified in various pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, the precise mechanism as well as the molecular function of the respective gene products is unclear. Here we describe protein-protein association and localization analyses of four essential Ter proteins encoded by minimal resistance-conferring fragment (terBCDE) by means of recombinant expression. By using a two-plasmid complementation system we show that the overproduced single Ter proteins are not able to mediate tellurite resistance, but all Ter members play an irreplaceable role within the cluster. We identified several types of homotypic and heterotypic protein-protein associations among the Ter proteins by in vitro and in vivo pull-down assays and determined their cellular localization by cytosol/membrane fractionation. Our results strongly suggest that Ter proteins function involves their mutual association, which probably happens at the interface of the inner plasma membrane and the cytosol. PMID:23989928

  13. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac142, a core gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Da, Xiaojiang [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada); Donly, Cam [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre (London), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, Ont., N5V 4T3 (Canada); Theilmann, David A. [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada)], E-mail: TheilmannD@agr.gc.ca

    2008-03-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac142 is a baculovirus core gene and encodes a protein previously shown to associate with occlusion-derived virus (ODV). To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac142 deletion virus (AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}). Fluorescence and light microscopy revealed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} exhibits a single-cell infection phenotype. Titration assays and Western blot confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} is unable to produce budded virus (BV). However, viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}-transfected cells evidenced progression to very late phases of the viral infection. Western blot analysis showed that AC142 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection and that it is a structural component of BV and ODV which localizes to nucleocapsids. Electron microscopy indicates that ac142 is required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form ODV and their subsequent occlusion, a fundamental process to all baculoviruses.

  14. Experimental Determination and System Level Analysis of Essential Genes in Escherichia coli MG1655

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Gerdes; M. D. Scholle; J. W. Campbell; G. Balazsi; E. Ravasz; M. D. Daugherty; A. L. Somera; N. C. Kyrpides; I. Anderson; M. S. Gelfand; A. Bhattacharya; V. Kapatral; M. D'Souza; M. V. Baev; Y. Grechkin; F. Mseeh; M. Y. Fonstein; R. Overbeek; A.-L. Barabasi; Z. N. Oltvai; A. L. Osterman

    2003-01-01

    Defining the gene products that play an essential role in an organism's functional repertoire is vital to understanding the system level organization of living cells. We used a genetic footprinting technique for a genome-wide assessment of genes required for robust aerobic growth of Escherichia coli in rich media. We identified 620 genes as essential and 3,126 genes as dispensable for

  15. Identification of genes essential for leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Murray, Gerald L

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for the construction of defined mutants of pathogenic Leptospira has been a breakthrough in the study of leptospiral virulence. These methods have allowed the identification of genes essential for infection in animal models. This chapter describes methods for random transposon mutagenesis of pathogenic leptospires, identification of transposon insertion sites using direct sequencing from genomic DNA and a nested PCR utilizing degenerate oligonucleotides, and methods for testing mutant attenuation in the hamster model of infection. PMID:25636613

  16. Eliminating the requirement of an essential gene product in an already very small virus: scaffolding protein B-free øX174, B-free.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Uchiyama, Asako; Fane, Bentley A

    2007-10-19

    Unlike most viral assembly systems, two scaffolding proteins, B and D, mediate bacteriophage øX174 morphogenesis. The external scaffolding protein D is highly ordered in the atomic structure and proper function is very sensitive to mutation. In contrast, the internal scaffolding protein B is relatively unordered and extensive alterations do not eliminate function. Despite this genetic laxity, protein B is absolutely required for virus assembly. Thus, this system, with its complex arrangements of overlapping reading frames, can be regarded as an example of "irreducible complexity." To address the biochemical functions of a dual scaffolding protein system and the evolution of complexity, progressive and targeted genetic selections were employed to lessen and finally eliminate B protein-dependence. The biochemical and genetic bases of adaptation were characterized throughout the analysis that led to the sextuple mutant with a B-independent phenotype, as evaluated by plaque formation in wild-type cells. The primary adaptation appears to be the over-expression of a mutant external scaffolding protein. Progeny production was followed in lysis-resistant cells. The ability to produce infectious virions does not require all six mutations. However, the lag phase before progeny production is shortened as mutations accumulate. The results suggest that the primary function of the internal scaffolding protein may be to lower the critical concentration of the external scaffolding protein needed to nucleate procapsid formation. Moreover, they demonstrate a novel mechanism by which a stringently required gene product can be bypassed, even in a system encoding only eight strictly essential proteins. PMID:17825320

  17. The Escherichia coli htrP gene product is essential for bacterial growth at high temperatures: mapping, cloning, sequencing, and transcriptional regulation of htrP.

    PubMed Central

    Raina, S; Mabey, L; Georgopoulos, C

    1991-01-01

    We identified and characterized a new Escherichia coli gene, htrP. The htrP gene was identified because its insertional inactivation by the Tn10 transposon results in the inability of E. coli to form colonies at temperatures above 37 degrees C and a slow growth phenotype at 30 degrees C. The htrP gene was cloned and mapped to 66.3 min on the E. coli genetic map, 4 kbp clockwise from the tolC gene. The htrP gene was sequenced and shown to code for an acidic, 27,471-Da polypeptide and to be transcribed counterclockwise with respect to the genetic map. The predicted HtrP protein has two potential transmembrane segments and shares an identity of 64.4% over a length of 210 amino acids with the LuxH protein. Despite the fact that the htrP gene is essential for E. coli growth exclusively at high temperatures, the levels of htrP-specific transcripts decrease with increasing temperature. Images PMID:1917833

  18. The Product of arcR, the Sixth Gene of the arc Operon of Lactobacillus sakei, Is Essential for Expression of the Arginine Deiminase Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Zuniga; María del Carmen Miralles; G. Perez-Martinez

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium commonly used as a starter culture for dry sausage production and can utilize arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway. The arcABCTD cluster of L. sakei has been characterized, and transcriptional studies have shown that its expression is subject to carbon catabolite repression and induction by arginine. Downstream of arcD an additional gene has

  19. Genetics of germination-arrest factor (GAF) production by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6: identification of a gene cluster essential for GAF biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Halgren, Anne; Maselko, Maciej; Azevedo, Mark; Mills, Dallice; Armstrong, Donald; Banowetz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the biosynthesis of the germination-arrest factor (GAF) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6, and previously identified as 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, has been investigated here. In addition to inhibiting the germination of a wide range of grassy weeds, GAF exhibits a selective antimicrobial activity against the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. We utilized the in vitro response of E. amylovora to GAF as a rapid screen for loss-of-function GAF phenotypes generated by transposon mutagenesis. A Tn5 mutant library consisting of 6364 WH6 transformants was screened in this Erwinia assay, resulting in the identification of 18 non-redundant transposon insertion sites that led to loss of GAF production in WH6, as confirmed by TLC analysis. These insertions mapped to five different genes and four intergenic regions. Three of these genes, including two putative regulatory genes (gntR and iopB homologues), were clustered in a 13 kb chromosomal region containing 13 putative ORFs. A GAF mutation identified previously as affecting an aminotransferase also maps to this region. We suggest that three of the genes in this region (a carbamoyltransferase, an aminotransferase and a formyltransferase) encode the enzymes necessary to synthesize dihydroGAF, the putative immediate precursor of GAF in a proposed GAF biosynthetic pathway. RT-qPCR analyses demonstrated that mutations in the gntR and iopB regulatory genes, as well as in a prtR homologue identified earlier as controlling GAF formation, suppressed transcription of at least two of the putative GAF biosynthetic genes (encoding the aminotransferase and formyltransferase) located in this 13 kb region. PMID:23125119

  20. The ha72 Core Gene of Baculovirus Is Essential for Budded Virus Production and Occlusion-Derived Virus Embedding, and Amino Acid K22 Plays an Important Role in Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huachao; Wang, Manli; Deng, Fei; Hou, Dianhai; Arif, Basil M.; Wang, Hualin

    2014-01-01

    ha72 of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (a homologue of ac78) was identified as a conserved late baculovirus gene and characterized. HA72 localizes in the intranuclear ring zone. By generating mutants, we showed that HA72 is essential for budded virus (BD) production and occlusion-derived virus (ODV) embedding. HA72 also interacted with P33, a baculoviral sulfhydryl oxidase. A point mutation of amino acid 22 from lysine to glutamic acid curtailed BV production and precluded ODV occlusion as well as interaction with P33. PMID:24089571

  1. Two Oligopeptide-Permease-Encoding Genes in the Clavulanic Acid Cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus Are Essential for Production of the ?-Lactamase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzana, Luis M.; Pérez-Redondo, Rosario; Santamarta, Irene; Martín, Juan F.; Liras, Paloma

    2004-01-01

    orf7 (oppA1) and orf15 (oppA2) are located 8 kb apart in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus and encode proteins which are 48.0% identical. These proteins show sequence similarity to periplasmic oligopeptide-binding proteins. Mutant S. clavuligerus oppA1::acc, disrupted in oppA1, lacks clavulanic acid production. Clavulanic acid production is restored by transformation with plasmid pIJ699-oppA1, which carries oppA1, but not with the multicopy plasmid pIJ699-oppA2, which carries oppA2. The mutant S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph also lacks clavulanic acid production, shows a bald phenotype, and overproduces holomycin (5). Clavulanic acid production at low levels is restored in the oppA2-disrupted mutants by transformation with plasmid pIJ699-oppA2, but it is not complemented by the multicopy plasmid pIJ699-oppA1. Both genes encode oligopeptide permeases with different substrate specificities. The disrupted S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph is not able to grow on RPPGFSPFR (Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg; bradykinin), but both mutants grow on VAPG (Val-Ala-Pro-Gly) as the only nitrogen source, indicating differences in the peptide bound by the proteins encoded by both genes. The null S. clavuligerus oppA1::acc and S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph mutants are more resistant to the toxic tripeptide phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine (also named bialaphos) than the wild-type strain, suggesting that this peptide might be transported by these peptide-binding proteins. PMID:15150229

  2. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, Tamer Z. [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States) [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbial Molecular Biology, AGERI, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Division of Biomedical Sciences, Zewail University, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Zhang, Fengrui [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thiem, Suzanne M., E-mail: smthiem@msu.edu [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  3. A new computational strategy for predicting essential genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determination of the minimum gene set for cellular life is one of the central goals in biology. Genome-wide essential gene identification has progressed rapidly in certain bacterial species; however, it remains difficult to achieve in most eukaryotic species. Several computational models have recently been developed to integrate gene features and used as alternatives to transfer gene essentiality annotations between organisms. Results We first collected features that were widely used by previous predictive models and assessed the relationships between gene features and gene essentiality using a stepwise regression model. We found two issues that could significantly reduce model accuracy: (i) the effect of multicollinearity among gene features and (ii) the diverse and even contrasting correlations between gene features and gene essentiality existing within and among different species. To address these issues, we developed a novel model called feature-based weighted Naïve Bayes model (FWM), which is based on Naïve Bayes classifiers, logistic regression, and genetic algorithm. The proposed model assesses features and filters out the effects of multicollinearity and diversity. The performance of FWM was compared with other popular models, such as support vector machine, Naïve Bayes model, and logistic regression model, by applying FWM to reciprocally predict essential genes among and within 21 species. Our results showed that FWM significantly improves the accuracy and robustness of essential gene prediction. Conclusions FWM can remarkably improve the accuracy of essential gene prediction and may be used as an alternative method for other classification work. This method can contribute substantially to the knowledge of the minimum gene sets required for living organisms and the discovery of new drug targets. PMID:24359534

  4. Neural stem cell transcriptional networks highlight genes essential for nervous

    E-print Network

    Brand, Andrea

    profiling, we showed that Prospero represses neuroblast genes and is required to activate neuronal differEMBO open Neural stem cell transcriptional networks highlight genes essential for nervous system overlap in their target genes, and indeed with the targets of Prospero, with 245 genomic loci bound by all

  5. Essential genes from Arctic bacteria used to construct stable, temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Duplantis, Barry N; Osusky, Milan; Schmerk, Crystal L; Ross, Darrell R; Bosio, Catharine M; Nano, Francis E

    2010-07-27

    All bacteria share a set of evolutionarily conserved essential genes that encode products that are required for viability. The great diversity of environments that bacteria inhabit, including environments at extreme temperatures, place adaptive pressure on essential genes. We sought to use this evolutionary diversity of essential genes to engineer bacterial pathogens to be stably temperature-sensitive, and thus useful as live vaccines. We isolated essential genes from bacteria found in the Arctic and substituted them for their counterparts into pathogens of mammals. We found that substitution of nine different essential genes from psychrophilic (cold-loving) bacteria into mammalian pathogenic bacteria resulted in strains that died below their normal-temperature growth limits. Substitution of three different psychrophilic gene orthologs of ligA, which encode NAD-dependent DNA ligase, resulted in bacterial strains that died at 33, 35, and 37 degrees C. One ligA gene was shown to render Francisella tularensis, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium smegmatis temperature-sensitive, demonstrating that this gene functions in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive lineage bacteria. Three temperature-sensitive F. tularensis strains were shown to induce protective immunity after vaccination at a cool body site. About half of the genes that could be tested were unable to mutate to temperature-resistant forms at detectable levels. These results show that psychrophilic essential genes can be used to create a unique class of bacterial temperature-sensitive vaccines for important human pathogens, such as S. enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20624965

  6. Essential genes from Arctic bacteria used to construct stable, temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Duplantis, Barry N.; Osusky, Milan; Schmerk, Crystal L.; Ross, Darrell R.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Nano, Francis E.

    2010-01-01

    All bacteria share a set of evolutionarily conserved essential genes that encode products that are required for viability. The great diversity of environments that bacteria inhabit, including environments at extreme temperatures, place adaptive pressure on essential genes. We sought to use this evolutionary diversity of essential genes to engineer bacterial pathogens to be stably temperature-sensitive, and thus useful as live vaccines. We isolated essential genes from bacteria found in the Arctic and substituted them for their counterparts into pathogens of mammals. We found that substitution of nine different essential genes from psychrophilic (cold-loving) bacteria into mammalian pathogenic bacteria resulted in strains that died below their normal-temperature growth limits. Substitution of three different psychrophilic gene orthologs of ligA, which encode NAD-dependent DNA ligase, resulted in bacterial strains that died at 33, 35, and 37 °C. One ligA gene was shown to render Francisella tularensis, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium smegmatis temperature-sensitive, demonstrating that this gene functions in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive lineage bacteria. Three temperature-sensitive F. tularensis strains were shown to induce protective immunity after vaccination at a cool body site. About half of the genes that could be tested were unable to mutate to temperature-resistant forms at detectable levels. These results show that psychrophilic essential genes can be used to create a unique class of bacterial temperature-sensitive vaccines for important human pathogens, such as S. enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20624965

  7. Three computational tools for predicting bacterial essential genes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng-Biao; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Ning, Lu-Wen; Wei, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes are those genes indispensable for the survival of any living cell. Bacterial essential genes constitute the cornerstones of synthetic biology and are often attractive targets in the development of antibiotics and vaccines. Because identification of essential genes with wet-lab ways often means expensive economic costs and tremendous labor, scientists changed to seek for alternative way of computational prediction. Aiming to help to solve this issue, our research group (CEFG: group of Computational, Comparative, Evolutionary and Functional Genomics, http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn) has constructed three online services to predict essential genes in bacterial genomes. These freely available tools are applicable for single gene sequences without annotated functions, single genes with definite names, and complete genomes of bacterial strains. To ensure reliable predictions, the investigated species should belong to the same family (for EGP) or phylum (for CEG_Match and Geptop) with one of the reference species, respectively. As the pilot software for the issue, predicting accuracies of them have been assessed and compared with existing algorithms, and note that all of other published algorithms have not any formed online services. We hope these services at CEFG will help scientists and researchers in the field of essential genes. PMID:25636621

  8. Cathelicidins, essential gene-encoded mammalian antibiotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Zaiou; Richard L. Gallo

    2002-01-01

    Cathelicidins are a class of gene-encoded antibiotics found exclusively in mammals. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate they are effector molecules of mammalian innate immunity that can provide a first line of defense against an array of micro-organisms. Additional functions are described for some members of this class of antimicrobial peptides including chemotactic activity, mitogenesis, and angiogenesis. Therefore these

  9. Methods for identifying an essential gene in a prokaryotic microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Shizuya, Hiroaki

    2006-01-31

    Methods are provided for the rapid identification of essential or conditionally essential DNA segments in any species of haploid cell (one copy chromosome per cell) that is capable of being transformed by artificial means and is capable of undergoing DNA recombination. This system offers an enhanced means of identifying essential function genes in diploid pathogens, such as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Delimitation of essential genes of cassava latent virus DNA 2.

    PubMed Central

    Etessami, P; Callis, R; Ellwood, S; Stanley, J

    1988-01-01

    Insertion and deletion mutagenesis of both extended open reading frames (ORFs) of cassava latent virus DNA 2 destroys infectivity. Infectivity is restored by coinoculating constructs that contain single mutations within different ORFs. Although frequent intermolecular recombination produces dominant parental-type virus, mutants can be retained within the virus population indicating that they are competent for replication and suggesting that rescue can occur by complementation of trans acting gene products. By cloning specific fragments into DNA 1 coat protein deletion vectors we have delimited the DNA 2 coding regions and provide substantive evidence that both are essential for virus infection. Although a DNA 2 component is unique to whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, the results demonstrate that neither coding region is involved solely in insect transmission. The requirement for a bipartite genome for whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses is discussed. Images PMID:3387209

  11. Identification of Novel Essential Escherichia coli Genes Conserved Among Pathogenic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Freiberg; Bernd Wieland; Frank Spaltmann; Kerstin Ehlert; Heike Brötz; Harald Labischinski

    We deleted a subset of 27 open reading frames (ORFs) from Escherichia coli which encode previously uncharacterized, probably soluble gene products homologous to proteins from a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis and only distantly related to eukaryotic proteins. Six novel bacteria-specific genes essential for growth in complex medium could

  12. Exploration of Essential Gene Functions via Titratable Promoter Alleles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanie Mnaimneh; Armaity P Davierwala; Jennifer Haynes; Jason Moffat; Wen-Tao Peng; Wen Zhang; Xueqi Yang; Jeff Pootoolal; Gordon Chua; Andres Lopez; Miles Trochesset; Darcy Morse; Nevan J Krogan; Shawna L Hiley; Zhijian Li; Quaid Morris; Jörg Grigull; Nicholas Mitsakakis; Christopher J Roberts; Jack F Greenblatt; Charles Boone; Chris A Kaiser; Brenda J Andrews; Timothy R Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 20% of yeast genes are required for viability, hindering genetic analysis with knockouts. We created promoter-shutoff strains for over two-thirds of all essential yeast genes and subjected them to morphological analysis, size profiling, drug sensitivity screening, and microarray expression profiling. We then used this compendium of data to ask which phenotypic features characterized different functional classes and used these

  13. Insertional mutagenesis and rapid cloning of essential genes in zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Gaiano; Adam Amsterdam; Koichi Kawakami; Miguel Allende; Thomas Becker; Nancy Hopkins

    1996-01-01

    LARGE-SCALE chemical mutagenesis screens in zebrafish have led to the isolation of thousands of lethal mutations in genes that are essential for embryonic development1,2. However, the cloning of these mutated genes is difficult at present as it requires positional cloning methods. In Drosophila, chemical mutagenesis screens were complemented with P-element insertional mutagenesis which facilitated the cloning of many genes that

  14. Pathogenicity and Immunogenicity of a Vaccine Strain of Listeria monocytogenes That Relies on a Suicide Plasmid To Supply an Essential Gene Product

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyan; Li, Zhongxia; Gu, Baiyan; Frankel, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that elicits a strong cellular immune response and thus has potential use as a vaccine vector. An attenuated strain, L. monocytogenes dal dat, produced by deletion of two genes (dal and dat) used for d-alanine synthesis, induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes and protective immunity in mice following infection in the presence of d-alanine. In order to obviate the dependence of L. monocytogenes dal dat on supplemental d-alanine yet retain its attenuation and immunogenicity, we explored mechanisms to allow transient endogenous synthesis of the amino acid. Here, we report on a derivative strain, L. monocytogenes dal dat/pRRR, that expresses a dal gene and synthesizes d-alanine under highly selective conditions. We constructed the suicide plasmid pRRR carrying a dal gene surrounded by two res1 sites and a resolvase gene, tnpR, which acts at the res1 sites. The resolvase gene is regulated by a promoter activated upon exposure to host cell cytosol. L. monocytogenes dal dat/pRRR was thus able to grow in liquid culture and to infect host cells without d-alanine supplementation. However, after infection of these cells, resolvase-mediated excision of the dal gene resulted in strong down-regulation of racemase expression. As a result, this system allowed only transient growth of L. monocytogenes dal dat/pRRR in infected cells and survival in animals for only 2 to 3 days. Nevertheless, mice immunized with L. monocytogenes dal dat/pRRR generated listeriolysin O-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cells and were protected against lethal challenge by wild-type Listeria. This vector may be an attractive vaccine candidate for the induction of protective cellular immune responses. PMID:16113297

  15. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Salem, Tamer Z; Zhang, Fengrui; Thiem, Suzanne M

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production. PMID:23131351

  16. A homeobox gene essential for zebrafish notochord development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Talbot; Bill Trevarrow; Marnie E. Halpern; Anna E. Melby; Gist Farr; John H. Postlethwait; Trevor Jowett; Charles B. Kimmel; David Kimelman

    1995-01-01

    The notochord is a midline mesodermal structure with an essential patterning function in all vertebrate embryos. Zebrafish floating head (flh) mutants lack a notochord, but develop with prechordal plate and other mesodermal derivatives, indicating that flh functions specifically in notochord development. We show that floating head is the zebrafish homologue of Xnot, a homeobox gene expressed in the amphibian organizer

  17. Information dimension analysis of bacterial essential and nonessential genes based on chaos game representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qian; Yu, Yong-ming

    2014-11-01

    Essential genes are indispensable for the survival of an organism. Investigating features associated with gene essentiality is fundamental to the prediction and identification of the essential genes. Selecting features associated with gene essentiality is fundamental to predict essential genes with computational techniques. We use fractal theory to make comparative analysis of essential and nonessential genes in bacteria. The information dimensions of essential genes and nonessential genes available in the DEG database for 27 bacteria are calculated based on their gene chaos game representations (CGRs). It is found that weak positive linear correlation exists between information dimension and gene length. Moreover, for genes of similar length, the average information dimension of essential genes is larger than that of nonessential genes. This indicates that essential genes show less regularity and higher complexity than nonessential genes. Our results show that for bacterium with a similar number of essential genes and nonessential genes, the CGR information dimension is helpful for the classification of essential genes and nonessential genes. Therefore, the gene CGR information dimension is very probably a useful gene feature for a genetic algorithm predicting essential genes.

  18. Transcriptional landscape and essential genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Remmele, Christian W.; Xian, Yibo; Albrecht, Marco; Faulstich, Michaela; Fraunholz, Martin; Heinrichs, Elisabeth; Dittrich, Marcus T.; Müller, Tobias; Reinhardt, Richard; Rudel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has recently classified Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a super-bacterium due to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistant derivatives and an overall dramatic increase in infection incidences. Genome sequencing has identified potential genes, however, little is known about the transcriptional organization and the presence of non-coding RNAs in gonococci. We performed RNA sequencing to define the transcriptome and the transcriptional start sites of all gonococcal genes and operons. Numerous new transcripts including 253 potentially non-coding RNAs transcribed from intergenic regions or antisense to coding genes were identified. Strikingly, strong antisense transcription was detected for the phase-variable opa genes coding for a family of adhesins and invasins in pathogenic Neisseria, that may have regulatory functions. Based on the defined transcriptional start sites, promoter motifs were identified. We further generated and sequenced a high density Tn5 transposon library to predict a core of 827 gonococcal essential genes, 133 of which have no known function. Our combined RNA-Seq and Tn-Seq approach establishes a detailed map of gonococcal genes and defines the first core set of essential gonococcal genes. PMID:25143534

  19. Gene polymorphisms and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Mettimano; Andrea Ianni; Alessio Migneco; Maria Lucia Specchia; Vincenzo Romano-Spica; Luigi Savi

    2001-01-01

    Hypertensive heart disease results from a complex interaction between haemodynamic factors, neuro-hormonal influences and genetic determinants. In the present study we investigated the association between polymorphic forms at genes of the renin-angiotensin system and the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in a case-control study.The frequency of molecular variants was compared between a group of essential hypertensive patients (stage I-II; n=70)

  20. Functional Analysis of the Molecular Interactions of TATA Box-Containing Genes and Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jisook

    2015-01-01

    Genes can be divided into TATA-containing genes and TATA-less genes according to the presence of TATA box elements at promoter regions. TATA-containing genes tend to be stress-responsive, whereas many TATA-less genes are known to be related to cell growth or “housekeeping” functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that there are striking differences among four gene sets defined by the presence of TATA box (TATA-containing) and essentiality (TATA-less) with respect to number of associated transcription factors, amino acid usage, and functional annotation. Extending this research in yeast, we identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways that are statistically enriched in TATA-containing or TATA-less genes and evaluated the possibility that the enriched pathways are related to stress or growth as reflected by the individual functions of the genes involved. According to their enrichment for either of these two gene sets, we sorted KEGG pathways into TATA-containing-gene-enriched pathways (TEPs) and essential-gene-enriched pathways (EEPs). As expected, genes in TEPs and EEPs exhibited opposite results in terms of functional category, transcriptional regulation, codon adaptation index, and network properties, suggesting the possibility that the bipolar patterns in these pathways also contribute to the regulation of the stress response and to cell survival. Our findings provide the novel insight that significant enrichment of TATA-binding or TATA-less genes defines pathways as stress-responsive or growth-related. PMID:25789484

  1. Essential genes in thyroid cancers: focus on fascin.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Hilda; Zaki Dizaji, Majid; Ghadami, Mohsen; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhasan; Khashayar, Patricia; Soleimani, Masoud; Larijani, Bagher; Haghpanah, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid cancers are not among common malignancies, they rank as the first prevalent endocrine cancers in human. According to the results of published studies it has been shown the gradual progress from normal to the neoplastic cell in the process of tumor formation is the result of sequential genetic events. Among them we may point the mutations and rearrangements occurred in a group of proto-oncogenes, transcription factors and metastasis elements such as P53, RAS,RET,BRAF, PPAR? and Fascin. In the present article,we reviewed the most important essential genes in thyroid cancers, the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition and Fascin has been highlighted in this paper. PMID:23815863

  2. Essential genes in thyroid cancers: focus on fascin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid cancers are not among common malignancies, they rank as the first prevalent endocrine cancers in human. According to the results of published studies it has been shown the gradual progress from normal to the neoplastic cell in the process of tumor formation is the result of sequential genetic events. Among them we may point the mutations and rearrangements occurred in a group of proto-oncogenes, transcription factors and metastasis elements such as P53, RAS,RET,BRAF, PPAR? and Fascin. In the present article,we reviewed the most important essential genes in thyroid cancers, the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition and Fascin has been highlighted in this paper. PMID:23815863

  3. Computational prediction of essential metabolic genes using constraint-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Basler, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the application of constraint-based modeling to predict the impact of gene deletions on a metabolic phenotype. The metabolic reactions taking place inside cells form large networks, which have been reconstructed at a genome-scale for several organisms at increasing levels of detail. By integrating mathematical modeling techniques with biochemical principles, constraint-based approaches enable predictions of metabolite fluxes and growth under specific environmental conditions or for genetically modified microorganisms. Similar to the experimental knockout of a gene, predicting the essentiality of a metabolic gene for a phenotype further allows to generate hypotheses on its biological function and design of genetic engineering strategies for biotechnological applications. Here, we summarize the principles of constraint-based approaches and provide a detailed description of the procedure to predict the essentiality of metabolic genes with respect to a specific metabolic function. We exemplify the approach by predicting the essentiality of reactions in the citric acid cycle for the production of glucose from fatty acids. PMID:25636620

  4. Identifying essential Streptococcus sanguinis genes using genome-wide deletion mutation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes in pathogens are important for the development of antibacterial drugs. In this report, we described a protocol to identify essential genes in the Streptococcus sanguinis SK36 strain using genome-wide deletion mutation. A fusion PCR-based method is used to construct gene deletion fragments, which contain kanamycin resistance cassettes with two flanking arms of DNA upstream and downstream of the target gene. The linear fused PCR amplicons were transformed into S. sanguinis SK36 cells. No kanamycin-resistant transformants suggested the gene essentiality because the deletion of the essential gene renders a lethal phenotype of the transformants. The putative essential genes were further confirmed by independent transformations up to five attempts. The false nonessential genes were also identified by removing double-band mutants. PMID:25636610

  5. The Essential Gene EMB1611 Maintains Shoot Apical Meristem Function During Arabidopsis Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains hundreds of genes essential for seed development. Because null mutations in these genes cause embryo lethality, their specific molecular and developmental functions are largely unknown. Here, we identify a role for EMB1611/MEE22, an essential gene in Arabidop...

  6. Human lupus anti-DNA autoantibodies undergo essentially primary V kappa gene rearrangements.

    PubMed Central

    Bensimon, C; Chastagner, P; Zouali, M

    1994-01-01

    We have recently characterized the heavy chain variable region (VH) genes expressed by a panel of human anti-DNA antibodies derived from four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and expressing an idiotypic marker representative of a subset of pathogenic autoantibodies. Here, we have cloned and sequenced the kappa chain variable region genes (V kappa) of the clones whose VH genes had been previously analysed. All the V kappa genes utilized map to the 280 kb portion of the 3' end of the locus, suggesting that they represent essentially the products of primary rearrangements. This proximal clustering of the V kappa genes used contrasts with the broad distribution of immunization-induced human antibody V kappa genes over 1400 kb of the locus. In addition, lupus autoantibodies show no tendency to express the downstream junctional (J kappa) exons--another indication of infrequent secondary variable gene assembly. Since successive rearrangements may extinguish high-affinity recognition of self antigens, we propose that this bias in V kappa and J kappa expression reflects a low rate of secondary light chain rearrangements among lupus autoantibodies. We also postulate that the corrective mechanism capable of editing potentially aggressive, self-reactive antibodies in these patients may be deficient--a deficit that could be genetically determined and/or somatically acquired. Images PMID:8039491

  7. The murI gene of Escherichia coli is an essential gene that encodes a glutamate racemase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Doublet, P; van Heijenoort, J; Bohin, J P; Mengin-Lecreulx, D

    1993-01-01

    The murI gene of Escherichia coli was recently identified on the basis of its ability to complement the only mutant requiring D-glutamic acid for growth that had been described to date: strain WM335 of E. coli B/r (P. Doublet, J. van Heijenoort, and D. Mengin-Lecreulx, J. Bacteriol. 174:5772-5779, 1992). We report experiments of insertional mutagenesis of the murI gene which demonstrate that this gene is essential for the biosynthesis of D-glutamic acid, one of the specific components of cell wall peptidoglycan. A special strategy was used for the construction of strains with a disrupted copy of murI, because of a limited capability of E. coli strains grown in rich medium to internalize D-glutamic acid. The murI gene product was overproduced and identified as a glutamate racemase activity. UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine (UDP-MurNAc-L-Ala), which is the nucleotide substrate of the D-glutamic-acid-adding enzyme (the murD gene product) catalyzing the subsequent step in the pathway for peptidoglycan synthesis, appears to be an effector of the racemase activity. Images PMID:8098327

  8. Investigating Different Duplication Pattern of Essential Genes in Mouse and Human

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Debarun; Mukherjee, Dola; Podder, Soumita; Ghosh, Tapash C.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication is one of the major driving forces shaping genome and organism evolution and thought to be itself regulated by some intrinsic properties of the gene. Comparing the essential genes among mouse and human, we observed that the essential genes avoid duplication in mouse while prefer to remain duplicated in humans. In this study, we wanted to explore the reasons behind such differences in gene essentiality by cross-species comparison of human and mouse. Moreover, we examined essential genes that are duplicated in humans are functionally more redundant than that in mouse. The proportion of paralog pseudogenization of essential genes is higher in mouse than that of humans. These duplicates of essential genes are under stringent dosage regulation in human than in mouse. We also observed slower evolutionary rate in the paralogs of human essential genes than the mouse counterpart. Together, these results clearly indicate that human essential genes are retained as duplicates to serve as backed up copies that may shield themselves from harmful mutations. PMID:25751152

  9. Mining Association Rules in Analysis of Transcription Factors Essential to Gene Expressions

    E-print Network

    Gruenwald, Le

    Mining Association Rules in Analysis of Transcription Factors Essential to Gene Expressions Ruzhu studies the transcription factor(s) required for expression of the target genes using data mining association rule techniques. To apply the association rules to mine the transcription factors essential

  10. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Is Positively Associated With Essential Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Miyamoto; Yoshihiko Saito; Noboru Kajiyama; Michihiro Yoshimura; Yukio Shimasaki; Masafumi Nakayama; Shigeki Kamitani; Masaki Harada; Masahiro Ishikawa; Koichiro Kuwahara; Emiko Ogawa; Ichiro Hamanaka; Nobuki Takahashi; Toshihiko Kaneshige; Hiroshi Teraoka; Takashi Akamizu; Nobuyuki Azuma; Yasunao Yoshimasa; Takaaki Yoshimasa; Hiroshi Itoh; Izuru Masuda; Hirofumi Yasue; Kazuwa Nakao

    2010-01-01

    Essential hypertension has a genetic basis. Accumulating evidence, including findings of elevation of arterial blood pressure in mice lacking the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, strongly suggests that alteration in NO metabolism is implicated in hypertension. There are, however, no reports indicating that polymorphism in the eNOS gene is associated with essential hypertension. We have identified a missense variant,

  11. The malQ gene is essential for starch metabolism in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yutaka; Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuko; Azuma, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Background The malQ and glgP genes, respectively, annotated as putative 4-?-glucanotransferase and putative glycogen phosphorylase are located with a 29 nucleotide overlap on the Streptococcus mutans genome. We found that the glgP gene of this organism was induced with maltose, and the gene likely constituted an operon with the upstream gene malQ. This putative operon was negatively regulated with the malR gene located upstream from the malQ gene and a MalR-binding consensus sequence was found upstream of the malQ gene. S. mutans is not able to catabolize starch. However, this organism utilizes maltose degraded from starch in the presence of saliva amylase. Therefore, we hypothesized that the MalQ/GlgP system may participate in the metabolism of starch-degradation products. Methods A DNA fragment amplified from the malQ or glgP gene overexpressed His-tagged proteins with the plasmid pBAD/HisA. S. mutans malQ and/or glgP mutants were also constructed. Purified proteins were assayed for glucose-releasing and phosphorylase activities with appropriate buffers containing maltose, maltotriose, maltodextrin, or amylodextrin as a substrate, and were photometrically assayed with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase–NADP system. Results Purified MalQ protein released glucose from maltose and maltotriose but did not from either maltodextrin or amylodextrin. The purified GlgP protein did not exhibit a phosphorylase reaction with maltose or maltotriose but generated glucose-1-phosphate from maltodextrin and amylodextrin. However, the GlgP protein released glucose-1-phosphate from maltose and maltotriose in the presence of the MalQ protein. In addition, the MalQ enzyme activity with maltose released not only glucose but also produced maltooligosaccharides as substrates for the GlgP protein. Conclusion These results suggest that the malQ gene encodes 4-?-glucanotransferase but not ?-1,4-glucosidase activity. The malQ mutant could not grow in the presence of maltose as a carbon source, which suggests that the malQ gene is essential for the utilization of starch-degradation products. PMID:23930155

  12. Transcription and promoter analysis of pif, an essential but low-expressed baculovirus gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serafin Gutierrez; Iryna Kikhno; Miguel Lopez Ferber

    2004-01-01

    The pif gene (per os infectivity factor) of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) encodes a structural protein essential for oral infection. This protein is expressed in very low quantities. In this study, transcription and promoter analysis of SpliNPV pif were carried out to understand more fully the regulation of pif gene expression. Transcription in the pif gene region was examined using

  13. Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

    2013-01-01

    Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

  14. Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

  15. Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qianghua; Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Xiaoqing; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

  16. Nkx genes are essential for maintenance of ventricular identity

    PubMed Central

    Targoff, Kimara L.; Colombo, Sophie; George, Vanessa; Schell, Thomas; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Yelon, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of specific characteristics of each embryonic cardiac chamber is crucial for development of a fully functional adult heart. Despite the importance of defining and maintaining unique features in ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes, the regulatory mechanisms guiding these processes are poorly understood. Here, we show that the homeodomain transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Nkx2.7 are necessary to sustain ventricular chamber attributes through repression of atrial chamber identity. Mutation of nkx2.5 in zebrafish yields embryos with diminutive ventricular and bulbous atrial chambers. These chamber deformities emerge gradually during development, with a severe collapse in the number of ventricular cardiomyocytes and an accumulation of excess atrial cardiomyocytes as the heart matures. Removal of nkx2.7 function from nkx2.5 mutants exacerbates the loss of ventricular cells and the gain of atrial cells. Moreover, in these Nkx-deficient embryos, expression of vmhc, a ventricular gene, fades, whereas expression of amhc, an atrial gene, expands. Cell-labeling experiments suggest that ventricular cardiomyocytes can transform into atrial cardiomyocytes in the absence of Nkx gene function. Through suggestion of transdifferentiation from ventricular to atrial fate, our data reveal a pivotal role for Nkx genes in maintaining ventricular identity and highlight remarkable plasticity in differentiated myocardium. Thus, our results are relevant to the etiologies of fetal and neonatal cardiac pathology and could direct future innovations in cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:24026123

  17. Identification of Essential and Non-essential Protein Kinases by a Fusion PCR Method for Efficient Production of Transgenic Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Christopher; Stuart, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation of gene expression has been used to elucidate gene function, explore fundamental biological processes and to identify potential drug targets in Trypanosoma brucei. We show in bloodstream forms that CDC2-related kinase CRK12 (Tb11.01.4130) is essential since transcriptional inactivation in conditional null mutants is lethal but 19 other protein kinases are not essential since null mutants are viable. We did so using efficient methods for the generation of null and conditional null cell lines of T. brucei by approaches that generate transfection constructs with large targeting sequences and which use reliable transfection and selection conditions. These methods, which are described in detail in the supplementary material, employ multiple oligonucleotides and PCR reactions and several transfections but are cost effective and can simultaneously generate 24 transfectants thus shifting the rate limiting experimental steps from the production of cell lines to their analysis. PMID:23685343

  18. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  19. Analysis of Essential Viral Gene Functions after Highly Efficient Adenofection of Cells with Cloned Human Cytomegalovirus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Elbasani, Endrit; Gabaev, Ildar; Steinbrück, Lars; Messerle, Martin; Borst, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a large 240 kb genome that may encode more than 700 gene products with many of them remaining uncharacterized. Mutagenesis of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-cloned CMV genomes has greatly facilitated the analysis of viral gene functions. However, the roles of essential proteins often remain particularly elusive because their investigation requires the cumbersome establishment of suitable complementation systems. Here, we show that HCMV genomes can be introduced into cells with unprecedented efficiency by applying a transfection protocol based on replication-defective, inactivated adenovirus particles (adenofection). Upon adenofection of several permissive cell types with HCMV genomes carrying mutations in essential genes, transfection rates of up to 60% were observed and viral proteins of all kinetic classes were found expressed. This enabled further analyses of the transfected cells by standard biochemical techniques. Remarkably, HCMV genomes lacking elements essential for viral DNA replication, such as the lytic origin of replication, still expressed several late proteins. In conclusion, adenofection allows the study of essential HCMV genes directly in BAC-transfected cells without the need for sophisticated complementation strategies. PMID:24452007

  20. Expression of essential B cell development genes in horses with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Tallmadge, R L; Such, K A; Miller, K C; Matychak, M B; Felippe, M J B

    2012-06-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder of B cell differentiation or function with inadequate antibody production. Our laboratory studies a natural form of CVID in horses characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia due to impaired B cell production in the bone marrow. This study was undertaken to assess the status of B cell differentiation in the bone marrow of CVID-affected horses by measuring the expression of genes essential for early B cell commitment and development. Standard RT-PCR revealed that most of the transcription factors and key signaling molecules that directly regulate B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and precede PAX5 are expressed in the affected horses. Yet, the expression of PAX5 and relevant target genes was variable. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA expression of E2A, PAX5, CD19, and IGHD was significantly reduced in equine CVID patients when compared to healthy horses (p<0.05). In addition, the PAX5/EBF1 and PAX5/B220 ratios were significantly reduced in CVID patients (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the absence of PAX5-BSAP expression in the bone marrow of affected horses. Our data suggest that B cell development seems to be impaired at the transition between pre-pro-B cells and pro-B cells in equine CVID patients. PMID:22464097

  1. A shotgun antisense approach to the identification of novel essential genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotics in current use target a surprisingly small number of cellular functions: cell wall, DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. Targeting of novel essential pathways is expected to play an important role in the discovery of new antibacterial agents against bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, that are difficult to control because of their ability to develop resistance, often multiple, to all current classes of clinical antibiotics. Results We aimed to identify novel essential genes in P. aeruginosa by shotgun antisense screening. This technique was developed in Staphylococcus aureus and, following a period of limited success in Gram-negative bacteria, has recently been used effectively in Escherichia coli. To also target low expressed essential genes, we included some variant steps that were expected to overcome the non-stringent regulation of the promoter carried by the expression vector used for the shotgun antisense libraries. Our antisense screenings identified 33 growth-impairing single-locus genomic inserts that allowed us to generate a list of 28 “essential-for-growth” genes: five were “classical” essential genes involved in DNA replication, transcription, translation, and cell division; seven were already reported as essential in other bacteria; and 16 were “novel” essential genes with no homologs reported to have an essential role in other bacterial species. Interestingly, the essential genes in our panel were suggested to take part in a broader range of cellular functions than those currently targeted by extant antibiotics, namely protein secretion, biosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups and carriers, energy metabolism, central intermediary metabolism, transport of small molecules, translation, post-translational modification, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, lipopolysaccharide synthesis/modification, and transcription regulation. This study also identified 43 growth-impairing inserts carrying multiple loci targeting 105 genes, of which 25 have homologs reported as essential in other bacteria. Finally, four multigenic growth-impairing inserts belonged to operons that have never been reported to play an essential role. Conclusions For the first time in P. aeruginosa, we applied regulated antisense RNA expression and showed the feasibility of this technology for the identification of novel essential genes. PMID:24499134

  2. Gene variants influence insulin production

    Cancer.gov

    A new analytical tool has found three previously unknown gene variants relevant to diabetes, and researchers say it also may be useful in unraveling other complex diseases like obesity and cancer. In research published online December 23 in Nature Genetics, scientists say the relatively rare genetic variants influence insulin production,a finding that could offer new clues about the genetic factors behind diabetes. The study included participants from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine (home to the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center), the University of Michigan (home to the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center), and the University of Eastern Finland.

  3. Linkage analysis of five candidate genes and essential hypertension in 106 Chinese nuclear families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin He; Guliang Wang; Wei Huang; Zhu Ding-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Five candidate genes including the lipoprotein lipase, leptin, leptin receptor, ?-adducin and ?3 adrenergic receptor were selected to examine their possible contribution to essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. On each side of the candidate gene loci, one to two highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were genotyped in 474 subjects recruited from 106 hypertension nuclear families in Shanghai. Both parametric

  4. Chromosome 17 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in human essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Rutherford; Matthew P. Johnson; Robert P. Curtain; Lyn R. Griffiths

    2001-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a common multifactorial trait that results in a significantly increased risk for heart attack and stroke. The condition has a genetic basis, although at present the number of genes is unknown. In order to identify such genes, we are utilising a linkage scanning approach using microsatellite markers and affected sibships. Here we provide evidence for the location

  5. From essential to persistent genes: a functional approach to constructing synthetic life.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Fang, Gang; Schmidt, Markus; Ussery, David W; Danchin, Antoine

    2013-05-01

    A central undertaking in synthetic biology (SB) is the quest for the 'minimal genome'. However, 'minimal sets' of essential genes are strongly context-dependent and, in all prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, not a single protein-coding gene is entirely conserved. Furthermore, a lack of consensus in the field as to what attributes make a gene truly essential adds another aspect of variation. Thus, a universal minimal genome remains elusive. Here, as an alternative to defining a minimal genome, we propose that the concept of gene persistence can be used to classify genes needed for robust long-term survival. Persistent genes, although not ubiquitous, are conserved in a majority of genomes, tend to be expressed at high levels, and are frequently located on the leading DNA strand. These criteria impose constraints on genome organization, and these are important considerations for engineering cells and for creating cellular life-like forms in SB. PMID:23219343

  6. From essential to persistent genes: a functional approach to constructing synthetic life

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Fang, Gang; Schmidt, Markus; Ussery, David W.; Danchin, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    A central undertaking in synthetic biology (SB) is the quest for the ‘minimal genome’. However, ‘minimal sets’ of essential genes are strongly context-dependent and, in all prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, not a single protein-coding gene is entirely conserved. Furthermore, a lack of consensus in the field as to what attributes make a gene truly essential adds another aspect of variation. Thus, a universal minimal genome remains elusive. Here, as an alternative to defining a minimal genome, we propose that the concept of gene persistence can be used to classify genes needed for robust long-term survival. Persistent genes, although not ubiquitous, are conserved in a majority of genomes, tend to be expressed at high levels, and are frequently located on the leading DNA strand. These criteria impose constraints on genome organization, and these are important considerations for engineering cells and for creating cellular life-like forms in SB. PMID:23219343

  7. Cloning of hydrogenase genes and fine structure analysis of an operon essential for H2 metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, P; Lee, J H; Shanmugam, K T

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli has two unlinked genes that code for hydrogenase synthesis and activity. The DNA fragments containing the two genes (hydA and hydB) were cloned into a plasmid vector, pBR322. The plasmids containing the hyd genes (pSE-290 and pSE-111 carrying the hydA and hydB genes, respectively) were used to genetically map a total of 51 mutant strains with defects in hydrogenase activity. A total of 37 mutants carried a mutation in the hydB gene, whereas the remaining 14 hyd were hydA. This complementation analysis also established the presence of two new genes, so far unidentified, one coding for formate dehydrogenase-2 (fdv) and another producing an electron transport protein (fhl) coupling formate dehydrogenase-2 to hydrogenase. Three of the four genes, hydB, fhl, and fdv, may constitute a single operon, and all three genes are carried by a 5.6-kilobase-pair chromosomal DNA insert in plasmid pSE-128. Plasmids carrying a part of this 5.6-kilobase-pair DNA (pSE-130) or fragments derived from this DNA in different orientations (pSE-126 and pSE-129) inhibited the production of active formate hydrogenlyase. This inhibition occurred even in a prototrophic E. coli, strain K-10, but only during an early induction period. These results, based on complementation analysis with cloned DNA fragments, show that both hydA and hydB genes are essential for the production of active hydrogenase. For the expression of active formate hydrogenlyase, two other gene products, fhl and fdv are also needed. All four genes map between 58 and 59 min in the E. coli chromosome. PMID:3884595

  8. Mycobacterial genes essential for the pathogen's survival in the host.

    PubMed

    Ehrt, Sabine; Rhee, Kyu; Schnappinger, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved within the human immune system as both host and reservoir. The study of genes required for its growth and persistence in vivo thus offers linked insights into its pathogenicity and host immunity. Studies of Mtb mutants have implicated metabolic adaptation (consisting of carbon, nitrogen, vitamin, and cofactor metabolism), intrabacterial pH homeostasis, and defense against reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, as key determinants of its pathogenicity. However, the mechanisms of host immunity are complex and often combinatorial. Growing evidence has thus begun to reveal that the determinants of Mtb's pathogenicity may serve a broader and more complex array of functions than the isolated experimental settings in which they were initially found. Here, we review select examples, which exemplify this complexity, highlighting the distinct phases of Mtb's life cycle and the diverse microenvironments encountered therein. PMID:25703569

  9. The Yield of Essential Oils in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) Is Regulated through Transcript Abundance of Genes in the MEP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Hamish; Lanfear, Robert; Hamill, John; Foley, William J.; Külheim, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaves contain large amounts of an essential oil, dominated by monoterpenes. Several enzymes of the chloroplastic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway are hypothesised to act as bottlenecks to the production of monoterpenes. We investigated, whether transcript abundance of genes encoding for enzymes of the MEP pathway were correlated with foliar terpenes in M. alternifolia using a population of 48 individuals that ranged in their oil concentration from 39 -122 mg.g DM?1. Our study shows that most genes in the MEP pathway are co-regulated and that the expression of multiple genes within the MEP pathway is correlated with oil yield. Using multiple regression analysis, variation in expression of MEP pathway genes explained 87% of variation in foliar monoterpene concentrations. The data also suggest that sesquiterpenes in M. alternifolia are synthesised, at least in part, from isopentenyl pyrophosphate originating from the plastid via the MEP pathway. PMID:23544156

  10. High-Throughput Analysis of Gene Essentiality and Sporulation in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Dembek, Marcin; Barquist, Lars; Boinett, Christine J.; Cain, Amy K.; Mayho, Matthew; Lawley, Trevor D.; Fagan, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated intestinal infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Infection with C. difficile requires disruption of the intestinal microbiota, most commonly by antibiotic usage. Therapeutic intervention largely relies on a small number of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which further exacerbate intestinal dysbiosis and leave the patient acutely sensitive to reinfection. Development of novel targeted therapeutic interventions will require a detailed knowledge of essential cellular processes, which represent attractive targets, and species-specific processes, such as bacterial sporulation. Our knowledge of the genetic basis of C. difficile infection has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools, although recent developments have made some headway in addressing this limitation. Here we describe the development of a method for rapidly generating large numbers of transposon mutants in clinically important strains of C. difficile. We validated our transposon mutagenesis approach in a model strain of C. difficile and then generated a comprehensive transposon library in the highly virulent epidemic strain R20291 (027/BI/NAP1) containing more than 70,000 unique mutants. Using transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), we have identified a core set of 404 essential genes, required for growth in vitro. We then applied this technique to the process of sporulation, an absolute requirement for C. difficile transmission and pathogenesis, identifying 798 genes that are likely to impact spore production. The data generated in this study will form a valuable resource for the community and inform future research on this important human pathogen. PMID:25714712

  11. Mutations in Genes Encoding Essential Mitotic Functions in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David A.; Baker, Bruce S.; Gatti, Maurizio

    1985-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutations at 15 loci that affect the fidelity of mitotic chromosome behavior have been isolated in Drosophila melanogaster . These mitotic mutants were detected in a collection of 168 EMS-induced X-linked temperature-sensitive (ts) lethal and semilethal mutants. Our screen for mutations with mitotic effects was based upon the reasoning that under semirestrictive conditions such mutations could cause an elevated frequency of mitotic chromosome misbehavior and that such events would be detectable with somatic cell genetic techniques. Males hemizygous for each ts lethal and heterozygous for the recessive autosomal cell marker mwh were reared under semirestrictive conditions, and the wings of those individuals surviving to adulthood were examined for an increased frequency of mwh clones. Those mutations producing elevated levels of chromosome instability during growth of the wing imaginal disc were also examined for their effects on chromosome behavior in the cell lineages producing the abdominal cuticle. Fifteen mutations affect chromosome behavior in both wing and abdominal cells and thus identify loci generally required for the fidelity of mitotic chromosome transmission. Mapping and complementation tests show that these mutations represent 15 loci. One mutant is an allele of a locus (mus-101) previously identified by mutagensensitive mutants and a second mutant is an allele of the lethal locus zw10.—The 15 mutants were also examined cytologically for their effects on chromosomes in larval neuroblasts. Taken together, the results of our cytological and genetical studies show that these mutants identify loci with wild-type functions necessary for either (1) maintenance of chromosome integrity or (2) regular disjunction of chromosomes or (3) chromosome condensation. Thus, these mutations define a broad spectrum of genes required for the normal execution of the mitotic chromosome cycle. PMID:3928429

  12. Genome-wide characterization of essential, toxicity-modulating and no-phenotype genes in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dapeng; Lv, Yingli; Zuo, Yongchun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-03-15

    Based on the requirements for an organism's viability, genes can be classified into essential genes and non-essential genes. Non-essential genes can be further classified into toxicity-modulating genes and no-phenotype genes based on the fitness phenotype of yeast cells when the gene is deleted under DNA-damaging conditions. In this study, graph theoretical approaches were used to characterize essential, toxicity-modulating and no-phenotype genes for S. cerevisiae in the physical interaction (PI) network and the perturbation sensitivity (PS) network. We also gained previously published biological datasets to gain a more complete understanding of the differences and relationships between essential, toxicity-modulating genes and no-phenotype genes. The analysis results indicate that toxicity-modulating genes have similar properties as essential genes, and toxicity-modulating genes might represent a middle ground between essential genes and no-phenotype genes, suggesting that cells initiate highly coordinated responses to damage that are similar to those needed for vital cellular functions. These findings may elucidate the mechanisms for understanding toxicity-modulating processes relevant to certain diseases. PMID:25576218

  13. Essential gene disruptions reveal complex relationships between phenotypic robustness, pleiotropy, and fitness

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christopher R; Li, Shuang; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of robustness in biology has gained much attention recently, but a mechanistic understanding of how genetic networks regulate phenotypic variation has remained elusive. One approach to understand the genetic architecture of variability has been to analyze dispensable gene deletions in model organisms; however, the most important genes cannot be deleted. Here, we have utilized two systems in yeast whereby essential genes have been altered to reduce expression. Using high-throughput microscopy and image analysis, we have characterized a large number of morphological phenotypes, and their associated variation, for the majority of essential genes in yeast. Our results indicate that phenotypic robustness is more highly dependent upon the expression of essential genes than on the presence of dispensable genes. Morphological robustness appears to be a general property of a genotype that is closely related to pleiotropy. While the fitness profile across a range of expression levels is idiosyncratic to each gene, the global pattern indicates that there is a window in which phenotypic variation can be released before fitness effects are observable. PMID:25609648

  14. Essential gene disruptions reveal complex relationships between phenotypic robustness, pleiotropy, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christopher R; Li, Shuang; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of robustness in biology has gained much attention recently, but a mechanistic understanding of how genetic networks regulate phenotypic variation has remained elusive. One approach to understand the genetic architecture of variability has been to analyze dispensable gene deletions in model organisms; however, the most important genes cannot be deleted. Here, we have utilized two systems in yeast whereby essential genes have been altered to reduce expression. Using high-throughput microscopy and image analysis, we have characterized a large number of morphological phenotypes, and their associated variation, for the majority of essential genes in yeast. Our results indicate that phenotypic robustness is more highly dependent upon the expression of essential genes than on the presence of dispensable genes. Morphological robustness appears to be a general property of a genotype that is closely related to pleiotropy. While the fitness profile across a range of expression levels is idiosyncratic to each gene, the global pattern indicates that there is a window in which phenotypic variation can be released before fitness effects are observable. PMID:25609648

  15. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365?nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  16. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Human Essential Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Bonnardeaux; Eleanor Davies; Xavier Jeunemaitre; Isabelle Fery; Anne Charru; Eric Clauser; Laurence Tiret; Francois Cambien; Pierre Corvol; Florent Soubrier

    Abstract We conducted ,the present study to determine whether the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT,) gene might beimplicated,in human ,essential hypertension ,by using case-control and ,linkage studies. The entire coding ,and 3' untranslated regions of the AT, receptor gene (2.2 kb) were amplified by polymerase ,chain reaction and ,submitted ,to single-strand conformation ,polymorphism ,in 60 hypertensive

  17. The Zebrafish Maternal-effect Gene mission impossible Encodes the DEAH-box Helicase Dhx16 and is Essential for the Expression of Downstream Endodermal Genes

    PubMed Central

    Putiri, Emily; Pelegri, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Early animal embryonic development requires maternal products that drive developmental processes prior to the activation of the zygotic genome at the mid-blastula transition. During and after this transition, maternal products may continue to act within incipient zygotic developmental programs. Mechanisms that control maternally-inherited products to spatially and temporally restrict developmental responses remain poorly understood, but necessarily depend on posttranscriptional regulation. We report the functional analysis and molecular identification of the zebrafish maternal-effect gene mission impossible (mis). Our studies suggest requirements for maternally-derived mis function in events that occur during gastrulation, including cell movement and the activation of some endodermal target genes. Cell transplantation experiments show that the cell movement defect is cell autonomous. Within the endoderm induction pathway, mis is not required for the activation of early zygotic genes, but is essential to implement nodal activity downstream of casanova/sox 32 but upstream of sox17 expression. Activation of nodal signaling in blastoderm explants shows that the requirement for mis function in endoderm gene induction is independent of the underlying yolk cell. Positional cloning of mis, including genetic rescue and complementation analysis, shows that it encodes the DEAH-box RNA helicase Dhx16, shown in other systems to act in RNA regulatory processes such as splicing and translational control. Analysis of a previously identified insertional dhx16 mutation shows that the zygotic component of this gene is also essential for embryonic viability. Our studies provide a striking example of the interweaving of maternal and zygotic genetic functions during the egg-to-embryo transition. Maternal RNA helicases have long been known to be involved in the development of the animal germ line, but our findings add to growing evidence that these factors may also control specific gene expression programs in somatic tissues. PMID:21396359

  18. Usher syndrome IIIA gene clarin-1 is essential for hair cell function and associated neural activation{

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Usher syndrome IIIA gene clarin-1 is essential for hair cell function and associated neural; Revised and Accepted April 29, 2009 Usher syndrome 3A (USH3A) is an autosomal recessive disorder. INTRODUCTION Usher syndrome is the most common cause of sensory impair- ment wherein deafness and blindness

  19. Genes Found Essential in Other Mycoplasmas Are Dispensable in Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shukriti; Markham, Philip F.; Browning, Glenn F.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are regarded to be useful models for studying the minimum genetic complement required for independent survival of an organism. Mycoplasma bovis is a globally distributed pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis media and reproductive tract disease, and genome sequences of three strains, the type strain PG45 and two strains isolated in China, have been published. In this study, several Tn4001 based transposon constructs were generated and used to create a M. bovis PG45 insertional mutant library. Direct genome sequencing of 319 independent insertions detected disruptions in 129 genes in M. bovis, 48 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC and 99 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma agalactiae. Sixteen genes found to be essential in previous studies on other mycoplasma species were found to be dispensable. Five of these genes have previously been predicted to be part of the core set of 153 essential genes in mycoplasmas. Thus this study has extended the list of non-essential genes of mycoplasmas from that previously generated by studies in other species. PMID:24897538

  20. Comparative Genomics of Mycoplasma: Analysis of Conserved Essential Genes and Diversity of the Pan-Genome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Fang, Liurong; Li, Mao; Li, Sha; Guo, Shaohua; Luo, Rui; Feng, Zhixin; Li, Bin; Zhou, Zhemin; Shao, Guoqing; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages. PMID:22536428

  1. Cell-specific expression of artificial microRNAs targeting essential genes exhibit potent antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Chen, Ping; Ye, Jingjia; Teng, Lisong; Jia, Zhenyu; Cao, Jiang

    2015-03-20

    To achieve specific and potent antitumor effect of hepatocyte carcinoma cells, replication defective adenoviral vectors, namely rAd/AFP-amiRG, rAd/AFP-amiRE and rAd/AFP-amiRP, were constructed which were armed with artificial microRNAs (amiRs) targeting essential functional genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and DNA polymerase ? respectively under the control of a recombinant promoter comprised of human ?-fetoprotein enhancer and basal promoter. The AFP enhancer/promoter showed specific high transcription activity in AFP-positive HCC cells Hep3B, HepG2 and SMMC7721, while low in AFP-negative cell Bcap37. All artificial microRNAs exhibited efficient knockdown of target genes. Decreased ATP production and protein synthesis was observed in rAd/AFP-amiRG and rAd/AFP-amiRE treated HCC cells. All three recombinant adenoviruses showed efficient blockage of cell cycle progression and significant suppression of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice model bearing Hep3B xenograft, administration of rAd/AFP-amiRG showed potent antitumor effect. The strategy of tumor-specific knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and proliferation may suggest a novel promising approach for HCC gene therapy. PMID:25691059

  2. A Tetracycline-Repressible Transactivator System to Study Essential Genes in Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Paco; Sebastian, Sarah; Kim, EunBin Arin; Bush, Erin; Brochet, Mathieu; Volkmann, Katrin; Kozlowski, Elyse; Llinás, Manuel; Billker, Oliver; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Summary A major obstacle in analyzing gene function in apicomplexan parasites is the absence of a practical regulatable expression system. Here, we identified functional transcriptional activation domains within Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family transcription factors. These ApiAP2 transactivation domains were validated in blood-, liver-, and mosquito-stage parasites and used to create a robust conditional expression system for stage-specific, tetracycline-dependent gene regulation in Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium falciparum. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we created conditional knockdowns of two essential P. berghei genes: profilin (PRF), a protein implicated in parasite invasion, and N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), which catalyzes protein acylation. Tetracycline-induced repression of PRF and NMT expression resulted in a dramatic reduction in parasite viability. This efficient regulatable system will allow for the functional characterization of essential proteins that are found in these important parasites. PMID:23245327

  3. A Young Drosophila Duplicate Gene Plays Essential Roles in Spermatogenesis by Regulating Several Y-Linked Male Fertility Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Zhao, Ruoping; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Guojie; Dong, Yang; Yu, Haijing; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Gene duplication is supposed to be the major source for genetic innovations. However, how a new duplicate gene acquires functions by integrating into a pathway and results in adaptively important phenotypes has remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanism of the young kep1 gene family in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup to understand the origin and evolution of new genes with new functions. Sequence and expression analysis demonstrates that one of the new duplicates, nsr (novel spermatogenesis regulator), exhibits positive selection signals and novel subcellular localization pattern. Targeted mutagenesis and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis provide evidence that nsr is required for male reproduction associated with sperm individualization, coiling, and structural integrity of the sperm axoneme via regulation of several Y chromosome fertility genes post-transcriptionally. The absence of nsr-like expression pattern and the presence of the corresponding cis-regulatory elements of the parental gene kep1 in the pre-duplication species Drosophila yakuba indicate that kep1 might not be ancestrally required for male functions and that nsr possibly has experienced the neofunctionalization process, facilitated by changes of trans-regulatory repertories. These findings not only present a comprehensive picture about the evolution of a new duplicate gene but also show that recently originated duplicate genes can acquire multiple biological roles and establish novel functional pathways by regulating essential genes. PMID:21203494

  4. Effects of essential medicines on cardiovascular products available for the market in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Burapadaja; Naohito Kawasaki; Suporn Charumanee; Fumihiko Ogata

    2007-01-01

    National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) is an important policy on drugs, which also covers the drug availability. However, the link between the list and the availability of medicine products for the market is not clear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of essential medicines (EM) on the patterns and values of cardiovascular products available for

  5. Screening of candidate regulators for cellulase and hemicellulase production in Trichoderma reesei and identification of a factor essential for cellulase production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The soft rot ascomycetal fungus Trichoderma reesei is utilized for industrial production of secreted enzymes, especially lignocellulose degrading enzymes. T. reesei uses several different enzymes for the degradation of plant cell wall-derived material, including 9 characterized cellulases, 15 characterized hemicellulases and at least 42 genes predicted to encode cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic activities. Production of cellulases and hemicellulases is modulated by environmental and physiological conditions. Several regulators affecting the expression of cellulase and hemicellulase genes have been identified but more factors still unknown are believed to be present in the genome of T. reesei. Results We have used transcriptional profiling data from T. reesei cultures in which cellulase/hemicellulase production was induced by the addition of different lignocellulose-derived materials to identify putative novel regulators for cellulase and hemicellulase genes. Based on this induction data, supplemented with other published genome-wide data on different protein production conditions, 28 candidate regulatory genes were selected for further studies and they were overexpressed in T. reesei. Overexpression of seven genes led to at least 1.5-fold increased production of cellulase and/or xylanase activity in the modified strains as compared to the parental strain. Deletion of gene 77513, here designated as ace3, was found to be detrimental for cellulase production and for the expression of several cellulase genes studied. This deletion also significantly reduced xylanase activity and expression of xylan-degrading enzyme genes. Furthermore, our data revealed the presence of co-regulated chromosomal regions containing carbohydrate-active enzyme genes and candidate regulatory genes. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling results from glycoside hydrolase induction experiments combined with a previous study of specific protein production conditions was shown to be an effective method for finding novel candidate regulatory genes affecting the production of cellulases and hemicellulases. Recombinant strains with improved cellulase and/or xylanase production properties were constructed, and a gene essential for cellulase gene expression was found. In addition, more evidence was gained on the chromatin level regional regulation of carbohydrate-active enzyme gene expression. PMID:24472375

  6. MAS1, a gene essential for yeast mitochondrial assembly, encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial processing protease.

    PubMed Central

    Witte, C; Jensen, R E; Yaffe, M P; Schatz, G

    1988-01-01

    We have previously described a yeast mutant (mas1) that accumulates mitochondrial precursor proteins at high temperature and is deficient in the activity of a matrix-localized protease which cleaves presequences from mitochondrial precursor proteins. We have now cloned and sequenced the wild-type MAS1 gene and found that it encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial processing protease, that it is essential for cell viability and that the protein product participates in its own cleavage during import into mitochondria. The MAS1 protein is thus the first genetically defined component of the mitochondrial protein import pathway. Images PMID:3044780

  7. Two novel DNA motifs are essential for BACE1 gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yan; Meng, Shasha; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Songyang; Liu, Jingru; Li, Hongmei; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong; Zhou, Weihui

    2014-01-01

    BACE1 gene encodes for ?-Site amyloid ? precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme1, which is required for generating amyloid ? protein(A?). Deposition of A? in brain plays an essential role in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. BACE1 gene has a tissue-specific expression pattern and its expression is tightly regulated at transcriptional level. Core promoter is a minimal DNA sequence to direct transcription initiation and serves as a converging platform for the vast network of regulatory events. Here we identified the core promoter of human BACE1 gene, which is a 71 nucleotides region absent of typical known core promoter elements and is sufficient to initiate a basal transcription. Two novel DNA motifs, designated TCE1 and TCE2, were found to be involved in activating the transcription of human BACE1 gene in a synergistic way. Two single nucleotide mutations in these motifs completely abolished the promoter activity. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated that novel DNA motif TCE1 and TCE2 in human BACE1 gene promoter are two essential cis-acting elements for BACE1 gene transcription. Studies on how these two motifs being regulated by different stimuli could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis and pharmaceutical potentials of targeting these motifs for AD treatment. PMID:25359283

  8. Analysis of Essential Arabidopsis Nuclear Genes Encoding Plastid-Targeted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Linda J.; Imre, Kathleen M.; Hall, David A.; Last, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The Chloroplast 2010 Project (http://www.plastid.msu.edu/) identified and phenotypically characterized homozygous mutants in over three thousand genes, the majority of which encode plastid-targeted proteins. Despite extensive screening by the community, no homozygous mutant alleles were available for several hundred genes, suggesting that these might be enriched for genes of essential function. Attempts were made to generate homozygotes in ?1200 of these lines and 521 of the homozygous viable lines obtained were deposited in the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (http://abrc.osu.edu/). Lines that did not yield a homozygote in soil were tested as potentially homozygous lethal due to defects either in seed or seedling development. Mutants were characterized at four stages of development: developing seed, mature seed, at germination, and developing seedlings. To distinguish seed development or seed pigment-defective mutants from seedling development mutants, development of seeds was assayed in siliques from heterozygous plants. Segregating seeds from heterozygous parents were sown on supplemented media in an attempt to rescue homozygous seedlings that could not germinate or survive in soil. Growth of segregating seeds in air and air enriched to 0.3% carbon dioxide was compared to discover mutants potentially impaired in photorespiration or otherwise responsive to CO2 supplementation. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements identified CO2-responsive mutants with altered photosynthetic parameters. Examples of genes with a viable mutant allele and one or more putative homozygous-lethal alleles were documented. RT-PCR of homozygotes for potentially weak alleles revealed that essential genes may remain undiscovered because of the lack of a true null mutant allele. This work revealed 33 genes with two or more lethal alleles and 73 genes whose essentiality was not confirmed with an independent lethal mutation, although in some cases second leaky alleles were identified. PMID:24023856

  9. Association of T174M polymorphism of angiotensinogen gene with essential hypertension: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaoyang; Yang, Zhiyi; Peng, Daqing; Dai, Hua; Lei, Yi; Zhao, Qian; Han, Yanbing; Wang, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    The association between T174M polymorphism of angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension risk remains controversial. We herein performed a meta-analysis to achieve a reliable estimation of their relationship. All the studies published up to May 2013 on the association between T174M polymorphism and essential hypertension risk were identified by searching the electronic repositories PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Ultimately, nine eligible studies, including 2188 essential hypertension cases and 2459 controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. No significant associations were found under the overall ORs for M-allele comparison (M vs. T, pooled OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62–1.37), MM vs. TT (pooled OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.29–2.51), TM vs. TT n (pooled OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63–1.32), recessive model (MM vs. TT+TM, pooled OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35–2.30), dominant model (MM+TM vs. TT, pooled OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.60–1.38) between T174M polymorphism and risk for essential hypertension. This meta-analysis suggested that the T174M polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene might not be associated with the susceptibility of essential hypertension in Asian or European populations. PMID:25249768

  10. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  11. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  12. Arabidopsis genes essential for seedling viability: isolation of insertional mutants and molecular cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, G J; Lewis, S P; Glover, L W; Reineke, J; Jones, G; Ziemnik, L S; Lonowski, J; Nyfeler, B; Aux, G; Zhou, Q; McElver, J; Patton, D A; Martienssen, R; Grossniklaus, U; Ma, H; Law, M; Levin, J Z

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a large-scale genetic screen to identify genes with a seedling-lethal mutant phenotype. From screening approximately 38,000 insertional mutant lines, we identified >500 seedling-lethal mutants, completed cosegregation analysis of the insertion and the lethal phenotype for >200 mutants, molecularly characterized 54 mutants, and provided a detailed description for 22 of them. Most of the seedling-lethal mutants seem to affect chloroplast function because they display altered pigmentation and affect genes encoding proteins predicted to have chloroplast localization. Although a high level of functional redundancy in Arabidopsis might be expected because 65% of genes are members of gene families, we found that 41% of the essential genes found in this study are members of Arabidopsis gene families. In addition, we isolated several interesting classes of mutants and genes. We found three mutants in the recently discovered nonmevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants disrupting genes similar to Tic40 and tatC, which are likely to be involved in chloroplast protein translocation. Finally, we directly compared T-DNA and Ac/Ds transposon mutagenesis methods in Arabidopsis on a genome scale. In each population, we found only about one-third of the insertion mutations cosegregated with a mutant phenotype. PMID:11779813

  13. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYO2 gene encodes an essential myosin for vectorial transport of vesicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Johnston; J. A. Prendergast; R. A. Singer

    1991-01-01

    Abstract. After the initiation of bud formation, cells of the yeast Saccharomyces,cerevisiae direct new growth,to the developing,bud. We show,here that this vectorial growth,is facilitated by activity of the MY02 gene. The wild-type MY02 gene encodes,an essential form of myosin,composed,of an NH2-terminal domain typical of the globular, actin-binding domain of other myosins. This NH:-terminal domain,is linked by what appears to be

  14. In vivo and in silico determination of essential genes of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli are the most frequent causes of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. While campylobacteriosis is usually a relatively mild infection, it has a significant public health and economic impact, and possible complications include reactive arthritis and the autoimmune diseases Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid developments in "omics" technologies have resulted in the availability of diverse datasets allowing predictions of metabolism and physiology of pathogenic micro-organisms. When combined, these datasets may allow for the identification of potential weaknesses that can be used for development of new antimicrobials to reduce or eliminate C. jejuni and C. coli from the food chain. Results A metabolic model of C. jejuni was constructed using the annotation of the NCTC 11168 genome sequence, a published model of the related bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and extensive literature mining. Using this model, we have used in silico Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) to determine key metabolic routes that are essential for generating energy and biomass, thus creating a list of genes potentially essential for growth under laboratory conditions. To complement this in silico approach, candidate essential genes have been determined using a whole genome transposon mutagenesis method. FBA and transposon mutagenesis (both this study and a published study) predict a similar number of essential genes (around 200). The analysis of the intersection between the three approaches highlights the shikimate pathway where genes are predicted to be essential by one or more method, and tend to be network hubs, based on a previously published Campylobacter protein-protein interaction network, and could therefore be targets for novel antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions We have constructed the first curated metabolic model for the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and have presented the resulting metabolic insights. We have shown that the combination of in silico and in vivo approaches could point to non-redundant, indispensable genes associated with the well characterised shikimate pathway, and also genes of unknown function specific to C. jejuni, which are all potential novel Campylobacter intervention targets. PMID:22044676

  15. Identification and Characterization of Helicobacter pylori Genes Essential for Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Kavermann, Holger; Burns, Brendan P.; Angermüller, Katrin; Odenbreit, Stefan; Fischer, Wolfgang; Melchers, Klaus; Haas, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most common, chronic bacterial infections and is a primary cause of severe gastric disorders. To unravel the bacterial factors necessary for the process of gastric colonization and pathogenesis, signature tagged mutagenesis (STM) was adapted to H. pylori. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) was used as model system to screen a set of 960 STM mutants. This resulted in 47 H. pylori genes, assigned to 9 different functional categories, representing a set of biological functions absolutely essential for gastric colonization, as verified and quantified for many mutants by competition experiments. Identification of previously known colonization factors, such as the urease and motility functions validated this method, but also novel and several hypothetical genes were found. Interestingly, a secreted collagenase, encoded by hp0169, could be identified and functionally verified as a new essential virulence factor for H. pylori stomach colonization. Furthermore, comB4, encoding a putative ATPase being part of a DNA transformation-associated type IV transport system of H. pylori was found to be absolutely essential for colonization, but natural transformation competence was apparently not the essential function. Thus, this first systematic STM application identified a set of previously unknown H. pylori colonization factors and may help to potentiate the development of novel therapies against gastric Helicobacter infections. PMID:12668646

  16. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production is essential for dietary restriction benefits.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher; Harputlugil, Eylul; Zhang, Yue; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Lee, Byung Cheon; Brace, Lear; Longchamp, Alban; Treviño-Villarreal, Jose H; Mejia, Pedro; Ozaki, C Keith; Wang, Rui; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Madeo, Frank; Mair, William B; Mitchell, James R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine ?-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. SAA supplementation, mTORC1 activation, or chemical/genetic CGL inhibition reduced H2S production and blocked DR-mediated stress resistance. In vitro, the mitochondrial protein SQR was required for H2S-mediated protection during nutrient/oxygen deprivation. Finally, TSP-dependent H2S production was observed in yeast, worm, fruit fly, and rodent models of DR-mediated longevity. Together, these data are consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a mediator of DR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. PAPERFLICK: PMID:25542313

  17. CD160 is essential for NK-mediated IFN-? production.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tony C; Brown, Nicholas K; Kim, Tae-Jin; Wroblewska, Joanna; Yang, Xuanming; Guo, Xiaohuan; Lee, Seoyun Hyunji; Kumar, Vinay; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2015-03-01

    NK-derived cytokines play important roles for natural killer (NK) function, but how the cytokines are regulated is poorly understood. CD160 is expressed on activated NK or T cells in humans but its function is unknown. We generated CD160-deficient mice to probe its function. Although CD160(-/-) mice showed no abnormalities in lymphocyte development, the control of NK-sensitive tumors was severely compromised in CD160(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of NK cells was not impaired, but interferon-? (IFN-?) secretion by NK cells was markedly reduced in CD160(-/-) mice. Functionally targeting CD160 signaling with a soluble CD160-Ig also impaired tumor control and IFN-? production, suggesting an active role of CD160 signaling. Using reciprocal bone marrow transfer and cell culture, we have identified the intrinsic role of CD160 on NK cells, as well as its receptor on non-NK cells, for regulating cytokine production. To demonstrate sufficiency of the CD160(+) NK cell subset in controlling NK-dependent tumor growth, intratumoral transfer of the CD160(+) NK fraction led to tumor regression in CD160(-/-) tumor-bearing mice, indicating demonstrable therapeutic potential for controlling early tumors. Therefore, CD160 is not only an important biomarker but also functionally controls cytokine production by NK cells. PMID:25711213

  18. Identification of a gene essential for piliation in Haemophilus influenzae type b with homology to the pilus assembly platform genes of gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, W J; Gilsdorf, J R; Tucci, M A; McCrea, K W; Forney, L J; Marrs, C F

    1994-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) pili are complex filamentous surface structures consisting predominantly of pilin protein subunits. The gene encoding the major pilin protein subunit of Hib adherence pili has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. In order to identify specific accessory genes involved in pilus expression and assembly, we constructed isogenic Hib mutants containing insertional chromosomal mutations in the DNA flanking the pilin structural gene. These mutants were screened for pilin production, pilus expression, and hemagglutination. Pili and pilin production were assessed by immunoassays with polyclonal antisera specific for pilin and pili of Hib strain Eagan. Hemagglutination was semiquantitatively evaluated in a microtiter plate assay. Six Hib mutants produced proteins immunoreactive with antipilin antiserum but no longer produced structures reactive with antipilus antiserum. In addition, the mutants were unable to agglutinate human erythrocytes. Nucleotide sequence analysis localized the insertion sites in the six mutants to 2.5-kb open reading frame upstream of the pilin structural gene and immediately downstream of an Hib pilin chaperone gene. The amino acid sequence encoded by this open reading frame has significant homology to members of the pilus assembly platform protein family, including FhaA of Bordetella pertussis, MrkC of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the Escherichia coli assembly platform proteins FimD and PapC. This open reading frame, designated hifC, appears to represent a gene essential to Hib pilus biogenesis that has genetic and functional similarity to the pilus platform assembly genes of other gram-negative rods. Images PMID:7905461

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Reverchon

    1997-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils is one of the most widely discussed applications in the supercritical fluid literature. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of the analytical, processing and modeling aspects has never been attempted. This is partly due to the difficulties involved in isolating essential oils from the other products which supercritical CO2 can dissolve. Moreover, only a limited number

  20. Ovicidal activity of essential oils from five plants against two stored-product insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?. Tunç; B. M. Berger; F. Erler; F. Da?l?

    2000-01-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapours distilled from anise Pimpinella anisum, cumin Cuminum cyminum, eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis, oregano Origanum syriacum var. bevanii and rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis were tested against eggs of two stored-product insects, the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella. The exposure to vapours of essential oils from anise and cumin resulted

  1. Non-essential genes form the hubs of genome scale protein function and environmental gene expression networks in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella Typhimurium is an important pathogen of human and animals. It shows a broad growth range and survives in harsh conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze transcriptional responses to a number of growth and stress conditions as well as the relationship of metabolic pathways and/or cell functions at the genome-scale-level by network analysis, and further to explore whether highly connected genes (hubs) in these networks were essential for growth, stress adaptation and virulence. Results De novo generated as well as published transcriptional data for 425 selected genes under a number of growth and stress conditions were used to construct a bipartite network connecting culture conditions and significantly regulated genes (transcriptional network). Also, a genome scale network was constructed for strain LT2. The latter connected genes with metabolic pathways and cellular functions. Both networks were shown to belong to the family of scale-free networks characterized by the presence of highly connected nodes or hubs which are genes whose transcription is regulated when responding to many of the assayed culture conditions or genes encoding products involved in a high number of metabolic pathways and cell functions. The five genes with most connections in the transcriptional network (wraB, ygaU, uspA, cbpA and osmC) and in the genome scale network (ychN, siiF (STM4262), yajD, ybeB and dcoC) were selected for mutations, however mutagenesis of ygaU and ybeB proved unsuccessful. No difference between mutants and the wild type strain was observed during growth at unfavorable temperatures, pH values, NaCl concentrations and in the presence of H2O2. Eight mutants were evaluated for virulence in C57/BL6 mice and none differed from the wild type strain. Notably, however, deviations of phenotypes with respect to the wild type were observed when combinations of these genes were deleted. Conclusion Network analysis revealed the presence of hubs in both transcriptional and functional networks of S. Typhimurium. Hubs theoretically confer higher resistance to random mutation but a greater susceptibility to directed attacks, however, we found that genes that formed hubs were dispensable for growth, stress adaptation and virulence, suggesting that evolution favors non-essential genes as main connectors in cellular networks. PMID:24345035

  2. Mapping and identification of essential gene functions on the X chromosome of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Annette; Schöttler, Petra; Werner, Meike; Beinert, Nicole; Dowe, Gordon; Burkert, Peter; Mourkioti, Foteini; Dentzer, Lore; He, Yuchun; Deak, Peter; Benos, Panayiotis V.; Gatt, Melanie K.; Murphy, Lee; Harris, David; Barrell, Bart; Ferraz, Concepcion; Vidal, Sophie; Brun, Christine; Demaille, Jacques; Cadieu, Edouard; Dreano, Stephane; Gloux, Stéphanie; Lelaure, Valerie; Mottier, Stephanie; Galibert, Francis; Borkova, Dana; Miñana, Belen; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Bolshakov, Slava; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Papagiannakis, George; Spanos, Lefteris; Louis, Christos; Madueño, Encarnación; de Pablos, Beatriz; Modolell, Juan; Bucheton, Alain; Callister, Debbie; Campbell, Lorna; Henderson, Nadine S.; McMillan, Paul J.; Salles, Cathy; Tait, Evelyn; Valenti, Phillipe; Saunders, Robert D.C.; Billaud, Alain; Pachter, Lior; Klapper, Robert; Janning, Wilfried; Glover, David M.; Ashburner, Michael; Bellen, Hugo J.; Jäckle, Herbert; Schäfer, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster genome consists of four chromosomes that contain 165 Mb of DNA, 120 Mb of which are euchromatic. The two Drosophila Genome Projects, in collaboration with Celera Genomics Systems, have sequenced the genome, complementing the previously established physical and genetic maps. In addition, the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project has undertaken large-scale functional analysis based on mutagenesis by transposable P element insertions into autosomes. Here, we present a large-scale P element insertion screen for vital gene functions and a BAC tiling map for the X chromosome. A collection of 501 X-chromosomal P element insertion lines was used to map essential genes cytogenetically and to establish short sequence tags (STSs) linking the insertion sites to the genome. The distribution of the P element integration sites, the identified genes and transcription units as well as the expression patterns of the P-element-tagged enhancers is described and discussed. PMID:11751581

  3. The essential role of NGATHA genes in style and stigma specification is widely conserved across eudicots.

    PubMed

    Fourquin, Chloé; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Carpel development and evolution are central issues for plant biology. The conservation of genetic functions conferring carpel identity has been widely studied in higher plants. However, although genetic networks directing the development of characteristic features of angiosperm carpels such as stigma and style are increasingly known in Arabidopsis thaliana, little information is available on the conservation and diversification of these networks in other species. Here, we have studied the functional conservation of NGATHA transcription factors in widely divergent species within the eudicots. We determined by in situ hybridization the expression patterns of NGATHA orthologs in Eschscholzia californica and Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-mediated inactivation of NGATHA genes in both species was performed and different microscopy techniques were used for phenotypic characterization. We found the expression patterns of EcNGA and NbNGA genes during flower development to be highly similar to each other, as well as to those reported for Arabidopsis NGATHA genes. Inactivation of EcNGA and NbNGA also caused severe defects in style and stigma development in both species. These results demonstrate the widely conserved essential role of NGATHA genes in style and stigma specification and suggest that the angiosperm-specific NGATHA genes were likely recruited to direct a carpel-specific developmental program. PMID:24483275

  4. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans for the Identification of Putative Essential Genes and Therapeutic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Shifa; Tong, Yigang

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. The present treatment options are limited and emergence of treatment resistant isolates represents a serious concern and a need for better therapeutics. Conventional drug discovery methods are time consuming and labor-intensive. Unfortunately, the slow growing nature of M. ulcerans in experimental conditions is also a barrier for drug discovery and development. In contrast, recent advancements in complete genome sequencing, in combination with cheminformatics and computational biology, represent an attractive alternative approach for the identification of therapeutic candidates worthy of experimental research. A computational, comparative genomics workflow was defined for the identification of novel therapeutic candidates against M. ulcerans, with the aim that a selected target should be essential to the pathogen, and have no homology in the human host. Initially, a total of 424 genes were predicted as essential from the M. ulcerans genome, via homology searching of essential genome content from 20 different bacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the most essential genes are associated with carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among these, 236 proteins were identified as non-host and essential, and could serve as potential drug and vaccine candidates. Several drug target prioritization parameters including druggability were also calculated. Enzymes from several pathways are discussed as potential drug targets, including those from cell wall synthesis, thiamine biosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and histidine biosynthesis. It is expected that our data will facilitate selection of M. ulcerans proteins for successful entry into drug design pipelines. PMID:22912793

  5. Gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and essential arterial hypertension in childhood.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Danijel; Bidovec, Matja; Peterlin, Borut

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the contribution of candidate genes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in pathogenesis of essential arterial hypertension (EAH), the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene, the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGT,R) A1166C gene polymorphism in a group of children with EAH were analyzed. Fifty-scven children, aged 8-19 years. with the diagnosis of EAH were included in the association study and were compared with 57 subjects with normal blood pressure (the control group). Arterial hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure measurements higher than 95 age-gender-height percentile of the adopted reference values. A trend was found towards an association between the M235T angiotensinogen gene polymorphism and EAH in childhood in a dominant model (odds ratio (OR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-5.1; P = 0.077), whereas the authors failed to demonstrate an association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism, or the A1166C AGT1R gene polymorphism and EAH in childhood. Additionally, evidence was found of interaction between the angiotensinogen-TT genotype and obesity on the risk of EAH in childhood (OR 19.3; 95% CI 1.1-77.3; P = 0.014). In conclusion, the M235T angiotensinogen gene polymorphism is considered alone as well as in interaction with obesity to be risk factors for EAH in childhood. PMID:12597535

  6. Metazoan Remaining Genes for Essential Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Sequence Conservation and Evolutionary Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Igor R.; Thompson, Julie D.; Ortega, José Miguel; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Essential amino acids (EAA) consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS) and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL) relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals. PMID:25545100

  7. Metazoan remaining genes for essential amino acid biosynthesis: sequence conservation and evolutionary analyses.

    PubMed

    Costa, Igor R; Thompson, Julie D; Ortega, José Miguel; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Essential amino acids (EAA) consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS) and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL) relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals. PMID:25545100

  8. Bcl10 is an essential regulator for A20 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wu; Xue, Liquan; Sun, Yi; Henry, Aline; Battle, Jennifer M; Micault, Mathieu; Morris, Stephan W

    2013-12-01

    A20, a tumor suppressor in several types of lymphomas, has been suggested to be an nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) target gene; conversely, the deubiquitylation activity of A20 is required for inhibition of Bcl10-mediated activation of NF-?B. BCL10, which is activated in a recurrent chromosomal translocation that causes human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, is known to be essential for NF-?B activation in B cells. We report here that Bcl10 upregulates endogenous A20 gene expression in B lymphocytes upon B-cell receptor engagement of anti-IgM. Transient transfection assays in HEK 293 cells indicate that Bcl10 can activate the A20 promoter, which contains NF-?B-binding sites. We also construct a theoretical structure of mouse Bcl10 and analyze the structure by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation. Lastly, we found that marginal zone B cells from BCL10-transgenic mice proliferate more readily than wild-type B cells, whereas, surprisingly, the transgenic follicular B cells from these mice proliferate comparably to wild-type cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Bcl10 is an essential regulator of A20 gene expression and B-cell proliferation mediated by B-cell receptor signaling. PMID:23677497

  9. Discovery of genes essential for heme biosynthesis through large-scale gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Roland; Schultz, Iman J; Pierce, Eric L; Soltis, Kathleen A; Naranuntarat, Amornrat; Ward, Diane M; Baughman, Joshua M; Paradkar, Prasad N; Kingsley, Paul D; Culotta, Valeria C; Kaplan, Jerry; Palis, James; Paw, Barry H; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2009-08-01

    Heme biosynthesis consists of a series of eight enzymatic reactions that originate in mitochondria and continue in the cytosol before returning to mitochondria. Although these core enzymes are well studied, additional mitochondrial transporters and regulatory factors are predicted to be required. To discover such unknown components, we utilized a large-scale computational screen to identify mitochondrial proteins whose transcripts consistently coexpress with the core machinery of heme biosynthesis. We identified SLC25A39, SLC22A4, and TMEM14C, which are putative mitochondrial transporters, as well as C1orf69 and ISCA1, which are iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Targeted knockdowns of all five genes in zebrafish resulted in profound anemia without impacting erythroid lineage specification. Moreover, silencing of Slc25a39 in murine erythroleukemia cells impaired iron incorporation into protoporphyrin IX, and vertebrate Slc25a39 complemented an iron homeostasis defect in the orthologous yeast mtm1Delta deletion mutant. Our results advance the molecular understanding of heme biosynthesis and offer promising candidate genes for inherited anemias. PMID:19656490

  10. Insilico analysis of hypothetical proteins unveils putative metabolic pathways and essential genes in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Ravooru, Nithin; Ganji, Sandesh; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Nagendra, Holenarsipur G

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania, which is active in two broad forms namely, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL or Kala Azar) and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). The disease is most prevalent in the tropical regions and poses a threat to over 70 countries across the globe. About 200 million people are estimated to be at risk of developing VL in the Indian subcontinent, and this refers to around 67% of the global VL disease burden. The Indian state of Bihar alone accounts for 50% of the total VL cases. While no vaccination exists, several pentavalent antimonials and drugs like Paromomycin, Amphotericin, Miltefosine etc. are used in the treatment of Leishmaniasis. However, due to their low efficacies and the resistance developed by the bug to these medications, there is an urgent need to look into newer species specific targets. The proteome information available suggests that among the 7960 proteins in Leishmania donavani, a staggering 65% remains classified as a hypothetical uncharacterized set. In this background, we have attempted to assign probable functions to these hypothetical sequences present in this parasite, to explore their plausible roles as druggable receptors. Thus, putative functions have been defined to 105 hypothetical proteins, which exhibited a GO term correlation and PFAM domain coverage of more than 50% over the query sequence length. Of these, 27 sequences were found to be associated with a reference pathway in KEGG as well. Further, using homology approaches, four pathways viz., Ubiquinone biosynthesis, Fatty acid elongation in Mitochondria, Fatty Acid Elongation in ER and Seleno-cysteine Metabolism have been reconstructed. In addition, 7 new putative essential genes have been mined with the help of Eukaryotic Database of Essential Genes (DEG). All these information related to pathways and essential genes indeed show promise for exploiting the select molecules as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25206363

  11. Insilico analysis of hypothetical proteins unveils putative metabolic pathways and essential genes in Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Ravooru, Nithin; Ganji, Sandesh; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Nagendra, Holenarsipur G.

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania, which is active in two broad forms namely, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL or Kala Azar) and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). The disease is most prevalent in the tropical regions and poses a threat to over 70 countries across the globe. About 200 million people are estimated to be at risk of developing VL in the Indian subcontinent, and this refers to around 67% of the global VL disease burden. The Indian state of Bihar alone accounts for 50% of the total VL cases. While no vaccination exists, several pentavalent antimonials and drugs like Paromomycin, Amphotericin, Miltefosine etc. are used in the treatment of Leishmaniasis. However, due to their low efficacies and the resistance developed by the bug to these medications, there is an urgent need to look into newer species specific targets. The proteome information available suggests that among the 7960 proteins in Leishmania donavani, a staggering 65% remains classified as a hypothetical uncharacterized set. In this background, we have attempted to assign probable functions to these hypothetical sequences present in this parasite, to explore their plausible roles as druggable receptors. Thus, putative functions have been defined to 105 hypothetical proteins, which exhibited a GO term correlation and PFAM domain coverage of more than 50% over the query sequence length. Of these, 27 sequences were found to be associated with a reference pathway in KEGG as well. Further, using homology approaches, four pathways viz., Ubiquinone biosynthesis, Fatty acid elongation in Mitochondria, Fatty Acid Elongation in ER and Seleno-cysteine Metabolism have been reconstructed. In addition, 7 new putative essential genes have been mined with the help of Eukaryotic Database of Essential Genes (DEG). All these information related to pathways and essential genes indeed show promise for exploiting the select molecules as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25206363

  12. Transcriptional Analysis of Essential Genes of the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster by Functional Replacement with the Analogous Salmonella typhimurium Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Cronan, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The genes encoding several key fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes (called the fab cluster) are clustered in the order plsX-fabH-fabD-fabG-acpP-fabF at min 24 of the Escherichia coli chromosome. A difficulty in analysis of the fab cluster by the polar allele duplication approach (Y. Zhang and J. E. Cronan, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 178:3614–3620, 1996) is that several of these genes are essential for the growth of E. coli. We overcame this complication by use of the fab gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium, a close relative of E. coli, to provide functions necessary for growth. The S. typhimurium fab cluster was isolated by complementation of an E. coli fabD mutant and was found to encode proteins with >94% homology to those of E. coli. However, the S. typhimurium sequences cannot recombine with the E. coli sequences required to direct polar allele duplication via homologous recombination. Using this approach, we found that although approximately 60% of the plsX transcripts initiate at promoters located far upstream and include the upstream rpmF ribosomal protein gene, a promoter located upstream of the plsX coding sequence (probably within the upstream gene, rpmF) is sufficient for normal growth. We have also found that the fabG gene is obligatorily cotranscribed with upstream genes. Insertion of a transcription terminator cassette (?-Cm cassette) between the fabD and fabG genes of the E. coli chromosome abolished fabG transcription and blocked cell growth, thus providing the first indication that fabG is an essential gene. Insertion of the ?-Cm cassette between fabH and fabD caused greatly decreased transcription of the fabD and fabG genes and slower cellular growth, indicating that fabD has only a weak promoter(s). PMID:9642179

  13. Ribosome-controlled transcription termination is essential for the production of antibiotic microcin C.

    PubMed

    Zukher, Inna; Novikova, Maria; Tikhonov, Anton; Nesterchuk, Mikhail V; Osterman, Ilya A; Djordjevic, Marko; Sergiev, Petr V; Sharma, Cynthia M; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-10-29

    Microcin C (McC) is a peptide-nucleotide antibiotic produced by Escherichia coli cells harboring a plasmid-borne operon mccABCDE. The heptapeptide MccA is converted into McC by adenylation catalyzed by the MccB enzyme. Since MccA is a substrate for MccB, a mechanism that regulates the MccA/MccB ratio likely exists. Here, we show that transcription from a promoter located upstream of mccA directs the synthesis of two transcripts: a short highly abundant transcript containing the mccA ORF and a longer minor transcript containing mccA and downstream ORFs. The short transcript is generated when RNA polymerase terminates transcription at an intrinsic terminator located in the intergenic region between the mccA and mccB genes. The function of this terminator is strongly attenuated by upstream mcc sequences. Attenuation is relieved and transcription termination is induced when ribosome binds to the mccA ORF. Ribosome binding also makes the mccA RNA exceptionally stable. Together, these two effects-ribosome-induced transcription termination and stabilization of the message-account for very high abundance of the mccA transcript that is essential for McC production. The general scheme appears to be evolutionary conserved as ribosome-induced transcription termination also occurs in a homologous operon from Helicobacter pylori. PMID:25274735

  14. Ribosome-controlled transcription termination is essential for the production of antibiotic microcin C

    PubMed Central

    Zukher, Inna; Novikova, Maria; Tikhonov, Anton; Nesterchuk, Mikhail V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Sergiev, Petr V.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Microcin C (McC) is a peptide–nucleotide antibiotic produced by Escherichia coli cells harboring a plasmid-borne operon mccABCDE. The heptapeptide MccA is converted into McC by adenylation catalyzed by the MccB enzyme. Since MccA is a substrate for MccB, a mechanism that regulates the MccA/MccB ratio likely exists. Here, we show that transcription from a promoter located upstream of mccA directs the synthesis of two transcripts: a short highly abundant transcript containing the mccA ORF and a longer minor transcript containing mccA and downstream ORFs. The short transcript is generated when RNA polymerase terminates transcription at an intrinsic terminator located in the intergenic region between the mccA and mccB genes. The function of this terminator is strongly attenuated by upstream mcc sequences. Attenuation is relieved and transcription termination is induced when ribosome binds to the mccA ORF. Ribosome binding also makes the mccA RNA exceptionally stable. Together, these two effects—ribosome-induced transcription termination and stabilization of the message—account for very high abundance of the mccA transcript that is essential for McC production. The general scheme appears to be evolutionary conserved as ribosome-induced transcription termination also occurs in a homologous operon from Helicobacter pylori. PMID:25274735

  15. Cytomegalovirus UL91 Is Essential for Transcription of Viral True Late (?2) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus-encoded UL91 is a betagamma gene that is essential for viral replication. Here we show that the 111-amino-acid (aa) UL91 protein controls accumulation of true-late (?2) viral transcripts. The primate betaherpesvirus conserved N-terminal region from aa 1 to 71 is sufficient to fully reconstitute function. Evaluation of viral DNA, RNA, and antigen revealed that UL91 protein is expressed with leaky-late (?1) kinetics, localizes in the nucleus without influencing viral DNA synthesis, and must be present from 48 h postinfection to support full expression of late viral transcripts and proteins. In the absence of UL91, viral capsid assembly in the nucleus of infected cells is significantly reduced, and mature, cytoplasmic virions fail to form. Taken together, the evidence shows that UL91 regulates late viral gene expression by a mechanism that is apparently conserved in betaherpesviruses and gammaherpesviruses. PMID:23720731

  16. CpG methylation recruits sequence specific transcription factors essential for tissue specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Vinson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    CG methylation is an epigenetically inherited chemical modification of DNA found in plants and animals. In mammals it is essential for accurate regulation of gene expression and normal development. Mammalian genomes are depleted for the CG dinucleotide, a result of the chemical deamination of methyl-cytosine in CG resulting in TpG. Most CG dinucleotides are methylated, but ~ 15% are unmethylated. Five percent of CGs cluster into ~20,000 regions termed CG islands (CGI) which are generally unmethylated. About half of CGIs are associated with housekeeping genes. In contrast, the gene body, repeats and transposable elements in which CGs are generally methylated. Unraveling the epigenetic machinery operating in normal cells is important for understanding the epigenetic aberrations that are involved in human diseases including cancer. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, it is possible to identify the CG methylation status of all 30 million unique CGs in the human genome, and monitor differences in distinct cell types during differentiation and development. Here we summarize the present understanding of DNA methylation in normal cells and discuss resent observations that CG methylation can have an effect on tissue specific gene expression. We also discuss how aberrant CG methylation can lead to cancer. PMID:22387149

  17. Commercial opportunities for pesticides based on plant essential oils in agriculture, industry and consumer products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray B. Isman; Saber Miresmailli; Cristina Machial

    2011-01-01

    In spite of intensive research on plant natural products and insect-plant chemical interactions over the past three decades,\\u000a only two new types of botanical insecticides have been commercialized with any success in the past 15 years, those based on\\u000a neem seed extracts (azadirachtin), and those based on plant essential oils. Certain plant essential oils, obtained through\\u000a steam distillation and rich in

  18. A Proposed Essential Gene Discovery Pipeline: A Campylobacter jejuni Case Study.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Mark; Gaskin, Duncan J H; Metris, Aline

    2015-01-01

    Genes required for an organism's growth and survival are termed essential and represent potential intervention targets. Following in the footsteps of the genomics era, the "next-gen" genomic era provides vast amounts of genetic information. Sequencing of a representative bacterial pathogen genome has been superseded by sequencing of whole strain collections, whether from environmental or clinical sources (Harris et al., Science 327:469-474, 2010; Lewis et al., J Hosp Infect 75:37-41, 2010; Beres et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4371-4376, 2010; Qi et al., PLoS Pathog 5:e1000580, 2009; He et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7527-7532, 2010; Barrick et al., Nature 461:1243-1247, 2009; Sheppard et al., Mol Ecol 22:1051-1064, 2013). However, the challenge of using this information to gain biological insight remains. Nonetheless, this information, in combination with experimental data from the literature, can serve as the framework for gaining a better understanding of an organism's biology. Generic metabolic pathways have long been known, and a number of websites (e.g., KEGG and BioCyc) attempt to map information from genome annotation to metabolic pathways (Kanehisa et al., Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114, 2010; Karp et al., Nucleic Acids Res 33:6083-6089, 2005). Extending this analysis to incorporate metabolic flux models further allows in silico prediction of potential essential genes. Such efforts are of value, either to highlight novel generic antimicrobials or to seek novel treatments for non-paradigm organisms. Such in silico approaches are attractive as they can highlight pathways and genes that would otherwise only be identified by costly and time-consuming laboratory methods. PMID:25636619

  19. Replication of the LINGO1 gene association with essential tremor in a North American population

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lorraine N; Park, Naeun; Kisselev, Sergey; Rios, Eileen; Lee, Joseph H; Louis, Elan D

    2010-01-01

    A marker in the LINGO1 gene, rs9652490, showing significant genome-wide association with essential tremor (ET), was recently reported in an Icelandic population. To replicate this association in an independent population from North America, we genotyped 15 SNPs in the LINGO1 gene in 257 Caucasian ET cases (‘definite,' ‘probable' or ‘possible') and 265 controls enrolled in an epidemiological study at Columbia University. We observed a marginally significant association with allele G of the marker rs9652490 (P=0.0569, odds ratio (OR)=1.33). However, for ‘definite' or ‘probable' ET, rs9652490 was significantly associated with ET (P=0.03, OR=1.41). Our subsequent analysis of early-onset ET (age at onset <40 years) revealed that three SNPs, rs177008, rs13313467 and rs8028808, were significantly associated with ET (P=0.028, OR=1.52; P=0.0238, OR=1.54; and P=0.0391, OR=1.55, respectively). These three SNPs represent a 2.3?kb haplotype. Finally, a meta-analysis of three published studies confirms allelic association with rs9652490 and two adjacent SNPs. Our study independently confirms that the LINGO1 gene is a risk factor for ET in a Caucasian population in North America, and further shows that those with early-onset ET are likely to be at high risk. PMID:20372186

  20. Intrinsic biocontainment: Multiplex genome safeguards combine transcriptional and recombinational control of essential yeast genes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yizhi; Agmon, Neta; Choi, Woo Jin; Ubide, Alba; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Caravelli, Katrina; Hao, Haiping; Bader, Joel S; Boeke, Jef D

    2015-02-10

    Biocontainment may be required in a wide variety of situations such as work with pathogens, field release applications of engineered organisms, and protection of intellectual properties. Here, we describe the control of growth of the brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using both transcriptional and recombinational "safeguard" control of essential gene function. Practical biocontainment strategies dependent on the presence of small molecules require them to be active at very low concentrations, rendering them inexpensive and difficult to detect. Histone genes were controlled by an inducible promoter and controlled by 30 nM estradiol. The stability of the engineered genes was separately regulated by the expression of a site-specific recombinase. The combined frequency of generating viable derivatives when both systems were active was below detection (<10(-10)), consistent with their orthogonal nature and the individual escape frequencies of <10(-6). Evaluation of escaper mutants suggests strategies for reducing their emergence. Transcript profiling and growth test suggest high fitness of safeguarded strains, an important characteristic for wide acceptance. PMID:25624482

  1. Intrinsic biocontainment: Multiplex genome safeguards combine transcriptional and recombinational control of essential yeast genes

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yizhi; Agmon, Neta; Choi, Woo Jin; Ubide, Alba; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Caravelli, Katrina; Hao, Haiping; Bader, Joel S.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2015-01-01

    Biocontainment may be required in a wide variety of situations such as work with pathogens, field release applications of engineered organisms, and protection of intellectual properties. Here, we describe the control of growth of the brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using both transcriptional and recombinational “safeguard” control of essential gene function. Practical biocontainment strategies dependent on the presence of small molecules require them to be active at very low concentrations, rendering them inexpensive and difficult to detect. Histone genes were controlled by an inducible promoter and controlled by 30 nM estradiol. The stability of the engineered genes was separately regulated by the expression of a site-specific recombinase. The combined frequency of generating viable derivatives when both systems were active was below detection (<10?10), consistent with their orthogonal nature and the individual escape frequencies of <10?6. Evaluation of escaper mutants suggests strategies for reducing their emergence. Transcript profiling and growth test suggest high fitness of safeguarded strains, an important characteristic for wide acceptance. PMID:25624482

  2. Gene PA2449 is essential for glycine metabolism and pyocyanin biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Benjamin R; Thornton, William; Dornan, Mark H; Villegas-Peñaranda, Luis Roberto; Boddy, Christopher N; Nomura, Christopher T

    2013-05-01

    Many pseudomonads produce redox active compounds called phenazines that function in a variety of biological processes. Phenazines are well known for their toxicity against non-phenazine-producing organisms, which allows them to serve as crucial biocontrol agents and virulence factors during infection. As for other secondary metabolites, conditions of nutritional stress or limitation stimulate the production of phenazines, but little is known of the molecular details underlying this phenomenon. Using a combination of microarray and metabolite analyses, we demonstrate that the assimilation of glycine as a carbon source and the biosynthesis of pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 are both dependent on the PA2449 gene. The inactivation of the PA2449 gene was found to influence the transcription of a core set of genes encoding a glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and serine dehydratase. PA2449 also affected the transcription of several genes that are integral in cell signaling and pyocyanin biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. This study sheds light on the unexpected relationship between the utilization of an unfavorable carbon source and the production of pyocyanin. PA2449 is conserved among pseudomonads and might be universally involved in the assimilation of glycine among this metabolically diverse group of bacteria. PMID:23457254

  3. Gene PA2449 Is Essential for Glycine Metabolism and Pyocyanin Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Thornton, William; Dornan, Mark H.; Villegas-Peñaranda, Luis Roberto; Boddy, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Many pseudomonads produce redox active compounds called phenazines that function in a variety of biological processes. Phenazines are well known for their toxicity against non-phenazine-producing organisms, which allows them to serve as crucial biocontrol agents and virulence factors during infection. As for other secondary metabolites, conditions of nutritional stress or limitation stimulate the production of phenazines, but little is known of the molecular details underlying this phenomenon. Using a combination of microarray and metabolite analyses, we demonstrate that the assimilation of glycine as a carbon source and the biosynthesis of pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 are both dependent on the PA2449 gene. The inactivation of the PA2449 gene was found to influence the transcription of a core set of genes encoding a glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and serine dehydratase. PA2449 also affected the transcription of several genes that are integral in cell signaling and pyocyanin biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. This study sheds light on the unexpected relationship between the utilization of an unfavorable carbon source and the production of pyocyanin. PA2449 is conserved among pseudomonads and might be universally involved in the assimilation of glycine among this metabolically diverse group of bacteria. PMID:23457254

  4. Mining Predicted Essential Genes of Brugia malayi for Nematode Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Kshitiz; Foster, Jeremy M.; Novelli, Jacopo F.; Zhang, Yinhua; Wang, Shiliang; Spiro, David; Ghedin, Elodie; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression. PMID:18000556

  5. Cloning of the RNA8 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, detection of the RNA8 protein, and demonstration that it is essential for nuclear pre-mRNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.P.; Lossky, M.; Beggs, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that bear the temperature-sensitive mutation rna8-1 are defective in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing at the restrictive temperature (36/sup 0/C), suggesting that the RNA8 gene encodes a component of the splicing machinery. The RNA8 gene was cloned by complementation of the temperature-sensitive growth defect of an rna8-1 mutant strain. Integrative transformation and gene disruption experiments confirmed the identify of the cloned DNA and demonstrated that the RNA8 gene encodes an essential function. The RNA8 gene was shown to be represented once per S. cerevisia haploid genome and to encode a low-abundance transcript of approximately 7.4 kilobases. By using antisera raised against BETA-galactosidase-RNA8 fusion proteins, the RNA8 gene product was identified in S. cerevisiae cell extracts as a low-abundance protein of approximately 260 kilodaltons. Immunodepletion of the RNA8 protein specifically abolished the activity of S. cerevisia in vitro splicing extract, confirming that RNA8 plays an essential role in splicing.

  6. Effects of selected essential oils on the growth and production of ochratoxin A by Penicillium verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Jeršek, Barbara; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Skrt, Mihaela; Gavari?, Neda; Božin, Biljana; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), and pine (Abies alba Mill.) needles and cones, and their active substances thymol, carvacrol, menthol, and anisaldehyde were tested for antifungal activity against Penicillium verrucosum. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were achieved for essential oil of oregano, followed by carvacrol, thymol, and menthol. These antifungal components were further investigated, as the main aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of natural antifungals on ochratoxin A production. During 21 days of exposure, the growth of P. verrucosum, and subsequently the production of ochratoxin A, was fully inhibited by thymol at ½ MIC (0.0625 mg mL-1), but menthol at ¼ and ½ MIC (0.1875 and 3750 mg mL-1) showed no growth inhibition. After 21 days of incubation, the greatest inhibitory effect on ochratoxin production (inhibition was 96.9 %) was also achieved with thymol at ¼ MIC (0.0313 mg mL-1). Essential oil of oregano (¼ MIC, 0.2930 ?L mL-1) and carvacrol (½ MIC, 0.1953 ?L mL-1) stimulate production of ochratoxin A at 13.9 % to 28.8 %, respectively. The observed antifungal effects depended on the agent, the concentration used, and the time of interaction between the agent and P. verrucosum. Our results indicate the possibility of using oregano essential oil as a substitute for artificial preservatives in certain foods, but further research is needed. PMID:24945417

  7. [Immune response genes products in human physiology].

    PubMed

    Khaitov, R M; Alekseev, L P

    2012-09-01

    Current data on physiological role of human immune response genes' proteomic products (antigens) are discussed. The antigens are specified by a very high level of diversity that mediates a wide specter ofphysiological functions. They actually provide integrity and biological stability of human as species. These data reveal new ideas on many pathological processes as well as drafts new approaches for prophylaxis and treatment. PMID:23293809

  8. Regulation of photoreceptor gene expression by the retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I.; Lou, Chih-Hong; Nekkalapudi, Srivamsi; Kelly, Lisa E.; Sater, Amy K.; El-Hodiri, Heithem M.

    2010-01-01

    The retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product is essential for eye development. However little is known about its molecular function. It has been demonstrated that Rx binds to photoreceptor conserved element (PCE-1), a highly conserved element found in the promoter region of photoreceptor-specific genes such as rhodopsin and red cone opsin. We verify that Rx is co-expressed with rhodopsin and red cone opsin in maturing photoreceptors and demonstrate that Rx binds to the rhodopsin and red cone opsin promoters in vivo. We also find that Rx can cooperate with the Xenopus analogs of Crx and Nrl, otx5b and XLMaf (respectively), to activate a Xenopus opsin promoter-dependent reporter. Finally, we demonstrate that reduction of Rx expression in tadpoles results in decreases in expression of several PCE-1 containing photoreceptor genes, abnormal photoreceptor morphology, and impaired vision. Our data suggests that Rx, in combination with other transcription factors, is necessary for normal photoreceptor gene expression, maintenance, and function. This establishes a direct role for Rx in regulation of genes expressed in a differentiated cell type. PMID:20060393

  9. Tightly centromere-linked gene (SPO15) essential for meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, E; Carbon, J; Bloom, K

    1986-01-01

    We used DNA fragments from the centromere regions of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosomes III and XI to examine the transcriptional activity within this chromosomal domain. DNA transcripts were found 200 to 300 base pairs from the 250-base-pair centromere core and lie within an ordered chromatin array. No transcripts were detected from the functional centromere region. We examined the cellular function of one of these tightly centromere-linked transcripts. (CEN11)L, by disrupting the coding sequences in vivo and analyzing the phenotype of the mutant yeast cell. Diploids heterozygous for the (CEN11)L disruption sporulated at wild-type levels, and the absence of the (CEN11)L gene product had no effect on the viability or mitotic growth of haploid cells. Diploids homozygous for the (CEN11)L disruption were unable to sporulate when induced by the appropriate nutritional cues. The mutant cells were competent for intragenic recombination and appeared to be blocked at the mononucleate stage. The temporal ordering of (CEN11)L function with respect to the sporulation mutant spo13 suggests that the (CEN11)L gene product may be required at both the first and second meiotic cell divisions. This new sporulation gene has been termed SPO15. Images PMID:3537684

  10. Genome-Wide Saturation Mutagenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 Predicts Essential Genes and Novel Targets for Antimicrobial Development

    PubMed Central

    Moule, Madeleine G.; Hemsley, Claudia M.; Seet, Qihui; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Lim, Jiali; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Clark, Taane G.; Tan, Patrick B. O.; Titball, Richard W.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease for which there is no vaccine. B. pseudomallei is listed as a tier 1 select agent, and as current therapeutic options are limited due to its natural resistance to most antibiotics, the development of new antimicrobial therapies is imperative. To identify drug targets and better understand the complex B. pseudomallei genome, we sought a genome-wide approach to identify lethal gene targets. As B. pseudomallei has an unusually large genome spread over two chromosomes, an extensive screen was required to achieve a comprehensive analysis. Here we describe transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) of a library of over 106 transposon insertion mutants, which provides the level of genome saturation required to identify essential genes. Using this technique, we have identified a set of 505 genes that are predicted to be essential in B. pseudomallei K96243. To validate our screen, three genes predicted to be essential, pyrH, accA, and sodB, and a gene predicted to be nonessential, bpss0370, were independently investigated through the generation of conditional mutants. The conditional mutants confirmed the TraDIS predictions, showing that we have generated a list of genes predicted to be essential and demonstrating that this technique can be used to analyze complex genomes and thus be more widely applied. PMID:24520057

  11. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  12. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Plants Against Three Stored-Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 µl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  13. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5?days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22?days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5?days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4?>?O1?>?O6?>?O5?>?O2?>?O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5?days of treatment and decreased after 22?days. PMID:23409841

  14. The gene for a tRNA modifying enzyme, m5U54-methyltransferase, is essential for viability in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, B C; Gustafsson, C; Berg, D E; Björk, G R

    1992-01-01

    One of the most abundant modified nucleosides in tRNA is 5-methyluridine (m5U or rT, ribothymidine). The enzyme tRNA(m5U54)methyltransferase [S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (uracil-5-)-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.35] (the trmA gene product) catalyzes S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of the uracil in position 54 (T psi C loop) in all Escherichia coli tRNAs to form m5U. Hitherto no modified nucleoside in tRNA has been shown to be essential for growth, although their importance in fine tuning the function of tRNA is well established. In this paper, we show that the structural gene trmA is essential for viability, although the known catalytic activity of the tRNA(m5U54)methyltransferase is not. Images PMID:1373891

  15. E-Selectin Gene Polymorphisms and Essential Hypertension in Asian Population: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Gaojun; Zhang, Bifeng; Weng, Weijin; Shi, Ganwei; Xue, Sheliang; Song, Yanbin; Ma, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies have shown that E-selectin gene polymorphisms (A561C and C1839T) may be associated with essential hypertension (EH), but the results are conflicting in different ethnic populations. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate a more authentic association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and the risk of EH. Methods We searched the relevant studies for the present meta-analysis from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the strength of the association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and EH susceptibility. The pooled ORs were performed for dominant model, allelic model and recessive model. The publication bias was examined by Begg’s funnel plots and Egger’s test. Results A total of eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies came from Asians. Ten studies (12 cohorts) evaluated the A561C polymorphism and EH risk, including 2,813 cases and 2,817 controls. The pooled OR was 2.280 (95%CI: 1.893–2.748, P<0.001) in dominant model, 5.284 (95%CI: 2.679–10.420, P<0.001) in recessive model and 2.359 (95%CI: 1.981–2.808, P?=?0.001) in allelic model. Four studies (six cohorts) evaluated C1839T polymorphism and EH risk, including 1,700 cases and 1,681 controls. The pooled OR was 0.785 (95%CI: 0.627–0.983, P?=?0.035) in dominant model, 1.250 (95%CI: 0.336–4.652, P?=?0.739) in recessive model and 0.805 (95%CI: 0.649–0.999, P?=?0.049) in allelic model. Conclusion The current meta-analysis concludes that the C allele of E-selectin A561C gene polymorphism might increase the EH risk in Asian population, whereas the T allele of E-selectin C1839T gene polymorphism might decrease the EH risk. PMID:25003340

  16. Getting essential health products to their end users: subsidize, but how much?

    PubMed

    Dupas, Pascaline

    2014-09-12

    Although coverage rates and health outcomes are improving, many poor people around the world still do not benefit from essential health products. An estimated two-thirds of child deaths could be prevented with increased coverage of products such as vaccines, point-of-use water treatment, iron fortification, and insecticide-treated bednets. What limits the flow of products from the producer's laboratory bench to the end users, and what can be done about it? Recent empirical research suggests a crucial role for heavy subsidies. PMID:25214612

  17. Isocitrate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase are essential enzymes for riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Kanamasa; Satoshi Tajima; Enoch Y. Park

    2007-01-01

    For this study, we hypothesized that mitochondrial NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (ICDH1) and isocitrate lyase (ICL1) were important enzymes for riboflavin synthesis\\u000a in the fungusAshbya gossypii. Here, the genes encoding ICDH1 and ICL1 were disrupted in order to analyze the enzymes' functions on riboflavin production\\u000a by the fungus. The riboflavin production resulting from these disruptants was markedly decreased compared to

  18. Gender Specific Association of RAS Gene Polymorphism with Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhanachandra Singh, Kh.; Jajodia, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet; Kukreti, Ritushree; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms have been studied as candidate risk factors for hypertension with inconsistent results, possibly due to heterogeneity among various genetic and environmental factors. A case-control association study was conducted to investigate a possible involvement of polymorphisms of three RAS genes: AGT M235T (rs699), ACE I/D (rs4340) and G2350A (rs4343), and AGTR1 A1166C (rs5186) in essential hypertensive patients. A total of 211 cases and 211 controls were recruited for this study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP method. The genotype and allele distribution of the M235T variant differed significantly in hypertensives and normotensives (OR-CI = 2.62 (1.24–5.76), P = 0.006; OR-CI = 0.699 (0.518–0.943), P = 0.018), respectively. When the samples were segregated based on sex, the 235TT genotype and T allele were predominant in the female patients (OR-CI = 5.68 (1.60-25.10), P = 0.002; OR-CI = 0.522 (0.330–0.826), P = 0.005) as compare to the male patients (OR-CI = 1.54 (1.24–5.76), P = 0.34; OR-CI = 0.874 (0.330–0.826), P = 0.506), respectively. For ACE DD variant, we found overrepresentation of “I”-allele (homozygous II and heterozygous ID) in unaffected males which suggest its protective role in studied population (OR-CI = 0.401 (0.224–0.718); P = 0.0009). The M235T variant of the AGT is significantly associated with female hypertensives and ACE DD variant could be a risk allele for essential hypertension in south India. PMID:24860821

  19. Differential expression of JAK2 and Src kinase genes in response to hydroxyurea treatment in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enriqueta Albizua; Miguel Gallardo; Santiago Barrio; Inmaculada Rapado; Ana Jimenez; Rosa Ayala; Daniel Rueda; Beatriz Sanchez-Espiridion; Eulalia Puigdecanet; Blanca Espinet; Lourdes Florensa; Carles Besses; Joaquin Martinez-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differential gene expression profile of JAK2V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients, with and without response to hydroxyurea (HU) treatment. Twenty-one\\u000a polycythemia vera, 28 essential thrombocythemia, eight secondary erythrocytosis, and 30 controls were studied. Thirty-four\\u000a genes were overexpressed in patients who did not respond to HU. Of these, some participate in proliferative pathways: MAPK, AKT, Src kinase (SFK),

  20. Cell Growth and lambda Phage Development Controlled by the Same Essential Escherichia coli Gene, ftsH\\/hflB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Herman; Teru Ogura; Toshifumi Tomoyasu; Sota Hiraga; Yoshinori Akiyama; Koreaki Ito; Rene Thomas; Richard D'Ari; Philippe Bouloc

    1993-01-01

    The lambda phage choice between lysis and lysogeny is influenced by certain host functions in Escherichia coli. We found that the frequency of lambda lysogenization is markedly increased in the ftsH1 temperature-sensitive mutant. The ftsH gene, previously shown to code for an essential inner membrane protein with putative ATPase activity, is identical to hflB, a gene involved in the stability

  1. Methylation silencing of ULK2, an autophagy gene, is essential for astrocyte transformation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sudhanshu; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Patil, Vikas; Shwetha, Shivayogi D; Hegde, Alangar S; Chandramouli, Bangalore A; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Santosh, Vani; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2014-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and shows very poor prognosis. Here, using genome-wide methylation analysis, we show that G-CIMP+ and G-CIMP-subtypes enrich distinct classes of biological processes. One of the hypermethylated genes in GBM, ULK2, an upstream autophagy inducer, was found to be down-regulated in GBM. Promoter hypermethylation of ULK2 was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. GBM and glioma cell lines had low levels of ULK2 transcripts, which could be reversed upon methylation inhibitor treatment. ULK2 promoter methylation and transcript levels showed significant negative correlation. Ectopic overexpression of ULK2-induced autophagy, which further enhanced upon nutrient starvation or temozolomide chemotherapy. ULK2 also inhibited the growth of glioma cells, which required autophagy induction as kinase mutant of ULK2 failed to induce autophagy and inhibit growth. Furthermore, ULK2 induced autophagy and inhibited growth in Ras-transformed immortalized Baby Mouse Kidney (iBMK) ATG5(+/+) but not in autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) cells. Growth inhibition due to ULK2 induced high levels of autophagy under starvation or chemotherapy utilized apoptotic cell death but not at low levels of autophagy. Growth inhibition by ULK2 also appears to involve catalase degradation and reactive oxygen species generation. ULK2 overexpression inhibited anchorage independent growth, inhibited astrocyte transformation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Of all autophagy genes, we found ULK2 and its homologue ULK1 were only down-regulated in all grades of glioma. Thus these results altogether suggest that inhibition of autophagy by ULK1/2 down-regulation is essential for glioma development. PMID:24923441

  2. The boule gene is essential for spermatogenesis of haploid insect male.

    PubMed

    Sekiné, Kazuki; Furusawa, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu

    2015-03-01

    boule (bol), a member of the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family plays an important role in meiosis (reductional maturation divisions) in a spermatogenesis-specific manner in animals by regulating translation of the downstream cell division cycle 25 (cdc25) phosphatase mRNA. Orthologues of bol are conserved among animals and found in the genomes of hymenopteran insects, in which the general mode of reproduction is haplodiploidy: female is diploid and male is haploid. In this mode of reproduction, haploid males produce haploid sperm through non-reductional maturation divisions. The question thus arises of whether the bol gene actually functions during spermatogenesis in these haploid males. In this study, we identified two transcriptional isoforms of bol orthologue (Ar bol and Ar bol-2), and one cdc25 orthologue (Ar cdc25) in the hymenopteran sawfly, Athalia rosae. Ar bol was expressed exclusively in the testis when maturation divisions occurred, while Ar bol-2 was expressed ubiquitously. Knockdown of all bol transcripts (both Ar bol and Ar bol-2) resulted in a lack of mature sperm, whereas males with sole knockdown of Ar bol-2 were able to produce a small number of mature sperm. The cell cycle was arrested before maturation divisions in the testis in which all bol transcripts were knocked down, as revealed by flow cytometry. Although no mature sperm was produced, sperm elongation was partially observed when Ar cdc25 alone was knocked down. These results indicate that Ar bol is essential for the entry and progression of maturation divisions and sperm differentiation in haploid males. PMID:25592223

  3. The Essential Amino Acid Content of Cottonseed, Peanut and Soybean Products.

    E-print Network

    Hale, Fred; Kuiken, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Alfred); Lyman, Carl M. (Carl Morris)

    1947-01-01

    7 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATlON R. D. LEWIS, Director College Station, Texaa BULLETIN NO. 692 SEPTEMBER 1947 The Essential Amino Acid Content of Cottonseed, Peanut and Soybean Products CARL M. LYMAN, KENNETH KUIKEN and FRED HALE... With the technical assistance of Shirley Dieterich, Marjory Bradford and Mary Trant AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRIST, President - [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Preface . - - -- - . meals seed, Ili5tid hmino acids...

  4. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Boecklemann; Grant N. Woronuk; Lukman Sarker; Soheil S. Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes)\\u000a production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary ‘genomics toolbox’ for this species, we constructed\\u000a two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence\\u000a tags (ESTs).

  5. [Association of cystathionine ?-synthase gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension in ethnic Uyghurs and Hans from Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hong; Ouyang, Juyan; Chen, Fang; Xu, Meng

    2015-02-10

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the cystathione beta synthase (CBS) gene T833C, G919A, 844ins68 polymorphisms and plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in ethnic Uyghur and Han patients with essential hypertension (EH) in Xinjiang. METHODS Four hundred twenty nine cases including 211 Uyghur and 218 Han EH patients were recruited, whilst 410 healthy individuals including 210 Uyghurs and 200 Hans were used as the controls. Amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was adopted to analyze the CBS gene polymorphisms including T833C, G919A and 844ins68. Enzymoimmunoassay was applied to determine the plasma level of Hcy. Chemiluminescence was applied to determine the plasma folic acid and vitamin B12. RESULTS Compared with the controls, the plasma Hcy level was significantly higher in the EH group in both ethnic Uyghurs and Hans (P < 0.05). Plasma levels of Hcy in T833C, G919A genotypes (for both heterozygotes and homozygotes) were statistically higher than wild types (P < 0.05). A significant difference was detected in G919A polymorphism between the EH patients and controls in both Uyghur and [CM(144.5mm]Han ethnics (Uyghur: x2=10.264, P < 0.01; Han: x2=23.075, P < 0.01), and in T833C between the EH patients and controls in ethnic Uyghurs (x2=40.254, P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR=1.151, P=0.047, 95%CI=1.002-1.323), T833C (CC) (OR=1.078, P=0.003, 95%CI=1.043-1.114), obesity (OR=1.284, P=0.021, 95%CI=1.038-1.590), hyperhomocysteine (OR=3.296, P=0.016, 95%CI=1.244-8.733) were independent risk factors for EH among ethnic Uygurs, while age (OR=1.162, P=0.007, 95%CI=1.042-1.297), obesity (OR=3.501, P=0.003, 95%CI=1.521-8.060), hyperhomocysteine (OR=1.046, P=0.031, 95%CI=1.011-1.459) were independent risk factors for EH in ethnic Hans after adjusting for confounding factors. CONCLUSION Plasma level of Hcy is associated with ethnic Uyghur and Han patients with EH in Xinjiang. CBS gene T833C CC genotype may be associated with the EH among Uyghur ethnics. PMID:25636110

  6. Transposon Mutagenesis Identified Chromosomal and Plasmid Genes Essential for Adaptation of the Marine Bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae to Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Matthias; Laaß, Sebastian; Burghartz, Melanie; Petersen, Jörn; Koßmehl, Sebastian; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Wittmann, Christoph; Jahn, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic growth and survival are integral parts of the life cycle of many marine bacteria. To identify genes essential for the anoxic life of Dinoroseobacter shibae, a transposon library was screened for strains impaired in anaerobic denitrifying growth. Transposon insertions in 35 chromosomal and 18 plasmid genes were detected. The essential contribution of plasmid genes to anaerobic growth was confirmed with plasmid-cured D. shibae strains. A combined transcriptome and proteome approach identified oxygen tension-regulated genes. Transposon insertion sites of a total of 1,527 mutants without an anaerobic growth phenotype were determined to identify anaerobically induced but not essential genes. A surprisingly small overlap of only three genes (napA, phaA, and the Na+/Pi antiporter gene Dshi_0543) between anaerobically essential and induced genes was found. Interestingly, transposon mutations in genes involved in dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction (napA, nasA) and corresponding cofactor biosynthesis (genomic moaB, moeB, and dsbC and plasmid-carried dsbD and ccmH) were found to cause anaerobic growth defects. In contrast, mutation of anaerobically induced genes encoding proteins required for the later denitrification steps (nirS, nirJ, nosD), dimethyl sulfoxide reduction (dmsA1), and fermentation (pdhB1, arcA, aceE, pta, acs) did not result in decreased anaerobic growth under the conditions tested. Additional essential components (ferredoxin, cccA) of the anaerobic electron transfer chain and central metabolism (pdhB) were identified. Another surprise was the importance of sodium gradient-dependent membrane processes and genomic rearrangements via viruses, transposons, and insertion sequence elements for anaerobic growth. These processes and the observed contributions of cell envelope restructuring (lysM, mipA, fadK), C4-dicarboxylate transport (dctM1, dctM3), and protease functions to anaerobic growth require further investigation to unravel the novel underlying adaptation strategies. PMID:23974024

  7. The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, T M; Pettiford, S M; Green, P L

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-mediated transformation and induction of malignancy is unknown; however, several studies have implicated the viral gene product, Tax. Conclusive evidence for the role of Tax in the HTLV malignant process has been impeded by the inability to mutate tax in the context of an infectious virus and dissociate viral replication from cellular transformation. To circumvent this problem we constructed a mutant of HTLV type 2 (HTLV-2) that replicates by a Tax-independent mechanism. For these studies, the Tax response element in the viral long terminal repeat was replaced with the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter enhancer (C-enh). Transcription of the chimeric HTLV-2 (HTLVC-enh) was efficiently directed by this heterologous promoter. Also, the chimeric virus transformed primary human T lymphocytes with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type HTLV-2. A tax-knockout virus, termed HTLVC-enhDeltaTax, was constructed to directly assess the importance of Tax in cellular transformation. Transfection and infection studies indicated that HTLVC-enhDeltaTax was replication competent; however, HTLVC-enhDeltaTax failed to transform primary human T lymphocytes. We conclude that Tax is essential for HTLV-mediated transformation of human T lymphocytes. Furthermore, this chimeric HTLV, that replicates in the absence of Tax, should facilitate studies to determine the precise mechanism of T-lymphocyte transformation by HTLV. PMID:8764028

  8. Gene targeting RhoA reveals its essential role in coordinating mitochondrial function and thymocyte development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangmin; Konstantinidis, Diamantis G; Yang, Jun-Qi; Mizukawa, Benjamin; Kalim, Khalid; Lang, Richard A; Kalfa, Theodosia A; Zheng, Yi; Guo, Fukun

    2014-12-15

    Thymocyte development is regulated by complex signaling pathways. How these signaling cascades are coordinated remains elusive. RhoA of the Rho family small GTPases plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. Nonetheless, the physiological function of RhoA in thymocyte development is not clear. By characterizing a conditional gene targeting mouse model bearing T cell deletion of RhoA, we show that RhoA critically regulates thymocyte development by coordinating multiple developmental events. RhoA gene disruption caused a strong developmental block at the pre-TCR checkpoint and during positive selection. Ablation of RhoA led to reduced DNA synthesis in CD4(-)CD8(-), CD4(+)CD8(-), and CD4(-)CD8(+) thymocytes but not in CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes. Instead, RhoA-deficient CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes showed an impaired mitosis. Furthermore, we found that abrogation of RhoA led to an increased apoptosis in all thymocyte subpopulations. Importantly, we show that the increased apoptosis was resulted from reduced pre-TCR expression and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be because of an enhanced mitochondrial function, as manifested by increased oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial biogenesis in RhoA-deficient thymocytes. Restoration of pre-TCR expression or treatment of RhoA-deficient mice with a ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine partially restored thymocyte development. These results suggest that RhoA is required for thymocyte development and indicate, to our knowledge, for the first time that fine-tuning of ROS production by RhoA, through a delicate control of metabolic circuit, may contribute to thymopoiesis. PMID:25398325

  9. Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United States, the use of existing fire perimeter data bases from various state and federal agencies as reference data is economical and enables the validation of different time periods and locations. Additionally, the incorporation of existing satellite-derived reference data used to validate other coarser resolution global burned area data sets such as the MCD45 (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, 500 m spatial resolution), GlobCarbon (Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor, 1 km spatial resolution), and L3JRC (SPOT-VEGETATION sensor, 1 km spatial resolution) is also being pursued. The validation the approach developed for the USGS ECV products and the challenges of using the vector polygons and raster layers from these reference datasets will be reported in the presentation.

  10. The extreme carboxyl terminus of the equine herpesvirus 1 homolog of herpes simplex virus VP16 is essential for immediate-early gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, G D

    1994-01-01

    Gene 12 of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), the homolog of herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP16 (alpha TIF, Vmw65), was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector by PCR and used in transactivation studies of both the EHV-1 and HSV-1 IE1 promoters. Results demonstrated that the product of gene 12 is a potent transactivator of immediate-early gene expression of both viruses, which requires sequences in the upstream HSV-1 promoter for activity. Mutational analysis of the gene 12 open reading frame indicated that removal of the C-terminal 7 amino acids, which contain a short region of homology with the extreme C terminus of VP16, inactivated the protein. Within this region, only a single methionine residue appeared to be essential for activity, implying that gene 12 may have a modular array of organization similar to that of VP16. However, fusion of the gene 12 C terminus to a truncated form of VP16, which contained the complex formation domain, did not restore activity to the HSV-1 protein. These data demonstrate that the EHV-1 immediate-early transactivator may not be functionally colinear with VP16, with transactivation requiring both the C terminus and another region(s) present within the N-terminal portion. Images PMID:8035487

  11. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus growth and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Hua, Huijuan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150-250 µL/L with fumigation and 250-500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ? 100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ? 75 µg/mL and ? 150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn't fully inhibit OTA production at ? 200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  12. Efficacy of Cuminum cyminum essential oil on FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides strains

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Mokhtari, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) essential oil on the growth and FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides) strains isolated from maize. Materials and Methods: All fungal strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slopes at 30°C for 7 days. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. One set of primers was F. verticillioides species specific, which selectively amplified the intergenic space region of rDNA. The other set of primers was specific to FUM1 gene region of fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides. FUM1 transcript levels were quantified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of C. cyminum oil against F. verticillioides strains varied from 0.195 to 0.781 µl.ml-1 (mean MIC value: 0.461 µl.ml-1) indicating 54.5% of the fungal strains inhibited at 0.390 µl.ml-1. PCR analysis of FUM1 gene expression revealed that DNA fragment of 183 bp was amplified in all the isolates of F. verticillioides before treatment with C. cyminum essential oil. Based on RT-PCR analyses, reduction in the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes was significant only for FUM1 gene (p<0.05), while no effect was observed on ITS gene. Conclusions: This study showed that all F. verticillioides isolates were susceptible to C. cyminum essential oil, indicating a significant reduction in the growth of fungal isolates. In addition, this oil completely inhibited the expression of FUM1 gene in concentrations dose-dependently.

  13. A high-accuracy consensus map of yeast protein complexes reveals modular nature of gene essentiality

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G Traver; Lee, Insuk; Marcotte, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Background Identifying all protein complexes in an organism is a major goal of systems biology. In the past 18 months, the results of two genome-scale tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) assays in yeast have been published, along with corresponding complex maps. For most complexes, the published data sets were surprisingly uncorrelated. It is therefore useful to consider the raw data from each study and generate an accurate complex map from a high-confidence data set that integrates the results of these and earlier assays. Results Using an unsupervised probabilistic scoring scheme, we assigned a confidence score to each interaction in the matrix-model interpretation of the large-scale yeast mass-spectrometry data sets. The scoring metric proved more accurate than the filtering schemes used in the original data sets. We then took a high-confidence subset of these interactions and derived a set of complexes using MCL. The complexes show high correlation with existing annotations. Hierarchical organization of some protein complexes is evident from inter-complex interactions. Conclusion We demonstrate that our scoring method can generate an integrated high-confidence subset of observed matrix-model interactions, which we subsequently used to derive an accurate map of yeast complexes. Our results indicate that essentiality is a product of the protein complex rather than the individual protein, and that we have achieved near saturation of the yeast high-abundance, rich-media-expressed "complex-ome." PMID:17605818

  14. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24?mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10?mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  15. The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF78 is essential for budded virus production and general occlusion body formation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xue Ying; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Joo Hyun; Liu, Qin; Kim, Song Eun; An, Saes Byeol; Lee, Seok Hee; Woo, Soo Dong; Jin, Byung Rae; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-08-01

    ORF78 (ac78) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a baculovirus core gene of unknown function. To determine the role of ac78 in the baculovirus life cycle, an AcMNPV mutant with ac78 deleted, Ac78KO, was constructed. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that ac78 is a late gene in the viral life cycle. After transfection into Spodoptera frugiperda cells, Ac78KO produced a single-cell infection phenotype, indicating that no infectious budded viruses (BVs) were produced. The defect in BV production was also confirmed by both viral titration and Western blotting. However, viral DNA replication was unaffected, and occlusion bodies were formed. An analysis of BVs and occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) revealed that AC78 is associated with both forms of the virions and is an envelope structural protein. Electron microscopy revealed that AC78 also plays an important role in the embedding of ODV into the occlusion body. The results of this study demonstrate that AC78 is a late virion-associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle. PMID:23698311

  16. The Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF78 Is Essential for Budded Virus Production and General Occlusion Body Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xue Ying; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Joo Hyun; Liu, Qin; Kim, Song Eun; An, Saes Byeol; Lee, Seok Hee; Woo, Soo Dong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2013-01-01

    ORF78 (ac78) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a baculovirus core gene of unknown function. To determine the role of ac78 in the baculovirus life cycle, an AcMNPV mutant with ac78 deleted, Ac78KO, was constructed. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that ac78 is a late gene in the viral life cycle. After transfection into Spodoptera frugiperda cells, Ac78KO produced a single-cell infection phenotype, indicating that no infectious budded viruses (BVs) were produced. The defect in BV production was also confirmed by both viral titration and Western blotting. However, viral DNA replication was unaffected, and occlusion bodies were formed. An analysis of BVs and occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) revealed that AC78 is associated with both forms of the virions and is an envelope structural protein. Electron microscopy revealed that AC78 also plays an important role in the embedding of ODV into the occlusion body. The results of this study demonstrate that AC78 is a late virion-associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle. PMID:23698311

  17. ROS production is essential for the apoptotic function of E2F1 in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3? blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator. PMID:23251571

  18. ROS Production Is Essential for the Apoptotic Function of E2F1 in Pheochromocytoma and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3? blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator. PMID:23251571

  19. The Tumor Suppressor Gene, RASSF1A, Is Essential for Protection against Inflammation -Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fiteih, Yahya; Law, Jennifer; Volodko, Natalia; Mohamed, Anwar; El-Kadi, Ayman O. S.; Liu, Lei; Odenbach, Jeff; Thiesen, Aducio; Onyskiw, Christina; Ghazaleh, Haya Abu; Park, Jikyoung; Lee, Sean Bong; Yu, Victor C.; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Alexander, R. Todd; Wine, Eytan; Baksh, Shairaz

    2013-01-01

    Ras association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) is a tumor suppressor gene silenced in cancer. Here we report that RASSF1A is a novel regulator of intestinal inflammation as Rassf1a+/?, Rassf1a?/? and an intestinal epithelial cell specific knockout mouse (Rassf1a IEC-KO) rapidly became sick following dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) administration, a chemical inducer of colitis. Rassf1a knockout mice displayed clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease including: increased intestinal permeability, enhanced cytokine/chemokine production, elevated nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF?B) activity, elevated colonic cell death and epithelial cell injury. Furthermore, epithelial restitution/repair was inhibited in DSS-treated Rassf1a?/? mice with reduction of several makers of proliferation including Yes associated protein (YAP)-driven proliferation. Surprisingly, tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP was detected which coincided with increased nuclear p73 association, Bax-driven epithelial cell death and p53 accumulation resulting in enhanced apoptosis and poor survival of DSS-treated Rassf1a knockout mice. We can inhibit these events and promote the survival of DSS-treated Rassf1a knockout mice with intraperitoneal injection of the c-Abl and c-Abl related protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib/gleevec. However, p53 accumulation was not inhibited by imatinib/gleevec in the Rassf1a?/? background which revealed the importance of p53-dependent cell death during intestinal inflammation. These observations suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP (to drive p73 association and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax) and accumulation of p53 are consequences of inflammation-induced injury in DSS-treated Rassf1a?/? mice. Mechanistically, we can detect robust associations of RASSF1A with membrane proximal Toll-like receptor (TLR) components to suggest that RASSF1A may function to interfere and restrict TLR-driven activation of NF?B. Failure to restrict NF?B resulted in the inflammation-induced DNA damage driven tyrosine phosphorylation of YAP, subsequent p53 accumulation and loss of intestinal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:24146755

  20. A novel gene encoding a 54 kDa polypeptide is essential for butane utilization by Pseudomonas sp. IMT37.

    PubMed

    Padda, R S; Pandey, K K; Kaul, S; Nair, V D; Jain, R K; Basu, S K; Chakrabarti, T

    2001-09-01

    Twenty-three propane- and butane-utilizing bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oilfields. Three of them have been identified as Rhodococcus sp. IMT35, Pseudomonas sp. IMT37 and Pseudomonas sp. MT40. SDS-PAGE analysis of the membrane of Rhodococcus sp. IMT35 revealed the presence of at least four polypeptides induced by propane. Polyclonal antibody raised against a 58 kDa polypeptide from Rhodococcus sp. IMT35 specifically detected bacteria which were actively utilizing propane or butane. Immunoscreening of a genomic library in lambdagt11 with this antibody resulted in isolation of a clone containing a 4.9 kb EcoRI genomic DNA fragment. This 4.9 kb DNA fragment was found to hybridize specifically with organisms which could grow on propane or butane. This fragment could therefore be used as a probe for detection of such bacteria. A 2.3 kb fragment having an ORF encoding a polypeptide of 54 kDa was identified by screening a genomic library of Pseudomonas sp. IMT37 with this 4.9 kb EcoRI fragment. The sequence of the ORF (designated orf54) was found to be novel. Primer extension and S1 nuclease mapping showed that transcription of the ORF starts at base 283 and it had sequences upstream similar to that of a Pseudomonas promoter (-12, -24 type). Disruption of the ORF by a kanamycin ('kan') cassette prevented the organism from growing on any alkane but did not affect its ability to utilize the respective alkanols and acids, indicating that alcohol dehydrogenase and subsequent steps in the pathway remained unaltered. The mutants had no detectable level of butane monooxygenase activity. Therefore, the product of this gene plays a crucial role in the first step of the pathway and is an essential component of monooxygenase. The findings imply that this bacterium either employs a common genetic and metabolic route or at least shares the product of this gene for utilization of many alkanes. PMID:11535788

  1. An Essential Role for Katanin p80 and Microtubule Severing in Male Gamete Production

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Liza; Rhodes, Danielle; Smith, Stephanie J.; Merriner, D. Jo; Clark, Brett J.; Borg, Claire; Whittle, Belinda; O'Connor, Anne E.; Smith, Lee B.; McNally, Francis J.; de Kretser, David M.; Goodnow, Chris C.; Ormandy, Chris J.; Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Bryan, Moira K.

    2012-01-01

    Katanin is an evolutionarily conserved microtubule-severing complex implicated in multiple aspects of microtubule dynamics. Katanin consists of a p60 severing enzyme and a p80 regulatory subunit. The p80 subunit is thought to regulate complex targeting and severing activity, but its precise role remains elusive. In lower-order species, the katanin complex has been shown to modulate mitotic and female meiotic spindle dynamics and flagella development. The in vivo function of katanin p80 in mammals is unknown. Here we show that katanin p80 is essential for male fertility. Specifically, through an analysis of a mouse loss-of-function allele (the Taily line), we demonstrate that katanin p80, most likely in association with p60, has an essential role in male meiotic spindle assembly and dissolution and the removal of midbody microtubules and, thus, cytokinesis. Katanin p80 also controls the formation, function, and dissolution of a microtubule structure intimately involved in defining sperm head shaping and sperm tail formation, the manchette, and plays a role in the formation of axoneme microtubules. Perturbed katanin p80 function, as evidenced in the Taily mouse, results in male sterility characterized by decreased sperm production, sperm with abnormal head shape, and a virtual absence of progressive motility. Collectively these data demonstrate that katanin p80 serves an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in several aspects of male germ cell development. PMID:22654669

  2. Extinction of tyrosine aminotransferase gene activity in somatic cell hybrids involves modification and loss of several essential transcriptional activators.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, D; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1993-02-01

    Extinction is defined as the loss of cell type-specific gene expression that occurs in somatic cell hybrids derived by fusion of cells with dissimilar phenotypes. To explore the basis of this dominant-negative regulation, we have studied the activities of the control elements of the liver-specific gene encoding tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in hepatoma/fibroblast hybrid crosses. We show that extinction in complete somatic cell hybrids is accompanied by the loss of activity of all known cell type-specific control elements of the TAT gene. This inactivity is the result of first, lack of expression of genes coding for the transcriptional activators HNF4 and HNF3 beta and HNF3 gamma, which bind to essential elements of the enhancers; and second, loss of in vivo binding and activity of ubiquitous factors to these enhancers, including CREB, which is the target for repression by the tissue-specific extinguisher locus TSE1. Complete extinction of TAT gene activity is therefore a multifactorial process affecting all three enhancers controlling liver-specific and hormone-inducible expression. It results from lack of activation, rather than active repression, and involves both post-translational modification and loss of essential transcriptional activators. PMID:8094701

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of the spsB gene encoding an essential type I signal peptidase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Cregg, K M; Wilding, I; Black, M T

    1996-01-01

    The gene, spsB, encoding a type I signal peptidase has been cloned from the gram-positive eubacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The gene encodes a protein of 191 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 21,692 Da. Comparison of the protein sequence with those of known type I signal peptidases indicates conservation of amino acid residues known to be important or essential for catalytic activity. The enzyme has been expressed to high levels in Escherichia coli and has been demonstrated to possess enzymatic activity against E. coli preproteins in vivo. Experiments whereby the spsB gene was transferred to a plasmid that is temperature sensitive for replication indicate that spsB is an essential gene. We identified an open reading frame immediately upstream of the spsB gene which encodes a type I signal peptidase homolog of 174 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 20,146 Da that is predicted to be devoid of catalytic activity. PMID:8824617

  4. Screen for mitochondrial DNA copy number maintenance genes reveals essential role for ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoh, Atsushi; Cannino, Giuseppe; Gerards, Mike; Buckley, Suzanne; Kazancioglu, Selena; Scialo, Filippo; Lihavainen, Eero; Ribeiro, Andre; Dufour, Eric; Jacobs, Howard T

    2014-01-01

    The machinery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance is only partially characterized and is of wide interest due to its involvement in disease. To identify novel components of this machinery, plus other cellular pathways required for mtDNA viability, we implemented a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells, assaying for loss of fluorescence of mtDNA nucleoids stained with the DNA-intercalating agent PicoGreen. In addition to previously characterized components of the mtDNA replication and transcription machineries, positives included many proteins of the cytosolic proteasome and ribosome (but not the mitoribosome), three proteins involved in vesicle transport, some other factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or nuclear gene expression, > 30 mainly uncharacterized proteins and most subunits of ATP synthase (but no other OXPHOS complex). ATP synthase knockdown precipitated a burst of mitochondrial ROS production, followed by copy number depletion involving increased mitochondrial turnover, not dependent on the canonical autophagy machinery. Our findings will inform future studies of the apparatus and regulation of mtDNA maintenance, and the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and signaling in modulating mtDNA copy number. PMID:24952591

  5. Essential drugs production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS): opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ezziane, Zoheir

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines. PMID:25489593

  6. Proteins interacting with the tuberous sclerosis gene products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rosner; A. Freilinger; M. Hengstschläger

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome affecting about 1 in 6000 to 10000 individuals. The genes, TSC1, encoding hamartin, and TSC2, encoding tuberin are responsible for TSC. Since their identification 1997 and 1993 respectively, a variety of different functions have been described for the TSC gene products. Hamartin and tuberin form a complex, providing

  7. Characterization of the structure and function of the gene for transcription factor BF1, an essential regulator of forebrain development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailong Li; Wufan Tao; Eseng Lai

    1996-01-01

    Brain factor-1 (BF-1) is a winged-helix transcription factor which has been shown to be essential for the development of the cerebral hemispheres. We report here the cloning and characterization of the mouse BF-1 gene. We have identified two classes of alternatively spliced mouse BF-1 cDNA which are transcribed from distinct promoters. Both classes of cDNA encode identical BF-1 proteins. The

  8. A gene homologous to ß-type carbonic anhydrase is essential for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum under atmospheric conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mitsuhashi; J. Ohnishi; M. Hayashi; M. Ikeda

    2004-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the interconversion of CO 2 and bicarbonate. We focused on this enzyme in the amino acid-producing organism Corynebacterium glutamicum in order to assess the availability of bicarbonate for carboxylation reactions essential to growth and for those required for l-lysine overproduction. A whole-genome sequence revealed two genes encoding putative ß-type and ?-type carbonic anhydrases in C. glutamicum. These

  9. The essential Escherichia coli msgB gene, a multicopy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive allele of the heat shock gene grpE, is identical to dapE.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, B; Georgopoulos, C; Ang, D

    1992-01-01

    The grpE gene product is one of three Escherichia coli heat shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that are essential for both bacteriophage lambda DNA replication and bacterial growth at all temperatures. In an effort to determine the role of GrpE and to identify other factors that it may interact with, we isolated multicopy suppressors of the grpE280 point mutation, as judged by their ability to reverse the temperature-sensitive phenotype of grpE280. Here we report the characterization of one of them, designated msgB. The msgB gene maps at approximately 53 min on the E. coli chromosome. The minimal gene possesses an open reading frame that encodes a protein with a predicted size of 41,269 M(r). This open reading frame was confirmed the correct one by direct amino-terminal sequence analysis of the overproduced msgB gene product. Genetic experiments demonstrated that msgB is essential for E. coli growth in the temperature range of 22 to 37 degrees C. Through a sequence homology search, MsgB was shown to be identical to N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (the dapE gene product), which participates in the diaminopimelic acid-lysine pathway involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Consistent with this finding, the msgB null allele mutant is viable only when the growth medium is supplemented with diaminopimelic acid. These results suggest that GrpE may have a previously unsuspected function(s) in cell wall biosynthesis in E. coli. Images PMID:1644751

  10. Thyroid hormone receptor mediates human MDR1 gene expression—Identification of the response region essential for gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouichi Kurose; Mayumi Saeki; Masahiro Tohkin; Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2008-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR1 gene, is a drug efflux transporter that is expressed in various tissues and plays an important role in the absorption and elimination of many drugs and xenobiotics. Induction of the MDR1 gene affects drug disposition and the efficacy of drug treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) induces MDR1 gene

  11. Insertional mutagenesis in zebrafish rapidly identifies genes essential for early vertebrate development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Golling; Adam Amsterdam; Zhaoxia Sun; Marcelo Antonelli; Ernesto Maldonado; Wenbiao Chen; Shawn Burgess; Maryann Haldi; Karen Artzt; Sarah Farrington; Shuh-Yow Lin; Robert M. Nissen; Nancy Hopkins

    2002-01-01

    To rapidly identify genes required for early vertebrate development, we are carrying out a large-scale, insertional mutagenesis screen in zebrafish, using mouse retroviral vectors as the mutagen. We will obtain mutations in 450 to 500 different genes—roughly 20% of the genes that can be mutated to produce a visible embryonic phenotype in this species—and will clone the majority of the

  12. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  13. The nit1C gene cluster of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 involved in assimilation of nitriles is essential for growth on cyanide.

    PubMed

    Estepa, Jessica; Luque-Almagro, Victor M; Manso, Isabel; Escribano, M Paz; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M Dolores

    2012-06-01

    A proteomic approach was used to identify several proteins induced by cyanide in the alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344, two of them, NitB and NitG, encoded by genes that belong to the nit1C gene cluster. The predicted products of the nit1C gene cluster are a Fis-like ?(54) -dependent transcriptional activator (NitA), a nitrilase (NitC), an S-adenosylmethionine superfamily member (NitD), an N-acyltransferase superfamily member (NitE), a trifunctional polypeptide of the AIRS/GARS family (NitF), an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase (NitH) and two hypothetical proteins of unknown function (NitB and NitG). RT-PCR analysis suggested that nitBCDEFGH genes were co-transcribed, whereas the regulatory nitA gene was divergently transcribed. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that expression of the nitBCDEFGH genes was induced by cyanide and repressed by ammonium. The P.?pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 nit1C gene cluster was found to be involved in assimilation of free and organic cyanides (nitriles) as deduced for the inability to grow with cyanides showed by the NitA, NitB and NitC mutant strains. The wild-type strain CECT5344 showed a nitrilase activity that allows growth on cyanide or hydroxynitriles. The NitB and NitC mutants only presented low basal levels of nitrilase activity that were not enough to support growth on either free cyanide or aliphatic nitriles, suggesting that nitrilase NitC is specific and essential for cyanide and aliphatic nitriles assimilation. PMID:23760796

  14. Differential expression of JAK2 and Src kinase genes in response to hydroxyurea treatment in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Albizua, Enriqueta; Gallardo, Miguel; Barrio, Santiago; Rapado, Inmaculada; Jimenez, Ana; Ayala, Rosa; Rueda, Daniel; Sanchez-Espiridion, Beatriz; Puigdecanet, Eulalia; Espinet, Blanca; Florensa, Lourdes; Besses, Carles; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin

    2011-08-01

    This study investigates the differential gene expression profile of JAK2(V617F)-positive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients, with and without response to hydroxyurea (HU) treatment. Twenty-one polycythemia vera, 28 essential thrombocythemia, eight secondary erythrocytosis, and 30 controls were studied. Thirty-four genes were overexpressed in patients who did not respond to HU. Of these, some participate in proliferative pathways: MAPK, AKT, Src kinase (SFK), and JAK2 pathway. JAK2 allele burden was similar between groups of responders and nonresponder. A molecular fingerprint distinguishes JAK2(V617F)-positive MPN patients without response to HU treatment, with overexpression of JAK2, MAPK14, PIK3CA, and SFK genes. PMID:21331593

  15. COMPARISON OF THE METHYL REDUCTASE GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA sequences encoding component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr genes) in Methanothermus fervidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanococcus vannielii, and Methanosarcina barkeri have been published. omparisons of transcription initiation and termination site...

  16. Six4, a Putative myogenin Gene Regulator, Is Not Essential for Mouse Embryonal Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIDENORI OZAKI; YOKO WATANABE; KATSUMASA TAKAHASHI; KEN KITAMURA; AKIRA TANAKA; KOKO URASE; TAKASHI MOMOI; KATSUKO SUDO; JUNKO SAKAGAMI; MASAHIDE ASANO; YOICHIRO IWAKURA; KIYOSHI KAWAKAMI

    2001-01-01

    Six4 is a member of the Six family genes, homologues of Drosophila melanogaster sine oculis. The gene is thought to be involved in neurogenesis, myogenesis, and development of other organs, based on its specific expression in certain neuronal cells of the developing embryo and in adult skeletal muscles. To elucidate the biological roles of Six4, we generated Six4-deficient mice by

  17. The Role of the Parkinson's Disease Gene PARK9 in Essential Cellular Pathways and the Manganese Homeostasis Network in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Chesi, Alessandra; Kilaru, Austin; Fang, Xiaodong; Cooper, Antony A.; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    YPK9 (Yeast PARK9; also known as YOR291W) is a non-essential yeast gene predicted by sequence to encode a transmembrane P-type transport ATPase. However, its substrate specificity is unknown. Mutations in the human homolog of YPK9, ATP13A2/PARK9, have been linked to genetic forms of early onset parkinsonism. We previously described a strong genetic interaction between Ypk9 and another Parkinson's disease (PD) protein ?-synuclein in multiple model systems, and a role for Ypk9 in manganese detoxification in yeast. In humans, environmental exposure to toxic levels of manganese causes a syndrome similar to PD and is thus an environmental risk factor for the disease. How manganese contributes to neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Here we describe multiple genome-wide screens in yeast aimed at defining the cellular function of Ypk9 and the mechanisms by which it protects cells from manganese toxicity. In physiological conditions, we found that Ypk9 genetically interacts with essential genes involved in cellular trafficking and the cell cycle. Deletion of Ypk9 sensitizes yeast cells to exposure to excess manganese. Using a library of non-essential gene deletions, we screened for additional genes involved in tolerance to excess manganese exposure, discovering several novel pathways involved in manganese homeostasis. We defined the dependence of the deletion strain phenotypes in the presence of manganese on Ypk9, and found that Ypk9 deletion modifies the manganese tolerance of only a subset of strains. These results confirm a role for Ypk9 in manganese homeostasis and illuminates cellular pathways and biological processes in which Ypk9 likely functions. PMID:22457822

  18. The role of the Parkinson's disease gene PARK9 in essential cellular pathways and the manganese homeostasis network in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Alessandra; Kilaru, Austin; Fang, Xiaodong; Cooper, Antony A; Gitler, Aaron D

    2012-01-01

    YPK9 (Yeast PARK9; also known as YOR291W) is a non-essential yeast gene predicted by sequence to encode a transmembrane P-type transport ATPase. However, its substrate specificity is unknown. Mutations in the human homolog of YPK9, ATP13A2/PARK9, have been linked to genetic forms of early onset parkinsonism. We previously described a strong genetic interaction between Ypk9 and another Parkinson's disease (PD) protein ?-synuclein in multiple model systems, and a role for Ypk9 in manganese detoxification in yeast. In humans, environmental exposure to toxic levels of manganese causes a syndrome similar to PD and is thus an environmental risk factor for the disease. How manganese contributes to neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Here we describe multiple genome-wide screens in yeast aimed at defining the cellular function of Ypk9 and the mechanisms by which it protects cells from manganese toxicity. In physiological conditions, we found that Ypk9 genetically interacts with essential genes involved in cellular trafficking and the cell cycle. Deletion of Ypk9 sensitizes yeast cells to exposure to excess manganese. Using a library of non-essential gene deletions, we screened for additional genes involved in tolerance to excess manganese exposure, discovering several novel pathways involved in manganese homeostasis. We defined the dependence of the deletion strain phenotypes in the presence of manganese on Ypk9, and found that Ypk9 deletion modifies the manganese tolerance of only a subset of strains. These results confirm a role for Ypk9 in manganese homeostasis and illuminates cellular pathways and biological processes in which Ypk9 likely functions. PMID:22457822

  19. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter<235 nm (PDI<0.280) and a loading efficacy>75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control. PMID:24359912

  20. The lineage-specific gene ponzr1 is essential for zebrafish pronephric and pharyngeal arch development

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, Victoria M.; Person, Anthony D.; Larson, Jon D.; McLoon, Anna; Balciunas, Darius; Clark, Karl J.; Neff, Kevin I.; Nelson, Katie E.; Bill, Brent R.; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Beiraghi, Soraya; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) and Paired box (Pax) gene families are key determinants of animal body plans and organ structure. In particular, they function within regulatory networks that control organogenesis. How these conserved genes elicit differences in organ form and function in response to evolutionary pressures is incompletely understood. We molecularly and functionally characterized one member of an evolutionarily dynamic gene family, plac8 onzin related protein 1 (ponzr1), in the zebrafish. ponzr1 mRNA is expressed early in the developing kidney and pharyngeal arches. Using ponzr1-targeting morpholinos, we show that ponzr1 is required for formation of the glomerulus. Loss of ponzr1 results in a nonfunctional glomerulus but retention of a functional pronephros, an arrangement similar to the aglomerular kidneys found in a subset of marine fish. ponzr1 is integrated into the pax2a pathway, with ponzr1 expression requiring pax2a gene function, and proper pax2a expression requiring normal ponzr1 expression. In addition to pronephric function, ponzr1 is required for pharyngeal arch formation. We functionally demonstrate that ponzr1 can act as a transcription factor or co-factor, providing the first molecular mode of action for this newly described gene family. Together, this work provides experimental evidence of an additional mechanism that incorporates evolutionarily dynamic, lineage-specific gene families into conserved regulatory gene networks to create functional organ diversity. PMID:22274699

  1. Identification of a gene essential for protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kazushige; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Sano, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Hosaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX during the synthesis of tetrapyrrole molecules. Protox is encoded by the hemY gene in eukaryotes and by the hemG gene in many ?-proteobacteria, including Escherichia coli. It has been suggested that other bacteria possess a yet unidentified type of Protox. To identify a unique bacterial gene encoding Protox, we first introduced the Arabidopsis hemY gene into the genome of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We subsequently mutagenized the cells by transposon tagging and screened the tagged lines for mutants that were sensitive to acifluorfen, which is a specific inhibitor of the hemY-type Protox. Several cell lines containing the tagged slr1790 locus exhibited acifluorfen sensitivity. The slr1790 gene encodes a putative membrane-spanning protein that is distantly related to the M subunit of NADH dehydrogenase complex I. We attempted to disrupt this gene in the wild-type background of Synechocystis, but we were only able to obtain heteroplasmic disruptants. These cells accumulated a substantial amount of protoporphyrin IX, suggesting that the slr1790 gene is essential for growth and Protox activity of cells. We found that most cyanobacteria and many other bacteria possess slr1790 homologs. We overexpressed an slr1790 homolog of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in Escherichia coli and found that this recombinant protein possesses Protox activity in vitro. These results collectively demonstrate that slr1790 encodes a unique Protox enzyme and we propose naming the slr1790 gene “hemJ.” PMID:20823222

  2. The trans-activator gene of HTLV-III is essential for virus replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda G. Fisher; Mark B. Feinberg; Steven F. Josephs; Mary E. Harper; Lisa M. Marselle; Gregory Reyes; Matthew A. Gonda; Anna Aldovini; Christine Debouk; Robert C. Gallo; Flossie Wong-Staal

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the genomic structure of human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) and related viruses, implicated as the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), have identified a sixth open reading frame in addition to the five previously known within the genome (gag, pol, sor, env and 3'orf)1-4. This gene, called tat-III, lies between the sorand env genes and

  3. Molecular cloning of a human gene that regulates chromosome condensation and is essential for cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, R; Ohtsubo, M; Sekiguchi, M; Nishimoto, T

    1986-01-01

    The tsBN2 cell line, a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of baby hamster kidney cell line BHK21/13, seems to possess a mutation in the gene that controls initiation of chromosome condensation. At the nonpermissive temperature (39.5 degrees C), the chromatin of tsBN2 cells is prematurely condensed, and the cells die. Using tsBN2 cells as a recipient of DNA-mediated gene transfer, we investigated a human gene that is responsible for regulation of chromosome condensation and cell proliferation. We found that the human gene complementing the tsBN2 mutation resides in the area of the 40- to 50-kilobase HindIII fragment, derived from HeLa cells. Based on this finding, we initiated cloning of a human gene complementing the tsBN2 mutation. From lambda and cosmid libraries carrying partial digests of DNA from the secondary transformants, the 41.8-kilobase HindIII fragment containing the human DNA was isolated. The cloned human DNA was conserved in ts+ transformants through primary and secondary transfections. Two cosmid clones convert the ts- phenotype of tsBN2 cells to ts+ with more than 100 times a higher efficiency, compared with cases of transfection with total human DNA. Thus, the cloned DNA fragments contain an active human gene that complements the tsBN2 mutation. Images PMID:3785187

  4. MicroRNA Regulation of Human Protease Genes Essential for Influenza Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A.; Andersen, Lauren E.; Brooks, Paula; Yan, Xiuzhen; Bakre, Abhijeet; Coleman, J. Keegan; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-?B), cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB), and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies. PMID:22606348

  5. cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity is essential for preaggregative gene expression in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Schulkes, C; Schaap, P

    1995-07-17

    Constitutive inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in Dictyostelium cells blocks cell aggregation and development. We investigated the cause of the aggregation defect in transformants overexpressing dominant-negative PKA regulatory subunits (PKA-RM) under an actin 15 promoter. These mutants could not relay pulses of the chemoattractant cAMP, due to a defect in expression of the aggregative adenylyl cyclase (ACA) gene. Unstimulated and cAMP pulse-induced expression of other aggregative genes encoding the cAMP receptor cAR1, adhesive contact sites A and cAMP-phosphodiesterase were also strongly reduced in the mutants. Additionally, the expression of the discoidin I gene, that is expressed early in development in response to cell density sensing factors, was almost completely absent. These data are in interesting contrast with observations that cAMP relay and aggregative gene expression are normal in null mutants for the PKA catalytic (C) subunit and suggest the presence of multiple C subunit genes in Dictyostelium and an almost universal requirement for PKA activity in developmental gene expression. PMID:7628643

  6. Is there any genetic predisposition of MMP-9 gene C1562T and MTHFR gene C677T polymorphisms with essential hypertension?

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Urhan Kucuk, Meral; Guler, Hal?l Ibrahim; Abaci, Okay; Kucukkaya, Yunus; Colak, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a relation between hypertension and two different polymorphisms, including C1562T of the Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene and C677T of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Genomic DNA obtained from 224 persons (125 patients with hypertension and 99 healthy controls) were used in the study. Polymorphisms were determined by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and electrophoresis. The results were statistically analyzed and were found to be statistically significant. The frequencies of the C1562T genotypes were found to be, in controls CC 75.8 % and CT 24.2 % and in patients CC 71.2 %, and CT 28.8 %. The frequencies of C677T genotype were found to be, in controls CC 56.6 %, CT 38.4 and TT 5.1 % in controls and in patients CC 52 %, CT 30.4 % and TT 17.6 %. In conclusion, we may suggest that there is no relation between the essential hypertension and C1562T polymorphism of MMP-9 gene; on the other hand C677T polymorphism (genotype TT) of MTHFR gene can be regarded as a genetic indicator for the development of essential hypertension. PMID:24254300

  7. Aromatic plants essential oils activity on Fusarium verticillioides Fumonisin B(1) production in corn grain.

    PubMed

    López, A G; Theumer, M G; Zygadlo, J A; Rubinstein, H R

    2004-10-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Origanum vulgare, Aloysia triphylla, Aloysia polystachya and Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) against Fusarium verticillioides M 7075 (F. moniliforme, Sheldon) were assessed, using the semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) technique. O. vulgare, A. triphylla, A. polystachya and M. piperita EOs were evaluated at final concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 epsilonl per litre (epsilonl/l) of culture medium. A. triphylla and O. vulgare EOs showed the highest inhibitory effects on F. verticillioides mycelial development. This inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 epsilonl/l for EOs coming from Aloysia triphylla and O. vulgare, respectively. Thus, the effects of EOs on FB(1) production were evaluated using corn grain (Zea mays) as substrate. The EOs were inserted on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day of maize postinoculation with a conidia suspension of F. verticillioides. O. vulgare and A. triphylla were applied to give final concentrations of 30 ppm and 45 ppm, respectively. Different effects were observed in the toxicogenicity at the 20th day treatment. The O. vulgare EO decreased the production level of FB(1) (P < 0.01) while A. triphyla EO increased it (P < 0.001) with respect to those obtained in the inoculated maize, not EOs treated. Results obtained in the present work indicate that fumonisin production could be inhibited or stimulated by some constituents of EOs coming from aromatic plants. Further studies should be performed to identify the components of EOs with modulatory activity on the growth and fumonisins production of Fusarium verticillioides. PMID:15702272

  8. A plant-specific HUA2-LIKE (HULK) gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana is essential for development

    PubMed Central

    Jali, Sathya S; Rosloski, Sarah M; Janakirama, Preetam; Steffen, Joshua G; Zhurov, Vladimir; Berleth, Thomas; Clark, Richard M; Grbic, Vojislava

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the HUA2 gene is required for proper expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and AGAMOUS, key regulators of flowering time and reproductive development, respectively. Although HUA2 is broadly expressed, plants lacking HUA2 function have only moderately reduced plant stature, leaf initiation rate and flowering time. To better understand HUA2 activity, and to test whether redundancy with similar genes underlies the absence of strong phenotypes in HUA2 mutant plants, we identified and subsequently characterized three additional HUA2-LIKE (HULK) genes in Arabidopsis. These genes form two clades (HUA2/HULK1 and HULK2/HULK3), with members broadly conserved in both vascular and non-vascular plants, but not present outside the plant kingdom. Plants with progressively reduced HULK activity had increasingly severe developmental defects, and plants homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in all four HULK genes were not recovered. Multiple mutants displayed reproductive, embryonic and post-embryonic abnormalities, and provide detailed insights into the overlapping and unique functions of individual HULK genes. With regard to flowering time, opposing influences were apparent: hua2 hulk1 plants were early-flowering, while hulk2 hulk3 mutants were late-flowering, and hua2 acted epistatically to cause early flowering in all combinations. Genome-wide expression profiling of mutant combinations using RNA-Seq revealed complex transcriptional changes in seedlings, with FLC, a known target of HUA2, among the most affected. Our studies, which include characterization of HULK expression patterns and subcellular localization, suggest that the HULK genes encode conserved nuclear factors with partially redundant but essential functions associated with diverse genetic pathways in plants. PMID:25070081

  9. Lim Homeobox Gene, Lhx8, Is Essential for Mouse Oocyte Differentiation and Survival1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngsok; Ballow, Daniel J.; Xin, Yun; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Lhx8 is a member of the LIM-homeobox transcription factor family and preferentially expressed in oocytes and germ cells within the mouse ovary. We discovered that Lhx8 knockout females lose oocytes within 7 days after birth. At the time of birth, histological examination shows that Lhx8-deficient (Lhx8?/?) ovaries are grossly similar to the newborn wild-type ovaries. Lhx8?/? ovaries fail to maintain the primordial follicles, and the transition from primordial to growing follicles does not occur. Lhx8?/? ovaries misexpress oocyte-specific genes, such as Gdf9, Pou5f1, and Nobox. Very rapid loss of oocytes may partly be due to the drastic downregulation of Kit and Kitl in Lhx8?/? ovaries. We compared Lhx8?/? and wild-type ovaries using an Affymetrix 430 2.0 microarray platform. A total of 80 (44%) of 180 of the genes downregulated more than 5-fold in Lhx8?/? ovaries were preferentially expressed in oocytes, whereas only 3 (2%) of 146 genes upregulated more than 5-fold in the absence of Lhx8 were preferentially expressed in oocytes. In addition, the comparison of genes regulated in Lhx8?/? and Nobox?/? newborn ovaries discovered a common set of 34 genes whose expression level was affected in both Lhx8- and Nobox-deficient mice. Our findings show that Lhx8 is a critical factor for maintenance and differentiation of the oocyte during early oogenesis, and it acts in part by downregulating the Nobox pathway. PMID:18509161

  10. NPY Genes Play an Essential Role in Root Gravitropic Responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinhua; Cheng, Youfa; Zhao, Yunde

    2011-01-01

    Plants can sense the direction of gravity and orient their growth to ensure that roots are anchored in soil and that shoots grow upward. Gravitropism has been studied extensively using Arabidopsis genetics, but the exact mechanisms for gravitropism are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that five NPY genes play a key role in Arabidopsis root gravitropism. NPY genes were previously identified as regulators of auxin-mediated organogenesis in a genetic pathway with the AGC kinases PID, PID2, WAG1, and WAG2. We show that all five NPY genes are highly expressed in primary root tips. The single npy mutants do not display obvious gravitropism defects, but the npy1 npy2 npy3 npy4 npy5 quintuple mutants show dramatic gravitropic phenotypes. Systematic analysis of all the npy double, triple, and quadruple combinations demonstrates that the five NPY genes all contribute to gravitropism. Our work indicates that gravitropism, phototropism, and organogenesis use analogous mechanisms in which at least one AGC kinase, one NPH3/NPY gene, and one ARF are required. PMID:20833732

  11. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf) of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Rasoul; Savabi, Omid; Kazemi, Mohammad; kamali, Sara; Salehi, Ahmad Reza; Eslami, Gilda; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016) culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes). Conclusions: Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention. PMID:25221772

  12. Fratricide Is Essential for Efficient Gene Transfer between Pneumococci in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and a number of commensal streptococcal species are competent for natural genetic transformation. The natural habitat of these bacteria is multispecies biofilms in the human oral cavity and nasopharynx. Studies investigating lateral transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants among streptococci have shown that interspecies as well as intraspecies gene exchange takes place in these environments. We have previously shown that the action of a competence-specific murein hydrolase termed CbpD strongly increases the rate of gene transfer between pneumococci grown in liquid cultures. CbpD is the key component of a bacteriolytic mechanism termed the fratricide mechanism. It is secreted by competent pneumococci and mediates the release of donor DNA from sensitive streptococci present in the same environment. However, in nature, gene exchange between streptococci takes place in biofilms and not in liquid cultures. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether CbpD affects the rate of gene transfer in laboratory-grown biofilms. Our results show that the fratricide mechanism has a strong positive impact on intrabiofilm gene exchange, indicating that it is important for active acquisition of homologous donor DNA under natural conditions. Furthermore, we found that competent biofilm cells of S. pneumoniae acquire a Novr marker much more efficiently from neighboring cells than from the growth medium. Efficient lysis of target cells requires that CbpD act in conjunction with the murein hydrolase LytC. In contrast, the major autolysin LytA does not seem to be important for fratricide-mediated gene exchange in a biofilm environment. PMID:22706053

  13. Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M

    1993-01-01

    A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

  14. New LIC vectors for production of proteins from genes containing rare codons.

    PubMed

    Eschenfeldt, William H; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Stols, Lucy; Donnelly, Mark I; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    In the effort to produce proteins coded by diverse genomes, structural genomics projects often must express genes containing codons that are rare in the production strain. To address this problem, genes expressing tRNAs corresponding to those codons are typically coexpressed from a second plasmid in the host strain, or from genes incorporated into production plasmids. Here we describe the modification of a series of LIC pMCSG vectors currently used in the high-throughput (HTP) production of proteins to include crucial tRNA genes covering rare codons for Arg (AGG/AGA) and Ile (AUA). We also present variants of these new vectors that allow analysis of ligand binding or co-expression of multiple proteins introduced through two independent LIC steps. Additionally, to accommodate the cloning of multiple large proteins, the size of the plasmids was reduced by approximately one kilobase through the removal of non-essential DNA from the base vector. Production of proteins from core vectors of this series validated the desired enhanced capabilities: higher yields of proteins expressed from genes with rare codons occurred in most cases, biotinylated derivatives enabled detailed automated ligand binding analysis, and multiple proteins introduced by dual LIC cloning were expressed successfully and in near balanced stoichiometry, allowing tandem purification of interacting proteins. PMID:24057978

  15. Identification of the secY ( prlA ) gene product involved in protein export in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koreaki Ito

    1984-01-01

    The gene secY (or prlA) is essential for protein export across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. The protein product of secY has been identified using the gene cloned under the control of the pL promoter of phage ? in combination with the maxicell system. The protein was found to have some unusual properties. First, it is important not to

  16. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5' UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

  17. Math1: An Essential Gene for the Generation of Inner Ear Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nessan A. Bermingham; Bassem A. Hassan; Steven D. Price; Melissa A. Vollrath; Nissim Ben-Arie; Ruth Anne Eatock; Hugo J. Bellen H J; Huda Y. Zoghbi

    1999-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear contains the cochlea and vestibular organs, which are responsible for hearing and balance, respectively. The epithelia of these sensory organs contain hair cells that function as mechanoreceptors to transduce sound and head motion. The molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell development and differentiation are poorly understood. Math1, a mouse homolog of the Drosophila proneural gene atonal, is

  18. Haploinsufficiency screen highlights two distinct groups of ribosomal protein genes essential for embryonic stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Simon; MacRae, Tara; Bilodeau, Mélanie; Sargeant, Tobias; Sauvageau, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In a functional genomics screen of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with nested hemizygous chromosomal deletions, we reveal that ribosomal protein (RP) genes are the most significant haploinsufficient determinants for embryoid body (EB) formation. Hemizygocity for three RP genes (Rps5, Rps14, or Rps28), distinguished by the proximity of their corresponding protein to the ribosome's mRNA exit site, is associated with the most profound phenotype. This EB phenotype was fully rescued by BAC or cDNA complementation but not by the reduction of p53 levels, although such reduction was effective with most other RP-deleted clones corresponding to non-mRNA exit-site proteins. RNA-sequencing studies further revealed that undifferentiated ESCs hemizygous for Rps5 showed reduced expression levels of several mesoderm-specific genes as compared with wild-type counterparts. Together, these results reveal that RP gene dosage limits the differentiation, not the self-renewal, of mouse ESCs. They also highlight two separate mechanisms underlying this process, one of which is p53 independent. PMID:25646475

  19. Female Aging Alters Expression of Human Cumulus Cells Genes that Are Essential for Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Assou, Said; Ferrières, Alice; Bringer Deutsch, Sophie; Gala, Anna; Lecellier, Charles-Henri; Aït-Ahmed, Ounissa; Hamamah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Impact of female aging is an important issue in human reproduction. There was a need for an extensive analysis of age impact on transcriptome profile of cumulus cells (CCs) to link oocyte quality and developmental potential with patient's age. CCs from patients of three age groups were analyzed individually using microarrays. RT-qPCR validation was performed on independent CC cohorts. We focused here on pathways affected by aging in CCs that may explain the decline of oocyte quality with age. In CCs collected from patients >37 years, angiogenic genes including ANGPTL4, LEPR, TGFBR3, and FGF2 were significantly overexpressed compared to patients of the two younger groups. In contrast genes implicated in TGF-? signaling pathway such as AMH, TGFB1, inhibin, and activin receptor were underexpressed. CCs from patients whose ages are between 31 and 36 years showed an overexpression of genes related to insulin signaling pathway such as IGFBP3, PIK3R1, and IGFBP5. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the microRNAs that are potential regulators of the differentially expressed genes of the study. It revealed that the pathways impacted by age were potential targets of specific miRNAs previously identified in our CCs small RNAs sequencing. PMID:25276836

  20. Twist is an essential regulator of the skeletogenic gene regulatory network in the sea urchin embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Yu Wu; Yu-Ping Yang; David R. McClay

    2008-01-01

    Recent work on the sea urchin endomesoderm gene regulatory network (GRN) offers many opportunities to study the specification and differentiation of each cell type during early development at a mechanistic level. The mesoderm lineages consist of two cell populations, primary and secondary mesenchyme cells (PMCs and SMCs). The micromere-PMC GRN governs the development of the larval skeleton, which is the

  1. The Arabidopsis AtRaptor genes are essential for post-embryonic plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garrett H Anderson; Bruce Veit; Maureen R Hanson

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flowering plant development is wholly reliant on growth from meristems, which contain totipotent cells that give rise to all post-embryonic organs in the plant. Plants are uniquely able to alter their development throughout their lifespan through the generation of new organs in response to external signals. To identify genes that regulate meristem-based growth, we considered homologues of Raptor proteins,

  2. Epistasis — the essential role of gene interactions in the structure and evolution of genetic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Epistasis, or interactions between genes, has long been recognized as fundamentally important to understanding the structure and function of genetic pathways and the evolutionary dynamics of complex genetic systems. With the advent of high-throughput functional genomics and the emergence of systems approaches to biology, as well as a new-found ability to pursue the genetic basis of evolution down to specific

  3. Haploinsufficiency screen highlights two distinct groups of ribosomal protein genes essential for embryonic stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Simon; MacRae, Tara; Bilodeau, Mélanie; Sargeant, Tobias; Sauvageau, Guy

    2015-02-17

    In a functional genomics screen of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with nested hemizygous chromosomal deletions, we reveal that ribosomal protein (RP) genes are the most significant haploinsufficient determinants for embryoid body (EB) formation. Hemizygocity for three RP genes (Rps5, Rps14, or Rps28), distinguished by the proximity of their corresponding protein to the ribosome's mRNA exit site, is associated with the most profound phenotype. This EB phenotype was fully rescued by BAC or cDNA complementation but not by the reduction of p53 levels, although such reduction was effective with most other RP-deleted clones corresponding to non-mRNA exit-site proteins. RNA-sequencing studies further revealed that undifferentiated ESCs hemizygous for Rps5 showed reduced expression levels of several mesoderm-specific genes as compared with wild-type counterparts. Together, these results reveal that RP gene dosage limits the differentiation, not the self-renewal, of mouse ESCs. They also highlight two separate mechanisms underlying this process, one of which is p53 independent. PMID:25646475

  4. Essential and Redundant Functions of Caudal Family Proteins in Activating Adult Intestinal Genes ?

    PubMed Central

    Verzi, Michael P.; Shin, Hyunjin; Ho, Li-Lun; Liu, X. Shirley; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that potently induce cell fate often remain expressed in the induced organ throughout life, but their requirements in adults are uncertain and varied. Mechanistically, it is unclear if they activate only tissue-specific genes or also directly repress heterologous genes. We conditionally inactivated mouse Cdx2, a dominant regulator of intestinal development, and mapped its genome occupancy in adult intestinal villi. Although homeotic transformation, observed in Cdx2-null embryos, was absent in mutant adults, gene expression and cell morphology were vitally compromised. Lethality was significantly accelerated in mice lacking both Cdx2 and its homolog Cdx1, with particular exaggeration of defects in villus enterocyte differentiation. Importantly, Cdx2 occupancy correlated with hundreds of transcripts that fell but not with equal numbers that rose with Cdx loss, indicating a predominantly activating role at intestinal cis-regulatory regions. Integrated consideration of a transcription factor's mutant phenotype and cistrome hence reveals the continued and distinct requirement in adults of a critical developmental regulator that activates tissue-specific genes. PMID:21402776

  5. The lexA gene product represses its own promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Brent, R; Ptashne, M

    1980-01-01

    The products of the lexA and recA genes of Escherichia coli regulate the cellular response to DNA damage (the SOS response). Here we describe the cloning of the wild-type lexA gene and the identification of its 24,000-dalton protein product. We also describe construction, by recombination in vitro, of a phage that bears the lexA promoter fused to the lacZ gene. Experiments with this fusion phage and with multicopy plasmids that carry the lexA gene showed that the lexA gene product represses of its own promoter. This repression occurs even if the cell has no recA gene, showing that the lexA protein need not be complexed to the recA protein for activity. Moreover, the presence of multicopy plasmids that carry the lexA gene blocks expression of all SOS responses tested. This presumably results from two effects: (i) repression of the recA gene, the product of which is required to activate many of these responses; and (ii) direct repression of other functions involved in the SOS response. Images PMID:6990417

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Essential for the Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Human Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Lilly M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burghout, Peter; Schraa, Kiki; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Mennens, Svenja; Eleveld, Marc J.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E.; Zomer, Aldert; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2014-01-01

    Since Streptococcus pneumoniae transmits through droplet spread, this respiratory tract pathogen may be able to survive in saliva. Here, we show that saliva supports survival of clinically relevant S. pneumoniae strains for more than 24 h in a capsule-independent manner. Moreover, saliva induced growth of S. pneumoniae in growth-permissive conditions, suggesting that S. pneumoniae is well adapted for uptake of nutrients from this bodily fluid. By using Tn-seq, a method for genome-wide negative selection screening, we identified 147 genes potentially required for growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva, among which genes predicted to be involved in cell envelope biosynthesis, cell transport, amino acid metabolism, and stress response predominated. The Tn-seq findings were validated by testing a panel of directed gene deletion mutants for their ability to survive in saliva under two testing conditions: at room temperature without CO2, representing transmission, and at 37°C with CO2, representing in-host carriage. These validation experiments confirmed that the plsX gene and the amiACDEF and aroDEBC operons, involved in respectively fatty acid metabolism, oligopeptide transport, and biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids play an important role in the growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva at 37°C. In conclusion, this study shows that S. pneumoniae is well-adapted for growth and survival in human saliva and provides a genome-wide list of genes potentially involved in adaptation. This notion supports earlier evidence that S. pneumoniae can use human saliva as a vector for transmission. PMID:24586856

  7. Identification of genes essential for prey-independent growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100.

    PubMed

    Roschanski, Nicole; Klages, Sven; Reinhardt, Richard; Linscheid, Michael; Strauch, Eckhard

    2011-04-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is an obligate predatory bacterium that attacks and invades Gram-negative bacteria. The predator requires living bacteria to survive as growth and replication take place inside the bacterial prey. It is possible to isolate mutants that grow and replicate outside prey bacteria. Such mutants are designated host or prey independent, and their nutritional requirements vary. Some mutants are saprophytic and require prey extracts for extracellular growth, whereas other mutants grow axenically, which denotes the formation of colonies on complete medium in the absence of any prey components. The initial events leading to prey-independent growth are still under debate, and several genes may be involved. We selected new mutants by three different methods: spontaneous mutation, transposon mutagenesis, and targeted gene knockout. By all approaches we isolated mutants of the hit (host interaction) locus. As the relevance of this locus for the development of prey independence has been questioned, we performed whole-genome sequencing of five prey-independent mutants. Three mutants were saprophytic, and two mutants could grow axenically. Whole-genome analysis revealed that the mutation of a small open reading frame of the hit locus is sufficient for the conversion from predatory to saprophytic growth. Complementation experiments were performed by introduction of a plasmid carrying the wild-type hit gene into saprophytic mutants, and predatory growth could be restored. Whole-genome sequencing of two axenic mutants demonstrated that in addition to the hit mutation the colony formation on complete medium was shown to be influenced by the mutations of two genes involved in RNA processing. Complementation experiments with a wild-type gene encoding an RNA helicase, RhlB, abolished the ability to form colonies on complete medium, indicating that stability of RNA influences axenic growth. PMID:21278289

  8. Identification of Genes Essential for Prey-Independent Growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100? §

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Nicole; Klages, Sven; Reinhardt, Richard; Linscheid, Michael; Strauch, Eckhard

    2011-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is an obligate predatory bacterium that attacks and invades Gram-negative bacteria. The predator requires living bacteria to survive as growth and replication take place inside the bacterial prey. It is possible to isolate mutants that grow and replicate outside prey bacteria. Such mutants are designated host or prey independent, and their nutritional requirements vary. Some mutants are saprophytic and require prey extracts for extracellular growth, whereas other mutants grow axenically, which denotes the formation of colonies on complete medium in the absence of any prey components. The initial events leading to prey-independent growth are still under debate, and several genes may be involved. We selected new mutants by three different methods: spontaneous mutation, transposon mutagenesis, and targeted gene knockout. By all approaches we isolated mutants of the hit (host interaction) locus. As the relevance of this locus for the development of prey independence has been questioned, we performed whole-genome sequencing of five prey-independent mutants. Three mutants were saprophytic, and two mutants could grow axenically. Whole-genome analysis revealed that the mutation of a small open reading frame of the hit locus is sufficient for the conversion from predatory to saprophytic growth. Complementation experiments were performed by introduction of a plasmid carrying the wild-type hit gene into saprophytic mutants, and predatory growth could be restored. Whole-genome sequencing of two axenic mutants demonstrated that in addition to the hit mutation the colony formation on complete medium was shown to be influenced by the mutations of two genes involved in RNA processing. Complementation experiments with a wild-type gene encoding an RNA helicase, RhlB, abolished the ability to form colonies on complete medium, indicating that stability of RNA influences axenic growth. PMID:21278289

  9. Heterologous production of desferrioxamines with a fusion biosynthetic gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaki J; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Desferrioxamines E (1), D2 (2), X1 (3), and X2 (4), four macrocyclic N-hydroxy-N-succinyl diamine-based siderophores, were produced efficiently by heterologous expression of a fusion biosynthetic gene cluster. This expression system consisted of three genes (mbsA-C) from marine metagenomic DNA and one gene (dfoC(C)) from the terrestrial bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The first three genes are functional in the production of the common monomers N-hydroxy-N-succinyl cadaverine (5, HSC) and N-hydroxy-N-succinyl putrescine (6, HSP), whereas dfoC(C) catalyzes the oligomerization and the macrocyclization reactions of compounds 5 and 6 to form compounds 1-4. This fusion gene cluster system provides a convenient expression platform for various biosynthetic genes of HSC-HSP based siderophores by simply switching the fourth gene by the cassette process. PMID:24317070

  10. A Conditional Mouse Model for Measuring the Frequency of Homologous Recombination Events In Vivo in the Absence of Essential Genes?‡

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adam D.; Claybon, Alison B.; Bishop, Alexander J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and repair DNA damage is crucial to the prevention of various diseases. Loss of function of genes involved in these processes is known to result in significant developmental defects and/or predisposition to cancer. One such DNA repair mechanism, homologous recombination, has the capacity to repair a wide variety of lesions. Knockout mouse models of genes thought to be involved in DNA repair processes are frequently lethal, making in vivo studies very difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, we set out to develop an in vivo conditional mouse model system to facilitate investigations into the involvement of essential genes in homologous recombination. To test our model, we measured the frequency of spontaneous homologous recombination using the pink-eyed unstable mouse model, in which we conditionally excised either Blm or full-length Brca1 (breast cancer 1, early onset). These two genes are hypothesized to have opposing roles in homologous recombination. In summary, our in vivo data supports in vitro studies suggesting that BLM suppresses homologous recombination, while full-length BRCA1 promotes this process. PMID:21709021

  11. Transcriptional profiling of endogenous germ layer precursor cells identifies dusp4 as an essential gene in zebrafish endoderm specification.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jamie L; Snir, Mirit; Noushmehr, Houtan; Kirby, Martha; Hong, Sung-Kook; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Feldman, Benjamin

    2008-08-26

    A major goal for developmental biologists is to define the behaviors and molecular contents of differentiating cells. We have devised a strategy for isolating cells from diverse embryonic regions and stages in the zebrafish, using computer-guided laser photoconversion of injected Kaede protein and flow cytometry. This strategy enabled us to perform a genome-wide transcriptome comparison of germ layer precursor cells. Mesendoderm and ectoderm precursors cells isolated by this method differentiated appropriately in transplantation assays. Microarray analysis of these cells reidentified known genes at least as efficiently as previously reported strategies that relied on artificial mesendoderm activation or inhibition. We also identified a large set of uncharacterized mesendoderm-enriched genes as well as ectoderm-enriched genes. Loss-of-function studies revealed that one of these genes, the MAP kinase inhibitor dusp4, is essential for early development. Embryos injected with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides that targeted Dusp4 displayed necrosis of head tissues. Marker analysis during late gastrulation revealed a specific loss of sox17, but not of other endoderm markers, and analysis at later stages revealed a loss of foregut and pancreatic endoderm. This specific loss of sox17 establishes a new class of endoderm specification defect. PMID:18719100

  12. The extended auricle1 (eta1) gene is essential for the genetic network controlling postinitiation maize leaf development.

    PubMed Central

    Osmont, Karen S; Jesaitis, Lynne A; Freeling, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The maize leaf is composed of distinct regions with clear morphological boundaries. The ligule and auricle mark the boundary between distal blade and proximal sheath and are amenable to genetic study due to the array of mutants that affect their formation without severely affecting viability. Herein, we describe the novel maize gene extended auricle1 (eta1), which is essential for proper formation of the blade/sheath boundary. Homozygous eta1 individuals have a wavy overgrowth of auricle tissue and the blade/sheath boundary is diffuse. Double-mutant combinations of eta1 with genes in the knox and liguleless pathways result in synergistic and, in some cases, dosage-dependent interactions. While the phenotype of eta1 mutant individuals resembles that of dominant knox overexpression phenotypes, eta1 mutant leaves do not ectopically express knox genes. In addition, eta1 interacts synergistically with lg1 and lg2, but does not directly affect the transcription of either gene in leaf primordia. We present evidence based on genetic and molecular analyses that eta1 provides a downstream link between the knox and liguleless pathways. PMID:14668398

  13. The MET13 Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Essential for Infection-Related Morphogenesis in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Congcong; Li, Ya; Yue, Xiaofeng; Ma, Zhonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Wang, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs) play a key role in the biosynthesis of methionine in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we report the identification of a novel T-DNA-tagged mutant WH672 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, which was defective in vegetative growth, conidiation and pathogenicity. Analysis of the mutation confirmed a single T-DNA insertion upstream of MET13, which encodes a 626-amino-acid protein encoding a MTHFR. Targeted gene deletion of MET13 resulted in mutants that were non-pathogenic and significantly impaired in aerial growth and melanin pigmentation. All phenotypes associated with ?met13 mutants could be overcome by addition of exogenous methionine. The M. oryzae genome contains a second predicted MTHFR-encoding gene, MET12. The deduced amino acid sequences of Met13 and Met12 share 32% identity. Interestingly, ?met12 mutants produced significantly less conidia compared with the isogenic wild-type strain and grew very poorly in the absence of methionine, but were fully pathogenic. Deletion of both genes resulted in ?met13?met12 mutants that showed similar phenotypes to single ?met13 mutants. Taken together, we conclude that the MTHFR gene, MET13, is essential for infection-related morphogenesis by the rice blast fungus M. oryzae. PMID:24116181

  14. Homodimerization Is Essential for the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE)-mediated Signal Transduction*

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Hongliang; Madden, Angelina; Ward, Micheal; Mooney, Mark H.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Stitt, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor that binds to diverse ligands and initiates a downstream proinflammatory signaling cascade. RAGE activation has been linked to diabetic complications, Alzheimer disease, infections, and cancers. RAGE is known to mediate cell signaling and downstream proinflammatory gene transcription activation, although the precise mechanism surrounding receptor-ligand interactions is still being elucidated. Recent fluorescence resonance energy transfer evidence indicates that RAGE may form oligomers on the cell surface and that this could be related to signal transduction. To investigate whether RAGE forms oligomers, protein-protein interaction assays were carried out. Here, we demonstrate the interaction between RAGE molecules via their N-terminal V domain, which is an important region involved in ligand recognition. By protein cross-linking using water-soluble and membrane-impermeable cross-linker bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate and nondenaturing gels, we show that RAGE forms homodimers at the plasma membrane, a process potentiated by S100B and advanced glycation end products. Soluble RAGE, the RAGE inhibitor, is also capable of binding to RAGE, similar to V peptide, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Incubation of cells with soluble RAGE or RAGE V domain peptide inhibits RAGE dimerization, subsequent phosphorylation of intracellular MAPK proteins, and activation of NF-?B pathways. Thus, the data indicate that dimerization of RAGE represents an important component of RAGE-mediated cell signaling. PMID:20504772

  15. PFP1, a Gene Encoding an Epc-N Domain-Containing Protein, Is Essential for Pathogenicity of the Barley Pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Siersleben, Sylvia; Penselin, Daniel; Wenzel, Claudia; Albert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune is an important foliar disease of barley. Insertion mutagenesis of R. commune generated a nonpathogenic fungal mutant which carries the inserted plasmid in the upstream region of a gene named PFP1. The characteristic feature of the gene product is an Epc-N domain. This motif is also found in homologous proteins shown to be components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes of fungi and animals. Therefore, PFP1 is suggested to be the subunit of a HAT complex in R. commune with an essential role in the epigenetic control of fungal pathogenicity. Targeted PFP1 disruption also yielded nonpathogenic mutants which showed wild-type-like growth ex planta, except for the occurrence of hyphal swellings. Complementation of the deletion mutants with the wild-type gene reestablished pathogenicity and suppressed the hyphal swellings. However, despite wild-type-level PFP1 expression, the complementation mutants did not reach wild-type-level virulence. This indicates that the function of the protein complex and, thus, fungal virulence are influenced by a position-affected long-range control of PFP1 expression. PMID:24906413

  16. Effects of essential oils on rumen fermentation, milk production, and feeding behavior in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tager, L R; Krause, K M

    2011-05-01

    Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in an incomplete Latin rectangle design to assess the effects of 2 commercial essential oil (EO) products on rumen fermentation, milk production, and feeding behavior. Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a 42:58 forage:concentrate ratio (DM basis). Treatments included addition of 0.5 g/d of CE Lo (85 mg of cinnamaldehyde and 140 mg of eugenol), 10 g/d of CE Hi (1,700 mg of cinnamaldehyde and 2,800 mg of eugenol), 0.25 g/d of CAP (50mg of capsicum), or no oil (CON). Cows were fed ad libitum twice daily for 21 d per period. Dry matter intake, number of meals/d, h eating/d, mean meal length, rumination events/d, h ruminating/d, and mean rumination length were not affected by EO. However, length of the first meal after feeding decreased with addition of CE Hi (47.2 min) and CAP (49.4 min) compared with CON (65.4 min). Total volatile fatty acids, individual volatile fatty acids, acetate:propionate ratio, and ammonia concentration were not affected by EO. Mean rumen pH as well as bouts, total h, mean bout length, total area, and mean bout area under pH 5.6 did not differ among treatments. Total tract digestibility of organic matter, dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, and starch were not affected by EO. Milk yield and composition did not change with EO. In situ dry matter disappearance of ground soybean hulls was not affected by EO. However, organic matter disappearance of soybean hulls with CE Hi tended to decrease compared with CON. Compared with CON, neutral detergent fiber disappearance (41.5 vs. 37.6%) and acid detergent fiber disappearance (44.5 vs. 38.8%) decreased with addition of CE Hi. The CE Lo had no effect on rumen fermentation, milk production, or feeding behavior but CAP shortened the length of the first meal without changing rumen fermentation or production, making it a possible additive for altering feeding behavior. The CE Hi negatively affected rumen fermentation and shortened the length of the first meal, suggesting that a dose of 10 g/d is not beneficial to lactating dairy cows. PMID:21524537

  17. Identification of a New Gene Essential for Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Ca2+-Dipicolinate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katerina Ragkousi; Patrick Eichenberger; Christiaan van Ooij; Peter Setlow

    2003-01-01

    Ca2-DPA. The other two were mapped to an open reading frame, ywdL, encoding a protein of unknown function. Analysis of ywdL expression showed that the gene is expressed during sporulation in the mother cell compartment of the sporulating cell and that its transcription is E dependent. Functional characterization of YwdL demonstrated that it is a new spore coat protein that

  18. Identification of a gene essential for sheathed structure formation in Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous sheathed bacterium.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiko; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2002-01-01

    Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous bacterium that causes bulking in activated sludge processes, can assume two distinct morphologies, depending on the substrate concentration for growth; in substrate-rich media it grows as single rod-shaped cells, whereas in substrate-limited media it grows as filaments. To identify genes responsible for sheath formation, we carried out transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. Of the approximately 20,000 mutants obtained, 7 did not form sheathed structures. Sequencing of the Tn5-flanking regions showed that five of the seven Tn5 insertions converged at the same open reading frame, designated sthA. The deduced amino acids encoded by sthA were found to be homologous to glycosyltransferase, which is known to be involved in linking sugars to lipid carriers during bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Disruption of the gene of the wild-type strain by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette also resulted in sheathless growth under either type of nutrient condition. These findings indicate that sthA is a crucial component responsible for sheath formation. PMID:11772646

  19. Identification of a Gene Essential for Sheathed Structure Formation in Sphaerotilus natans, a Filamentous Sheathed Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshihiko; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2002-01-01

    Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous bacterium that causes bulking in activated sludge processes, can assume two distinct morphologies, depending on the substrate concentration for growth; in substrate-rich media it grows as single rod-shaped cells, whereas in substrate-limited media it grows as filaments. To identify genes responsible for sheath formation, we carried out transposon Tn5 mutagenesis. Of the approximately 20,000 mutants obtained, 7 did not form sheathed structures. Sequencing of the Tn5-flanking regions showed that five of the seven Tn5 insertions converged at the same open reading frame, designated sthA. The deduced amino acids encoded by sthA were found to be homologous to glycosyltransferase, which is known to be involved in linking sugars to lipid carriers during bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Disruption of the gene of the wild-type strain by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette also resulted in sheathless growth under either type of nutrient condition. These findings indicate that sthA is a crucial component responsible for sheath formation. PMID:11772646

  20. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

  1. Cytomegalovirus-mediated induction of antisense mRNA expression to UL44 inhibits virus replication in an astrocytoma cell line: identification of an essential gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ripalti, A; Boccuni, M C; Campanini, F; Landini, M P

    1995-01-01

    We have used an antisense RNA approach in the analysis of gene function in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). An astrocytoma cell line (U373-MG) that is permissive for virus replication was permanently transfected with a construct bearing sequence from HCMV UL44 (coding for the major late DNA-binding protein, ppUL44, also known as pp52 or ICP36) in an antisense orientation and under the control of the immediate-early enhancer-promoter element. Upon HCMV infection at a high multiplicity, we found a marked reduction in UL44 protein products (the ICP36 family of proteins) in established cell transfectants and a strong inhibition of virus yield in infected-cell supernatants at two weeks postinfection, while herpes simplex virus replication was not affected. In infected cells, viral DNA replication was strongly inhibited. While gene products such as pUS22 and pUL32 were also inhibited, pUL123 and pUL82 accumulated in the infected cells over time. Our data suggest an essential role for the UL44 family of proteins in HCMV replication and represent a model of virus inhibition by virus-induced antisense RNA synthesis in genetically modified cells. PMID:7884850

  2. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated molecular biology platform for production of optimized synthetic genes and improved industrial strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of synthetic assembled gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-bas...

  3. Association between Polymorphisms in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Genes and Essential Hypertension in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Fei, Lijuan; Wang, Lin; Su, Jia; Lazar, Lissy; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the most important endocrine blood pressure control mechanism in our body, genes encoding components of this system have been strong candidates for the investigation of the genetic basis of hypertension. However, previous studies mainly focused on limited polymorphisms, thus we carried out a case-control study in the Han Chinese population to systemically investigate the association between polymorphisms in the RAAS genes and essential hypertension. Methods 905 essential hypertensive cases and 905 normotensive controls were recruited based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. All 41 tagSNPs within RAAS genes were retrieved from HapMap, and the genotyping was performed using the GenomeLab SNPstream Genotyping System. Logistic regression analysis, Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), stratified analysis and crossover analysis were used to identify and characterize interactions among the SNPs and the non-genetic factors. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG), and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control group. Of 41 SNPs genotyped, rs3789678 and rs2493132 within AGT, rs4305 within ACE, rs275645 within AGTR1, rs3802230 and rs10086846 within CYP11B2 were shown to associate with hypertension. The MDR analysis demonstrated that the interaction between BMI and rs4305 increased the susceptibility to hypertension. Crossover analysis and stratified analysis further indicated that BMI has a major effect, and rs4305 has a minor effect. Conclusion These novel findings indicated that together with non-genetic factors, these genetic variants in the RAAS may play an important role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to hypertension in the Han Chinese. PMID:24015270

  4. Association study of common variations of FBN1 gene and essential hypertension in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Yang, Song; Zhao, Xianghai; Shen, Jiahui; Wang, Hairu; Chen, Yanchun; Ji, Yanni; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xuecai; Tang, Junming; Lu, Xiangfeng; Chen, Shufeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Li, Hongfan; Shen, Chong; Zhao, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) was reported to have impact on the physiological arterial stiffness and vascular remodeling with hypertension of recent years. In the previous study we reported the association of four functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FBN1 gene and hypertension. Here, we further investigate the association of four tagging SNPs (tagSNPs) which covered remain genetic variation blocks of FBN1 gene with hypertension, blood pressure and efficacy of antihypertensive in a South Han Chinese population. A case-control study including 2,012 hypertension cases and 2,116 controls age- and sex-matched controls was conducted from a community-based population and four candidate tagSNPs of the FBN1 gene were genotyped. Association analysis by multiple logistic regression was conducted for allele, genotype and haplotype and hypertension, blood pressure trait and control status with antihypertensive. General linear model was applied to compare blood pressure levels between genotypes. The association of rs17361868 and hypertension was statistically significant and that was further observed in female, ?55 years, non-smoking and non-drinking populations (P < 0.05). Significant association of rs668842, rs11635140 and hypertension were observed in <55 years population as well as the later in female and non-smoking populations respectively. Haplotype G-T constructed of rs668842 and rs11635140 was significantly associated with hypertension comparing to reference haplotype A-C (P = 0.022). Normally distributed square root of TGF-?1 (pg/ml) of hypertension cases (148.56 ± 66.46) was significantly higher than that of control (128.52 ± 65.11), P = 0.008. Furthermore, TGF-?1 was significantly correlated with SBP (r = 0.135, P = 0.018) and DBP (r = 0.154, P = 0.007) respectively whereas no statistical difference of blood pressure or TGF-?1 was observed between genotypes. Remarkably, rs17361868 were significantly associated with the status of blood pressure in the patients taking three of the antihypertensive drugs, Zhen Ju Jiang Ya tablets, Jiang Ya tablet and compound reserpine (P < 0.05). The present study provides further association evidence of FBN1 gene polymorphisms and hypertension, antihypertensive efficacy. Further replication of these results via association or prospective studies conducted in other populations is warranted. PMID:24413999

  5. Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Komar. and Its Main Compounds against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Artemisia stolonifera, a perennial herb, is widely distrbuted in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from the aerial parts of Artemisia stolonifera, as well as to evaluate the bioactivity of the oil and its main constituents. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 22 compounds. The main components were eucalyptol (32.93%), ?-pinene (8.18%), camphor (6.12%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.11%), and obtained from the essential oil after a further isolation. During the contact toxicity tests, the essential oil (LD50 = 8.60 ?g/adult) exhibited stronger toxicity against Tribolium castaneum adults than those isolated constituents, however, camphor and terpinen-4-ol showed 1 and 2 times toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults than the essential oil (LD50 = 12.68 ?g/adult) with LD50 values of 11.30 and 5.42 ?g/adult, respectively. In the fumigant toxicity tests, especially on Tribolium castaneum, the essential oil (LC50 = 1.86 mg/L air) showed almost the same level toxicity as positive control, methyl bromide (LC50 = 1.75 mg/L air). Moreover, the essential oil and its four isolated constituents also exhibited strong repellency against two stored-product insects. PMID:25757434

  6. Gene analogue finder: a GRID solution for finding functionally analogous gene products

    PubMed Central

    Tulipano, Angelica; Donvito, Giacinto; Licciulli, Flavio; Maggi, Giorgio; Gisel, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background To date more than 2,1 million gene products from more than 100000 different species have been described specifying their function, the processes they are involved in and their cellular localization using a very well defined and structured vocabulary, the gene ontology (GO). Such vast, well defined knowledge opens the possibility of compare gene products at the level of functionality, finding gene products which have a similar function or are involved in similar biological processes without relying on the conventional sequence similarity approach. Comparisons within such a large space of knowledge are highly data and computing intensive. For this reason this project was based upon the use of the computational GRID, a technology offering large computing and storage resources. Results We have developed a tool, GENe AnaloGue FINdEr (ENGINE) that parallelizes the search process and distributes the calculation and data over the computational GRID, splitting the process into many sub-processes and joining the calculation and the data on the same machine and therefore completing the whole search in about 3 days instead of occupying one single machine for more than 5 CPU years. The results of the functional comparison contain potential functional analogues for more than 79000 gene products from the most important species. 46% of the analyzed gene products are well enough described for such an analysis to individuate functional analogues, such as well-known members of the same gene family, or gene products with similar functions which would never have been associated by standard methods. Conclusion ENGINE has produced a list of potential functionally analogous relations between gene products within and between species using, in place of the sequence, the gene description of the GO, thus demonstrating the potential of the GO. However, the current limiting factor is the quality of the associations of many gene products from non-model organisms that often have electronic associations, since experimental information is missing. With future improvements of the GO, this limit will be reduced. ENGINE will manifest its power when it is applied to the whole GODB of more than 2,1 million gene products from more than 100000 organisms. The data produced by this search is planed to be available as a supplement to the GO database as soon as we are able to provide regular updates. PMID:17767718

  7. The Tolkin Gene Is a Tolloid/Bmp-1 Homologue That Is Essential for Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, A. L.; Xie, T.; Bossie, C. A.; Blackman, R. K.; Padgett, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene, a member of the tranforming growth factor ? superfamily of growth factors, is critical for specification of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, for proper formation of the midgut, and for formation of Drosophila adult structures. The Drosophila tolloid gene has been shown to genetically interact with dpp. The genetic interaction between tolloid and dpp suggests a model in which the tolloid protein participates in a complex containing the DPP ligand, its protease serving to activate DPP, either directly or indirectly. We report here the identification and cloning of another Drosophila member of the tolloid/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 1 family, tolkin, which is located 700 bp 5' to tolloid. Its overall structure is like tolloid, with an N-terminal metalloprotease domain, five complement subcomponents C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1 (CUB) repeats and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats. Its expression pattern overlaps that of tolloid and dpp in early embryos and diverges in later stages. In larval tissues, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed uniformly in the imaginal disks. In the brain, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed in the outer proliferation center, whereas tolkin has another stripe of expression near the outer proliferation center. Analysis of lethal mutations in tolkin indicate it is vital during larval and pupal stages. Analysis of its mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggests that its functions may be mostly independent of tolloid and dpp. PMID:8536976

  8. cor, a Novel Carbon Monoxide Resistance Gene, Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, Vineetha M.; Manzanillo, Paolo S.; Nair, Vidhya R.; Marciano, Denise K.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Grishin, Nick V.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Shiloh, Michael U.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. PMID:24255121

  9. The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE genes of Arabidopsis are essential for resistance induced by methyl jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background NPR1 is a gene of Arabidopsis thaliana required for the perception of salicylic acid. This perception triggers a defense response and negatively regulates the perception of jasmonates. Surprisingly, the application of methyl jasmonate also induces resistance, and NPR1 is also suspected to be relevant. Since an allelic series of npr1 was recently described, the behavior of these alleles was tested in response to methyl jasmonate. Results The response to methyl jasmonate of different npr1s alleles and NPR1 paralogs null mutants was measured by the growth of a pathogen. We have also tested the subcellular localization of some npr1s, along with the protein-protein interactions that can be measured in yeast. The localization of the protein in npr1 alleles does not affect the response to methyl jasmonate. In fact, NPR1 is not required. The genes that are required in a redundant fashion are the BOPs. The BOPs are paralogs of NPR1, and they physically interact with the TGA family of transcription factors. Conclusions Some npr1 alleles have a phenotype in this response likely because they are affecting the interaction between BOPs and TGAs, and these two families of proteins are responsible for the resistance induced by methyl jasmonate in wild type plants. PMID:23116333

  10. Basil plants growth and essential oil yield in a production system with successive cuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André May; Odair Alves Bovi; Nilson Borlina Maia; Lauro Euclides Soares Barata; Rita de Cassia Zacardi de Souza; Eduardo Mattoso Ramos de Souza; Andrea Rocha Almeida de Moraes; Mariane Quaglia Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    This work studied the growth of basil plants and the effect of successive cuts on the total yield and quality of the essential oil, throughout the crop cycle. Steady increases were observed in the dry weight of the aerial part and in the essential oil yield, during the cultivation cycle. Intensive cultivation and successive cuts could improve the agronomical and

  11. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  12. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Shamina M. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lindsley, Loren [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiaomei [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Shaughnessy, Stacey [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Daniels, Thomas G. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Szustakowski, Joseph [Genome and Proteome Sciences, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nirmala, N.R. [Genome and Proteome Sciences, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wu, Zhidan [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stevenson, Susan C. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

  13. Addition of Escherichia coli K-12 Growth Observation and Gene Essentiality Data to the EcoCyc Database

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Amanda; Paley, Suzanne; Keseler, Ingrid M.; Shearer, Alexander; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    The sets of compounds that can support growth of an organism are defined by the presence of transporters and metabolic pathways that convert nutrient sources into cellular components and energy for growth. A collection of known nutrient sources can therefore serve both as an impetus for investigating new metabolic pathways and transporters and as a reference for computational modeling of known metabolic pathways. To establish such a collection for Escherichia coli K-12, we have integrated data on the growth or nongrowth of E. coli K-12 obtained from published observations using a variety of individual media and from high-throughput phenotype microarrays into the EcoCyc database. The assembled collection revealed a substantial number of discrepancies between the high-throughput data sets, which we investigated where possible using low-throughput growth assays on soft agar and in liquid culture. We also integrated six data sets describing 16,119 observations of the growth of single-gene knockout mutants of E. coli K-12 into EcoCyc, which are relevant to antimicrobial drug design, provide clues regarding the roles of genes of unknown function, and are useful for validating metabolic models. To make this information easily accessible to EcoCyc users, we developed software for capturing, querying, and visualizing cellular growth assays and gene essentiality data. PMID:24363340

  14. Glycoprotein H of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Forms a Stable Complex With The HCMV UL115 Gene Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Kaye; U. A. Gompels; A. C. Minson

    1992-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL75 gene product is the homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein H (gH), a virion glycoprotein that is essential for infectivity and which is conserved among members of the alpha-, beta- and gamma- herpesviruses. It has previously been shown that HSV-1 gH forms a stable complex with HSV-1 gL, the product of the

  15. ALLOANTISERUM-INDUCED INHIBITION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE GENE PRODUCT FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Shevach, Ethan M.; Green, Ira; Paul, William E.

    1974-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that alloantisera can specifically block the activation of T lymphocytes by antigens, the response to which is linked to the presence of histocompatibility (H) types against which the alloantisera are directed. Thus, strain 13 anti-2 serum can inhibit the activation of (2 x 13)F1 T lymphocytes by a DNP derivative of a copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-lysine (DNP-GL), an antigen the response to which is controlled by a 2-linked Ir gene. It was proposed that alloantisera can inhibit T-lymphocyte antigen recognition through interference with the activity of immune response (Ir) gene products. In order to further study whether the inhibitory antibodies within the alloantisera are directed against H antigens or against the products of the Ir genes, we have examined whether the anti-2 serum can inhibit the function of an Ir gene (the L-glutamic acid and L-alanine [GA] gene), which is normally linked to strain 2 H genes when this gene occurs in an outbred animal lacking strain 2 H genes. In the majority of cases, the anti-2 serum was capable of inhibiting the in vitro proliferative response to GA of T cells derived from animals that were GA+2+, but the serum had little if any effect on the GA response of T cells from GA+2- animals. Furthermore, an antiserum prepared in strain 13 animals against the lymphoid cells of a GA+2- outbred animal was devoid of inhibitory activity on the GA response of cells from a (2 x 13)F1, while an antiserum prepared in strain 13 animals against the lymphoid cells of a GA+2+ outbred animal was capable of specifically inhibiting the response to GA. It thus appears that the inhibition of the GA response by the anti-2 serum is primarily mediated via antibodies directed toward strain 2 H antigens rather than antibodies specific for the product of the GA Ir gene. The mechanism of alloantiserum induced suppression of Ir gene function would then be by steric interference with the Ir gene product on the cell surface, rather than by direct binding to it. This conclusion implies that the products of both the H genes and the Ir genes are physically related on the cell surface. The implications of such a relationship in terms of the fluid-mosaic model of the lymphocyte surface are discussed. PMID:4591175

  16. Tasks Essential to Successful Performance within Animal Production and Management Occupations in Ohio. Summary of Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, Michael N.; McCracken, J. David

    A study was conducted to identify the skills which are performed and essential for success in seven animal production and management (small animal care) occupations: animal health assistant, laboratory animal assistant, kennel worker, dog groomer, pet shop worker, stable worker, and zoo keeper. Specific objectives were (1) to develop and validate…

  17. The Zebrafish fleer Gene Encodes an Essential Regulator of Cilia Tubulin Polyglutamylation

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Narendra; Obara, Tomoko; Mangos, Steve; Liu, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Cilia and basal bodies are essential organelles for a broad spectrum of functions, including the development of left-right asymmetry, kidney function, cerebrospinal fluid transport, generation of photoreceptor outer segments, and hedgehog signaling. Zebrafish fleer (flr) mutants exhibit kidney cysts, randomized left-right asymmetry, hydrocephalus, and rod outer segment defects, suggesting a pleiotropic defect in ciliogenesis. Positional cloning flr identified a tetratricopeptide repeat protein homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans protein DYF1 that was highly expressed in ciliated cells. flr pronephric cilia were shortened and showed a reduced beat amplitude, and olfactory cilia were absent in mutants. flr cilia exhibited ultrastructural defects in microtubule B-tubules, similar to axonemes that lack tubulin posttranslational modifications (polyglutamylation or polyglycylation). flr cilia showed a dramatic reduction in cilia polyglutamylated tubulin, indicating that flr encodes a novel modulator of tubulin polyglutamylation. We also found that the C. elegans flr homologue, dyf-1, is also required for tubulin polyglutamylation in sensory neuron cilia. Knockdown of zebrafish Ttll6, a tubulin polyglutamylase, specifically eliminated tubulin polyglutamylation and cilia formation in olfactory placodes, similar to flr mutants. These results are the first in vivo evidence that tubulin polyglutamylation is required for vertebrate cilia motility and structure, and, when compromised, results in failed ciliogenesis. PMID:17761526

  18. Natural product biosynthetic gene diversity in geographically distinct soil microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Kim, Jeffrey H; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Feng, Zhiyang; Brady, Sean F

    2012-05-01

    The number of bacterial species estimated to exist on Earth has increased dramatically in recent years. This newly recognized species diversity has raised the possibility that bacterial natural product biosynthetic diversity has also been significantly underestimated by previous culture-based studies. Here, we compare 454-pyrosequenced nonribosomal peptide adenylation domain, type I polyketide ketosynthase domain, and type II polyketide ketosynthase alpha gene fragments amplified from cosmid libraries constructed using DNA isolated from three different arid soils. While 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates these cloned metagenomes contain DNA from similar distributions of major bacterial phyla, we found that they contain almost completely distinct collections of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene sequences. When grouped at 85% identity, only 1.5% of the adenylation domain, 1.2% of the ketosynthase, and 9.3% of the ketosynthase alpha sequence clusters contained sequences from all three metagenomes. Although there is unlikely to be a simple correlation between biosynthetic gene sequence diversity and the diversity of metabolites encoded by the gene clusters in which these genes reside, our analysis further suggests that sequences in one soil metagenome are so distantly related to sequences in another metagenome that they are, in many cases, likely to arise from functionally distinct gene clusters. The marked differences observed among collections of biosynthetic genes found in even ecologically similar environments suggest that prokaryotic natural product biosynthesis diversity is, like bacterial species diversity, potentially much larger than appreciated from culture-based studies. PMID:22427492

  19. Natural Product Biosynthetic Gene Diversity in Geographically Distinct Soil Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Boojala Vijay B.; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Kim, Jeffrey H.; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Feng, Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    The number of bacterial species estimated to exist on Earth has increased dramatically in recent years. This newly recognized species diversity has raised the possibility that bacterial natural product biosynthetic diversity has also been significantly underestimated by previous culture-based studies. Here, we compare 454-pyrosequenced nonribosomal peptide adenylation domain, type I polyketide ketosynthase domain, and type II polyketide ketosynthase alpha gene fragments amplified from cosmid libraries constructed using DNA isolated from three different arid soils. While 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates these cloned metagenomes contain DNA from similar distributions of major bacterial phyla, we found that they contain almost completely distinct collections of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene sequences. When grouped at 85% identity, only 1.5% of the adenylation domain, 1.2% of the ketosynthase, and 9.3% of the ketosynthase alpha sequence clusters contained sequences from all three metagenomes. Although there is unlikely to be a simple correlation between biosynthetic gene sequence diversity and the diversity of metabolites encoded by the gene clusters in which these genes reside, our analysis further suggests that sequences in one soil metagenome are so distantly related to sequences in another metagenome that they are, in many cases, likely to arise from functionally distinct gene clusters. The marked differences observed among collections of biosynthetic genes found in even ecologically similar environments suggest that prokaryotic natural product biosynthesis diversity is, like bacterial species diversity, potentially much larger than appreciated from culture-based studies. PMID:22427492

  20. A soxA Gene, Encoding a Diheme Cytochrome c, and a sox Locus, Essential for Sulfur Oxidation in a New Sulfur Lithotrophic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N.; Deb, Chirajyoti; Lahiri, Chandrajit; Roy, Pradosh

    2000-01-01

    A mobilizable suicide vector, pSUP5011, was used to introduce Tn5-mob in a new facultative sulfur lithotrophic bacterium, KCT001, to generate mutants defective in sulfur oxidation (Sox?). The Sox? mutants were unable to oxidize thiosulfate while grown mixotrophically in the presence of thiosulfate and succinate. The mutants were also impaired in oxidizing other reduced sulfur compounds and elemental sulfur as evident from the study of substrate oxidation by the whole cells. Sulfite oxidase activity was significantly diminished in the cell extracts of all the mutants. A soxA gene was identified from the transposon-adjacent genomic DNA of a Sox? mutant strain. The sequence analysis revealed that the soxA open reading frame (ORF) is preceded by a potential ribosome binding site and promoter region with ?10- and ?35-like sequences. The deduced nucleotide sequence of the soxA gene was predicted to code for a protein of 286 amino acids. It had a signal peptide of 26 N-terminal amino acids. The amino acid sequence showed similarity with a putative gene product of Aquifex aeolicus, soluble cytochrome c551 of Chlorobium limicola, and the available partial SoxA sequence of Paracoccus denitrificans. The soxA-encoded product seems to be a diheme cytochrome c for KCT001 and A. aeolicus, but the amino acid sequence of C. limicola cytochrome c551 revealed a single heme-binding region. Another transposon insertion mutation was mapped within the soxA ORF. Four other independent transposon insertion mutations were mapped in the 4.4-kb soxA contiguous genomic DNA region. The results thus suggest that a sox locus of KCT001, essential for sulfur oxidation, was affected by all these six independent insertion mutations. PMID:10894738

  1. Trastuzumab Alters the Expression of Genes Essential for Cardiac Function and Induces Ultrastructural Changes of Cardiomyocytes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ElZarrad, M. Khair; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Mohan, Nishant; Hao, Enkui; Dokmanovic, Milos; Hirsch, Dianne S.; Shen, Yi; Pacher, Pal; Wu, Wen Jin

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), very successfully improves outcomes for women with HER2-positive breast cancer. However, trastuzumab treatment was recently linked to potentially irreversible serious cardiotoxicity, the mechanisms of which are largely elusive. This study reports that trastuzumab significantly alters the expression of myocardial genes essential for DNA repair, cardiac and mitochondrial functions, which is associated with impaired left ventricular performance in mice coupled with significant ultrastructural alterations in cardiomyocytes revealed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, trastuzumab treatment also promotes oxidative stress and apoptosis in myocardium of mice, and elevates serum levels of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) and cardiac myosin light chain-1 (cMLC1). The elevated serum levels of cMLC1 in mice treated with trastuzumab highlights the potential that cMLC1 could be a useful biomarker for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24255707

  2. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, ?-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  3. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5?336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  4. Fragile histidine triad gene alterations are not essential for hepatocellular carcinoma development in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Chang Woo; Shin, Jung Woo; Park, Neung Hwa

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To establish the role of FHIT in the pathogenesis hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We examined genomic alterations, as well as, mRNA and protein expression patterns from the FHIT gene, in 48 surgically resected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. Additionally, p53 mutations were analyzed. RESULTS: Aberrant FHIT transcripts were detected in 11 of 48 surrounding non-tumor liver tissues and 27 of 48 HCC samples (22.9% vs 56.3%, P = 0.002). No point mutations were identified within the open reading frame region of FHIT. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the FHIT locus was detected in 4 of 42 informative cases for D3S1300, and 3 of 29 informative cases for D3S1313. Reduced expression of FHIT protein (Fhit) was observed in 8 (16.7%) of 48 HCC samples, with complete loss of Fhit in only 1 case. There were no associations with abnormal transcripts, LOH, and Fhit expression. p53 mutations were identified in 9 of the 48 HCC cases. However, none of the cases displayed a G to T transversion at p53 codon 249. CONCLUSION: Aberrant FHIT transcripts were more common in HCC tissues as compared to non-cancerous liver tissues. However, Fhit expression was lost or reduced in a minor fraction of HCC tissues, while it was strongly expressed in non-cancerous liver tissues. Therefore, our study suggests that FHIT plays a role in relatively few HCC cases in South Korea. PMID:18567082

  5. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Shaaya; Uzi Ravid; Nachman Paster; Benjamin Juven; Uzi Zisman; Vladimir Pissarev

    1991-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopteransRhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, andSitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most

  6. Widespread expression of Huntington's disease gene (IT15) protein product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H Sharp; Scott J Loev; Gabriele Schilling; Shi-Hua Li; Xiao-Jiang Li; Jun Bao; Molly V Wagster; Joyce A Kotzuk; Joseph P Steiner; Amy Lo; John Hedreen; Sangram Sisodia; Solomon H Snyder; Ted M Dawson; David K Ryugo; Christopher A Ross

    1995-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat within a putative open reading frame of a recently identified gene, IT15. We have examined the expression of the gene's protein product using antibodies developed against the N-terminus and an internal epitope. Both antisera recognize a 350 kDa protein, the predicted size, indicating that the CAG repeat is translated

  7. Perinatal Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions on IgE Production and Asthma Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Lin; Chen, Rong-Fu; Liu, Chieh-An

    2012-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a complex disease associated with IgE-mediated immune reactions. Numerous genome-wide studies identified more than 100 genes in 22 chromosomes associated with atopic asthma, and different genetic backgrounds in different environments could modulate susceptibility to atopic asthma. Current knowledge emphasizes the effect of tobacco smoke on the development of childhood asthma. This suggests that asthma, although heritable, is significantly affected by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Evidence has recently shown that molecular mechanism of a complex disease may be limited to not only DNA sequence differences, but also gene-environmental interactions for epigenetic difference. This paper reviews and summarizes how gene-gene and gene-environment interactions affect IgE production and the development of atopic asthma in prenatal and childhood stages. Based on the mechanisms responsible for perinatal gene-environment interactions on IgE production and development of asthma, we formulate several potential strategies to prevent the development of asthma in the perinatal stage. PMID:22481967

  8. Bracovirus gene products are highly divergent from insect proteins.

    PubMed

    Bézier, Annie; Herbinière, Juline; Serbielle, Céline; Lesobre, Jérome; Wincker, Patrick; Huguet, Elisabeth; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2008-04-01

    Recently, several polydnavirus (PDV) genomes have been completely sequenced. The dsDNA circles enclosed in virus particles and injected by wasps into caterpillars appear to mainly encode virulence factors potentially involved in altering host immunity and/or development, thereby allowing the survival of the parasitoid larvae within the host tissues. Parasitoid wasps generally inject virulence factors produced in the venom gland. As PDV genomes are inherited vertically by wasps through a proviral form, wasp virulence genes may have been transferred to this chromosomal form, leading to their incorporation into virus particles. Indeed, many gene products from Cotesia congregata bracovirus (CcBV), such as PTPs, IkappaB-like, and cystatins, contain protein domains conserved in metazoans. Surprisingly however, CcBV virulence gene products are not more closely related to insect proteins than to human proteins. To determine whether the distance between CcBV and insect proteins is a specific feature of BV proteins or simply reflects a general high divergence of parasitoid wasp products, which might be due to parasitic lifestyle, we have analyzed the sequences of wasp genes obtained from a cDNA library. Wasp sequences having a high similarity with Apis mellifera genes involved in a variety of biological functions could be identified indicating that the high level of divergence observed for BV products is a hallmark of these viral proteins. We discuss how this divergence might be explained in the context of the current hypotheses on the origin and evolution of wasp-bracovirus associations. PMID:18348209

  9. Identification of the phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase isoform EDA9 as the essential gene for embryo and male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Toujani, Walid; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Flores-Tornero, María; Rosa-Téllez, Sara; Anoman, Armand Djoro; Ros, Roc

    2013-01-01

    Three different pathways of serine (Ser) biosynthesis have been described in plants: the Glycolate pathway, which is part of the Photorespiratory pathway, and 2 non-Photorespiratory pathways, the Glycerate and the Phosphorylated pathways. The Phosphorylated Pathway of Ser Biosynthesis (PPSB) has been known to exist since the 1950s, but its biological relevance was not revealed until quite recently when the last enzyme of the pathway, the Phosphoserine Phosphatase, was functionally characterized. In the associated study1, we characterized a family of genes coding for putatite phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDH, 3-PGDH, and EDA9), the first enzyme of the PPSB. A metabolomics study using overexpressing plants indicated that all PGDH family genes were able to regulate Ser homeostasis but only lacking of EDA9 expression caused drastic developmental defects. We provided genetic and molecular evidence for the essential role of EDA9 for embryo and pollen development. Here, some new insights into the physiological/molecular function of PPSB and Ser are presented and discussed. PMID:24304635

  10. Identification of the phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase isoform EDA9 as the essential gene for embryo and male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Toujani, Walid; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Flores-Tornero, María; Rosa-Téllez, Sara; Anoman, Armand; Ros, Roc

    2013-11-01

    Three different pathways of serine (Ser) biosynthesis have been described in plants: the Glycolate pathway, which is part of the Photorespiratory pathway, and 2 non-Photorespiratory pathways, the Glycerate and the Phosphorylated pathways. The Phosphorylated Pathway of Ser Biosynthesis (PPSB) has been known to exist since the 1950s, but its biological relevance was not revealed until quite recently when the last enzyme of the pathway, the Phosphoserine Phosphatase, was functionally characterized. In the associated study (1), we characterized a family of genes coding for putatite phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDH, 3-PGDH, and EDA9), the first enzyme of the PPSB. A metabolomics study using overexpressing plants indicated that all PGDH family genes were able to regulate Ser homeostasis but only lacking of EDA9 expression caused drastic developmental defects. We provided genetic and molecular evidence for the essential role of EDA9 for embryo and pollen development. Here, some new insights into the physiological/molecular function of PPSB and Ser are presented and discussed. PMID:24304635

  11. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A. T. Y.; Hale, C.; Xia, J.; Tate, P. H.; Goulding, D.; Keane, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Forrester, L.; Billker, O.; Skarnes, W. C.; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dougan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  12. Effects of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa on cytokine genes in the hippocampus of maternal separation rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Jong Woo

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effects of an essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) on early life stress, using maternal separation (MS) rats and a microarray method to analyze the changes in gene expressions caused by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Rats in the MS groups were separated from their respective mothers from postnatal day (pnd) 14 to 28. Rats in the EOCO-treated groups were exposed to EOCO for 1 or 2 h by inhalation from pnd 21 to 28. The EOCO-treated MS rats showed decreased anxiety-related behaviors compared with the untreated MS rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. In the microarray analysis, we found that EOCO downregulated the expressions of cytokine genes such as Ccl2, Il6, Cxcl10, Ccl19, and Il1rl in the hippocampus of MS rats, and also confirmed that using reverse transcriptase - PCR. In particular, the expressions of Ccl2 and Il6 were predominantly decreased by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Interestingly, protein expression was also reduced by EOCO in MS rats. These results indicate that EOCO decreases MS-induced anxiety-related behaviors, and modulates cytokines, particularly Ccl2 and Il6, in the hippocampus of MS rats. PMID:24502631

  13. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Yeung, A T Y; Hale, C; Xia, J; Tate, P H; Goulding, D; Keane, J A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Forrester, L; Billker, O; Skarnes, W C; Hancock, R E W; Dougan, G

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  14. Gene Discovery and Product Development for Grain Quality Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Mazur (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station; )

    1999-07-16

    The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular markerâ??based breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets.

  15. The Schizosaccharomyces Pombe Rec16 Gene Product Regulates Multiple Meiotic Events

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. F.; Smith, G. R.

    1997-01-01

    Previously isolated meiotic recombination (rec) mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe define 16 complementation groups. The rec genes cloned and sequenced to date reveal little amino acid sequence identity to other reported proteins. We examined the rec mutants for alterations in meiotic events other than recombination to gain insight into the rec gene functions and to assess whether they affect recombination directly or indirectly. While mutations in the rec6-12, 14, 15 and 19 genes appeared to affect only meiotic recombination, a mutation in rec16 delayed meiotic DNA synthesis and, in some instances, reduced its amount; mitotic DNA synthesis was not detectably altered, indicating that the rec16 effect is limited to meiosis. In the rec16 mutant some meiotically induced transcripts (e.g., rec7 and 15) were significantly reduced in abundance, whereas others (e.g., rec10 and exo1) were induced and degraded with normal timing and extent during meiosis, indicating that the rec16 mutation leaves the basic meiotic program intact. These results indicate that the rec genes other than rec16 have their primary effect on meiotic recombination. In contrast, the rec16 gene product is essential for normal meiotic replication, recombination, and induction of some transcripts. These meiotic events may be coupled via a dependence of recombination and transcription on replication or via a cascade of gene expression. PMID:9136000

  16. liver-enriched gene 1a and 1b Encode Novel Secretory Proteins Essential for Normal Liver Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Changqing; Hu, Minjie; Zhu, Zhihui; Lo, Li Jan; Chen, Jun; Peng, Jinrong

    2011-01-01

    liver-enriched gene 1 (leg1) is a liver-enriched gene in zebrafish and encodes a novel protein. Our preliminary data suggested that Leg1 is probably involved in early liver development. However, no detailed characterization of Leg1 has been reported thus far. We undertook both bioinformatic and experimental approaches to study leg1 gene structure and its role in early liver development. We found that Leg1 identifies a new conserved protein superfamily featured by the presence of domain of unknown function 781 (DUF781). There are two copies of leg1 in zebrafish, namely leg1a and leg1b. Both leg1a and leg1b are expressed in the larvae and adult liver with leg1a being the predominant form. Knockdown of Leg1a or Leg1b by their respective morpholinos specifically targeting their 5?-UTR each resulted in a small liver phenotype, demonstrating that both Leg1a and Leg1b are important for early liver development. Meanwhile, we found that injection of leg1-ATGMO, a morpholino which can simultaneously block the translation of Leg1a and Leg1b, caused not only a small liver phenotype but hypoplastic exocrine pancreas and intestinal tube as well. Further examination of leg1-ATGMO morphants with early endoderm markers and early hepatic markers revealed that although depletion of total Leg1 does not alter the hepatic and pancreatic fate of the endoderm cells, it leads to cell cycle arrest that results in growth retardation of liver, exocrine pancreas and intestine. Finally, we proved that Leg1 is a secretory protein. This intrigued us to propose that Leg1 might act as a novel secreted regulator that is essential for liver and other digestive organ development in zebrafish. PMID:21857963

  17. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of 10,415 subjects

    PubMed Central

    YANG, KE-MING; JIA, JIAN; MAO, LI-NA; MEN, CHEN; TANG, KANG-TING; LI, YAN-YAN; DING, HAI-XIA; ZHAN, YI-YANG

    2014-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH), however, results remain inconclusive. To investigate this association, the present meta-analysis of 27 studies including 5,418 cases and 4,997 controls was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random-effects model. A significant association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH was found under the allelic (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000), dominant (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25–1.55; P=0.000), recessive (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.62; P=0.000), homozygote (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32–1.92; P=0.000), and heterozygote (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000) genetic models. A strong association was also revealed in subgroups, including Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The Japanese subgroup did not show any significant association under all models. Meta-regression analyses suggested that the study design was a potential source of heterogeneity, whereas the subgroup analysis additionally indicated that the population origin may also be an explanation. Another subgroup analysis revealed that hospital-based studies have a stronger association than population-based studies, however, the former suffered a greater heterogeneity. Funnel plot and Egger’s test manifested no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, the present study supports the evidence for the association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH in the whole population, as well as in subgroups, such as Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The carriers of the 677T allele are susceptible to EH. PMID:25054014

  18. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    DOEpatents

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-08-19

    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  19. The fdxA Ferredoxin Gene Can Down-Regulate frxA Nitroreductase Gene Expression and Is Essential in Many Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Dailidiene, Daiva; Hoffman, Paul S.; Berg, Douglas E.

    2003-01-01

    Very few examples of metabolic regulation are known in the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. An unanticipated case was suggested, however, upon finding two types of metronidazole (Mtz)-susceptible strains: type I, in which frxA (which encodes a nitroreductase that contributes to Mtz susceptibility) is quiescent, and type II, in which frxA is well expressed. Here we report that inactivation of the fdxA ferredoxin gene (hp277) in type I strains resulted in high-level frxA expression (in effect, making them type II). However, fdxA null derivatives were obtained from only 6 of 32 type I strains tested that were readily transformed with an frxA::aphA marker. This suggested that fdxA is often essential. This essentiality was overcome in 4 of 20 strains by inactivating frxA, which suggested both that frxA overexpression is potentially deleterious and also that fdxA has additional, often vital roles. With type II strains, in contrast, fdxA null derivatives were obtained in 20 of 23 cases tested. Thus, fdxA is dispensable in most strains that normally exhibit (and tolerate) strong frxA expression. We propose that restraint of frxA expression helps maintain balanced metabolic networks in most type I strains, that other homeostatic mechanisms predominate in type II strains, and that these complex results constitute a phenotypic manifestation of H. pylori's great genetic diversity. PMID:12700272

  20. Repellent constituents of essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing Song; Zhao, Na Na; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Zhou, Ligang; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2011-09-28

    The screening for bioactive principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts possessed strong repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila , and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum . A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS. trans-Geraniol (16.54%), (R)-citronellal (15.44%), (+)-citronellol (11.51%), and ?-elemol (9.06%) were the main components of the essential oil followed by ?-eudesmol (5.71%) and (+)-limonene (5.05%). From the essential oil, four monoterpenes were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as limonene, citronellol, citronellal, and trans-geraniol. Geraniol and citronellol were strongly repellent against the booklouse, L. bostrychophila, whereas citronellal and limonene exhibited weak repellency against the booklouse. Geraniol and citronellol exhibited comparable repellency against the booklouse relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, geraniol and citronellol exhibited stronger repellency against the red flour beetle than DEET, whereas the two other compounds showed the same level of repellency against the red flour beetle compared with DEET. PMID:21819085

  1. By Thomas S. Jones Manganese (Mn) is essential to iron and steel production by have been among the larger producers. World production of

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    1 MANGANESE By Thomas S. Jones Manganese (Mn) is essential to iron and steel production by have, and alloying properties. manganese ferroalloys was estimated to have been in the same Currently, no practical component, has accounted for most domestic manganese which statistics have been rounded. demand, presently

  2. Domesticated transposable element gene products in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Jesse D; Dupuy, Adam J

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of transposable elements inserted within the genome to serve novel functions in a host cell, a process known as molecular domestication, is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Around fifty protein-coding genes in humans have arisen through this mechanism. Functional characterization of these domesticated genes has revealed involvement in a multitude of diverse cellular processes. Some of these functions are related to cellular activities and pathways known to be involved in cancer development. In this mini-review we discuss such roles of domesticated genes that may be aberrantly regulated in human cancer, as well as studies that have identified disrupted expression in tumors. We also describe studies that have provided definitive experimental evidence for transposable element-derived gene products in promoting tumorigenesis. PMID:24251072

  3. The potential of some spice essential oils in the control of A. parasiticus CFR 223 and aflatoxin production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. O. Atanda; I. Akpan; F. Oluwafemi

    2007-01-01

    Essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), cassia (Cinnamomum cassia), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) at 1–5% (v\\/v) concentration in palm kernel broth inoculated with spore suspension (106\\/ml) of Aspergillus parasiticus CFR 223 were evaluated for their potential in the control of aflatoxigenic fungus A. parasiticus CFR 223 and aflatoxin production. Healthy sorghum grains (120\\/treatment) immersed in

  4. Association of Insertion\\/Deletion Polymorphism of Alpha-Adrenoceptor Gene in Essential Hypertension with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysian Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Vasudevan; Patimah Ismail; Johnson Stanslas; Norashikin Shamsudin

    An insertion\\/deletion (I\\/D) polymorphism of Alpha2B-Adrenoceptor (ADRA2B) gene located on chromosome 2 has been studied extensively in related to cardiovascular diseases. The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential association of D allele frequency of I\\/D polymorphism of ADRA2B gene in Malaysian essential hypertensive subjects with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study includes

  5. Carotenoid-based phenotypic screen of the yeast deletion collection reveals new genes with roles in isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Özayd?n, Bilge; Burd, Helcio; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Beside their essential cellular functions, isoprenoids have value as pharmaceuticals, nutriceuticals, pesticides, and fuel alternatives. Engineering microorganisms for production of isoprenoids is relatively easy, sustainable, and cost effective in comparison to chemical synthesis or extraction from natural producers. We introduced genes encoding carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes into the haploid yeast deletion collection to identify gene deletions that improved isoprenoid production. Deletions that showed significant improvement in carotenoid production were further screened for production of bisabolene, an isoprenoid alternative to petroleum-derived diesel. Combining those deletions with other mevalonate pathway modifications increased production of bisabolene from 40mg/L to 800mg/L in shake-flask cultures. In a fermentation process, this engineered strain produced 5.2g/L of bisabolene. PMID:22918085

  6. The VirA protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is autophosphorylated and is essential for vir gene regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, S.; Roitsch, T.; Ankenbauer, R.G.; Gordon, M.P.; Nester, E.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The virA and virG gene products are required for the regulation of the vir regulon on the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. VirA is a membrane-associated protein which is homologous to the sensor molecules of other two-component regulatory systems. The authors overproduced truncated VirA proteins in Escherichia coli be deleting different lengths of the 5{prime}-coding region of the virA gene and placing these genes under lacZ control. These proteins were purified from polyacrylamide gels and renatured. The renatured proteins became radiolabeled when they were incubated with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP but not with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP or ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP, which suggests an ATP {gamma}-phosphate-specific autophosphorylation. The smallest VirA protein, which retained only the C-terminal half of the protein, gave the strongest autophosphorylation signal, which demonstrates that the C-terminal domain has the autophosphorylation site. The phosphorylated amino acid was identified as phosphohistidine, and a highly conserved histidine was found in all of the VirA homologs. When this histidine was changed to glutamine, which cannot be phosphorylated, the resulting VirA protein lost both its ability to autophosphorylate and its biological function as a vir gene regulator. Results of this study indicate that VirA autophosphorylation is required for the induction of the vir regulon and subsequent tumor induction on plants by A. tumefaciens.

  7. Nup154, a New Drosophila Gene Essential for Male and Female Gametogenesis Is Related to the Nup155 Vertebrate Nucleoporin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Gigliotti, Silvia; Callaini, Giuliano; Andone, Silvia; Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Pernas-Alonso, Roberto; Hoffmann, Gyula; Graziani, Franco; Malva, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The Nup154 gene of Drosophila encodes a protein showing similarity with known nucleoporins: rat Nup155 and yeast Nup170 and Nup157. Hypomorphic mutant alleles of Nup154 affected female and male fertility, allowing investigation of the gene function in various steps of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Nup154 was required in testes for cyst formation, control of spermatocyte proliferation and meiotic progression. In ovaries, Nup154 was essential for egg chamber development and oocyte growth. In both the male and female germ line, as well as in several other cell types, the Nup154 protein was detected at the nuclear membrane, but was also present inside the nucleus. Intranuclear localization has not previously been described for rat Nup155 or yeast Nup170 and Nup157. In mutant egg chambers the Nup154 protein accumulated in the cytoplasm, while it was only barely detected at the nuclear envelopes. FG repeats containing nucleoporins detected with mAb414 antibody were also mislocalized to a certain extent in Nup154 mutant alleles. This suggests that Nup154 could be required for localizing other nucleoporins within the nuclear pore complex, as previously demonstrated for the yeast Nup170. On the other hand, no evident defects in lamin localization were observed, indicating that Nup155 mutations did not affect the overall integrity of the nuclear envelope. However, ultrastructural analyses revealed that in mutant cells the morphology of the nuclear envelope was altered near the nuclear pore complexes. Finally, the multiplicity of phenotypes observed in Nup154 mutant alleles suggests that this gene plays a crucial role in cell physiology. PMID:9732281

  8. CEACAM1 induces B-cell survival and is essential for protective antiviral antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Seifert, Marc; Pozdeev, Vitaly; Xu, Haifeng C.; Sharma, Piyush; Baldin, Fabian; Marquardsen, Florian; Merches, Katja; Lang, Elisabeth; Kirschning, Carsten; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Florian; Dittmer, Ulf; Küppers, Ralf; Recher, Mike; Hardt, Cornelia; Scheffrahn, Inka; Beauchemin, Nicole; Göthert, Joachim R.; Singer, Bernhard B.; Lang, Philipp A.; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    B cells are essential for antiviral immune defence because they produce neutralizing antibodies, present antigen and maintain the lymphoid architecture. Here we show that intrinsic signalling of CEACAM1 is essential for generating efficient B-cell responses. Although CEACAM1 exerts limited influence on the proliferation of B cells, expression of CEACAM1 induces survival of proliferating B cells via the BTK/Syk/NF-?B-axis. The absence of this signalling cascade in naive Ceacam1?/? mice limits the survival of B cells. During systemic infection with cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, Ceacam1?/? mice can barely induce neutralizing antibody responses and die early after infection. We find, therefore, that CEACAM1 is a crucial regulator of B-cell survival, influencing B-cell numbers and protective antiviral antibody responses. PMID:25692415

  9. Incorporation of essential oils and nanoparticles in pullulan films to control foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Khalaf, Hassan H; Sharoba, Ashraf M; El-Tanahi, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2014-04-01

    The incorporation of essential oils and nanotechnology into edible films has the potential to improve the microbiological safety of foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan films containing essential oils and nanoparticles against 4 foodborne pathogens. Initial experiments using plate overlay assays demonstrated that 2% oregano essential oil was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not inhibited. Two percent rosemary essential oil was active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 1%. Zinc oxide nanoparticles at 110 nm were active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 100 or 130 nm. Conversely, 100 nm silver (Ag) nanoparticles were more active against S. aureus than L. monocytogenes. Using the results from these experiments, the compounds exhibiting the greatest activity were incorporated into pullulan films and found to inhibit all or some of the 4 pathogens in plate overlay assays. In challenge studies, pullulan films containing the compounds effectively inhibited the pathogens associated with vacuum packaged meat and poultry products stored at 4 °C for up to 3 wk, as compared to control films. Additionally, the structure and cross-section of the films were evaluated using electron microscopy. The results from this study demonstrate that edible films made from pullulan and incorporated with essential oils or nanoparticles may improve the safety of refrigerated, fresh or further processed meat and poultry products. PMID:24621108

  10. Association of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor (A1166C) Gene Polymorphism and Its Increased Expression in Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sudhir; Narang, Rajiv; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Bhatia, Jagriti; Saluja, Daman; Srivastava, Kamna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is one of the major cardiovascular diseases. It affects nearly 1.56 billion people worldwide. The present study is about a particular genetic polymorphism (A1166C), gene expression and protein expression of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) (SNP ID: rs5186) and its association with essential hypertension in a Northern Indian population. Methods We analyzed the A1166C polymorphism and expression of AT1R gene in 250 patients with essential hypertension and 250 normal healthy controls. Results A significant association was found in the AT1R genotypes (AC+CC) with essential hypertension (?2?=?22.48, p?=?0.0001). Individuals with CC genotypes were at 2.4 times higher odds (p?=?0.0001) to develop essential hypertension than individuals with AC and AA genotypes. The statistically significant intergenotypic variation in the systolic blood pressure was found higher in the patients with CC (169.4±36.3 mmHg) as compared to that of AA (143.5±28.1 mmHg) and AC (153.9±30.5 mmHg) genotypes (p?=?0.0001). We found a significant difference in the average delta-CT value (p?=?0.0001) wherein an upregulated gene expression (approximately 16 fold) was observed in case of patients as compared to controls. Furthermore, higher expression of AT1R gene was observed in patients with CC genotype than with AC and AA genotypes. A significant difference (p?=?0.0001) in the protein expression of angiotensin II Type 1 receptor was also observed in the plasma of patients (1.49±0.27) as compared to controls (0.80±0.24). Conclusion Our findings suggest that C allele of A1166C polymorphism in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene is associated with essential hypertension and its upregulation could play an important role in essential hypertension. PMID:24992666

  11. Gene targeting reveals the role of Oc90 as the essential organizer of the otoconial organic matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing; Yang, Hua; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Lundberg, Yunxia Wang

    2007-01-01

    A critical part of the functional development of our peripheral balance system is the embryonic formation of otoconia, composite crystals that overlie and provide optimal stimulus input to the sensory epithelium of the gravity receptor in the inner ear. To date neither the functions of otoconial proteins nor the processes of crystal formation are clearly defined. Using gene targeting and protein analysis strategies, we demonstrate that the predominant mammalian otoconin, otoconin-90/95 (Oc90), is essential for formation of the organic matrix of otoconia by specifically recruiting other matrix components, which includes otolin, a novel mammalian otoconin that we identified to be in wildtype murine otoconia. We show that this matrix controls otoconia growth and morphology by embedding the crystallites during seeding and growth. During otoconia development, the organic matrix forms prior to CaCO3 deposition and provides optimal calcification efficiency. Histological and ultrastructural examinations show normal inner ear epithelial morphology but reduced acellular matrices, including otoconial, cupular and tectorial membranes, in Oc90 null mice, likely due to an absence of Oc90 and a profound reduction of otolin. Our data demonstrate the critical roles of otoconins in otoconia seeding, growth and anchoring and suggest mechanistic similarities and differences between otoconia and bone calcification. PMID:17300776

  12. Gene targeting reveals the role of Oc90 as the essential organizer of the otoconial organic matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing; Yang, Hua; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Lundberg, Yunxia Wang

    2007-04-15

    A critical part of the functional development of our peripheral balance system is the embryonic formation of otoconia, composite crystals that overlie and provide optimal stimulus input to the sensory epithelium of the gravity receptor in the inner ear. To date neither the functions of otoconial proteins nor the processes of crystal formation are clearly defined. Using gene targeting and protein analysis strategies, we demonstrate that the predominant mammalian otoconin, otoconin-90/95 (Oc90), is essential for formation of the organic matrix of otoconia by specifically recruiting other matrix components, which includes otolin, a novel mammalian otoconin that we identified to be in wildtype murine otoconia. We show that this matrix controls otoconia growth and morphology by embedding the crystallites during seeding and growth. During otoconia development, the organic matrix forms prior to CaCO3 deposition and provides optimal calcification efficiency. Histological and ultrastructural examinations show normal inner ear epithelial morphology but reduced acellular matrices, including otoconial, cupular and tectorial membranes, in Oc90 null mice, likely due to an absence of Oc90 and a profound reduction of otolin. Our data demonstrate the critical roles of otoconins in otoconia seeding, growth and anchoring and suggest mechanistic similarities and differences between otoconia and bone calcification. PMID:17300776

  13. Drosophila melanogaster cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal protein essential for fly development

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski-Nimmerfall, Elisabeth; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Rendic, Dubravko; Krämer, Helmut; Mach, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. The genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative orthologue (dCREG), suggesting evolutionarily conserved physiological functions of this protein. In D. melanogaster S2 cells, dCREG was found to localize in lysosomes. Further studies revealed that intracellular dCREG is subject of proteolytic maturation. Processing and turnover could be substantially reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of cathepsin L. In contrast to mammalian cells, lysosomal delivery of dCREG does not depend on its carbohydrate moiety. Furthermore, depletion of the putative D. melanogaster lysosomal sorting receptor lysosomal enzyme receptor protein did not compromise cellular retention of dCREG. We also investigated the developmental consequences of dCREG ablation in whole D. melanogaster flies. Ubiquitous depletion of dCREG proved lethal at the late pupal stage once a knock-down efficiency of > 95% was achieved. These results demonstrate that dCREG is essential for proper completion of fly development. PMID:25173815

  14. The VELVET A Orthologue VEL1 of Trichoderma reesei Regulates Fungal Development and Is Essential for Cellulase Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Lea; Fekete, Erzsébet; Paholcsek, Melinda; Sándor, Erzsébet; Aquino, Benigno; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Karaffa, Levente; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei is the industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases for biorefinery processes. Their expression is obligatorily dependent on the function of the protein methyltransferase LAE1. The Aspergillus nidulans orthologue of LAE1 - LaeA - is part of the VELVET protein complex consisting of LaeA, VeA and VelB that regulates secondary metabolism and sexual as well as asexual reproduction. Here we have therefore investigated the function of VEL1, the T. reesei orthologue of A. nidulans VeA. Deletion of the T. reesei vel1 locus causes a complete and light-independent loss of conidiation, and impairs formation of perithecia. Deletion of vel1 also alters hyphal morphology towards hyperbranching and formation of thicker filaments, and with consequently reduced growth rates. Growth on lactose as a sole carbon source, however, is even more strongly reduced and growth on cellulose as a sole carbon source eliminated. Consistent with these findings, deletion of vel1 completely impaired the expression of cellulases, xylanases and the cellulase regulator XYR1 on lactose as a cellulase inducing carbon source, but also in resting mycelia with sophorose as inducer. Our data show that in T. reesei VEL1 controls sexual and asexual development, and this effect is independent of light. VEL1 is also essential for cellulase gene expression, which is consistent with the assumption that their regulation by LAE1 occurs by the VELVET complex. PMID:25386652

  15. Preclinical development strategies for novel gene therapeutic products.

    PubMed

    Pilaro, A M; Serabian, M A

    1999-01-01

    With over 220 investigational new drug applications currently active, gene therapy represents one of the fastest growing areas in biotherapeutic research. Initially conceived for replacing defective genes in diseases such as cystic fibrosis or inborn errors of metabolism with genes encoding the normal, or wild-type, gene product, gene therapy has expanded into other novel applications such as treatment of cancer or cardiovascular disease, where the risk:benefit profiles may be more acceptable in relation to the severity of the disease. Different types of vectors, including modified retroviruses, adenoviruses, adenovirus-associated viruses, and herpesviruses and plasmid DNA, are used to transfer foreign genetic material into patients' cells or tissues. Developing a toxicology program to determine the safety of these agents, therefore, requires a modified approach that encompasses the pharmacology and toxicity of both the gene product itself and the vector system used for delivery in the context of the application for the clinical trial. In general, the issues involved in designing and developing appropriate preclinical testing to determine the safety of these products are similar to those encountered for other recombinant molecules, including protein biotherapeutics. Limitations to some of the typical toxicology studies conducted for a traditional drug development program may exist for these agents, and nontraditional approaches may be required to demonstrate their safety. Many factors may affect the safety and clinical activity of these agents, including the route, frequency, and duration of exposure and the type of vector employed. Other safety considerations include quantitation of the duration and degree of expression of the vector in target and other tissues, the effects of gene expression on organ pathology and/or histology, evaluation of trafficking of gene-transduced cells or vector after injection, and interactions of the host immune system with the transduced cell population. Because of the unique concerns regarding each of these therapies, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research encourages sponsors to obtain toxicity data whenever possible while evaluating the pharmacologic activity of the vector in a species or animal model relevant to their clinical indication. Sponsors are encouraged to discuss preclinical study design and results with the Center during product development to facilitate early identification of safety concerns prior to entry of these novel agents into the clinical setting and to ensure an uninterrupted course of development while addressing issues required for licensure. PMID:10367665

  16. The FHIT gene product: tumor suppressor and genome "caretaker".

    PubMed

    Waters, Catherine E; Saldivar, Joshua C; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Huebner, Kay

    2014-12-01

    The FHIT gene at FRA3B is one of the earliest and most frequently altered genes in the majority of human cancers. It was recently discovered that the FHIT gene is not the most fragile locus in epithelial cells, the cell of origin for most Fhit-negative cancers, eroding support for past claims that deletions at this locus are simply passenger events that are carried along in expanding cancer clones, due to extreme vulnerability to DNA damage rather than to loss of FHIT function. Indeed, recent reports have reconfirmed FHIT as a tumor suppressor gene with roles in apoptosis and prevention of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Other recent works have identified a novel role for the FHIT gene product, Fhit, as a genome "caretaker." Loss of this caretaker function leads to nucleotide imbalance, spontaneous replication stress, and DNA breaks. Because Fhit loss-induced DNA damage is "checkpoint blind," cells accumulate further DNA damage during subsequent cell cycles, accruing global genome instability that could facilitate oncogenic mutation acquisition and expedite clonal expansion. Loss of Fhit activity therefore induces a mutator phenotype. Evidence for FHIT as a mutator gene is discussed in light of these recent investigations of Fhit loss and subsequent genome instability. PMID:25283145

  17. Deduced products of C4-dicarboxylate transport regulatory genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum are homologous to nitrogen regulatory gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Ronson, C W; Astwood, P M; Nixon, B T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    We have sequenced two genes dctB and dctD required for the activation of the C4-dicarboxylate transport structural gene dctA in free-living Rhizobium leguminosarum. The hydropathic profile of the dctB gene product (DctB) suggested that its N-terminal region may be located in the periplasm and its C-terminal region in the cytoplasm. The C-terminal region of DctB was strongly conserved with similar regions of the products of several regulatory genes that may act as environmental sensors, including ntrB, envZ, virA, phoR, cpxA, and phoM. The N-terminal domains of the products of several regulatory genes thought to be transcriptional activators, including ntrC, ompR, virG, phoB and sfrA. In addition, the central and C-terminal regions of DctD were strongly conserved with the products of ntrC and nifA, transcriptional activators that require the alternate sigma factor rpoN (ntrA) as co-activator. The central region of DctD also contained a potential ATP-binding domain. These results are consistent with recent results that show that rpoN product is required for dctA activation, and suggest that DctB plus DctD-mediated transcriptional activation of dctA may be mechanistically similar to NtrB plus NtrC-mediated activation of glnA in E. coli. PMID:3671068

  18. Integrated in silico Analyses of Regulatory and Metabolic Networks of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 Reveal Relationships between Gene Centrality and Essentiality.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Seob; McClure, Ryan S; Bernstein, Hans C; Overall, Christopher C; Hill, Eric A; Beliaev, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria dynamically relay environmental inputs to intracellular adaptations through a coordinated adjustment of photosynthetic efficiency and carbon processing rates. The output of such adaptations is reflected through changes in transcriptional patterns and metabolic flux distributions that ultimately define growth strategy. To address interrelationships between metabolism and regulation, we performed integrative analyses of metabolic and gene co-expression networks in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Centrality analyses using the gene co-expression network identified a set of key genes, which were defined here as "topologically important." Parallel in silico gene knock-out simulations, using the genome-scale metabolic network, classified what we termed as "functionally important" genes, deletion of which affected growth or metabolism. A strong positive correlation was observed between topologically and functionally important genes. Functionally important genes exhibited variable levels of topological centrality; however, the majority of topologically central genes were found to be functionally essential for growth. Subsequent functional enrichment analysis revealed that both functionally and topologically important genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 are predominantly associated with translation and energy metabolism, two cellular processes critical for growth. This research demonstrates how synergistic network-level analyses can be used for reconciliation of metabolic and gene expression data to uncover fundamental biological principles. PMID:25826650

  19. The Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Gene and Essential Hypertension: The Joint Effect of Polymorphism E158K and Cigarette Smoking on Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bushueva, Olga; Solodilova, Maria; Churnosov, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir; Polonikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Gene encoding flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), a microsomal antioxidant defense enzyme, has been suggested to contribute to essential hypertension (EH). The present study was designed to investigate whether common functional polymorphism E158K (rs2266782) of the FMO3 gene is associated with EH susceptibility in a Russian population. A total of 2?995 unrelated subjects from Kursk (1?362 EH patients and 843 healthy controls) and Belgorod (357 EH patients and 422 population controls) regions of Central Russia were recruited for this study. DNA samples from all study participants were genotyped for the FMO3 gene polymorphism through PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We found that the polymorphism E158K is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in both discovery population from Kursk region (OR 1.36?95% CI 1.09–1.69, P = 0.01) and replication population from Belgorod region (OR 1.54 95% CI 1.07–1.89, P = 0.02) after adjustment for gender and age using logistic regression analysis. Further analysis showed that the increased hypertension risk in carriers of genotype 158KK gene occurred in cigarette smokers, whereas nonsmoker carriers of this genotype did not show the disease risk. This is the first study reporting the association of the FMO3 gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:25243081

  20. A Novel Regulatory Gene, Tri10, Controls Trichothecene Toxin Production and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tag, Andrew G.; Garifullina, Gulnara F.; Peplow, Andrew W.; Ake, Charles; Phillips, T. D.; Hohn, Thomas M.; Beremand, Marian N.

    2001-01-01

    We report here the characterization of Tri10, a novel regulatory gene within the trichothecene gene cluster. Comparison of Tri10 genomic and mRNA sequences revealed that removal of a single 77-bp intron provided a 1,260-bp open reading frame, encoding a 420-amino-acid protein. Disruption of Tri10 in Fusarium sporotrichioides abolished T-2 toxin production and dramatically decreased the transcript accumulation for four trichothecene genes (Tri4, Tri5, Tri6, and Tri101) and an apparent farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase (Fpps) gene. Conversely, homologous integration of a disruption vector by a single upstream crossover event significantly increased T-2 toxin production and elevated the transcript accumulation of the trichothecene genes and Fpps. Further analysis revealed that disruption of Tri10, and to a greater extent the disruption of Tri6, increased sensitivity to T-2 toxin under certain growth conditions. Although Tri10 is conserved in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium sambucinum and clearly plays a central role in regulating trichothecene gene expression, it does not show any significant matches to proteins of known or predicted function or to motifs except a single transmembrane domain. We suggest a model in which Tri10 acts upstream of the cluster-encoded transcription factor TRI6 and is necessary for full expression of both the other trichothecene genes and the genes for the primary metabolic pathway that precedes the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway, as well as for wild-type levels of trichothecene self-protection. We further suggest the presence of a regulatory loop where Tri6 is not required for the transcription of Tri10 but is required to limit the expression of Tri10. PMID:11679358

  1. The Sendai virus P gene expresses both an essential protein and an inhibitor of RNA synthesis by shuffling modules via mRNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Curran, J; Boeck, R; Kolakofsky, D

    1991-01-01

    The P gene of Sendai virus expresses as many as eight proteins, two of which (V and W) are expressed only from edited mRNAs; only the P protein is known to be involved in RNA synthesis. To examine the functions of the other P gene proteins, we developed an in vivo system in which genome replication is driven by plasmid generated viral proteins. We found that P was essential for this process, whereas V and W were not only non-essential, they were inhibitory. By using various P gene deletions and varying the amounts of plasmids transfected, we provide evidence that P is a modular protein. The N-terminal domain (shared with V and W) binds the L or polymerase protein, whereas the C-terminal domain binds the nucleoprotein NP. A model of paramyxovirus RNA synthesis is presented, and the implications of negative regulation during persistent infection are discussed. Images PMID:1655410

  2. Analysis of the essential cell division gene ftsL of Bacillus subtilis by mutagenesis and heterologous complementation.

    PubMed

    Sievers, J; Errington, J

    2000-10-01

    The ftsL gene is required for the initiation of cell division in a broad range of bacteria. Bacillus subtilis ftsL encodes a 13-kDa protein with a membrane-spanning domain near its N terminus. The external C-terminal domain has features of an alpha-helical leucine zipper, which is likely to be involved in the heterodimerization with another division protein, DivIC. To determine what residues are important for FtsL function, we used both random and site-directed mutagenesis. Unexpectedly, all chemically induced mutations fell into two clear classes, those either weakening the ribosome-binding site or producing a stop codon. It appears that the random mutagenesis was efficient, so many missense mutations must have been generated but with no phenotypic effect. Substitutions affecting hydrophobic residues in the putative coiled-coil domain, introduced by site-directed mutagenesis, also gave no observable phenotype except for insertion of a helix-breaking proline residue, which destroyed FtsL function. ftsL homologues cloned from three diverse Bacillus species, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus badius, and Bacillus circulans, could complement an ftsL null mutation in B. subtilis, even though up to 66% of the amino acid residues of the predicted proteins were different from B. subtilis FtsL. However, the ftsL gene from Staphylococcus aureus (whose product has 73% of its amino acids different from those of the B. subtilis ftsL product) was not functional. We conclude that FtsL is a highly malleable protein that can accommodate a large number of sequence changes without loss of function. PMID:10986263

  3. Immunocytochemical Localization of the Cystic Fibrosis Gene Product CFTR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Crawford; Peter C. Maloney; Pamela L. Zeitlin; William B. Guggino; Stephen C. Hyde; Helen Turley; Kevin C. Gatter; Ann Harris; Christopher F. Higgins

    1991-01-01

    Antisera against two peptides, corresponding to different domains of the cystic fibrosis gene product CFTR, have been raised and extensively characterized. Both antisera recognize CFTR as a 165-kDa polypeptide in Western analysis of cells transfected with CFTR cDNA as well as in epithelial cell lines. The cell and tissue distribution of CFTR has been studied by immunocytochemistry. CFTR is abundant

  4. Production of Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Human Interlukin-4 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrad, Majid; Abdolazimi, Yassan; Hajati, Jamshid; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Recombinant adenoviruses are currently used for a variety of purposes, including in vitro gene transfer, in vivo vaccination, and gene therapy. Ability to infect many cell types, high efficiency in gene transfer, entering both dividing and non dividing cells, and growing to high titers make this virus a good choice for using in various experiments. In the present experiment, a recombinant adenovirus containing human IL-4 coding sequence was made. IL-4 has several characteristics that made it a good choice for using in cancer gene therapy, controlling inflammatory diseases, and studies on autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods In brief, IL-4 coding sequence was amplified by and cloned in pAd-Track-CMV. Then, by means of homologous recombination between recombinant pAd-Track-CMV and Adeasy-1 plasmid in bacteria, recombinant adenovirus complete genome was made and IL-4 containing shuttle vector was incorporated into the viral backbone. After linearization, for virus packaging, viral genome was transfected into HEK-293 cell line. Viral production was conveniently followed with the aid of green fluorescent protein. Results Recombinant adenovirus produced here, was capable to infecting cell lines and express interlukin-4 in cell. Conclusion This system can be used as a powerful, easy, and cost benefit tool in various studies on cancer gene therapy and also studies on immunogenetics. PMID:23493491

  5. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that ?gpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  6. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that ?gpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  7. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a review of research accomplished in the first two years of funding for the above mentioned project. The work performed is a molecular characterization of nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which are deficient in different stages in the post-transcriptional expression of a single chloroplast encoded polypeptide, the D2 protein of Photosystem II. Our long-term goals are to understand the molecular mechanisms by which nuclear gene products affect the expression of chloroplast genes. Specifically, we which to understand how specific nuclear gene products affect the turnover rate of the D2 encoding mRNA (psbD), how other nuclear encoded factors work to promote the translation of psbD mRNA and/or stabilize the D2 protein, and what the role of the D2 protein itself is in Photosystem II assembly and in the control of expression of other chloroplast genes. This progress report will be organized into four major sections concerning (I) The characterization of nuclear mutants affected in D2 translation/turnover, (II) The study of trans-acting factors which associate with the 5{prime} end of the psbD mRNA, (III) In vitro mutagenesis of the psbD gene, and (IV) Additional studies.

  8. The Hansenula polymorpha PER1 Gene Is Essential for Peroxisome Biogenesis and Encodes a Peroxisomal Matrix Protein with Both Carboxy and Amino-terminal Targeting Signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans R. Waterham; Vladimir I. Titorenko; Peter Haima; James M. Cregg; Wim Harder; Marten Veenhuis

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning of the Hansenula polymorpha PER1 gene and the characterization of the gene and its product, PER1p. The gene was cloned by functional complementation of a per1 mutant of H. polymorpha, which was impaired in the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins (Pim- phenotype). The DNA sequence of PER1 predicts that PER1p is a polypeptide of 650 amino

  9. Disruption of the FATB gene in Arabidopsis demonstrates an essential role of saturated fatty acids in plant growth.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Gustavo; Salas, Joaquin J; Pollard, Michael R; Ohlrogge, John B

    2003-04-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases determine the amount and type of fatty acids that are exported from the plastids. To better understand the role of the FATB class of acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases, we identified an Arabidopsis mutant with a T-DNA insertion in the FATB gene. Palmitate (16:0) content of glycerolipids of the mutant was reduced by 42% in leaves, by 56% in flowers, by 48% in roots, and by 56% in seeds. In addition, stearate (18:0) was reduced by 50% in leaves and by 30% in seeds. The growth rate was reduced in the mutant, resulting in 50% less fresh weight at 4 weeks compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, mutant plants produced seeds with low viability and altered morphology. Analysis of individual glycerolipids revealed that the fatty acid composition of prokaryotic plastid lipids was largely unaltered, whereas the impact on eukaryotic lipids varied but was particularly severe for phosphatidylcholine, with a >4-fold reduction of 16:0 and a 10-fold reduction of 18:0 levels. The total wax load of fatb-ko plants was reduced by 20% in leaves and by 50% in stems, implicating FATB in the supply of saturated fatty acids for wax biosynthesis. Analysis of C(18) sphingoid bases derived from 16:0 indicated that, despite a 50% reduction in exported 16:0, the mutant cells maintained wild-type levels of sphingoid bases, presumably at the expense of other cell components. The growth retardation caused by the fatb mutation was enhanced in a fatb-ko act1 double mutant in which saturated fatty acid content was reduced further. Together, these results demonstrate the in vivo role of FATB as a major determinant of saturated fatty acid synthesis and the essential role of saturates for the biosynthesis and/or regulation of cellular components critical for plant growth and seed development. PMID:12671095

  10. Fis Is Essential for Capsule Production in Pasteurella multocida and Regulates Expression of Other Important Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Jason A.; Steen, Jennifer A.; Harrison, Paul; Seemann, Torsten; Wilkie, Ian; Harper, Marina; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D.

    2010-01-01

    P. multocida is the causative agent of a wide range of diseases of animals, including fowl cholera in poultry and wild birds. Fowl cholera isolates of P. multocida generally express a capsular polysaccharide composed of hyaluronic acid. There have been reports of spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida, but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. In this study, we identified three independent strains that had spontaneously lost the ability to produce capsular polysaccharide. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that these strains had significantly reduced transcription of the capsule biosynthetic genes, but DNA sequence analysis identified no mutations within the capsule biosynthetic locus. However, whole-genome sequencing of paired capsulated and acapsular strains identified a single point mutation within the fis gene in the acapsular strain. Sequencing of fis from two independently derived spontaneous acapsular strains showed that each contained a mutation within fis. Complementation of these strains with an intact copy of fis, predicted to encode a transcriptional regulator, returned capsule expression to all strains. Therefore, expression of a functional Fis protein is essential for capsule expression in P. multocida. DNA microarray analysis of one of the spontaneous fis mutants identified approximately 30 genes as down-regulated in the mutant, including pfhB_2, which encodes a filamentous hemagglutinin, a known P. multocida virulence factor, and plpE, which encodes the cross protective surface antigen PlpE. Therefore these experiments define for the first time a mechanism for spontaneous capsule loss in P. multocida and identify Fis as a critical regulator of capsule expression. Furthermore, Fis is involved in the regulation of a range of other P. multocida genes including important virulence factors. PMID:20140235

  11. Bhlhe40 controls cytokine production by T cells and is essential for pathogenicity in autoimmune neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Bradstreet, Tara R; Schwarzkopf, Elizabeth A; Sim, Julia; Carrero, Javier A; Chou, Chun; Cook, Lindsey E; Egawa, Takeshi; Taneja, Reshma; Murphy, Theresa L; Russell, John H; Edelson, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    TH1 and TH17 cells mediate neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Pathogenic TH cells in EAE must produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). TH cell pathogenicity in EAE is also regulated by cell-intrinsic production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). Here we demonstrate that mice deficient for the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Bhlhe40 (Bhlhe40(-/-)) are resistant to the induction of EAE. Bhlhe40 is required in vivo in a T cell-intrinsic manner, where it positively regulates the production of GM-CSF and negatively regulates the production of IL-10. In vitro, GM-CSF secretion is selectively abrogated in polarized Bhlhe40(-/-) TH1 and TH17 cells, and these cells show increased production of IL-10. Blockade of IL-10 receptor in Bhlhe40(-/-) mice renders them susceptible to EAE. These findings identify Bhlhe40 as a critical regulator of autoreactive T-cell pathogenicity. PMID:24699451

  12. Bhlhe40 controls cytokine production by T cells and is essential for pathogenicity in autoimmune neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Bradstreet, Tara R.; Schwarzkopf, Elizabeth A.; Sim, Julia; Carrero, Javier A.; Chou, Chun; Cook, Lindsey E.; Egawa, Takeshi; Taneja, Reshma; Murphy, Theresa L.; Russell, John H.; Edelson, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    TH1 and TH17 cells mediate neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Pathogenic TH cells in EAE must produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). TH cell pathogenicity in EAE is also regulated by cell-intrinsic production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient for the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Bhlhe40 (Bhlhe40?/?) are resistant to the induction of EAE. Bhlhe40 is required in vivo in a T cell-intrinsic manner, where it positively regulates the production of GM-CSF and negatively regulates the production of IL-10. In vitro, GM-CSF secretion is selectively abrogated in polarized Bhlhe40?/? TH1 and TH17 cells, and these cells show increased production of IL-10. Blockade of IL-10 receptor in Bhlhe40?/? mice renders them susceptible to EAE. These findings identify Bhlhe40 as a critical regulator of autoreactive T cell pathogenicity. PMID:24699451

  13. Growth, morphogenesis and essential oil production in Mentha spicata L. plantlets in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various physical environments were studied on the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (leaf, root and shoot numbers) and secondary metabolism [i.e., production of the monoterpene (-)-carvone] of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) shoots cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium. Carvone a...

  14. The nrfI gene is essential for the attachment of the active site haem group of Wolinella succinogenes cytochrome c nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Pisa, René; Stein, Torsten; Eichler, Robert; Gross, Roland; Simon, Jörg

    2002-02-01

    The cytochrome c nitrite reductase complex (NrfHA) is the terminal enzyme in the electron transport chain catalysing nitrite respiration of Wolinella succinogenes. The catalytic subunit NrfA is a pentahaem cytochrome c containing an active site haem group which is covalently bound via the cysteine residues of a unique CWTCK motif. The lysine residue serves as the axial ligand of the haem iron. The other four haem groups of NrfA are bound by conventional haem-binding motifs (CXXCH). The nrfHAIJ locus was restored on the genome of the W. succinogenes DeltanrfAIJ deletion mutant by integration of a plasmid, thus enabling the expression of modified alleles of nrfA and nrfI. A mutant (K134H) was constructed which contained a nrfA gene encoding a CWTCH motif instead of CWTCK. NrfA of strain K134H was found to be synthesized with five bound haem groups, as judged by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Its nitrite reduction activity with reduced benzyl viologen was 40% of the wild-type activity. Ammonia was formed as the only product of nitrite reduction. The mutant did not grow by nitrite respiration and its electron transport activity from formate to nitrite was 5% of that of the wild-type strain. The predicted nrfI gene product is similar to proteins involved in system II cytochrome c biogenesis. A mutant of W. succinogenes (stopI) was constructed that contained a nrfHAIJ gene cluster with the nrfI codons 47 and 48 altered to stop codons. The NrfA protein of this mutant did not catalyse nitrite reduction and lacked the active site haem group, whereas the other four haem groups were present. Mutant (K134H/stopI) which contained the K134H modification in NrfA in addition to the inactivated nrfI gene had essentially the same properties as strain K134H. NrfA from strain K134H/stopI contained five haem groups. It is concluded that NrfI is involved in haem attachment to the CWTCK motif in NrfA but not to any of the CXXCH motifs. The nrfI gene is obviously dispensable for maturation of a modified NrfA protein containing a CWTCH motif instead of CWTCK. Therefore, NrfI might function as a specific haem lyase that recognizes the active site lysine residue of NrfA. A similar role has been proposed for NrfE, F and G of Escherichia coli, although these proteins share no overall sequence similarity to NrfI and belong to system I cytochrome c biogenesis, which differs fundamentally from system II. PMID:11929530

  15. Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis for butanetriol production using bacterial genes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghany, Salah E; Day, Irene; Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2013-11-01

    1,2,4-butanetriol (butanetriol) is a useful precursor for the synthesis of the energetic material butanetriol trinitrate and several pharmaceutical compounds. Bacterial synthesis of butanetriol from xylose or arabinose takes place in a pathway that requires four enzymes. To produce butanetriol in plants by expressing bacterial enzymes, we cloned native bacterial or codon optimized synthetic genes under different promoters into a binary vector and stably transformed Arabidopsis plants. Transgenic lines expressing introduced genes were analyzed for the production of butanetriol using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Soil-grown transgenic plants expressing these genes produced up to 20 µg/g of butanetriol. To test if an exogenous supply of pentose sugar precursors would enhance the butanetriol level, transgenic plants were grown in a medium supplemented with either xylose or arabinose and the amount of butanetriol was quantified. Plants expressing synthetic genes in the arabinose pathway showed up to a forty-fold increase in butanetriol levels after arabinose was added to the medium. Transgenic plants expressing either bacterial or synthetic xylose pathways, or the arabinose pathway showed toxicity symptoms when xylose or arabinose was added to the medium, suggesting that a by-product in the pathway or butanetriol affected plant growth. Furthermore, the metabolite profile of plants expressing arabinose and xylose pathways was altered. Our results demonstrate that bacterial pathways that produce butanetriol can be engineered into plants to produce this chemical. This proof-of-concept study for phytoproduction of butanetriol paves the way to further manipulate metabolic pathways in plants to enhance the level of butanetriol production. PMID:24126081

  16. Permeability of alginate microcapsules to secretory recombinant gene products.

    PubMed

    Awrey, D E; Tse, M; Hortelano, G; Chang, P L

    1996-11-20

    Non-autologous somatic gene therapy is an alternate approach to delivering recombinant gene products through implantation of a "universal" donor cell line engineered to produce a therapeutic gene product. The cells are immunologically isolated by enclosure in immunoprotective microcapsules fabricated from alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate. The molecular weight cutoff of these microcapsules was thought to be <100 kd, thus, excluding the immunoglobulins. However, when such microcapsules are fabricated to enclose cells, they show a higher permeability threshold than expected. The secretion rates of recombinant gene products ranging from 21 through 150 to 300 kd (human growth hormone, rat serum albumin, human arylsulfatase A, human immunoglobulin, mouse beta-hexosaminidase, mouse beta-glucuronidase) were similar between the nonencapsulated and encapsulated recombinant cells with the exception of the largest molecular species, the 300-kd beta-glucuronidase. Its secretion was reduced about eightfold after encapsulation. Increasing the thickness of the membrane by prolonging the coating time with poly-L-lysine did not provide a lower molecular weight cutoff. An additional coating with alginate, however, reduced the leakage of the larger molecular species, but the effect was short lived: After 2 weeks in culture, the double- and single-coated microcapsules were equally permeable. Both the increased poly-L-lysine and alginate coating were detrimental to the long-term viability and proliferation of the encapsulated cells. Hence, immunoisolation of encapsulated cells with alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules cannot provide a molecular weight cutoff below 300 kd. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18629920

  17. Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

  18. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Moore; Nicola J. Redhead; Jim Selfridge; James Hope; Jean C. Manson; David W. Melton

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector

  19. Gene and microRNA analysis of neutrophils from patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocytosis: down-regulation of micro RNA1 and -133a

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Slezak; Ping Jin; Lorraine Caruccio; Jiaqiang Ren; Michael Bennett; Nausheen Zia; Sharon Adams; Ena Wang; Joao Ascensao; Geraldine Schechter; David Stroncek

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the V617F mutation in JAK2 may not be the initiating event in myeloprofilerative disorders (MPDs) we compared molecular changes in neutrophils from patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythosis (ET), to neutrophils stimulated by G-CSF administration and to normal unstimulated neutrophils METHODS: A gene expression oligonucleotide microarray with more than 35,000 probes and a microRNA (miR) expression

  20. Interaction of a1Na,K-ATPase and Na,K,2Cl-Cotransporter Genes in Human Essential Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Glorioso; Fabiana Filigheddu; Chiara Troffa; Aldo Soro; Paolo Pinna Parpaglia; Aristides Tsikoudakis; Richard H. Myers; Victoria L. M. Herrera; Nelson Ruiz-Opazo

    Essential hypertension is a common disease the genetic determinants of which have been difficult to unravel because of its clinical heterogeneity and complex, multifactorial, polygenic etiology. Based on our observations that a1-Na,K-ATPase (ATP1A1) and renal-specific, bumetanide-sensitive Na,K,2Cl-cotransporter ( NKCC2) genes interac- tively increase susceptibility to hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (Dahl S) rat model, we investigated whether parallel molecular

  1. Genome-Wide High-Throughput Screening to Investigate Essential Genes Involved in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 Survival

    E-print Network

    Christiansen, Mette T.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holmes, Mark A.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2014-02-12

    Genome-Wide High-Throughput Screening to Investigate Essential Genes Involved in Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 Survival Mette T. Christiansen1*¤a, Rolf S. Kaas1, Roy R. Chaudhuri2¤b, Mark A. Holmes2, Henrik Hasman1... -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Sequence Type 398 (ST398) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to colonize and cause disease in several animal species including humans. To better understand the adaptation, evolution, transmission and pathogenic capacity...

  2. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-08-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

  3. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80°C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is ?15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37°C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

  4. Low temperature acclimation mediated by ethanol production is essential for chilling tolerance in rice roots

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were subjected to low temperature pretreatment (LT-PT; 10°C) for various length of time followed by a 48-h chilling temperature stress (2°C). Chilling tolerance of rice roots was improved with increasing duration of LT-PT, but HT-PT longer than 12 h gave no additional improvement. LT-PT did not change in fatty acid composition in rice roots under the present experimental condition. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and ethanol concentration in the roots were increased with increasing duration of LT-PT up to 12 h, which indicates that LT-PT increased ethanol fermentation in the roots. 4-Methylpyrazole, a potent inhibitor of ADH, reduced the ethanol concentration and the chilling tolerance in the roots. This reduction of the chilling tolerance recovered with exogenously applied ethanol. Ethanol also induced 21- and 33-kD protein synthesis in the roots and these proteins may contribute the improvement of the tolerance. The present research suggests that LT-PT may increase chilling tolerance in rice roots owing to ethanol production, and ethanol may trigger a signal transduction cascade, which might lead to a decrease in membrane damage and injury. PMID:19704659

  5. The Leishmania nicotinamidase is essential for NAD+ production and parasite proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gazanion, E; Garcia, D; Silvestre, R; Gérard, C; Guichou, J F; Labesse, G; Seveno, M; Cordeiro-Da-Silva, A; Ouaissi, A; Sereno, D; Vergnes, B

    2011-10-01

    NAD+ is a central cofactor that plays important roles in cellular metabolism and energy production in all living cells. Genomics-based reconstruction of NAD+ metabolism revealed that Leishmania protozoan parasites are NAD+ auxotrophs. Consequently, these parasites require assimilating NAD+ precursors (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside) from their host environment to synthesize NAD+ by a salvage pathway. Nicotinamidase is a key enzyme of this salvage pathway that catalyses conversion of nicotinamide (NAm) to nicotinic acid (Na), and that is absent in higher eukaryotes. We present here the biochemical and functional characterizations of the Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase (LiPNC1). Generation of Lipnc1 null mutants leads to a decrease in NAD+ content, associated with a metabolic shutdown-like phenotype with an extensive lag phase of growth. Both phenotypes could be rescued by an add-back construct or by addition of exogenous Na. In addition, Lipnc1 null mutants were unable to establish a sustained infection in a murine experimental model. Altogether, these results illustrate that NAD+ homeostasis is a fundamental component of Leishmania biology and virulence, and that NAm constitutes its main NAD+ source in the mammalian host. The crystal structure of LiPNC1 we solved allows now the design of rational inhibitors against this new promising therapeutic target. PMID:21819459

  6. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, André; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

    2013-05-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production. PMID:23610393

  7. The Chlamydomonas chloroplast clpP gene contains translated large insertion sequences and is essential for cell growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changzhi Huang; Shenglong Wang; Ling Chen; Claude Lemieux; Christian Otis; Monique Turmel; Xiang-Qin Liu

    1994-01-01

    Sequence determination of the chloroplast clpP gene from two distantly related Chlamydomonas species (C. reinhardtii and C. eugametos) revealed the presence of translated large insertion sequences (IS1 and IS2) that divide the clpP gene into two or three sequence domains (SDs) and are not found in homologous genes in other organisms. These insertion sequences do not resemble RNA introns, and

  8. The e(y)3 Gene Codes for SAYP, an Evolutionary Conserved Protein That Is Essential for Ontogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Shidlovskii; J. V. Nikolenko; A. N. Krasnov; M. P. Kopantseva; S. G. Georgieva; E. N. Nabirochkina

    2005-01-01

    Enhancers of yellow (e(y)) is a group of genetically and functionally related genes. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in transcription regulation. The e(y)3 gene under study codes for an ubiquitous nuclear protein, termed SAYP, which has homologs in various multicellular organisms. SAYP contains an AT-hook domain, two PHD domains, and a new evolutionarily conserved domain. SAYP mutants

  9. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  10. Variability in the Stability and Productivity of Transfected Genes in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells

    E-print Network

    Ng, Say Kong

    In the field of biologics production, productivity and stability of the transfected gene of interest are two very important attributes that dictate if a production process is viable. To further understand and improve these ...

  11. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  12. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  13. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5` UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

  14. Functional annotation of human cytomegalovirus gene products: an update

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Ellen; Van Loock, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic double-stranded DNA virus with one of the largest viral genomes known. The 235 kB genome is divided in a unique long (UL) and a unique short (US) region which are flanked by terminal and internal repeats. The expression of HCMV genes is highly complex and involves the production of protein coding transcripts, polyadenylated long non-coding RNAs, polyadenylated anti-sense transcripts and a variety of non-polyadenylated RNAs such as microRNAs. Although the function of many of these transcripts is unknown, they are suggested to play a direct or regulatory role in the delicately orchestrated processes that ensure HCMV replication and life-long persistence. This review focuses on annotating the complete viral genome based on three sources of information. First, previous reviews were used as a template for the functional keywords to ensure continuity; second, the Uniprot database was used to further enrich the functional database; and finally, the literature was manually curated for novel functions of HCMV gene products. Novel discoveries were discussed in light of the viral life cycle. This functional annotation highlights still poorly understood regions of the genome but more importantly it can give insight in functional clusters and/or may be helpful in the analysis of future transcriptomics and proteomics studies. PMID:24904534

  15. Analysis of the rat JE gene promoter identifies an AP-1 binding site essential for basal expression but not for TPA induction.

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, H T; Pronk, G J; Bos, J L; van der Eb, A J

    1990-01-01

    We have cloned the immediate-early serum-reponsive JE gene from the rat in order to study the regulation of this gene. We show that sequences of the JE promoter region confer serum-inducibility to a reporter gene. Analysis of the promoter in transient assays reveals that: i) the -141/-88 region is required for the response to the phorbol ester TPA, ii) the -70/-38 region is essential for basal activity. This latter region harbors the sequence TGACTCC, which resembles the consensus site for AP-1 binding, TGACTCA. DNA-protein binding assays indicate that the JE AP-1 site and the consensus AP-1 site have an overlapping but not identical binding spectrum for AP-1 proteins. Our data suggest that the inability of some AP-1 sites to respond to TPA is caused by subtle differences in affinity for AP-1 proteins. Images PMID:2106664

  16. What Makes each Aux/IAA Gene Unique in its Gene Family, Expression Pattern or Properties of the Gene Product?

    PubMed

    Muto, Hideki; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2007-09-01

    In the auxin signal transduction, two protein families, Aux/IAAs and auxin response factors, play a crucial role just downstream of auxin F-box receptors. Distinct and overlapping phenotypes of the dominant Aux/IAA mutants suggest some functional differentiation of the Aux/IAA genes in auxin signaling. Taking advantage of unique phenotypes of the msg2/iaa19 mutants, we carried out promoter-exchange experiments, where cDNA of the msg2, axr2/iaa7 or slr/iaa14 gene was driven by the MSG2 or AXR2 promoter. The cDNAs were translationally fused to the green fluorescent protein gene to measure levels of expressed protein. Results showed that many abnormal phenotypes of the dominant Aux/IAA mutants were governed by their promoter activity, but some were dependent on their gene products. The latter result highlights the possible importance of Aux/IAA protein level controled by auxin F-box receptors. PMID:19704610

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodobacter capsulatus: genes, mutants, expression, and physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, R G; Gabbert, K K; Locke, T A; Madigan, M T

    1997-01-01

    Like many other prokaryotes, the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus produces high levels of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) when a suitable carbon source is available. The three genes that are traditionally considered to be necessary in the PHA biosynthetic pathway, phaA (beta-ketothiolase), phaB (acetoacetylcoenzyme A reductase), and phaC (PHA synthase), were cloned from Rhodobacter capsulatus. In R. capsulatus, the phaAB genes are not linked to the phaC gene. Translational beta-galactosidase fusions to phaA and phaC were constructed and recombined into the chromosome. Both phaC and phaA were constitutively expressed regardless of whether PHA production was induced, suggesting that control is posttranslational at the enzymatic level. Consistent with this conclusion, it was shown that the R. capsulatus transcriptional nitrogen-sensing circuits were not involved in PHA synthesis. The doubling times of R. capsulatus transcriptional nitrogen-sensing circuits were not involved in PHA synthesis. The doubling times of R. capsulatus grown on numerous carbon sources were determined, indicating that this bacterium grows on C2 to C12 fatty acids. Grown on acetone, caproate, or heptanoate, wild-type R. capsulatus produced high levels of PHAs. Although a phaC deletion strain was unable to synthesize PHAs on any carbon source, phaA and phaAB deletion strains were able to produce PHAs, indicating that alternative routes for the synthesis of substrates for the synthase are present. The nutritional versatility and bioenergetic versatility of R. capsulatus, coupled with its ability to produce large amounts of PHAs and its genetic tractability, make it an attractive model for the study of PHA production. PMID:9251189

  18. The impact of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum) essential oil and carvacrol on virulence gene transcription by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Mith, Hasika; Clinquart, Antoine; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Delcenserie, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and carvacrol, its major component, on the expression of virulence-associated genes in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC strain 35150. Both oregano oil and carvacrol demonstrated their efficacy firstly, by inhibiting the transcription of the ler gene involved in upregulation of the LEE2, LEE3 and LEE4 promoters and of attaching and effacing lesions and secondly by decreasing both Shiga toxin and fliC genes expression. In addition, a decrease in luxS gene transcription involved in quorum sensing was observed. These results were dose dependent and showed a specific effect of O. heracleoticum and carvacrol in downregulating the expression of virulence genes in EHEC O157:H7. These findings suggest that oregano oil and carvacrol have the potential to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by virulence gene expression in EHEC O157:H7, through the use of these substances as natural antibacterial additives in foods or as an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:25790499

  19. Jasmonate and ethylene dependent defence gene expression and suppression of fungal virulence factors: two essential mechanisms of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium species like F. graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol produced by the fungus affect plant and animal health, and cause significant reductions of grain yield and quality. Resistant varieties are the only effective way to control this disease, but the molecular events leading to FHB resistance are still poorly understood. Transcriptional profiling was conducted for the winter wheat cultivars Dream (moderately resistant) and Lynx (susceptible). The gene expressions at 32 and 72?h after inoculation with Fusarium were used to trace possible defence mechanisms and associated genes. A comparative qPCR was carried out for selected genes to analyse the respective expression patterns in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3 (Chinese spring wheat). Results Among 2,169 differentially expressed genes, two putative main defence mechanisms were found in the FHB-resistant Dream cultivar. Both are defined base on their specific mode of resistance. A non-specific mechanism was based on several defence genes probably induced by jasmonate and ethylene signalling, including lipid-transfer protein, thionin, defensin and GDSL-like lipase genes. Additionally, defence-related genes encoding jasmonate-regulated proteins were up-regulated in response to FHB. Another mechanism based on the targeted suppression of essential Fusarium virulence factors comprising proteases and mycotoxins was found to be an essential, induced defence of general relevance in wheat. Moreover, similar inductions upon fungal infection were frequently observed among FHB-responsive genes of both mechanisms in the cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Conclusions Especially ABC transporter, UDP-glucosyltransferase, protease and protease inhibitor genes associated with the defence mechanism against fungal virulence factors are apparently active in different resistant genetic backgrounds, according to reports on other wheat cultivars and barley. This was further supported in our qPCR experiments on seven genes originating from this mechanism which revealed similar activities in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Finally, the combination of early-stage and steady-state induction was associated with resistance, while transcript induction generally occurred later and temporarily in the susceptible cultivars. The respective mechanisms are attractive for advanced studies aiming at new resistance and toxin management strategies. PMID:22857656

  20. Genetic subtraction profiling identifies genes essential for Arabidopsis reproduction and reveals interaction between the female gametophyte and the maternal sporophyte

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Amal J; Meier, Patrick; Gheyselinck, Jacqueline; Wuest, Samuel EJ; Federer, Michael; Schlagenhauf, Edith; Becker, Jörg D; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2007-01-01

    Background The embryo sac contains the haploid maternal cell types necessary for double fertilization and subsequent seed development in plants. Large-scale identification of genes expressed in the embryo sac remains cumbersome because of its inherent microscopic and inaccessible nature. We used genetic subtraction and comparative profiling by microarray between the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and a sporophytic mutant lacking an embryo sac in order to identify embryo sac expressed genes in this model organism. The influences of the embryo sac on the surrounding sporophytic tissues were previously thought to be negligible or nonexistent; we investigated the extent of these interactions by transcriptome analysis. Results We identified 1,260 genes as embryo sac expressed by analyzing both our dataset and a recently reported dataset, obtained by a similar approach, using three statistical procedures. Spatial expression of nine genes (for instance a central cell expressed trithorax-like gene, an egg cell expressed gene encoding a kinase, and a synergid expressed gene encoding a permease) validated our approach. We analyzed mutants in five of the newly identified genes that exhibited developmental anomalies during reproductive development. A total of 527 genes were identified for their expression in ovules of mutants lacking an embryo sac, at levels that were twofold higher than in the wild type. Conclusion Identification of embryo sac expressed genes establishes a basis for the functional dissection of embryo sac development and function. Sporophytic gain of expression in mutants lacking an embryo sac suggests that a substantial portion of the sporophytic transcriptome involved in carpel and ovule development is, unexpectedly, under the indirect influence of the embryo sac. PMID:17915010

  1. Associations between human aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 (-344T/C) gene polymorphism and antihypertensive response to valsartan in Chinese patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xu; Qi, Hua; Li, Dong-Bao; Liu, Rong-Kun; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Hai-Ling; Guo, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to the potent mineralocorticoid aldosterone. The gene encoding aldosterone synthase, CYP11B2, is associated with essential hypertension. But if the genetic variations in aldosterone synthesis could influence the antihypertensive response to Valsartan is not clear. A Chinese sample of 502 persons (217 women) was studied, which was divided into the hypertensive group (EH) of 345 persons and the normotensive group (NB) of 157 persons. Subjects were genotyped through the use of the polymerase chain reaction for the diallelic polymorphisms in CYP11B2. 98 persons of the essential hypertension group received 4 weeks therapy with valsartan. Blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, biochemical index were also determined. The frequency of CC+CT genotypes in hypertensive group was significantly higher than that in normotensive group (P<0.05), the frequency of C allele of gene CYP11B2 (-344T/C) in hypertensive group was significantly higher than that in normotensive group (P<0.01). The descending values of SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), MAP (mean arterial pressure), 24 h SBP (mean SBP of 24 hours), 24 h DBP (mean DBP of 24 hours), 24 h MAP (mean arterial pressure of 24 hours) of CC+CT genotype group were significantly higher than those of the TT genotype group (P<0.05). The aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 (-344T/C) gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension in Chinese. And the aldosterone synthase CYP11B2 (-344T/C) gene polymorphism may be the predictor of the antihypertensive response to Valsartan. PMID:25785110

  2. Essential Tremor

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Essential Tremor Overview What is essential tremor? Essential tremor, sometimes called benign (non-cancerous) or familial tremor, is an uncontrollable shaking, most often in ...

  3. Characterization of the Polyoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster from Streptomyces cacaoi and Engineered Production of Polyoxin H*S?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Tingting; He, Xinyi; Meng, Qingqing; You, Delin; Bai, Linquan; Li, Jialiang; Wu, Mingxuan; Li, Rui; Xie, Zhoujie; Zhou, Huchen; Zhou, Xiufen; Tan, Huarong; Deng, Zixin

    2009-01-01

    A gene cluster (pol) essential for the biosynthesis of polyoxin, a nucleoside antibiotic widely used for the control of phytopathogenic fungi, was cloned from Streptomyces cacaoi. A 46,066-bp region was sequenced, and 20 of 39 of the putative open reading frames were defined as necessary for polyoxin biosynthesis as evidenced by its production in a heterologous host, Streptomyces lividans TK24. The role of PolO and PolA in polyoxin synthesis was demonstrated by in vivo experiments, and their functions were unambiguously characterized as O-carbamoyltransferase and UMP-enolpyruvyltransferase, respectively, by in vitro experiments, which enabled the production of a modified compound differing slightly from that proposed earlier. These studies should provide a solid foundation for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for polyoxin biosynthesis, and set the stage for combinatorial biosynthesis using genes encoding different pathways for nucleoside antibiotics. PMID:19233844

  4. Stress-inducible OsP5CS2 gene is essential for salt and cold tolerance in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghe Hur; Ki-Hong Jung; Choon-Hwan Lee; Gynheung An

    2004-01-01

    We isolated a rice T-DNA tagging line, in which T-DNA was inserted into the sixth intron of OsP5CS2. This gene encodes for a protein that is highly homologous to ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), a proline biosynthesis enzyme. The T-DNA contained the promoterless gus gene, allowing generation of a gene fusion between OsP5CS2 and gus. Therefore, the expression pattern of OsP5CS2 could

  5. Stress-inducible OsP5CS2gene is essential for salt and cold tolerance in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghe Hur; Ki-Hong Jung; Choon-Hwan Leeb; Gynheung Ana

    We isolated a rice T-DNA tagging line, in which T-DNA was inserted into the sixth intron of OsP5CS2. This gene encodes for a protein that is highly homologous to ? 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), a proline biosynthesis enzyme. The T-DNA contained the promoterless gus gene, allowing generation of a gene fusion between OsP5CS2 and gus. Therefore, the expression pattern of OsP5CS2

  6. The essential Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc23 DNA replication gene shares structural and functional homology with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA43 (MCM10) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Aves; Nicholas Tongue; Andrew J. Foster; Elizabeth A. Hart

    1998-01-01

    The fission yeast cdc23 gene is required for correct DNA replication: cdc23 mutants show reduced rates of DNA synthesis and become elongated after cell-cycle arrest. We have cloned the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc23 gene by complementation of the temperature-sensitive phenotype of cdc23-M36 and confirmed the identity of the gene by integrative mapping. Analysis of the DNA sequence reveals that cdc23 can

  7. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  8. The nieuwkoid\\/dharma Homeobox Gene Is Essential for bmp2b Repression in the Zebrafish Pregastrula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Koos; Robert K Ho

    1999-01-01

    Dorsoventral specification of the zebrafish gastrula is governed by the functions of the dorsal shield, a region of the embryo functionally analogous to the amphibian Spemann organizer. We report that the bozozok locus encodes the transcription factor nieuwkoid\\/dharma, a homeobox gene with non-cell-autonomous organizer-inducing activity. The nieuwkoid\\/dharma gene is expressed prior to the onset of gastrulation in a restricted region

  9. A Novel Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent O-Demethylase Gene Is Essential for Growth of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 with Syringate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Masai; Miyuki Sasaki; Yasunori Minakawa; Tomokuni Abe; Tomonori Sonoki; Keisuke Miyauchi; Yoshihiro Katayama; Masao Fukuda

    2004-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 degrades syringate to 3-O-methylgallate (3MGA), which is finally con- verted to pyruvate and oxaloacetate via multiple pathways in which protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase, 3MGA dioxygenase, and gallate dioxygenase are involved. Here we isolated the syringate O-demethylase gene (desA), which complemented the growth deficiency on syringate of a Tn5 mutant of the SYK-6 derivative strain. The desA gene is located

  10. Distinct and Essential Roles of Transcription Factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 in Response to Viruses for IFN-?\\/? Gene Induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuharu Sato; Hirofumi Suemori; Naoki Hata; Masataka Asagiri; Kouetsu Ogasawara; Kazuki Nakao; Takeo Nakaya; Motoya Katsuki; Shigeru Noguchi; Nobuyuki Tanaka; Tadatsugu Taniguchi

    2000-01-01

    Induction of the interferon (IFN)-?\\/? gene transcription in virus-infected cells is an event central to innate immunity. Mice lacking the transcription factor IRF-3 are more vulnerable to virus infection. In embryonic fibroblasts, virus-induced IFN-?\\/? gene expression levels are reduced and the spectrum of the IFN-? mRNA subspecies altered. Furthermore, cells additionally defective in IRF-7 expression totally fail to induce these

  11. Post-translational processing of the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase gene product in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuge, O; Saito, K; Kojima, M; Akamatsu, Y; Nishijima, M

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a full-length cDNA clone of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) pssC gene, which encodes mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. The cDNA clone is capable of increasing phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity to 11-fold in CHO-K1 cells. The pssC gene product predicted from the cDNA sequence is composed of 409 amino acid residues. In an in vitro translation system coupled with in vitro transcription, the cDNA clone directs the formation of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa. In CHO-K1 cells, the cDNA clone leads to the production of two major peptides with apparent molecular masses of 38 and 34 kDa, as determined by Western blotting with an antibody raised against a recombinant pssC protein. When CHO-K1 cells transfected with the cDNA clone are labelled with [35S]methionine for a short period, proteins immunoprecipitated with the antibody lack radioactive 38 and 34 kDa peptides, but contain two radioactive peptides with apparent molecular masses of 46 and 42 kDa instead. The pssC gene product predicted from the cDNA sequence has, near its C-terminus, a unique Leu-Gly-Ser-Thr sequence which is known as a processing site for Escherichia coli phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. A mutant pssC cDNA clone, in which Ser378 in the conserved sequence is replaced by Ala, leads to overproduction of 46, 42 and 38 kDa peptides, but not a 34 kDa peptide. This mutant clone is incapable of increasing phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity, in contrast to the wild-type clone. These results indicate that the processing at the Leu-Gly-Ser-Thr sequence is essential for formation of the active enzyme. Thus, the pssC gene product is converted into mature phosphatidylserine decarboxylase through multiple steps of post-translational processing. PMID:8870646

  12. Functional circadian clock genes are essential for the overwintering diapause of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Meuti, Megan E; Stone, Mary; Ikeno, Tomoko; Denlinger, David L

    2015-02-01

    The short day lengths of late summer are used to program the overwintering adult diapause (dormancy) of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens. Here, we investigated the role of clock genes in initiating this diapause and asked whether the circadian cycling of clock gene expression persists during diapause. We provide evidence that the major circadian clock genes continue to cycle throughout diapause and after diapause has been terminated. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to knock down the core circadian clock genes and to then assess the impact of the various clock genes on the ability of females to enter diapause. RNAi directed against negative circadian regulators (period, timeless and cryptochrome2) caused females that were reared under diapause-inducing, short day conditions to avert diapause. In contrast, knocking down the circadian-associated gene pigment dispersing factor caused females that were reared under diapause-averting, long day conditions to enter a diapause-like state. Our results implicate the circadian clock in the initiation of diapause in C. pipiens. PMID:25653422

  13. RAD25 (SSL2), the yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, E.; Prakash, L. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (United States)); Guzder, S.N.; Prakash, S. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)); Koken, M.H.M.; Jaspers-Dekker, I.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and seven complementation groups, A-G, have been identified. Homologs of human excision repair genes ERCC1, XPDC/ERCC2, and XPAC have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since no homolog of human XPBC/ERCC3 existed among the known yeast genes, we cloned the yeast homolog by using XPBC cDNA as a hybridization probe. The yeast homolog, RAD25 (SSL2), encodes a protein of 843 amino acids (M[sub r] 95,356). The RAD25 (SSL2)- and XPCX-encoded proteins share 55% identical and 72% conserved amino acid residues, and the two proteins resemble one another in containing the conserved DNA helicase sequence motifs. A nonsense mutation at codon 799 that deletes the 45 C-terminal amino acid residues in RAD25 (SSL2) confers UV sensitivity. This mutation shows epistasis with genes in the excision repair group, whereas a synergistic increase in UN sensitivity occurs when it is combined with mutations in genes in other DNA repair pathways, indicating that RAD25 (SSL2) functions in excision repair but not in other repair pathways. We also show that RAD25 (SSL2) is an essential gene. A mutation of the Lys[sup 392] residue to arginine in the conserved Walker type A nucleotide-binding motif is lethal, suggesting an essential role of the putative RAD 25 (SSL2) ATPase/DNA helicase activity in viability. 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. mTORC1 Is Essential for Early Steps during Schwann Cell Differentiation of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Regulates Lipogenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schörghofer, David; Kinslechner, Katharina; Schütz, Birgit; Thi Thanh Pham, Ha; Rosner, Margit; Joo, Gabor Jozsef; Röhrl, Clemens; Weichhart, Thomas; Stangl, Herbert; Lubec, Gert; Hengstschläger, Markus; Mikula, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cell development is hallmarked by the induction of a lipogenic profile. Here we used amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells and focused on the mechanisms occurring during early steps of differentiation along the Schwann cell lineage. Therefore, we initiated Schwann cell differentiation in AFS cells and monitored as well as modulated the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, the major regulator of anabolic processes. Our results show that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is essential for glial marker expression and expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) target genes. Moreover, SREBP target gene activation by statin treatment promoted lipogenic gene expression, induced mTORC1 activation and stimulated Schwann cell differentiation. To investigate mTORC1 downstream signaling we expressed a mutant S6K1, which subsequently induced the expression of the Schwann cell marker S100b, but did not affect lipogenic gene expression. This suggests that S6K1 dependent and independent pathways downstream of mTORC1 drive AFS cells to early Schwann cell differentiation and lipogenic gene expression. In conclusion our results propose that future strategies for peripheral nervous system regeneration will depend on ways to efficiently induce the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:25221943

  15. Identification of the uvrC gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Sancar, A; Kacinski, B M; Mott, D L; Rupp, W D

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed a multicopy plasmid that carries the uvrC gene of Escherichia coli. By inserting the transposon Tn1000 (previously designated gamma delta) into this plasmid, we obtained many derivatives that fail to complement uvrC34. The proteins synthesized by the original plasmid and the uvrC::Tn1000 derivatives were labeled in maxicells and analyzed on gels, demonstrating that a protein of Mr 70,000 encoded by the original uvrC+ plasmid was absent from the mutated noncomplementing derivatives; this protein is presumed to be the uvrC gene product. We found that this protein of Mr 70,000 binds to DNA and have partially purified the uvrC protein by DNA-cellulose chromatography. Because some of the uvrC::Tn1000 derivatives produce truncated polypeptides, the orientation of expression and the location of the promoter were determined by correlating the sizes of the truncated polypeptides with the sites of insertion of Tn1000. Images PMID:7029536

  16. Spink13, an Epididymis-specific Gene of the Kazal-type Serine Protease Inhibitor (SPINK) Family, Is Essential for the Acrosomal Integrity and Male Fertility*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Yu, Heguo; Ni, Zimei; Hu, Shuanggang; Ma, Wubin; Chu, Chen; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yonglian

    2013-01-01

    Sperm maturation involves numerous surface modifications by a variety of secreted proteins from epididymal epithelia. The sperm surface architecture depends on correct localization of its components and highlights the importance of the sequence of the proteolytic processing of the sperm surface in the epididymal duct. The presence of several protease inhibitors from different families is consistent with the hypothesis that correctly timed epididymal protein processing is essential for proper sperm maturation. Here we show that the rat (Rattus norvegicus) epididymis-specific gene Spink13, an androgen-responsive serine protease inhibitor, could bind to the sperm acrosome region. Furthermore, knockdown of Spink13 in vivo dramatically enhanced the acrosomal exocytosis during the process of capacitation and thus led to a significant reduction in male fertility, indicating that Spink13 was essential for sperm maturation. We conclude that blockade of SPINK13 may provide a new putative target for post-testicular male contraceptives. PMID:23430248

  17. Spink13, an epididymis-specific gene of the Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor (SPINK) family, is essential for the acrosomal integrity and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yu, Heguo; Ni, Zimei; Hu, Shuanggang; Ma, Wubin; Chu, Chen; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yonglian

    2013-04-01

    Sperm maturation involves numerous surface modifications by a variety of secreted proteins from epididymal epithelia. The sperm surface architecture depends on correct localization of its components and highlights the importance of the sequence of the proteolytic processing of the sperm surface in the epididymal duct. The presence of several protease inhibitors from different families is consistent with the hypothesis that correctly timed epididymal protein processing is essential for proper sperm maturation. Here we show that the rat (Rattus norvegicus) epididymis-specific gene Spink13, an androgen-responsive serine protease inhibitor, could bind to the sperm acrosome region. Furthermore, knockdown of Spink13 in vivo dramatically enhanced the acrosomal exocytosis during the process of capacitation and thus led to a significant reduction in male fertility, indicating that Spink13 was essential for sperm maturation. We conclude that blockade of SPINK13 may provide a new putative target for post-testicular male contraceptives. PMID:23430248

  18. OsNF-YB1, a rice endosperm-specific gene, is essential for cell proliferation in endosperm development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaocong; Ling, Sheng; Lu, Zhanhua; Ouyang, Yi-Dan; Liu, Shasha; Yao, Jialing

    2014-11-10

    Cell cycle regulators are crucial for normal endosperm development and seed size determination. However, how the cell cycle related genes regulate endosperm development remains unclear. In this study, we reported a rice Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) gene OsNF-YB1, which was also identified as an endosperm-specific gene. Transcriptional profiling and promoter analysis revealed that OsNF-YB1 was highly expressed at the early stages of rice endosperm development (5-7 DAP, days after pollination). Repression of OsNF-YB1 resulted in differential expression of the genes in cell cycle pathway, which caused abnormal seeds with defected embryo and endosperm. Basic cytological analysis demonstrated that the reduced endosperm cell numbers disintegrated with the development of those abnormal seeds in OsNF-YB1 RNAi plants. Taken together, these results suggested that the endosperm-specific gene OsNF-YB1 might be a cell cycle regulator and played a role in maintaining the endosperm cell proliferation. PMID:25178525

  19. P-Element Insertion Alleles of Essential Genes on the Third Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster: Mutations Affecting Embryonic Pns Development

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, A.; Prokopenko, S. N.; He, Y.; Tsai, P.; Pal, M.; Maroy, P.; Glover, D. M.; Deak, P.; Bellen, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    To identify novel genes and to isolate tagged mutations in known genes that are required for the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), we have screened a novel collection of 2460 strains carrying lethal or semilethal P-element insertions on the third chromosome. Monoclonal antibody 22C10 was used as a marker to visualize the embryonic PNS. We identified 109 mutant strains that exhibited reproducible phenotypes in the PNS. Cytological and genetic analyses of these strains indicated that 87 mutations affect previously identified genes: tramtrack (n = 18 alleles), string (n = 15), cyclin A (n = 13), single-minded (n = 13), Delta (n = 9), neuralized (n = 4), pointed (n = 4), extra macrochaetae (n = 4), prospero (n = 3), tartan (n = 2), and pebble (n = 2). In addition, 13 mutations affect genes that we identified recently in a chemical mutagenesis screen designed to isolate similar mutants: hearty (n = 3), dorsotonals (n = 2), pavarotti (n = 2), sanpodo (n = 2), dalmatian (n = 1), missensed (n = 1), senseless (n = 1), and sticky ch1 (n = 1). The remaining nine mutations define seven novel complementation groups. The data presented here demonstrate that this collection of P elements will be useful for the identification and cloning of novel genes on the third chromosome, since >70% of mutations identified in the screen are caused by the insertion of a P element. A comparison between this screen and a chemical mutagenesis screen undertaken earlier highlights the complementarity of the two types of genetic screens. PMID:9409832

  20. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 ?M, 10 ?M and 100 ?M) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner. PMID:23514759

  1. Identification of Three Essential Regulatory Gene Loci Governing Expression of Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and Biofilm Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIETRICH MACK; HOLGER ROHDE; SABINE DOBINSKY; JOACHIM RIEDEWALD; MAX NEDELMANN; JOHANNES K.-M. KNOBLOCH; H.-A. Elsner; H. H. Feucht

    2000-01-01

    The formation of adherent multilayered biofilms embedded into a glycocalyx represents an essential factor in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus epidermidis biomaterial-related infections. Using biofilm-producing S. epi- dermidis 1457 and transposon Tn917 carried on plasmid pTV1ts, we isolated nine isogenic biofilm-nega- tive transposon mutants. Transduction by S. epidermidis phage 71 was used to prove the genetic linkage of transposon insertions and

  2. Human mediator MED17 subunit plays essential roles in gene regulation by associating with the transcription and DNA repair machineries.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Umemura, Hiroyasu; Nishitani, Saori; Iida, Satoshi; Fukasawa, Rikiya; Hayashi, Hiroto; Hirose, Yutaka; Tanaka, Aki; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2015-03-01

    In eukaryotes, holo-Mediator consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. The head module performs an essential function involved in regulation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We studied the human head module subunit MED17 (hMED17). Recent structural studies showed that yeast MED17 may function as a hinge connecting the neck and movable jaw regions of the head module to the fixed jaw region. Luciferase assays in hMED17-knockdown cells showed that hMED17 supports transcriptional activation, and pulldown assays showed that hMED17 interacted with Pol II and the general transcription factors TFIIB, TBP, TFIIE, and TFIIH. In addition, hMED17 bound to a DNA helicase subunit of TFIIH, XPB, which is essential for both transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Because hMED17 associates with p53 upon UV-C irradiation, we treated human MCF-7 cells with either UV-C or the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Both treatments resulted in accumulation of p53 in the nucleus, but hMED17 remained concentrated in the nucleus in response to UV-C. hMED17 colocalized with the NER factors XPB and XPG following UV-C irradiation, and XPG and XPB bound to hMED17 in vitro. These findings suggest that hMED17 may play essential roles in switching between transcription and NER. PMID:25482373

  3. The pqqC gene is essential for antifungal activity of Pseudomonas kilonensis JX22 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhong; Deng, Peng; Showmaker, Kurt C; Wang, Hui; Baird, Sonya M; Lu, Shi-En

    2014-04-01

    Strain JX22, exhibiting a broad range of antimicrobial activities to fungal pathogens, was isolated and classified as representing Pseudomonas kilonensis. In this study, the mutant JX22MT1 was obtained by the EZ-Tn5 transposon mutation and showed no antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici as compared with wild-type strain JX22. The pqqC gene was disrupted in the mutant. Antifungal activity at the wild-type level was restored from the mutant JX22MT1 with the introduction of the functional pqqC gene, which encodes pyrroloquinoline-quinone synthesis protein C. The results suggest that pqqC is essential for antifungal activity of P. kilonensis JX22 against F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:24588744

  4. Genes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

    2005-03-12

    Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

  5. Genetic Dissection of the mamAB and mms6 Operons Reveals a Gene Set Essential for Magnetosome Biogenesis in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    Lohße, Anna; Borg, Sarah; Raschdorf, Oliver; Kolinko, Isabel; Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály; Faivre, Damien; Baumgartner, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of bacterial magnetosomes, which are intracellular membrane-enclosed, nanosized magnetic crystals, is controlled by a set of >30 specific genes. In Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, these are clustered mostly within a large conserved genomic magnetosome island (MAI) comprising the mms6, mamGFDC, mamAB, and mamXY operons. Here, we demonstrate that the five previously uncharacterized genes of the mms6 operon have crucial functions in the regulation of magnetosome biomineralization that partially overlap MamF and other proteins encoded by the adjacent mamGFDC operon. While all other deletions resulted in size reduction, elimination of either mms36 or mms48 caused the synthesis of magnetite crystals larger than those in the wild type (WT). Whereas the mms6 operon encodes accessory factors for crystal maturation, the large mamAB operon contains several essential and nonessential genes involved in various other steps of magnetosome biosynthesis, as shown by single deletions of all mamAB genes. While single deletions of mamL, -P, -Q, -R, -B, -S, -T, and -U showed phenotypes similar to those of their orthologs in a previous study in the related M. magneticum, we found mamI and mamN to be not required for at least rudimentary iron biomineralization in M. gryphiswaldense. Thus, only mamE, -L, -M, -O, -Q, and -B were essential for formation of magnetite, whereas a mamI mutant still biomineralized tiny particles which, however, consisted of the nonmagnetic iron oxide hematite, as shown by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). Based on this and previous studies, we propose an extended model for magnetosome biosynthesis in M. gryphiswaldense. PMID:24816605

  6. Gene targeting reveals the role of Oc90 as the essential organizer of the otoconial organic matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Zhao; Hua Yang; Ebenezer N. Yamoah; Yunxia Wang Lundberg

    2007-01-01

    A critical part of the functional development of our peripheral balance system is the embryonic formation of otoconia, composite crystals that overlie and provide optimal stimulus input to the sensory epithelium of the gravity receptor in the inner ear. To date neither the functions of otoconial proteins nor the processes of crystal formation are clearly defined. Using gene targeting and

  7. oriPIs Essential for EBNA Gene Promoter Activity in Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalized Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARYANN T. PUGLIELLI; MAXIMILIAN WOISETSCHLAEGER; ANDSAMUEL H. SPECK

    1996-01-01

    is initially active, followed by a switch to Cp for the duration of latency. In this study, the region upstream of Cp was analyzed for the presence of cis elements involved in regulating the activities of the EBNA gene promoters in established in vitro immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). It was determined thatoriP, theoriginforepisomalmaintenanceduringlatency,isessentialforefficienttranscriptioninitiationfromeither Cp or Wp in LCLs, as

  8. The ras-like yeast YPT1 gene is itself essential for growth, sporulation, and starvation response.

    PubMed Central

    Segev, N; Botstein, D

    1987-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene YPT1 encodes a protein that exhibits significant homology to the mammalian ras proteins. Using gene disruption techniques, we have shown that the intact YPT1 gene is required for spore viability. Lethality caused by loss of YPT1 function, unlike that caused by loss of the yeast ras homologs RAS1 and RAS2 function, is not suppressed by the bcy1 mutation, suggesting that YPT1 does not act through the adenylate cyclase regulatory system. A cold-sensitive allele, ypt1-1, was constructed. At the nonpermissive temperature, mutants died, exhibiting aberrant nuclear morphology, as well as abnormal distribution of actin and tubulin. The mutant cells died without exhibiting classical cell-cycle-specific arrest; nevertheless, examination of cellular DNA content suggests that the YPT1 function is required, particularly after S phase. Cells carrying the ypt1-1 mutation died upon nitrogen starvation even at a temperature permissive for growth; diploid cells homozygous for ypt1-1 did not sporulate. The YPT1 gene is thus involved in nutritional regulation of the cell cycle as well as in normal progression through the mitotic cell cycle. Images PMID:3302675

  9. Cbfa1, a Candidate Gene for Cleidocranial Dysplasia Syndrome, Is Essential for Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Otto; Anders P Thornell; Tessa Crompton; Angela Denzel; Kimberly C Gilmour; Ian R Rosewell; Gordon W. H Stamp; Rosa S. P Beddington; Stefan Mundlos; Bjorn R Olsen; Paul B Selby; Michael J Owen

    1997-01-01

    We have generated Cbfa1-deficient mice. Homozygous mutants die of respiratory failure shortly after birth. Analysis of their skeletons revealed an absence of osteoblasts and bone. Heterozygous mice showed specific skeletal abnormalities that are characteristic of the human heritable skeletal disorder, cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). These defects are also observed in a mouse Ccd mutant for this disease. The Cbfa1 gene was

  10. Isolation and Characterization of EPD1, an Essential Gene for Pseudohyphal Growth of a Dimorphic Yeast, Candida maltosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAKANOBU NAKAZAWA; HIROYUKI HORIUCHI; AKINORI OHTA; MASAMICHI TAKAGI

    1998-01-01

    Additional copies of the centromeric DNA (CEN) region induce pseudohyphal growth in a dimorphic yeast, Candida maltosa (T. Nakazawa, T. Motoyama, H. Horiuchi, A. Ohta, and M. Takagi, J. Bacteriol. 179:5030- 5036, 1997). To understand the mechanism of this transition, we screened the gene library of C. maltosa for sequences which could suppress this morphological change. As a result, we

  11. Effects of Essential Oils on Methane Production and Fermentation by, and Abundance and Diversity of, Rumen Microbial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.

    2012-01-01

    Five essential oils (EOs), namely, clove oil (CLO), eucalyptus oil (EUO), garlic oil (GAO), origanum oil (ORO), and peppermint oil (PEO), were tested in vitro at 3 different doses (0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 g/liter) for their effect on methane production, fermentation, and select groups of ruminal microbes, including total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, archaea, and protozoa. All the EOs significantly reduced methane production with increasing doses, with reductions by 34.4%, 17.6%, 42.3%, 87%, and 25.7% for CLO, EUO, GAO, ORO, and PEO, respectively, at 1.0 g/liter compared with the control. However, apparent degradability of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber also decreased linearly with increasing doses by all EOs except GAO. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids were not affected by GAO, EUO, or PEO but altered linearly and quadratically by CLO and ORO, respectively. All the EOs also differed in altering the molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR, all the EOs decreased the abundance of archaea, protozoa, and major cellulolytic bacteria (i.e., Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and R. albus) linearly with increasing EO doses. On the basis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, different EOs changed the composition of both archaeal and bacterial communities to different extents. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H?) was reduced for archaea by all EOs in a dose-dependent manner but increased for bacteria at low and medium doses (0.25 and 0.50 g/liter) for all EOs except ORO. Due to the adverse effects on feed digestion and fermentation at high doses, a single EO may not effectively and practically mitigate methane emission from ruminants unless used at low doses in combinations with other antimethanogenic compounds. PMID:22492451

  12. An inducible lentiviral guide RNA platform enables the identification of tumor-essential genes and tumor-promoting mutations in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Brandon J; Kelly, Gemma L; Kueh, Andrew J; Brennan, Margs S; O'Connor, Liam; Milla, Liz; Wilcox, Stephen; Tai, Lin; Strasser, Andreas; Herold, Marco J

    2015-03-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 technology enables the introduction of genomic alterations into almost any organism; however, systems for efficient and inducible gene modification have been lacking, especially for deletion of essential genes. Here, we describe a drug-inducible small guide RNA (sgRNA) vector system allowing for ubiquitous and efficient gene deletion in murine and human cells. This system mediates the efficient, temporally controlled deletion of MCL-1, both in vitro and in vivo, in human Burkitt lymphoma cell lines that require this anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein for sustained survival and growth. Unexpectedly, repeated induction of the same sgRNA generated similar inactivating mutations in the human Mcl-1 gene due to low mutation variability exerted by the accompanying non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) process. Finally, we were able to generate hematopoietic cell compartment-restricted Trp53-knockout mice, leading to the identification of cancer-promoting mutants of this critical tumor suppressor. PMID:25732831

  13. Extended gene expression by medium exchange and repeated transient transfection for recombinant protein production enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Laura; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Berrow, Nicholas Simon; Segura, Maria Mercedes; Gòdia, Francesc

    2015-05-01

    Production of recombinant products in mammalian cell cultures can be achieved by stable gene expression (SGE) or transient gene expression (TGE). The former is based on the integration of a plasmid DNA into the host cell genome allowing continuous gene expression. The latter is based on episomal plasmid DNA expression. Conventional TGE is limited to a short production period of usually about 96?h, therefore limiting productivity. A novel gene expression approach termed extended gene expression (EGE) is explored in this study. The aim of EGE is to prolong the production period by the combination of medium exchange and repeated transfection of cell cultures with plasmid DNA to improve overall protein production. The benefit of this methodology was evaluated for the production of three model recombinant products: intracellular GFP, secreted GFP, and a Gag-GFP virus-like particles (VLPs). Productions were carried out in HEK 293 cell suspension cultures grown in animal-derived component free media using polyethylenimine (PEI) as transfection reagent. Transfections were repeated throughout the production process using different plasmid DNA concentrations, intervals of time, and culture feeding conditions in order to identify the best approach to achieve sustained high-level gene expression. Using this novel EGE strategy, the production period was prolonged between 192 and 240?h with a 4-12-fold increase in production levels, depending on the product type considered. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 934-946. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25421734

  14. Somatostatin Is Essential for the Sexual Dimorphism of GH Secretion, Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Production, and Corticosterone Levels in Mice.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica M; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Qi, Nathan; Low, Malcolm J

    2015-03-01

    Distinct male and female patterns of pituitary GH secretion produce sexually differentiated hepatic gene expression profiles, thereby influencing steroid and xenobiotic metabolism. We used a fully automated system to obtain serial nocturnal blood samples every 15 minutes from cannulated wild-type (WT) and somatostatin knockout (Sst-KO) mice to determine the role of SST, the principal inhibitor of GH release, in the generation of sexually dimorphic GH pulsatility. WT males had lower mean and median GH values, less random GH secretory bursts, and longer trough periods between GH pulses than WT females. Each of these parameters was feminized in male Sst-KO mice, whereas female Sst-KO mice had higher GH levels than all other groups, but GH pulsatility was unaffected. We next performed hepatic mRNA profiling with high-density microarrays. Male Sst-KO mice exhibited a globally feminized pattern of GH-dependent mRNA levels, but female Sst-KO mice were largely unaffected. Among the differentially expressed female-predominant genes was Serpina6, which encodes corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Increased CBG was associated with elevated diurnal peak plasma corticosterone in unstressed WT females and both sexes of Sst-KO mice compared with WT males. Sst-KO mice also had exaggerated ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute restraint stress. However, consistent with their lack of phenotypic signs of excess glucocorticoids, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of free corticosterone in Sst-KO mice were not elevated. In summary, SST is necessary for the prolonged interpulse troughs that define masculinized pituitary GH secretion. SST also contributes to sexual dimorphism of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via GH-dependent regulation of hepatic CBG production. PMID:25551181

  15. A robust tool for discriminative analysis and feature selection in paired samples impacts the identification of the genes essential for reprogramming lung tissue to adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. The most common type of lung cancer is lung adenocarcinoma (AC). The genetic mechanisms of the early stages and lung AC progression steps are poorly understood. There is currently no clinically applicable gene test for the early diagnosis and AC aggressiveness. Among the major reasons for the lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers are the extraordinary heterogeneity of the cancer cells, complex and poorly understudied interactions of the AC cells with adjacent tissue and immune system, gene variation across patient cohorts, measurement variability, small sample sizes and sub-optimal analytical methods. We suggest that gene expression profiling of the primary tumours and adjacent tissues (PT-AT) handled with a rational statistical and bioinformatics strategy of biomarker prediction and validation could provide significant progress in the identification of clinical biomarkers of AC. To minimise sample-to-sample variability, repeated multivariate measurements in the same object (organ or tissue, e.g. PT-AT in lung) across patients should be designed, but prediction and validation on the genome scale with small sample size is a great methodical challenge. Results To analyse PT-AT relationships efficiently in the statistical modelling, we propose an Extreme Class Discrimination (ECD) feature selection method that identifies a sub-set of the most discriminative variables (e.g. expressed genes). Our method consists of a paired Cross-normalization (CN) step followed by a modified sign Wilcoxon test with multivariate adjustment carried out for each variable. Using an Affymetrix U133A microarray paired dataset of 27 AC patients, we reviewed the global reprogramming of the transcriptome in human lung AC tissue versus normal lung tissue, which is associated with about 2,300 genes discriminating the tissues with 100% accuracy. Cluster analysis applied to these genes resulted in four distinct gene groups which we classified as associated with (i) up-regulated genes in the mitotic cell cycle lung AC, (ii) silenced/suppressed gene specific for normal lung tissue, (iii) cell communication and cell motility and (iv) the immune system features. The genes related to mutagenesis, specific lung cancers, early stage of AC development, tumour aggressiveness and metabolic pathway alterations and adaptations of cancer cells are strongly enriched in the AC PT-AT discriminative gene set. Two AC diagnostic biomarkers SPP1 and CENPA were successfully validated on RT-RCR tissue array. ECD method was systematically compared to several alternative methods and proved to be of better performance and as well as it was validated by comparison of the predicted gene set with literature meta-signature. Conclusions We developed a method that identifies and selects highly discriminative variables from high dimensional data spaces of potential biomarkers based on a statistical analysis of paired samples when the number of samples is small. This method provides superior selection in comparison to conventional methods and can be widely used in different applications. Our method revealed at least 23 hundreds patho-biologically essential genes associated with the global transcriptional reprogramming of human lung epithelium cells and lung AC aggressiveness. This gene set includes many previously published AC biomarkers reflecting inherent disease complexity and specifies the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the lung AC. SPP1, CENPA and many other PT-AT discriminative genes could be considered as the prospective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung AC. PMID:22369099

  16. LmaPA2G4, a Homolog of Human Ebp1, Is an Essential Gene and Inhibits Cell Proliferation in L. major

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Michelle V.; Morales, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified LmaPA2G4, a homolog of the human proliferation-associated 2G4 protein (also termed Ebp1), in a phosphoproteomic screening. Multiple sequence alignment and cluster analysis revealed that LmaPA2G4 is a non-peptidase member of the M24 family of metallopeptidases. This pseudoenzyme is structurally related to methionine aminopeptidases. A null mutant system based on negative selection allowed us to demonstrate that LmaPA2G4 is an essential gene in Leishmania major. Over-expression of LmaPA2G4 did not alter cell morphology or the ability to differentiate into metacyclic and amastigote stages. Interestingly, the over-expression affected cell proliferation and virulence in mouse footpad analysis. LmaPA2G4 binds a synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I?C)] as shown in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Quantitative proteomics revealed that the over-expression of LmaPA2G4 led to accumulation of factors involved in translation initiation and elongation. Significantly, we found a strong reduction of de novo protein biosynthesis in transgenic parasites using a non-radioactive metabolic labeling assay. In conclusion, LmaPA2G4 is an essential gene and is potentially implicated in fundamental biological mechanisms, such as translation, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24421916

  17. LmaPA2G4, a homolog of human Ebp1, is an essential gene and inhibits cell proliferation in L. major.

    PubMed

    Norris-Mullins, Brianna; VanderKolk, Kaitlin; Vacchina, Paola; Joyce, Michelle V; Morales, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    We have identified LmaPA2G4, a homolog of the human proliferation-associated 2G4 protein (also termed Ebp1), in a phosphoproteomic screening. Multiple sequence alignment and cluster analysis revealed that LmaPA2G4 is a non-peptidase member of the M24 family of metallopeptidases. This pseudoenzyme is structurally related to methionine aminopeptidases. A null mutant system based on negative selection allowed us to demonstrate that LmaPA2G4 is an essential gene in Leishmania major. Over-expression of LmaPA2G4 did not alter cell morphology or the ability to differentiate into metacyclic and amastigote stages. Interestingly, the over-expression affected cell proliferation and virulence in mouse footpad analysis. LmaPA2G4 binds a synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I?C)] as shown in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Quantitative proteomics revealed that the over-expression of LmaPA2G4 led to accumulation of factors involved in translation initiation and elongation. Significantly, we found a strong reduction of de novo protein biosynthesis in transgenic parasites using a non-radioactive metabolic labeling assay. In conclusion, LmaPA2G4 is an essential gene and is potentially implicated in fundamental biological mechanisms, such as translation, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24421916

  18. Genetic Disruption of the Sh3pxd2a Gene Reveals an Essential Role in Mouse Development and the Existence of a Novel Isoform of Tks5

    PubMed Central

    Cejudo-Martin, Pilar; Yuen, Angela; Vlahovich, Nicole; Lock, Peter; Courtneidge, Sara A.; Díaz, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Tks5 is a scaffold protein and Src substrate involved in cell migration and matrix degradation through its essential role in invadosome formation and function. We have previously described that Tks5 is fundamental for zebrafish neural crest cell migration in vivo. In the present study, we sought to investigate the function of Tks5 in mammalian development by analyzing mice mutant for sh3pxd2a, the gene encoding Tks5. Homozygous disruption of the sh3pxd2a gene by gene-trapping in mouse resulted in neonatal death and the presence of a complete cleft of the secondary palate. Interestingly, embryonic fibroblasts from homozygous gene-trap sh3pxd2a mice lacked only the highest molecular weight band of the characteristic Tks5 triplet observed in protein extracts, leaving the lower molecular weight bands unaffected. This finding, together with the existence of two human Expressed Sequence Tags lacking the first 5 exons of SH3PXD2A, made us hypothesize about the presence of a second alternative transcription start site located in intron V. We performed 5?RACE on mouse fibroblasts and isolated a new transcript of the sh3pxd2a gene encoding a novel Tks5 isoform, that we named Tks5?. This novel isoform diverges from the long form of Tks5 in that it lacks the PX-domain, which confers affinity for phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate. Instead, Tks5? has a short unique amino terminal sequence encoded by the newly discovered exon 6?; this exon includes a start codon located 29 bp from the 5'-end of exon 6. Tks5? mRNA is expressed in MEFs and all mouse adult tissues analyzed. Tks5? is a substrate for the Src tyrosine kinase and its expression is regulated through the proteasome degradation pathway. Together, these findings indicate the essentiality of the larger Tks5 isoform for correct mammalian development and the transcriptional complexity of the sh3pxd2a gene. PMID:25259869

  19. Functional genomics identifies novel genes essential for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumor cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    von Roemeling, Christina A.; Marlow, Laura A.; Radisky, Derek C.; Rohl, Austin; Larsen, Hege E.; Wei, Johnny; Sasinowska, Heather; Zhu, Heng; Drake, Richard; Sasinowski, Maciek; Tun, Han W.; Copland, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of targeted therapies that lead to long-term attenuation or regression of disease in patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Our group has implemented a high-throughput genetic analysis coupled with a high-throughput proliferative screen in order to investigate the genetic contributions of a large cohort of overexpressed genes at the functional level in an effort to better understand factors involved in tumor initiation and progression. Patient gene array analysis identified transcripts that are consistently elevated in patient ccRCC as compared to matched normal renal tissues. This was followed by a high-throughput lentivirus screen, independently targeting 195 overexpressed transcripts identified in the gene array in four ccRCC cell lines. This revealed 31 ‘hits’ that contribute to ccRCC cell proliferation. Many of the hits identified are not only presented in the context of ccRCC for the first time, but several have not been previously linked to cancer. We further characterize the function of a group of hits in tumor cell invasion. Taken together these findings reveal pathways that may be critical in ccRCC tumorigenicity, and identifies novel candidate factors that could serve as targets for therapeutic intervention or diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers for patients with advanced ccRCC. PMID:24979721

  20. Comparative Genomics of Cultured and Uncultured Strains Suggests Genes Essential for Free-Living Growth of Liberibacter

    PubMed Central

    Fagen, Jennie R.; Leonard, Michael T.; McCullough, Connor M.; Edirisinghe, Janaka N.; Henry, Christopher S.; Davis, Michael J.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    The full genomes of two uncultured plant pathogenic Liberibacter, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus and Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum, are publicly available. Recently, the larger genome of a closely related cultured strain, Liberibacter crescens BT-1, was described. To gain insights into our current inability to culture most Liberibacter, a comparative genomics analysis was done based on the RAST, KEGG, and manual annotations of these three organisms. In addition, pathogenicity genes were examined in all three bacteria. Key deficiencies were identified in Ca. L. asiaticus and Ca. L. solanacearum that might suggest why these organisms have not yet been cultured. Over 100 genes involved in amino acid and vitamin synthesis were annotated exclusively in L. crescens BT-1. However, none of these deficiencies are limiting in the rich media used to date. Other genes exclusive to L. crescens BT-1 include those involved in cell division, the stringent response regulatory pathway, and multiple two component regulatory systems. These results indicate that L. crescens is capable of growth under a much wider range of conditions than the uncultured Liberibacter strains. No outstanding differences were noted in pathogenicity-associated systems, suggesting that L. crescens BT-1 may be a plant pathogen on an as yet unidentified host. PMID:24416233

  1. FSim: A Novel Functional Similarity Search Algorithm and Tool for Discovering Functionally Related Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiang; Wang, ZhiGang; Zhang, ZhengGuo

    2014-01-01

    Background. During the analysis of genomics data, it is often required to quantify the functional similarity of genes and their products based on the annotation information from gene ontology (GO) with hierarchical structure. A flexible and user-friendly way to estimate the functional similarity of genes utilizing GO annotation is therefore highly desired. Results. We proposed a novel algorithm using a level coefficient-weighted model to measure the functional similarity of gene products based on multiple ontologies of hierarchical GO annotations. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated and found to be superior to the other tested methods. We implemented the proposed algorithm in a software package, FSim, based on R statistical and computing environment. It can be used to discover functionally related genes for a given gene, group of genes, or set of function terms. Conclusions. FSim is a flexible tool to analyze functional gene groups based on the GO annotation databases. PMID:25184141

  2. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing tests to measure potency. The recommendations are intended to clarify the potency......

  3. Gene disruption with PCR products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Lorenz; R. Scott Muir; Eric Lim; John McElver; Shane C. Weber; Joseph Heitman

    1995-01-01

    We describe here the generation of gene disruption constructs using PCR amplification of selectable markers with primers that provide homology to the target gene of interest. We find that regions of homology as short as 38 to 50 bp suffice to mediate homologous recombination in yeast. We describe applications of this technology to three specific yeast genes that would have

  4. Herpes simplex virus gene products required for viral inhibition of expression of G1-phase functions.

    PubMed

    Song, B; Yeh, K C; Liu, J; Knipe, D M

    2001-11-25

    HSV infection blocks G1 events in the cell cycle and arrests host cell growth in the G1 phase. To further define the mechanism of the effect and determine the viral gene product(s) responsible, we examined various mutant viruses for their effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins (pRb, cyclin D1, and cdk4) and on cell cycle progression into S phase. Unlike the wild-type virus, the ICP27 mutant virus was defective for blocking the phosphorylation of pRb proteins, and the normal pRb pattern was restored in cells infected with a rescued virus. The virion host shutoff (vhs) function, DNA replication, and late gene functions were not required for the virus-induced effects on pRb protein. BrdU incorporation in synchronized HSV-infected cells showed that ICP27 was required for blocking the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Furthermore, ICP27, ICP4, ICP0, and vhs were required for blocking the induction of the G1 cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cdk4 in HSV-infected cells. Both ICP27 and the vhs function contributed to the reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA levels in HSV-infected cells: These results provide evidence that HSV-1 ICP27 protein is essential for viral inhibition of G1-phase functions and that certain other HSV proteins are required for some of the viral effects on the cell cycle. Finally, these results show that HSV-1 ICP27 and vhs act jointly to reduce host mRNA levels in infected cells. PMID:11883196

  5. Gene and microRNA analysis of neutrophils from patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocytosis: down-regulation of micro RNA-1 and -133a

    PubMed Central

    Slezak, Stefanie; Jin, Ping; Caruccio, Lorraine; Ren, Jiaqiang; Bennett, Michael; Zia, Nausheen; Adams, Sharon; Wang, Ena; Ascensao, Joao; Schechter, Geraldine; Stroncek, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the V617F mutation in JAK2 may not be the initiating event in myeloprofilerative disorders (MPDs) we compared molecular changes in neutrophils from patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythosis (ET), to neutrophils stimulated by G-CSF administration and to normal unstimulated neutrophils Methods A gene expression oligonucleotide microarray with more than 35,000 probes and a microRNA (miR) expression array with 827 probes were used to assess neutrophils from 6 MPD patients; 4 with PV and 2 with ET, 5 healthy subjects and 6 healthy subjects given G-CSF. In addition, neutrophil antigen expression was analyzed by flow cytometry and 64 serum protein levels were analyzed by ELISA. Results Gene expression profiles of neutrophils from the MPD patients were similar but distinct from those of healthy subjects, either unstimulated or G-CSF-mobilized. The differentially expressed genes in MPD neutrophils were more likely to be in pathways involved with inflammation while those of G-CSF-mobilized neutrophils were more likely to belong to metabolic pathways. In MPD neutrophils the expression of CCR1 was increased and that of several NF-?B pathway genes were decreased. MicroRNA miR-133a and miR-1 in MPD neutrophils were down-regulated the most. Levels of 11 serum proteins were increased in MPD patients including MMP-10, MMP-13, VCAM, P-selectin, PDGF-BB and a CCR1 ligand, MIP-1?. Conclusion These studies showed differential expression of genes particularly involved in inflammatory pathways including the NF-?B pathway and down-regulation of miR-133a and miR-1. These two microRNAs have been previous associated with certain cancers as well as the regulation of hyperthrophy of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. These changes may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the MPDs. PMID:19497108

  6. Shrinkage of Genome Size in a Plant RNA Virus upon Transfer of an Essential Viral Gene into the Host Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tromas, Nicolas; Zwart, Mark P.; Forment, Javier; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-01-01

    Nonretroviral integrated RNA viruses (NIRVs) are genes of nonretroviral RNA viruses found in the genomes of many eukaryotic organisms. NIRVs are thought to sometimes confer virus resistance, meaning that they could impact spread of the virus in the host population. However, a NIRV that is expressed may also impact the evolution of virus populations within host organisms. Here, we experimentally addressed the evolution of a virus in a host expressing a NIRV using Tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant RNA virus, and transgenic tobacco plants expressing its replicase, NIb. We found that a virus missing the NIb gene, TEV-?NIb, which is incapable of autonomous replication in wild-type plants, had a higher fitness than the full-length TEV in the transgenic plants. Moreover, when the full-length TEV was evolved by serial passages in transgenic plants, we observed genomic deletions within NIb—and in some cases the adjacent cistrons—starting from the first passage. When we passaged TEV and TEV-?NIb in transgenic plants, we found mutations in proteolytic sites, but these only occurred in TEV-?NIb lineages, suggesting the adaptation of polyprotein processing to altered NIb expression. These results raise the possibility that NIRV expression can indeed induce the deletion of the corresponding genes in the viral genome, resulting in the formation of viruses that are replication defective in hosts that do not express the same NIRV. Moreover, virus genome evolution was contingent upon the deletion of the viral replicase, suggesting NIRV expression could also alter patterns of virus evolution. PMID:24558257

  7. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as essential oils or in form of leaves supplementation on goat's production and metabolic statute.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Samir; Hajji, Hadhami; Bouzid, Kahena; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-02-01

    The effects of rosemary supply in form of essential oils (REO) or leaves (RL) on performances of goats were investigated. Thirty goats were allocated into three equal groups, which were fed oat-hay ad libitum and 400 g of concentrate during the two last weeks of pregnancy and 600 g during the first 8 weeks of lactation. Three-control diet (C) was a mixture of barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement. The experimental concentrates contained the same mixture of the control diet plus 0.6 g/kg of REO or its equivalent supply RL (60 g/kg). Rosemary supply did not affect dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. While urinary nitrogen loss was higher for experimental groups than the C (P?=?0.03). Daily milk production was significantly higher (P?=?0.007) for rosemary groups (694 and 582 ml for RL and REO, respectively) than C group (442 ml). Rosemary decreased numerically (P?>?0.05) the fat content (23, 25 and 26.5 g/l for REO, RL and C groups, respectively) but significantly increased the fat (P?=?0.003) and protein content (P?=?0.008). The growth rate of kids was significantly higher (P?=?0.008) for RL (111 g) than that for REO and C (97 and 83 g, respectively). However, rosemary has not shown significant effect on the plasma metabolite concentrations. Given the facility to obtain the rosemary leaves, this form of rosemary use is recommended as natural alternative to improve the performances of goats. PMID:25425356

  8. Structure and phosphorylation of the Fujinami sarcoma virus gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, T; Kung, T H; Martin, G S

    1981-01-01

    The Fujinami avian sarcoma virus (FSV) transforming gene product, P140, is a fusion protein which contains both gag-related and FSV-specific methionine-containing tryptic peptides. The virion protease p15 cleaved p140 into two fragments: an N-terminal 33K fragment which contained all but one of the gag-related tryptic peptides and a C-terminal 120K fragment which contained all of the FSV-specific tryptic peptides. The 33K gag-related fragment from P140 phosphorylated in FSV-transformed cells contained only phosphoserine, whereas the 120K C-terminal FSV-specific fragments contained both phosphoserine and phosphotyrosine. P140 isolated from cells infected at the nonpermissive temperature with an isolate of FSV which is temperature sensitive for transformation had a normally phosphorylated 33K fragment, but a hypophosphorylated 120K fragment deficient in both phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine. When P140 was immunoprecipitated from cells and phosphorylated in vitro at tyrosine residues in the immune complex kinase reaction, only the FSV-specific fragment was labeled. These data define the structure of FSV P140 and locate the phosphorylated amino acids within the two regions of the polypeptide. Images PMID:6275111

  9. Combining linkage and association mapping identifies RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 as an essential Arabidopsis shoot regeneration gene.

    PubMed

    Motte, Hans; Vercauteren, Annelies; Depuydt, Stephen; Landschoot, Sofie; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan; Goormachtig, Sofie; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vereecke, Danny

    2014-06-01

    De novo shoot organogenesis (i.e., the regeneration of shoots on nonmeristematic tissue) is widely applied in plant biotechnology. However, the capacity to regenerate shoots varies highly among plant species and cultivars, and the factors underlying it are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the shoot regeneration capacity of 88 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and found that the process is blocked at different stages in different accessions. We show that the variation in regeneration capacity between the Arabidopsis accessions Nok-3 and Ga-0 is determined by five quantitative trait loci (QTL): REG-1 to REG-5. Fine mapping by local association analysis identified RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 (RPK1), an abscisic acid-related receptor, as the most likely gene underlying REG-1, which was confirmed by quantitative failure of an RPK1 mutation to complement the high and low REG-1 QTL alleles. The importance of RPK1 in regeneration was further corroborated by mutant and expression analysis. Altogether, our results show that association mapping combined with linkage mapping is a powerful method to discover important genes implicated in a biological process as complex as shoot regeneration. PMID:24850864

  10. TET2 Plays an Essential Role in Erythropoiesis by Regulating Lineage-Specific Genes via DNA Oxidative Demethylation in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liang; Zhang, Rui-peng; Wan, Feng; Guo, Dong-yang; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although epigenetic modulation is critical for a variety of cellular activities, its role in erythropoiesis remains poorly understood. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) molecules participate in methylcytosine (5mC) hydroxylation, which results in DNA demethylation in several biological processes. In this research, the role of TETs in erythropoiesis was investigated by using the zebrafish model, where three TET homologs were identified. These homologs share conserved structural domains with their mammalian counterparts. Zebrafish TETs mediate the conversion of 5mC to hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in zebrafish embryos, and the deletion of TET2 inhibits erythropoiesis by suppressing the expression of the scl, gata-1, and cmyb genes. TET2-upregulated lineage-specific genes and erythropoiesis are closely associated with the occurrence of 5hmC and demethylation in the intermediate CpG promoters (ICPs) of scl, gata-1, cmyb, which frequently occur at specific regions or CpG sites of these ICPs. Moreover, TET2 regulates the formation and differentiation of erythroid progenitors, and deletion of TET2 leads to erythrocyte dysplasia and anemia. Here, we preliminarily proved that TET2 plays an essential role in erythrocyte development by regulating lineage-specific genes via DNA oxidative demethylation. This report is anticipated to broaden current information on hematopoiesis and pathogenesis of hematopoiesis-related diseases. PMID:24396069

  11. Greenhouse and Field Evaluations of an Autoselective System Based on an Essential Thymidylate Synthase Gene for Improved Maintenance of Plasmid Vectors in Modified Rhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    O'Flaherty, S.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Boesten, B.; Higgins, P.; Dowling, D. N.; Condon, S.; O'Gara, F.

    1995-01-01

    The stability of the thy autoselective system, based on an essential thymidylate synthase gene, for enhanced maintenance of plasmid vectors in Rhizobium meliloti was evaluated in the greenhouse and with field-grown alfalfa. The thy autoselective system consists of a free-replicating, broad-host-range plasmid vector containing a copy of the thyA gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and a spontaneous mutant of R. meliloti deficient in thymidylate synthase (Thy(sup-)). Under greenhouse conditions, Thy(sup-) rhizobia did not persist in rooting solution alone unless supplemented with thymidine but survived in the presence of the host plant. Nodules formed on alfalfa plants grown in thymidine-free rooting solution and inoculated with Thy(sup-) rhizobia contained only Thy(sup+) revertants. In soil, Thy(sup-) rhizobia were compromised and failed to nodulate alfalfa. Thy(sup-) mutants containing a thy plasmid survived in the rhizosphere and nodulated alfalfa like the wild-type strain. The thy autoselective system was tested in the field with Thy(sup-) strain Rm24T and pPR602, a thy plasmid vector devoid of antibiotic resistance genes and marked with constitutively expressed lacZY. At 80 days after sowing, most rhizobia isolated from the nodules of field-grown alfalfa inoculated with Rm42T(pPR602) contained pPR602. The thy autoselective system proved useful to ensure maintenance of the plasmid vector under greenhouse and field conditions in R. meliloti. PMID:16535168

  12. A novel seven-helix transmembrane protein BTP1 of Botrytis cinerea controls the expression of GST-encoding genes, but is not essential for pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gronover, Christian Schulze; Schumacher, Julia; Hantsch, Phillip; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY To gain new insights into the signalling mechanisms of the grey mould Botrytis cinerea, which causes several pre- and post-harvest diseases on a variety of host plants, we cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized a gene, btp1, encoding a novel 391-amino acid transmembrane protein. The protein BTP1 shows similarity to the transmembrane protein pth11, which is essential for appressorium formation and successful colonization of plant tissue in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence of btp1 predicted a seven alpha-helical transmembrane topology, which is known to be typical for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and therefore the protein is thought to play a role in mediation of extracellular signals to intracellular effectors. The gene is located next to the gene bcgstII encoding a new putative glutathione S-transferase, and both genes are transcribed in opposite directions from the same promoter. BcGSTII shows similarity to the glutathione S-transferase GSTII of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a protein thought to be involved in detoxification of several antifungal drugs. From the sequence similarity of BTP1 to GPCRs, and its expression in planta, we suggested that it might play a role in mediation of plant signals and therefore in pathogenicity. However, targeted gene replacement of btp1 did not result in a phenotype markedly affecting either pathogenicity or sensitivity to chemical stress when compared with the wild-type strain; however, the ten-fold dilution of conidial suspension used for the pathogenicity assay resulted in slight reduction of virulence. Visible symptom development of the mutants on bean plants was also different from the wild-type. The brownish ring, which appears at the margin of secondary lesions in wild-type infections, was brighter and almost absent in Deltabtp1 mutants. Interestingly, deletion of btp1 not only affected the expression of the physically linked bcgstII gene, but in addition the expression of the other two GST-encoding genes in B. cinerea for bcgstI was down-regulated, bcgstII was slightly up-regulated and bcgstIII was strongly up-regulated in the mutant. PMID:20565654

  13. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the number and nature of any intervening operations...characteristics and purposes of the employer's business. 82 Moreover, in some...the producer the degree of such essentiality may be...other factors may assume importance. Some may have...

  14. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the number and nature of any intervening operations...characteristics and purposes of the employer's business. 82 Moreover, in some...the producer the degree of such essentiality may be...other factors may assume importance. Some may have...

  15. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the number and nature of any intervening operations...characteristics and purposes of the employer's business. 82 Moreover, in some...the producer the degree of such essentiality may be...other factors may assume importance. Some may have...

  16. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the number and nature of any intervening operations...characteristics and purposes of the employer's business. 82 Moreover, in some...the producer the degree of such essentiality may be...other factors may assume importance. Some may have...

  17. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the number and nature of any intervening operations...characteristics and purposes of the employer's business. 82 Moreover, in some...the producer the degree of such essentiality may be...other factors may assume importance. Some may have...

  18. GATA factors are essential for activity of the neuron-specific enhancer of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, M A; Whyte, D B; Mellon, P L

    1996-01-01

    The multicomponent neuron-specific enhancer of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene specifically targets expression to the GnRH-secreting neurons of the hypothalamus, a small population of specialized cells which play a central role in regulating reproductive function. Utilizing the GnRH-secreting hypothalamic neuronal cell line, GT1, as a model system, we show that members of the GATA family of transcription factors regulate GnRH transcription through two GATA factor-binding motifs that occur in a tandem repeat within the GnRH neuron-specific enhancer. Although GT1 cells contain GATA-2 and GATA-4 mRNAs, only GATA-4 was detected in a GnRH enhancer GATA site-specific complex. Cotransfection experiments with wild-type and mutant GnRH enhancer reporter plasmids with wild-type and dominant negative GATA factor expression vectors demonstrated that both GATA-binding elements are functional in the context of the enhancer. We conclude that GATA-binding proteins are important factors in regulating the neuron-specific expression of the GnRH gene in hypothalamic cells. Although the presence of GATA-2 in a neuronal cell type is not unusual, the presence of GATA-4 in GT1 cells is novel for a neuronal cell type. However, the presence of GATA-4 is consistent with the unique developmental origin of GnRH neurons and may provide insight into the transcriptional mechanisms mediating the differentiation of this limited population of GnRH-secreting neurons. PMID:8668176

  19. The structure of human SFPQ reveals a coiled-coil mediated polymer essential for functional aggregation in gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihwa; Sadowska, Agata; Bekere, Indra; Ho, Diwei; Gully, Benjamin S; Lu, Yanling; Iyer, K Swaminathan; Trewhella, Jill; Fox, Archa H; Bond, Charles S

    2015-04-20

    SFPQ, (a.k.a. PSF), is a human tumor suppressor protein that regulates many important functions in the cell nucleus including coordination of long non-coding RNA molecules into nuclear bodies. Here we describe the first crystal structures of Splicing Factor Proline and Glutamine Rich (SFPQ), revealing structural similarity to the related PSPC1/NONO heterodimer and a strikingly extended structure (over 265 Å long) formed by an unusual anti-parallel coiled-coil that results in an infinite linear polymer of SFPQ dimers within the crystals. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments show that polymerization is reversible in solution and can be templated by DNA. We demonstrate that the ability to polymerize is essential for the cellular functions of SFPQ: disruptive mutation of the coiled-coil interaction motif results in SFPQ mislocalization, reduced formation of nuclear bodies, abrogated molecular interactions and deficient transcriptional regulation. The coiled-coil interaction motif thus provides a molecular explanation for the functional aggregation of SFPQ that directs its role in regulating many aspects of cellular nucleic acid metabolism. PMID:25765647

  20. SHARPIN Is Essential for Cytokine Production, NF-?B Signaling, and Induction of Th1 Differentiation by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Sokolovska, Anna; Seymour, Rosemarie; Sundberg, John P.; HogenEsch, Harm

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous mutations of the Sharpin (SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein, other aliases: Rbckl1, Sipl1) gene in mice result in systemic inflammation that is characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis and dysregulated secretion of T helper1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this inflammatory phenotype remain elusive. Dendritic cells may contribute to the initiation and progression of the phenotype of SHARPIN-deficient mice because of their pivotal role in innate and adaptive immunity. Here we show by flow cytometry that SHARPIN- deficiency did not alter the distribution of different DC subtypes in the spleen. In response to TOLL-like receptor (TLR) agonists LPS and poly I:C, cultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from WT and mutant mice exhibited similar increases in expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86. However, stimulated SHARPIN-deficient BMDC had reduced transcription and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL6, IL12P70, GMCSF, and nitric oxide. Mutant BMDC had defective activation of NF-?B signaling, whereas the MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and MAPK11/12/13/14 (p38 MAP kinase isoforms) and TBK1 signaling pathways were intact. A mixed lymphocyte reaction showed that mutant BMDC only induced a weak Th1 immune response but stimulated increased Th2 cytokine production from allogeneic naïve CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, loss of Sharpin in mice significantly affects the immune function of DC and this may partially account for the systemic inflammation and Th2-biased immune response. PMID:22348129

  1. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    PubMed Central

    Thoquet, Philippe; Ghérardi, Michele; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Kereszt, Attila; Ané, Jean-Michel; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Huguet, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant. PMID:11825338

  2. Novel genes induce uterine receptivity: the characterization of a specific gene product in the ewe uterus

    E-print Network

    De Graauw, Jennifer Ann

    2013-02-22

    . However, genes important to uterine receptivity are relatively uncharacterized. In previous experiments, the technique of Differential Display-Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to identify novel endometrial genes that are expressed in receptive versus...

  3. A Mutant Gene That Increases Gibberellin Production in Brassica1

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Stewart B.; Williams, Paul H.; Pearce, David; Murofushi, Noboru; Mander, Lewis N.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode [ein/ein]) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A3 (GA3) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA1 and GA3 were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [2H]GA1, as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA20 and GA1, and the rate of GA19 metabolism were simultaneously analyzed at day 7 by feeding [2H2]GA19 and measuring metabolites [2H2]GA20 and [2H2]GA1 and endogenous GA20 and GA1, with [2H5]GA20 and [2H5]GA1 as quantitative internal standards. Levels of GA1 and GA20 were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA20 and GA1 were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA1 biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of [3H]GA20 to [3H]GA1 was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA1 biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A1 and A3. The enhanced GA production probably underlies the accelerated shoot growth and development, and particularly, the increased shoot elongation. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667574

  4. The use of genetic modification technologies in the discovery of genes affecting production traits and disease resistance in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AM Crawford

    2003-01-01

    Genetic modification technologies, developed initially in laboratory strains of selected bacteria and viruses, are essential tools for understanding the genomes of livestock. These tools allow researchers to: isolate, sequence and characterise any livestock gene; locate genes on chromosomes; follow the inheritance of any gene and\\/or chromosomal region in any pedigree; detect phenotypic variation due to, or associated with, variation in

  5. Two Translation Products of Yersinia yscQ Assemble To Form a Complex Essential to Type III Secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P.; Hamaoka, Brent Y.; Ghosh, Partho (UCSD)

    2012-07-11

    The bacterial flagellar C-ring is composed of two essential proteins, FliM and FliN. The smaller protein, FliN, is similar to the C-terminus of the larger protein, FliM, both being composed of SpoA domains. While bacterial type III secretion (T3S) systems encode many proteins in common with the flagellum, they mostly have a single protein in place of FliM and FliN. This protein resembles FliM at its N-terminus and is as large as FliM but is more like FliN at its C-terminal SpoA domain. We have discovered that a FliN-sized cognate indeed exists in the Yersinia T3S system to accompany the FliM-sized cognate. The FliN-sized cognate, YscQ-C, is the product of an internal translation initiation site within the locus encoding the FliM-sized cognate YscQ. Both intact YscQ and YscQ-C were found to be required for T3S, indicating that the internal translation initiation site, which is conserved in some but not all YscQ orthologs, is crucial for function. The crystal structure of YscQ-C revealed a SpoA domain that forms a highly intertwined, domain-swapped homodimer, similar to those observed in FliN and the YscQ ortholog HrcQ{sub B}. A single YscQ-C homodimer associated reversibly with a single molecule of intact YscQ, indicating conformational differences between the SpoA domains of intact YscQ and YscQ-C. A 'snap-back' mechanism suggested by the structure can account for this. The 1:2 YscQ-YscQ-C complex is a close mimic of the 1:4 FliM-FliN complex and the likely building block of the putative Yersinia T3S system C-ring.

  6. Genes Involved in Productive Traits in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews and describes details on the identification of regions on the chromosomes where there is evidence that genes that influence economically important traits reside in beef cattle. The regions where these genes reside are located throughout all the chromosomes. Discussion foc...

  7. Wistar Institute study finds multiple 'siblings' from every gene: Alternate gene reading leads to alternate gene products:

    Cancer.gov

    A genome-wide survey by researchers at The Wistar Institute shows how our cells create alternate versions of mRNA transcripts by altering how they "read" DNA. Many genes are associated with multiple gene promoters, the researchers say, which is the predominant way multiple variants of a given gene, for example, can be made with the same genetic instructions.

  8. Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1) Is Dispensable for Double-Strand Break Repair but Is Essential for Averting Improper Gene Expression during Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, James A.; Mehta, Monika; Kass, Elizabeth M.; Vuong, Bao Q.; Inagaki, Akiko; Egli, Dieter; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2013-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals) is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations. PMID:24244200

  9. Deletion polymorphism in the gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme is associated with essential hypertension in men born during the Pacific War.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2005-08-01

    Age is a strong risk factor for hypertension in relation to vascular aging. Additional etiological factors include: lifestyle, genetic factors, and their interactions. The aim of this study is to examine whether an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with essential hypertension in Korean born during the Pacific War. A total of 13,914 healthy subjects (8261 men, 5653 women) aged 20-79 years were examined. Subjects with abnormal renal, thyroid dysfunction, or electrolyte levels were excluded. Logistic regression analysis showed increased risk (OR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.31) in men, but not in women (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89-1.26). However, after adjustment for age, obesity, cholesterol, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus, increased risk in men was not significant (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.42). Analyzed according to birth-year, DD genotype showed increased risk for hypertension in only a subgroup of men (adjusted OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.16-2.09; p = 0.001), born during the Pacific War (1941-1945 year). Findings suggest that the ACE DD genotype plays a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, in conjunction with adverse environmental conditions in early life, with sex-related difference. PMID:15869784

  10. HSP90 and the R2TP co-chaperone complex: building multi-protein machineries essential for cell growth and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Boulon, Séverine; Bertrand, Edouard; Pradet-Balade, Bérengère

    2012-02-01

    HSP90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) is an essential chaperone involved in the last folding steps of client proteins. It has many clients, and these are often recognized through specific adaptors. Recently, the conserved R2TP complex was identified as a key HSP90 co-chaperone. Current evidences indicate that the HSP90/R2TP system assembles multi-molecular protein complexes. Strikingly, these comprise basic machineries of gene expression: (1) nuclear RNA polymerases; (2) the snoRNPs, essential to produce ribosomes; and (3) mTOR Complex 1 and 2, which control translational activity and cell growth. Another important substrate is the telomerase RNP, required for continuous cell proliferation. We discuss here the assembly of RNA polymerases in bacteria and eukaryotes, the role of HSP90/R2TP in this process and in the assembly of snoRNPs and the PIKK family of TORC1 kinase. Finally, we speculate on the roles of R2TP as a master regulator of cell growth under normal or pathological conditions. PMID:22418846

  11. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases. PMID:25328170

  12. The role of horizontal gene transfer in photosynthesis, oxygen production, and oxygen tolerance.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the pivotal events during the early evolution of life was the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, responsible for producing essentially all of the free oxygen in Earth's atmosphere. This molecular innovation required the development of two tandemly linked photosystems that generate a redox potential strong enough to oxidize water and then funnel those electrons ultimately to cellular processes like carbon and nitrogen fixation. The by-product of this reaction, molecular oxygen, spawned an entirely new realm of enzymatic reactions that served to mitigate its potential toxicity, as well as to take advantage of the free energy available from using O(2) as an electron acceptor. These ensuing events ultimately gave rise to aerobic, multicelled eukaryotes and new levels of biological complexity. Remarkably, instances of horizontal gene transfer have been identified at nearly every step in this transformation of the biosphere, from the evolution and radiation of photosynthesis to the development of biological pathways dependent on oxygen. This chapter discusses the evidence and examples of some of these occurrences that have been elucidated in recent years. PMID:19271194

  13. Essential Tremor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Pintar Hubble; Karen L. Busenbark; William C. Koller

    2000-01-01

    Essential tremor is a common movement disorder that inter- feres with the performance of motor tasks and social activi- ties. As a consequence, patients experience a reduction in quality of life. The pathophysiology remains not well under- stood. Differentiation of essential tremor from other tremor syndromes is important in order for clinicians to better pro- vide patient education and therapy.

  14. Recombination activation gene-2-deficient blastocyst complementation analysis reveals an essential role for nuclear factor I-A transcription factor in T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Chen; Rajgolikar, Girish; Butz, Kenneth G.; Frissora, Frank W.; Gronostajski, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor I (NFI)-A is a member of the NFI family of transcription factors implicated in regulation of granulocyte differentiation. However, its role in the lymphoid lineage is not known. NFI-A deficiency results in perinatal lethality, thus precluding analysis of the role of NFI-A in lymphocyte development and function. Using recombination activation gene-2-deficient (RAG-2?/?) blastocysts and embryonic stem cells with homozygous NFI-A gene deletion, we show an essential role for NFI-A in T-cell activation. NFI-A?/??RAG-2?/? chimeric mice had normal distributions of CD4?CD8? double negative, CD4+CD8+ double positive, CD4+CD8? and CD4?CD8+-single positive cells in the thymus and CD4+CD8? and CD4?CD8+ cells in spleen and lymph nodes. However, NFI-A?/??RAG-2?/? mice had severely reduced thymus size and hypocellularity. The decrease in thymocytes and peripheral T cells in NFI-A?/??RAG-2?/? chimeric mice is attributed to proliferative defects associated with decreased blast transformation, CD69 expression and DNA synthesis in response to T antigen receptor stimulation. Interestingly, NFI-A-null T cells showed increased levels of c-myc transcription that is inhibited in response to antigen receptor-mediated activation. These studies demonstrate for the first time a requirement for the NFI-A transcription factor in antigen receptor-induced T-cell activation events. PMID:21602176

  15. An essential splice site mutation (c.317+1G>A) in the TSHR gene leads to severe thyroid dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Cangul, Hakan; Saglam, Halil; Saglam, Yaman; Eren, Erdal; Dogan, Durmus; Kendall, Michaela; Tarim, Omer; Maher, Eamonn R; Barrett, Timothy G

    2014-09-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common neonatal endocrine disorder and 2% of cases have familial origin. Our aim in this study was to determine the genetic alterations in two siblings with CH coming from a consanguineous family. Because CH is often inherited in autosomal recessive manner in consanguineous/multicase-families, we first performed genetic linkage studies to all known causative CH loci followed by conventional sequencing of the linked gene. The family showed potential linkage to the TSHR locus, and we detected an essential splice site mutation (c.317+1G>A) in both siblings. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the functionality of the mutation. The mutation was homozygous in the cases whereas heterozygous in carrier parents and an unaffected sibling. Here we conclude that thyroid agenesis in both siblings in this study originates from c.317+1G>A splice site mutation in the TSHR gene, and this study underlines the importance of detailed molecular genetic studies in the definitive diagnosis and classification of CH. PMID:24859513

  16. A bHLH transcription factor gene, Twist-like 1, is essential for the formation of mesodermal tissues of Ciona juveniles.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, Miki; Satoh, Nori; Satou, Yutaka

    2005-12-15

    Ascidian larval mesenchyme cells, comprising about 900 cells, are derived from the A7.6, B8.5 and B7.7 blastomere pairs in the 110-cell embryo. Previous studies showed that the properties of mesenchyme cells are not uniform among the three lines in embryos of Ciona savignyi and Ciona intestinalis. After metamorphosis, the larval mesenchyme cells form the mesodermal tissues or organs of the adult body. In the present study, the developmental fates of A7.6-, B8.5- and B7.7-line mesenchyme cells were traced using DiI to determine the origins of juvenile mesodermal tissues of C. savignyi. It was demonstrated that each of the A7.6-, B8.5- and B7.7-line mesenchyme cells is distributed in different positions of the larval trunk, and then give rise to the different mesodermal tissues of juveniles. Twist-like 1 is a transcription factor gene essential for the specification of larval mesenchyme cells. Knockdown of this gene with specific morpholino antisense oligonucleotides affected not only the specification of larval mesenchyme cells, but also the formation of most of the mesodermal tissues of juveniles. The juvenile mesodermal tissues in the Twist-like 1-knockdown specimen were never compensated by the surrounding tissues. The present results therefore indicate that Twist-like 1 is required for the differentiation of most mesodermal precursors of adults. PMID:16289133

  17. Inducible Amplification of Gene Copy Number and Heterologous Protein Production in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Morlino, Giovanni B.; Tizzani, Lorenza; Fleer, Reinhard; Frontali, Laura; Bianchi, Michele M.

    1999-01-01

    Heterologous protein production can be doubled by increasing the copy number of the corresponding heterologous gene. We constructed a host-vector system in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis that was able to induce copy number amplification of pKD1 plasmid-based vectors upon expression of an integrated copy of the plasmid recombinase gene. We increased the production and secretion of two heterologous proteins, glucoamylase from the yeast Arxula adeninivorans and mammalian interleukin-1?, following gene dosage amplification when the heterologous genes were carried by pKD1-based vectors. The choice of the promoters for expression of the integrated recombinase gene and of the episomal heterologous genes are critical for the mitotic stability of the host-vector system. PMID:10543790

  18. Inducible amplification of gene copy number and heterologous protein production in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Morlino, G B; Tizzani, L; Fleer, R; Frontali, L; Bianchi, M M

    1999-11-01

    Heterologous protein production can be doubled by increasing the copy number of the corresponding heterologous gene. We constructed a host-vector system in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis that was able to induce copy number amplification of pKD1 plasmid-based vectors upon expression of an integrated copy of the plasmid recombinase gene. We increased the production and secretion of two heterologous proteins, glucoamylase from the yeast Arxula adeninivorans and mammalian interleukin-1beta, following gene dosage amplification when the heterologous genes were carried by pKD1-based vectors. The choice of the promoters for expression of the integrated recombinase gene and of the episomal heterologous genes are critical for the mitotic stability of the host-vector system. PMID:10543790

  19. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  20. GeneExpressionAssays Product Guide TaqMan

    E-print Network

    into a single tube. Every assay is optimized to run under universal thermal cycling conditions with a final single-tube format · Universal cycling conditions TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays are a comprehensive

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Are Associated with Essential Hypertension and Increased ACE Enzyme Levels in Mexican Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Vallejo, Maite; Del-Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Ramírez-Bello, Julian; Valladares, Adan; Cruz-López, Miguel; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Aim To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels. Methods Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5? exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes. Results Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363) were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA), H2 (GGATG), H3 (AGATG), and H4 (AGACA). Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR?=?0.77, P?=?0.023 and OR?=?1.41, P?=?0.004 respectively). According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR?=?2.0; P?=?0.002 and OR?=?2.09; P?=?0.011, respectively). Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1) as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P?=?0.0048). Conclusion The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the “GGATG” haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels. PMID:23741507

  2. Chemical transformations are essential to all living organisms--and also to the manufacture of many products including fuels,

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    technologies, the ease of transportation and the ready access to all of the materials needed for our daily that are thermodynamically possible may take place at such low rates as to be essentially stymied--we say example is the combustion of hydrocarbons such as gasoline molecules to make carbon dioxide and water

  3. Correlation of mycotoxin fumonisin B2 production and presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from grape.

    PubMed

    Susca, Antonia; Proctor, Robert H; Mulè, Giuseppina; Stea, Gaetano; Ritieni, Alberto; Logrieco, Antonio; Moretti, Antonio

    2010-08-25

    Aspergillus niger is a significant component of the fungal community on grapes. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 (FB2) was recently detected in grape must and wine as well as in cultures of some A. niger strains isolated from grapes and raisins. This study examined 48 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri for the presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in relation to FB2 production. The fum8 gene was detected in only 11 A. niger strains, 9 of which also produced FB2. Maximum parsimony analysis based on the calmodulin gene sequence indicated that the presence/absence of fum8 is not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship of the isolates. This is the first report correlating the presence of a fumonisin biosynthetic gene with fumonisin production in A. niger from an important food crop. The results suggest that the absence of FB2 production in grape isolates of A. niger can result from the absence of at least one gene essential for production. PMID:20666454

  4. Production of Dwarf Lettuce by Overexpressing a Pumpkin Gibberellin 20Oxidase Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoya Niki; Takaaki Nishijima; Masayoshi Nakayama; Tamotsu Hisamatsu; Naomi Oyama-Okubo; Hiroko Yamazaki; Peter Hedden; Theo Lange; Lewis N. Mander; Masaji Koshioka

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of overexpressing a pumpkin gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase gene encoding an enzyme that forms predominantly biologically inactive products on GA biosynthesis and plant morphology in transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv Vanguard) plants. Lettuce was transformed with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase gene downstream of a strong constitutive promoter cassette (El2-35S-V). The transgenic plants in which the pumpkin gene

  5. The FvMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase gene regulates conidiation, pathogenesis, and fumonisin production in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Choi, Yoon-E; Zou, Xuexiao; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important fungal pathogens to cause destructive diseases of maize worldwide. Fumonisins produced by the fungus are harmful to human and animal health. To date, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides is limited. Because MAP kinase pathways have been implicated in regulating diverse processes important for plant infection in phytopathogenic fungi, in this study we identified and functionally characterized the FvMK1 gene in F. verticillioides. FvMK1 is orthologous to FMK1 in F. oxysporum and GPMK1 in F. graminearum. The Fvmk1 deletion mutant was reduced in vegetative growth and production of microconidia. However, it was normal in sexual reproduction and increased in the production of macroconidia. In infection assays with developing corn kernels, the Fvmk1 mutant was non-pathogenic and failed to colonize through wounding sites. It also failed to cause stalk rot symptoms beyond the inoculation sites on corn stalks, indicating that FvMK1 is essential for plant infection. Furthermore, the Fvmk1 mutant was significantly reduced in fumonisin production and expression levels of FUM1 and FUM8, two genes involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. The defects of the Fvmk1 mutant were fully complemented by re-introducing the wild type FvMK1 allele. These results demonstrate that FvMK1 plays critical roles in the regulation of vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, fumonisin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity. PMID:20887797

  6. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Redhead, N.J.; Selfridge, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector to reconstruct the inactivated allele, concomitantly introducing an engineered mutation. Five independent embryonic stem cell lines have been produced bearing different targeted alterations to the prion protein gene, including one which raises the level of expression. We have constructed mice bearing the codon 101 proline to leucine substitution linked to the human familial prion disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. We anticipate that this procedure will have applications to the study of human inherited diseases and the development of therapies. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Cytostatic Gene Therapy for Vascular Proliferative Disorders with a Constitutively Active Form of the Retinoblastoma Gene Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Chang; Eliav Barr; Jonathan Seltzer; Yue-Qin Jiang; Gary J. Nabe; Elizabeth G. Nable; Michael S. Parmacek; Jeffrey M. Leiden

    1995-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in response to injury is an important etiologic factor in vascular proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after balloon angioplasty. The retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) is present in the unphosphorylated and active form in quiescent primary arterial SMCs, but is rapidly inactivated by phosphorylation in response to growth factor stimulation in vitro. A

  8. The Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi tsx Gene, Encoding a Nucleoside-Specific Porin, Is Essential for Prototrophic Growth in the Absence of Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Bucarey, Sergio A.; Villagra, Nicolás A.; Martinic, Mara P.; Trombert, A. Nicole; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Maulén, Nancy P.; Youderian, Philip; Mora, Guido C.

    2005-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi tsx gene encodes a porin that facilitates the import of nucleosides. When serovar Typhi is grown under anaerobic conditions, Tsx is among the outer membrane proteins whose expression increases dramatically. This increase in expression is due, at least in part, to increased transcription and is dependent on Fnr but not on ArcA. A mutant derivative of serovar Typhi strain STH2370 with a deletion of the tsx gene is an auxotroph that requires either adenosine or thymidine for growth on minimal medium. In contrast, an otherwise isogenic nupG nupC double mutant, defective in the inner membrane nucleoside permeases, is a prototroph. Because anaerobic growth enhances the virulence of serovar Typhi in vitro, we assessed the role that the tsx gene plays in pathogenicity and found that the serovar Typhi STH2370 ?tsx mutant is defective in survival within human macrophage-like U937 cells. To understand why the ?tsx mutant is an auxotroph, we selected for insertions of minitransposon T-POP in the ?tsx genetic background that restored prototrophy. One T-POP insertion that suppressed the ?tsx mutation in the presence of the inducer tetracycline was located upstream of the pyrD gene. The results of reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that addition of the inducer decreased the rate of pyrD transcription. These results suggest that the Tsx porin and the balance of products of the tsx and pyrD genes play critical roles in membrane assembly and integrity and thus in the virulence of serovar Typhi. PMID:16177292

  9. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium proliferatum in maize grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Velluti; V. Sanchis; A. J. Ramos; J. Egido; S. Mar??n

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cinnamon, clove, oregano, palmarose and lemongrass oils on growth and FB1 production by three different isolates of F. proliferatum in irradiated maize grain at 0.995 and 0.950 aw and at 20 and 30 °C was evaluated. The five essential oils inhibited growth of F. proliferatum isolates at 0.995 aw at both temperatures, while at 0.950 aw only

  10. Terpinen4-ol, the main component of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil), suppresses inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Hart; C. Brand; C. F. Carson; T. V. Riley; R. H. Prager; J. J. Finlay-Jones

    2000-01-01

    Objective and Design: To evaluate potential anti- inflammatory properties of tea tree oil, the essential oil steam distilled from the Australian native plant, Melaleuca alterni- folia. Material and Methods: The ability of tea tree oil to reduce the production in vitro of tumour necrosis factor-a (TNFa), interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-8, IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human peripheral blood

  11. Variation in Siderophore Biosynthetic Gene Distribution and Production across Environmental and Faecal Populations of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Searle, Laura J; Méric, Guillaume; Porcelli, Ida; Sheppard, Samuel K; Lucchini, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for Escherichia coli growth and survival in the host and the external environment, but its availability is generally low due to the poor solubility of its ferric form in aqueous environments and the presence of iron-withholding proteins in the host. Most E. coli can increase access to iron by excreting siderophores such as enterobactin, which have a very strong affinity for Fe3+. A smaller proportion of isolates can generate up to 3 additional siderophores linked with pathogenesis; aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin. However, non-pathogenic E. coli are also able to synthesise these virulence-associated siderophores. This raises questions about their role in the ecology of E. coli, beyond virulence, and whether specific siderophores might be linked with persistence in the external environment. Under the assumption that selection favours phenotypes that confer a fitness advantage, we compared siderophore production and gene distribution in E. coli isolated either from agricultural plants or the faeces of healthy mammals. This population-level comparison has revealed that under iron limiting growth conditions plant-associated isolates produced lower amounts of siderophores than faecal isolates. Additionally, multiplex PCR showed that environmental isolates were less likely to contain loci associated with aerobactin and yersiniabactin synthesis. Although aerobactin was linked with strong siderophore excretion, a significant difference in production was still observed between plant and faecal isolates when the analysis was restricted to strains only able to synthesise enterobactin. This finding suggests that the regulatory response to iron limitation may be an important trait associated with adaptation to the non-host environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to produce multiple siderophores facilitates E. coli gut colonisation and plays an important role in E. coli commensalism. PMID:25756870

  12. Variation in Siderophore Biosynthetic Gene Distribution and Production across Environmental and Faecal Populations of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Ida; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Lucchini, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for Escherichia coli growth and survival in the host and the external environment, but its availability is generally low due to the poor solubility of its ferric form in aqueous environments and the presence of iron-withholding proteins in the host. Most E. coli can increase access to iron by excreting siderophores such as enterobactin, which have a very strong affinity for Fe3+. A smaller proportion of isolates can generate up to 3 additional siderophores linked with pathogenesis; aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin. However, non-pathogenic E. coli are also able to synthesise these virulence-associated siderophores. This raises questions about their role in the ecology of E. coli, beyond virulence, and whether specific siderophores might be linked with persistence in the external environment. Under the assumption that selection favours phenotypes that confer a fitness advantage, we compared siderophore production and gene distribution in E. coli isolated either from agricultural plants or the faeces of healthy mammals. This population-level comparison has revealed that under iron limiting growth conditions plant-associated isolates produced lower amounts of siderophores than faecal isolates. Additionally, multiplex PCR showed that environmental isolates were less likely to contain loci associated with aerobactin and yersiniabactin synthesis. Although aerobactin was linked with strong siderophore excretion, a significant difference in production was still observed between plant and faecal isolates when the analysis was restricted to strains only able to synthesise enterobactin. This finding suggests that the regulatory response to iron limitation may be an important trait associated with adaptation to the non-host environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to produce multiple siderophores facilitates E. coli gut colonisation and plays an important role in E. coli commensalism. PMID:25756870

  13. Inducible Amplification of Gene Copy Number and Heterologous Protein Production in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIOVANNI B. MORLINO; LORENZA TIZZANI; REINHARD FLEER; LAURA FRONTALI; MICHELE M. BIANCHI

    1999-01-01

    Heterologous protein production can be doubled by increasing the copy number of the corresponding heterologous gene. We constructed a host-vector system in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis that was able to induce copy number amplification of pKD1 plasmid-based vectors upon expression of an integrated copy of the plasmid recombinase gene. We increased the production and secretion of two heterologous proteins, glucoamy-

  14. Essential Tremor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause problems with purposeful movements such as eating, writing, sewing, or shaving. Head tremor may be seen as a "yes-yes" or "no-no" motion. Essential tremor may be accompanied by mild gait disturbance. ...

  15. WWOX gene and gene product: tumor suppression through specific protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Zaidoun; Aqeilan, Rami; Huebner, Kay

    2010-01-01

    The WWOX gene, an archetypal fragile gene, encompasses a chromosomal fragile site at 16q23.2, and encodes the approximately 46-kDa Wwox protein, with WW domains that interact with a growing list of interesting proteins. If the function of a protein is defined by the company it keeps, then Wwox is involved in numerous important signal pathways for bone and germ-cell development, cellular and animal growth and death, transcriptional control and suppression of cancer development. Because alterations to genes at fragile sites are exquisitely sensitive to replication stress-induced DNA damage, there has been an ongoing scientific discussion questioning whether such gene expression alterations provide a selective advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells, and a parallel discussion on why important genes would be present at sites that are susceptible to inactivation. We offer some answers through a description of known WWOX functions. PMID:20146584

  16. Isolation of the SUP45 omnipotent suppressor gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of its gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelfarb, H J; Maicas, E; Friesen, J D

    1985-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUP45+ gene has been isolated from a genomic clone library by genetic complementation of paromomycin sensitivity, which is a property of a mutant strain carrying the sup45-2 allele. This plasmid complements all phenotypes associated with the sup45-2 mutation, including nonsense suppression, temperature sensitivity, osmotic sensitivity, and paromomycin sensitivity. Genetic mapping with a URA3+-marked derivative of the complementing plasmid that was integrated into the chromosome by homologous recombination demonstrated that the complementing fragment contained the SUP45+ gene and not an unlinked suppressor. The SUP45+ gene is present as a single copy in the haploid genome and is essential for viability. In vitro translation of the hybrid-selected SUP45+ transcript yielded a protein of Mr = 54,000, which is larger than any known ribosomal protein. RNA blot hybridization analysis showed that the steady-state level of the SUP45+ transcript is less than 10% of that for ribosomal protein L3 or rp59 transcripts. When yeast cells are subjected to a mild heat shock, the synthesis rate of the SUP45+ transcript was transiently reduced, approximately in parallel with ribosomal protein transcripts. Our data suggest that the SUP45+ gene does not encode a ribosomal protein. We speculate that it codes for a translation-related function whose precise nature is not yet known. Images PMID:3887137

  17. Coregulation of terpenoid pathway genes and prediction of isoprene production in Bacillus subtilis using transcriptomics

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Becky M.; Xue, Junfeng; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Wiley, H. S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Linggi, Bryan E.

    2013-06-19

    The isoprenoid pathway converts pyruvate to isoprene and related isoprenoid compounds in plants and some bacteria. Currently, this pathway is of great interest because of the critical role that isoprenoids play in basic cellular processes as well as the industrial value of metabolites such as isoprene. Although the regulation of several pathway genes has been described, there is a paucity of information regarding the system level regulation and control of the pathway. To address this limitation, we examined Bacillus subtilis grown under multiple conditions and then determined the relationship between altered isoprene production and the pattern of gene expression. We found that terpenoid genes appeared to fall into two distinct subsets with opposing correlations with respect to the amount of isoprene produced. The group whose expression levels positively correlated with isoprene production included dxs, the gene responsible for the commitment step in the pathway, as well as ispD, and two genes that participate in the mevalonate pathway, yhfS and pksG. The subset of terpenoid genes that inversely correlated with isoprene production included ispH, ispF, hepS, uppS, ispE, and dxr. A genome wide partial least squares regression model was created to identify other genes or pathways that contribute to isoprene production. This analysis showed that a subset of 213 regulated genes was sufficient to create a predictive model of isoprene production under different conditions and showed correlations at the transcriptional level. We conclude that gene expression levels alone are sufficiently informative about the metabolic state of a cell that produces increased isoprene and can be used to build a model which accurately predicts production of this secondary metabolite across many simulated environmental conditions.

  18. Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchka, M.R.

    1992-05-01

    The following is a review of research accomplished in the first two years of funding for the above mentioned project. The work performed is a molecular characterization of nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which are deficient in different stages in the post-transcriptional expression of a single chloroplast encoded polypeptide, the D2 protein of Photosystem II. Our long-term goals are to understand the molecular mechanisms by which nuclear gene products affect the expression of chloroplast genes. Specifically, we which to understand how specific nuclear gene products affect the turnover rate of the D2 encoding mRNA (psbD), how other nuclear encoded factors work to promote the translation of psbD mRNA and/or stabilize the D2 protein, and what the role of the D2 protein itself is in Photosystem II assembly and in the control of expression of other chloroplast genes. This progress report will be organized into four major sections concerning (I) The characterization of nuclear mutants affected in D2 translation/turnover, (II) The study of trans-acting factors which associate with the 5{prime} end of the psbD mRNA, (III) In vitro mutagenesis of the psbD gene, and (IV) Additional studies.

  19. Characterization of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ral2 gene implicated in activation of the ras1 gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Y; Miyake, S; Satoh, M; Yamamoto, M

    1989-01-01

    Mutations in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ral2 gene cause a phenotype indistinguishable from that of the ras1-defective mutant. Using cloned ral2 DNA, we disrupted the chromosomal gene. The disruptants showed the same phenotype as the original ral2 isolates, i.e., they had spherical cells, had no detectable mating activity, and exhibited no response to the mating pheromone, but their vegetative growth was apparently normal. Sequence analysis of the ral2 gene suggests that it encodes a polypeptide of 611 amino acid residues whose predicted amino acid sequence shows no strong homology to any known protein. Either multiple copies or even a single copy of the ras1Val-17 allele, which is an activated form of ras1, restored rodlike cell morphology and ability to respond to the mating factor to ral2 mutants. These results suggest that the ral2 and ras1 gene products interact intimately and that the ral2 gene product is involved in activation of the ras1 protein in S. pombe. Images PMID:2586528

  20. Natural and Engineered Hydroxyectoine Production Based on the Pseudomonas stutzeri ectABCD-ask Gene Cluster? †

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Britta; Galinski, Erwin A.; Kurz, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We report on the presence of a functional hydroxyectoine biosynthesis gene cluster, ectABCD-ask, in Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM5190T and evaluate the suitability of P. stutzeri DSM5190T for hydroxyectoine production. Furthermore, we present information on heterologous de novo production of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine in Escherichia coli. In this host, the P. stutzeri gene cluster remained under the control of its salt-induced native promoters. We also noted the absence of trehalose when hydroxyectoine genes were expressed, as well as a remarkable inhibitory effect of externally applied betaine on hydroxyectoine synthesis. The specific heterologous production rate in E. coli under the conditions employed exceeded that of the natural producer Pseudomonas stutzeri and, for the first time, enabled effective hydroxyectoine production at low salinity (2%), with the added advantage of simple product processing due to the absence of other cosolutes. PMID:21169432

  1. Revisiting the Central Metabolism of the Bloodstream Forms of Trypanosoma brucei: Production of Acetate in the Mitochondrion Is Essential for Parasite Viability

    PubMed Central

    Mazet, Muriel; Morand, Pauline; Biran, Marc; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Courtois, Pierrette; Daulouède, Sylvie; Millerioux, Yoann; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Vincendeau, Philippe; Moreau, Patrick; Bringaud, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Background The bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, rely solely on glycolysis for ATP production. It is generally accepted that pyruvate is the major end-product excreted from glucose metabolism by the proliferative long-slender bloodstream forms of the parasite, with virtually no production of succinate and acetate, the main end-products excreted from glycolysis by all the other trypanosomatid adaptative forms, including the procyclic insect form of T. brucei. Methodology/Principal Findings A comparative NMR analysis showed that the bloodstream long-slender and procyclic trypanosomes excreted equivalent amounts of acetate and succinate from glucose metabolism. Key enzymes of acetate production from glucose-derived pyruvate and threonine are expressed in the mitochondrion of the long-slender forms, which produces 1.4-times more acetate from glucose than from threonine in the presence of an equal amount of both carbon sources. By using a combination of reverse genetics and NMR analyses, we showed that mitochondrial production of acetate is essential for the long-slender forms, since blocking of acetate biosynthesis from both carbon sources induces cell death. This was confirmed in the absence of threonine by the lethal phenotype of RNAi-mediated depletion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is involved in glucose-derived acetate production. In addition, we showed that de novo fatty acid biosynthesis from acetate is essential for this parasite, as demonstrated by a lethal phenotype and metabolic analyses of RNAi-mediated depletion of acetyl-CoA synthetase, catalyzing the first cytosolic step of this pathway. Conclusions/Significance Acetate produced in the mitochondrion from glucose and threonine is synthetically essential for the long-slender mammalian forms of T. brucei to feed the essential fatty acid biosynthesis through the “acetate shuttle” that was recently described in the procyclic insect form of the parasite. Consequently, key enzymatic steps of this pathway, particularly acetyl-CoA synthetase, constitute new attractive drug targets against trypanosomiasis. PMID:24367711

  2. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    DOEpatents

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves (El Cerrito, CA); Campisi, Judith (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-09-30

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  3. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    DOEpatents

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves (El Cerrito, CA); Campisi, Judith (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-10-04

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  4. Significant enhancement of methionol production by co-expression of the aminotransferase gene ARO8 and the decarboxylase gene ARO10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sheng; Lang, Tiandan; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2015-03-01

    Methionol is an important volatile sulfur flavor compound, which can be produced via the Ehrlich pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aminotransferase and decarboxylase are essential enzymes catalyzing methionol biosynthesis. In this work, two aminotransferase genes ARO8 and ARO9 and one decarboxylase gene ARO10 were introduced into S. cerevisiae S288c, respectively, via an expression vector. Over-expression of ARO8 resulted in higher aminotransferase activity than that of ARO9. And the cellular decarboxylase activity was remarkably increased by over-expression of ARO10. A co-expression vector carrying both ARO8 and ARO10 was further constructed to generate the recombinant strain S810. Shaking flask experiments showed that the methionol yield from S810 reached 1.27 g L(-1), which was increased by 51.8 and 68.8% compared to that from the wild-type strain and the control strain harboring the empty vector. The fed-batch fermentation by strain S810 produced 3.24 g L(-1) of methionol after 72 h of cultivation in a bioreactor. These results demonstrated that co-expression of ARO8 and ARO10 significantly boosted the methionol production. It is the first time that more than 3.0?g L(-1) of methionol produced by genetically engineered yeast strain was reported by co-expression of the aminotransferase and decarboxylase via the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:25743068

  5. Structure and Function of Fusion Gene Products in

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    target genes CBF� AML1 #12;Hematopoiesis #12;TEL-AML1 J. Zhu et al., Oncogene 21 (2002) ­ WT AML1 or parallel of GATA-2 J. Zhu et al., Oncogene 21 (2002) #12;Protein Kinases · Phosphorylation of serine Phosphorylated tyrosine Inactive kinase Tyrosine Kinases #12;Signal transduction S.G. Rane et al., Oncogene 21

  6. Direct production of gene-targeted mice from ES cells by nuclear transfer and gene transmission to their progeny.

    PubMed

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Ono, Yukiko; Muguruma, Kaori; Hioki, Kyoji; Araki, Yoshihiko; Shinkai, Yoichi; Kono, Tomohiro; Ito, Mamoru

    2002-07-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of a cloning technique to produce gene-manipulated mice for the field of laboratory animal science, we produced mice cloned from gene-targeted embryonic stem (ES) cells and examined the vertical transmission of a targeted gene to their progeny. Of 1257 eggs constructed by nuclear transfer using M-phase ES donor cells targeted with an oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OGP) gene, 990 formed a pseudo-pronucleus and a polar body after activation. Of 504 cloned embryos transferred into recipients, 20 live cloned pups (2%) were recovered by Caesarean section at 19.5 days of gestation. Fourteen of these cloned mice were studied. Genotyping of the OGP locus and 20 microsatellite loci showed that they were genetically identical to the OGP gene-targeted TT2 cells. Eight cloned pups grew into adults, of which 7 were male and 1 was female (missing the Y chromosome). Mating experiments using the cloned mice were carried out. Of 89 F1 mice produced from the mating of cloned and C57BL/6J mice, 50 had the targeted OGP gene heterozygously. Thirty-seven F2 mice from 4 pairs of the OGP-/+ mice were composed of 9 OGP-/-, 18 OGP-/+, and 10 OGP+/+. Moreover, 26 offspring of one pair of the cloned mice were composed of 10 OGP-/-, 12 OGP-/+, and 4 OGP+/+. These offspring were fertile and transmitted the mutant OGP gene to the next generation. Comparison of these results with those of germline chimeric mice indicates that gene-targeted mice can be produced at least one generation earlier by nuclear transfer than by the conventional methods. In addition, the targeted OGP gene was constantly transmitted to the progeny of the gene-targeted mice. Cloning techniques are potentially a more efficient way to generate gene-manipulated mice for laboratory animal science, although such techniques include many unresolved problems, such as low production efficiency, and selection of a cell source for gene manipulation among others. PMID:12221931

  7. Coregulation of Terpenoid Pathway Genes and Prediction of Isoprene Production in Bacillus subtilis Using Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Becky M.; Xue, Junfeng; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Wiley, H. Steven; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Linggi, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    The isoprenoid pathway converts pyruvate to isoprene and related isoprenoid compounds in plants and some bacteria. Currently, this pathway is of great interest because of the critical role that isoprenoids play in basic cellular processes, as well as the industrial value of metabolites such as isoprene. Although the regulation of several pathway genes has been described, there is a paucity of information regarding system level regulation and control of the pathway. To address these limitations, we examined Bacillus subtilis grown under multiple conditions and determined the relationship between altered isoprene production and gene expression patterns. We found that with respect to the amount of isoprene produced, terpenoid genes fall into two distinct subsets with opposing correlations. The group whose expression levels positively correlated with isoprene production included dxs, which is responsible for the commitment step in the pathway, ispD, and two genes that participate in the mevalonate pathway, yhfS and pksG. The subset of terpenoid genes that inversely correlated with isoprene production included ispH, ispF, hepS, uppS, ispE, and dxr. A genome-wide partial least squares regression model was created to identify other genes or pathways that contribute to isoprene production. These analyses showed that a subset of 213 regulated genes was sufficient to create a predictive model of isoprene production under different conditions and showed correlations at the transcriptional level. We conclude that gene expression levels alone are sufficiently informative about the metabolic state of a cell that produces increased isoprene and can be used to build a model that accurately predicts production of this secondary metabolite across many simulated environmental conditions. PMID:23840410

  8. Sequence and expression of the Escherichia coli K1 neuC gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, G; Crowley, J M; Vann, W F

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the neuC gene of the Escherichia coli K1 capsule gene cluster encodes a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 44,210 containing 391 amino acids. A chimeric protein with beta-galactosidase fused to the carboxy terminus of the neuC gene product (P7) was constructed and purified. Its amino-terminal sequence confirmed the prediction from the nucleotide sequence that the neuC gene overlaps the distal end of the neuA gene by a single base pair. Both the neuA and neuC genes are coexpressed under the control of a single upstream T7 or tac promoter, suggesting that neuA and neuC are part of an operon. Images PMID:1729218

  9. Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International policy towards access to essential medicines in Africa has focused until recently on international procurement of large volumes of medicines, mainly from Indian manufacturers, and their import and distribution. This emphasis is now being challenged by renewed policy interest in the potential benefits of local pharmaceutical production and supply. However, there is a shortage of evidence on the role of locally produced medicines in African markets, and on potential benefits of local production for access to medicines. This article contributes to filling that gap. Methods This article uses WHO/HAI data from Tanzania for 2006 and 2009 on prices and sources of a set of tracer essential medicines. It employs innovative graphical methods of analysis alongside conventional statistical testing. Results Medicines produced in Tanzania were equally likely to be found in rural and in urban areas. Imported medicines, especially those imported from countries other than Kenya (mainly from India) displayed 'urban bias’: that is, they were significantly more likely to be available in urban than in rural areas. This finding holds across the range of sample medicines studied, and cannot be explained by price differences alone. While different private distribution networks for essential medicines may provide part of the explanation, this cannot explain why the urban bias in availability of imported medicines is also found in the public sector. Conclusions The findings suggest that enhanced local production may improve rural access to medicines. The potential benefits of local production and scope for their improvement are an important field for further research, and indicate a key policy area in which economic development and health care objectives may reinforce each other. PMID:24612518

  10. Identification and characterization of genes related to the production of organic acids in yeast.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Aki

    2012-05-01

    Organic acids contribute to the flavor of many foods and drinks including alcoholic beverages. To study the cellular processes affecting organic acid production, here we screened collections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants and identified 36 yeast mutants forming a yellow halo on YPD plates containing bromocresol purple, indicating that the pH of the medium had been lowered. The disrupted genes encoded TCA cycle enzymes, transcription factors, signal transducers, and ubiquitin-related proteins. Acetate, pyruvate, and succinate are produced by yeast fermentation in rich medium, and their production was affected by mutations of the genes GTR1, GTR2, LIP5, LSM1, PHO85, PLM2, RTG1, RTG2 and UBP3, and also succinate dehydrogenase-related genes including EMI5, SDH1, SDH2, SDH4, TCM62 and YDR379C-A. Among the genes identified, overexpression of only LIP5 affected the production of acetate in S. cerevisiae. However, overexpression of EMI5, LIP5, RTG2 and UBP3 had a significant effect on the production of acetate, citrate, lactate, and succinate in the bottom-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of the S. cerevisiae disruptants involved in organic acid production showed that azaserine, citrate, ethionine, and sulfite are useful compounds by which mutants with altered organic acid production might be selected. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulation of many organic acids might be simultaneously achieved by activation or inactivation of a single gene. PMID:22277779

  11. Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits ?-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy. PMID:24051402

  12. Cinnamomum cassia essential oil inhibits ?-MSH-induced melanin production and oxidative stress in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy. PMID:24051402

  13. Plant essential oils and mastitis disease: their potential inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to bacteria related inflammation.

    PubMed

    Taga, Ibrahim; Lan, Christopher Q; Altosaar, Illimar

    2012-05-01

    This paper highlights the role of plant volatile organic compounds, found in essential oils, for the treatment of bacteria related inflammation. This report is focused on tea tree oil, particularly its main compound terpinen-4-ol. Analysis of the published literature shows that many essential oils have significant antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects. Some of their major components, such as terpinen-4-ol, act by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine expression while stimulating production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Such observations may be exploited to encourage biotherapy against mastitis. The use of synthetic antibiotics is being increasingly discouraged because their presence in dairy milk may have potential downstream effects on population health and the agri-food chain. In the context of inflammation and related mammalian responses, understanding the interplay between volatile organic compounds, especially terpinen-4-ol, and cytokines during bacteria related inflammation should clarify their mode of action to control mastitis. PMID:22799106

  14. Munc18b is an essential gene in mice whose expression is limiting for secretion by airway epithelial and mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyubo; Petrova, Youlia M.; Scott, Brenton L.; Nigam, Rupesh; Agrawal, Anurag; Evans, Christopher M.; Azzegagh, Zoulikha; Gomez, Alejandra; Rodarte, Elsa M.; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Bagirzadeh, Rustam; Piccotti, Lucia; Ren, Binhui; Yoon, Joo-Heon; McNew, James A.; Adachi, Roberto; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2012-01-01

    Airway mucin secretion and MC (mast cell) degranulation must be tightly controlled for homoeostasis of the lungs and immune system respectively. We found the exocytic protein Munc18b to be highly expressed in mouse airway epithelial cells and MCs, and localized to the apical pole of airway secretory cells. To address its functions, we created a mouse with a severely hypomorphic Munc18b allele such that protein expression in heterozygotes was reduced by ~50%. Homozygous mutant mice were not viable, but heterozygotes showed a ~50% reduction in stimulated release of mucin from epithelial cells and granule contents from MCs. The defect in MCs affected only regulated secretion and not constitutive or transporter-mediated secretion. The severity of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was also reduced by ~50%, showing that reduction of Munc18b expression results in an attenuation of physiological responses dependent on MC degranulation. The Munc18b promoter is controlled by INR (initiator), Sp1 (specificity protein 1), Ets, CRE (cAMP-response element), GRE (glucocorticoid-response element), GATA and E-box elements in airway epithelial cells; however, protein levels did not change during mucous metaplasia induced by allergic inflammation. Taken together, the results of the present study identify Munc18b as an essential gene that is a limiting component of the exocytic machinery of epithelial cells and MCs. PMID:22694344

  15. The association between the polymorphisms in a sodium channel gene SCN7A and essential hypertension: a case-control study in the Northern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; Li, Mei; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Chuang; Lou, Yuqing; Liu, Jielin; Liu, Ya; Wang, Zuoguang; Wen, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Nax , an ?-subunit of the sodium channel encoded by the SCN7A gene, has been deemed to be a sensor of the concentration of sodium in the brain and may be involved in salt intake behavior. We inferred that Nax /SCN7A may participate in the regulation of blood pressure and the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH). The present case-control study involving 615 hypertensives and 617 normotensives was performed to investigate the association between SCN7A polymorphisms and EH in the Northern Han Chinese population. The three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3791251, rs6738031, rs7565062) in the exons of SCN7A were genotyped with the TaqMan assay. Significant association between SNP rs7565062 and EH was found under the addictive and dominant genetic models (P = 0.024, OR = 1.283, 95%CI [1.033-1.592]; P = 0.013, OR = 1.203, 95%CI [1.040-1.392]; respectively). The three SNPs were in close pair-wise linkage disequilibrium with each other and the haplotype analyses indicated that haplotype G-A-T was significantly associated with increased risk of EH (P = 0.023, OR = 1.290). In conclusion, our data showed that SNP rs7565062 of SCN7A was significantly associated with EH and the allele T of rs7565062 or the related haplotype G-A-T will be a genetic risk factor for EH in the Northern Han Chinese population. PMID:25393565

  16. Evidence that the Essential Response Regulator YycF in Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Expression of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Genes and Alters Membrane Composition†

    PubMed Central

    Mohedano, M. Luz; Overweg, Karin; de la Fuente, Alicia; Reuter, Mark; Altabe, Silvia; Mulholland, Francis; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma; Wells, Jerry M.

    2005-01-01

    The YycFG two-component system, originally identified in Bacillus subtilis, is highly conserved among gram-positive bacteria with low G+C contents. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the YycF response regulator has been reported to be essential for cell growth, but the signal to which it responds and the gene members of the regulon remain unclear. In order to investigate the role of YycFG in S. pneumoniae, we increased the expression of yycF by using a maltose-inducible vector and analyzed the genome-wide effects on transcription and protein expression during the course of yycF expression. The induction of yycF expression increased histidine kinase yycG transcript levels, suggesting an autoregulation of the yycFG operon. Evidence from both proteomic and microarray transcriptome studies as well as analyses of membrane fatty acid composition indicated that YycFG is involved in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and in determining fatty acid chain lengths in membrane lipids. In agreement with recent transcriptome data on pneumococcal cells depleted of YycFG, we also identified several other potential members of the YycFG regulon that are required for virulence and cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:15774879

  17. The Products of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) Immediate Early Genes 1, 2 and 3 Can Activate HSV1 Gene Expression in trans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Everett

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Expression of the early and late genes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) during infection of tissue culture cells requires the prior expression of the immediate early (IE) genes. The requirement for the product of IE gene 3, Vmw175, for the activation of early promoters has been revealed by studies with temperature-sensitive virus mutants. Recent experiments using transfection

  18. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  19. ACOOD Essentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Engström; Mikael Berndtsson; Brian Lings

    This paper describes the active object-oriented database system ACOOD, developed at the universi- ties of Skövde and Exeter. ACOOD adds active functionality on top of the commercially available Ontos DB. The active behaviour is modelled by using Event-Condition-Action ( ECA) rules. ACOOD offers all essential functionality associated with an active database. The semantics and user interface have been clearly defined

  20. Identification of the FKS1 gene of Candida albicans as the essential target of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, C M; D'Ippolito, J A; Shei, G J; Meinz, M; Onishi, J; Marrinan, J A; Li, W; Abruzzo, G K; Flattery, A; Bartizal, K; Mitchell, A; Kurtz, M B

    1997-01-01

    Pneumocandins and echinocandins are fungicidal antibiotics, currently in clinical development, that inhibit 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase (GS) in several human fungal pathogens. We have identified a gene from the diploid organism Candida albicans that encodes a target of these inhibitors. A 2.1-kb portion of this gene, designated CaFKS1, has significant homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 and FKS2 genes, which encode partially functionally redundant subunits of GS. To evaluate the role of CaFkslp in susceptibility to echinocandins, we disrupted CaFKS1 on one homolog each of the spontaneous pneumocandin-resistant C. albicans mutants CAI4R1, NR2, NR3, and NR4. These mutants had been selected previously on agar plates containing the pneumocandin L-733,560. The clones derived from this transformation were either resistant (Ech[r]) or fully sensitive (Ech[s]) to inhibition by L-733,560 in both liquid broth microdilution and in vitro GS assays. The site of plasmid insertion in the transformants was mapped by Southern blot analysis, using restriction site polymorphisms in the CaFKS1 gene to distinguish between the two alleles (designated CaFKS1h and CaFKS1b). For strains CAI4R1 and NR2, the CaFKS1b allele was disrupted in each Ech(r) transformant; for strain NR4, CaFKS1h was disrupted in each Ech(r) transformant. We conclude that (i) strains CAI4R1, NR2, and NR4 are heterozygous for a dominant or semidominant pneumocandin resistance mutation at CaFKS1, (ii) drug resistance mutations can occur in either CaFKS1 allele, and (iii) CaFks1p is a target of the echinocandins. For transformants of strain NR3, all the clones we analyzed were uniformly Ech(r), and only the CaFKS1h allele, either in disrupted or wild-type form, was detected on genomic Southern blots. We believe gene conversion at the CaFKS1 locus may have produced two Cafks1h alleles that each contain an Ech(r) mutation. Transformants derived from the mutants were analyzed for susceptibility to pneumocandin treatment in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Strains heterozygous for the resistant allele (i.e., C. albicans CAI4R1, NR2, and NR4) were moderately resistant to treatment, while strains without a functional Ech(s) allele (i.e., strain NR3 and derivatives of strain CAI4R1 with the disruption plasmid integrated in the Ech[s] allele) displayed strong in vivo echinocandin resistance. Finally, we were unable to inactivate both alleles at CaFKS1 by two-step integrative disruption, suggesting that CaFks1p is likely to be an essential protein in C. albicans. PMID:9371352

  1. Nucleotide sequence, organization, and nature of the protein products of the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Armstrong; Marie Alberti; Francesca Leach; John E. Hearst

    1989-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments are essential for the protection of both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues from photooxidative damage. Although carotenoid biosynthesis has been studied in many organisms from bacteria to higher plants, little is known about carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes, or the nature and regulation of the genes encoding them. We report here the first DNA sequence of carotenoid genes from any organism.

  2. Thaxtomin A production and virulence are controlled by several bld gene global regulators in Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Bignell, Dawn R D; Francis, Isolde M; Fyans, Joanna K; Loria, Rosemary

    2014-08-01

    Streptomyces scabies is the main causative agent of common scab disease, which leads to significant annual losses to potato growers worldwide. The main virulence factor produced by S. scabies is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which functions as a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. Thaxtomin A production is controlled by the cluster-situated regulator TxtR, which activates expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes in response to cello-oligosaccharides. Here, we demonstrate that at least five additional regulatory genes are required for wild-type levels of thaxtomin A production and plant pathogenicity in S. scabies. These regulatory genes belong to the bld gene family of global regulators that control secondary metabolism or morphological differentiation in Streptomyces spp. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes was significantly downregulated in all five bld mutants and, in four of these mutants, this downregulation was attributed to the reduction in expression of txtR. Furthermore, all of the mutants displayed reduced expression of other known or predicted virulence genes, suggesting that the bld genes may function as global regulators of virulence gene expression in S. scabies. PMID:24678834

  3. Phylogenomic study of lipid genes involved in microalgal biofuel production-candidate gene mining and metabolic pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  4. Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production—Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  5. Genes involved in cerebrospinal fluid production as candidate genes for late-onset Alzheimer's disease: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wostyn, Peter; van Dam, Debby; Audenaert, Kurt; de Deyn, Peter Paul

    2011-12-01

    In rare patients with autosomal dominant, early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding ?-amyloid precursor protein, and the ?-secretase-complex components presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 appear to result in ?-amyloid (A?) overproduction. The pathological accumulation of A? in the far more common late-onset AD is more likely to be the result of deficient clearance of A?. There is evidence that production and turnover of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) help to clear toxic molecules such as A? from the interstitial fluid space of the brain to the bloodstream. CSF production and turnover have been shown to be decreased in aging and in pathological conditions, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus and AD. Reduced formation of CSF, with diminished clearance of A?, may play an important role in the onset and progression of AD. If reduced CSF turnover is a risk factor for AD, then its incidence ought to be increased under conditions of CSF circulatory failure. In this paper, the authors hypothesize that genes and variations of genes involved in the CSF production and absorption may contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset AD. PMID:22023247

  6. Production of Cloned Pigs with Targeted Attenuation of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bordignon, Vilceu; El-Beirouthi, Nayla; Gasperin, Bernardo G.; Albornoz, Marcelo S.; Martinez-Diaz, Mario A.; Schneider, Carine; Laurin, Denyse; Zadworny, David; Agellon, Luis B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that RNA interference (RNAi) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technologies can be used to attenuate the expression of specific genes in tissues of swine, a large animal species. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a secreted glycoprotein known for its major role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and transport, was selected as the target gene for this study. Three synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting the porcine apoE mRNA were tested in porcine granulosa cells in primary culture and reduced apoE mRNA abundance ranging from 45–82% compared to control cells. The most effective sequence was selected for cloning into a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector under the control of RNA polymerase III (U6) promoter. Stably transfected fetal porcine fibroblast cells were generated and used to produce embryos with in vitro matured porcine oocytes, which were then transferred into the uterus of surrogate gilts. Seven live and one stillborn piglet were born from three gilts that became pregnant. Integration of the shRNA expression vector into the genome of clone piglets was confirmed by PCR and expression of the GFP transgene linked to the expression vector. Analysis showed that apoE protein levels in the liver and plasma of the clone pigs bearing the shRNA expression vector targeting the apoE mRNA was significantly reduced compared to control pigs cloned from non-transfected fibroblasts of the same cell line. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying RNAi and SCNT technologies for introducing stable genetic modifications in somatic cells for eventual attenuation of gene expression in vivo in large animal species. PMID:23737990

  7. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage. PMID:20128459

  8. Whole transcriptome analysis reveals an 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1-driven DNA repair-dependent gene expression linked to essential biological processes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Hosoki, Koa; Bacsi, Attila; Radák, Zsolt; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Sur, Sanjiv; Ameredes, Bill T; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Brasier, Allan R; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species inflict oxidative modifications on various biological molecules, including DNA. One of the most abundant DNA base lesions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) is repaired by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) during DNA base excision repair (OGG1-BER). 8-OxoG accumulation in DNA has been associated with various pathological and aging processes, although its role is unclear. The lack of OGG1-BER in Ogg1(-/-) mice resulted in decreased inflammatory responses and increased susceptibility to infections and metabolic disorders. Therefore, we proposed that OGG1 and/or 8-oxoG base may have a role in immune and homeostatic processes. To test our hypothesis, we challenged mouse lungs with OGG1-BER product 8-oxoG base and changes in gene expression were determined by RNA sequencing and data were analyzed by Gene Ontology and statistical tools. RNA-Seq analysis identified 1592 differentially expressed (? 3-fold change) transcripts. The upregulated mRNAs were related to biological processes, including homeostatic, immune-system, macrophage activation, regulation of liquid-surface tension, and response to stimulus. These processes were mediated by chemokines, cytokines, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, integrin, and interleukin signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings point to a new paradigm showing that OGG1-BER plays a role in various biological processes that may benefit the host, but when in excess could be implicated in disease and/or aging processes. PMID:25614460

  9. Analysis of the Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Overlapping Gene Pair lef3 and ac68 Reveals that AC68 Is a Per Os Infectivity Factor and that LEF3 Is Critical, but Not Essential, for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yingchao; Fang, Minggang; Erlandson, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac68 is a core gene that overlaps lef3 which encodes the single-stranded DNA binding protein. A knockout (KO) virus lacking both lef3 and ac68 was generated (lef3-ac68 2×KO) to enable the functional study of ac68. To produce an ac68KO virus that did not impact lef3 expression, the lef3-ac68 2×KO virus was repaired with a DNA fragment containing lef3 and ac68, in which ac68 contained point mutations so that only LEF3 was expressed. Repair of lef3-ac68 2×KO with just ac68 generated an lef3KO virus. Analysis of the ac68KO virus showed that viral DNA replication and budded virus (BV) levels were unaffected compared to levels in the double-repair or wild-type (WT) control virus. Bioassay analyses of Trichoplusia ni larvae injected with BV directly into the hemolymph, bypassing the gut, showed no difference in mortality rates between the ac68KO and the WT viruses. However, in oral bioassays the ac68KO occlusion bodies failed to kill larvae. These results show that the core gene ac68 encodes a per os infectivity factor (pif6). The lef3KO virus was also analyzed, and virus replication was drastically reduced compared to WT virus, but very low levels of lef3KO virus DNA replication and BV production could be detected. In addition, in transfected cells P143 was transported to the nucleus in the absence of LEF3. This study therefore shows for the first time that even though the loss of LEF3 severely impairs virus replication, it is not absolutely essential for P143 nuclear import or viral replication. PMID:22278232

  10. The Deleterious Effect of an Insertion Sequence Removing the Last Twenty Percent of the Essential Escherichia coli rpsA Gene Is Due to mRNA Destabilization, Not Protein Truncation?

    PubMed Central

    Skorski, Patricia; Proux, Florence; Cheraiti, Chainez; Dreyfus, Marc; Denmat, Sylvie Hermann-Le

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, the product of the essential rpsA gene, consists of six imperfect repeats of the same motif. Besides playing a critical role in translation initiation on most mRNAs, S1 also specifically autoregulates the translation of its own messenger. ssyF29 is a viable rpsA allele that carries an IS10R insertion within the coding sequence, resulting in a protein lacking the last motif (S1?C). The growth of ssyF29 cells is slower than that of wild-type cells. Moreover, translation of a reporter rpsA-lacZ fusion is specifically stimulated, suggesting that the last motif is necessary for autoregulation. However, in ssyF29 cells the rpsA mRNA is also strongly destabilized; this destabilization, by causing S1?C shortage, might also explain the observed slow-growth and autoregulation defect. To fix this ambiguity, we have introduced an early stop codon in the rpsA chromosomal gene, resulting in the synthesis of the S1?C protein without an IS10R insertion (rpsA?C allele). rpsA?C cells grow much faster than their ssyF29 counterparts; moreover, in these cells S1 autoregulation and mRNA stability are normal. In vitro, the S1?C protein binds mRNAs (including its own) almost as avidly as wild-type S1. These results demonstrate that the last S1 motif is dispensable for translation and autoregulation: the defects seen with ssyF29 cells reflect an IS10R-mediated destabilization of the rpsA mRNA, probably due to facilitated exonucleolytic degradation. PMID:17616604

  11. Functional Analysis of the Validamycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Engineered Production of Validoxylamine A

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Linquan; Li, Lei; Xu, Hui; Minagawa, Kazuyuki; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Yirong; Zhou, Xiufen; Floss, Heinz G.; Mahmud, Taifo; Deng, Zixin

    2006-01-01

    Summary A 45 kb DNA sequencing analysis from Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008 involved in validamycin A (VAL-A) biosynthesis revealed 16 structural, 2 regulatory, and 5 genes related to transport, transposition/integration, tellurium resistance, and another 4 genes with no obvious identity. The VAL-A biosynthetic pathway was proposed, with assignment of the required genetic functions confined in the sequenced region. A cluster of eight reassembled genes was found to support the VAL-A synthesis in a heterologous host, S. lividans 1326. In vivo inactivation of the putative glycosyltransferase gene (valG) abolished the final attachment of glucose for VAL production, and resulted in the accumulation of the VAL-A precursor, validoxylamine, while the normal production of VAL-A could be restored by complementation with valG. The role of ValG in the glycosylation of validoxylamine to VAL-A was demonstrated in vitro by enzymatic assay. PMID:16632251

  12. Transcriptional activation by heterodimers of the achaete-scute and daughterless gene products of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, C V; Alonso, M C

    1991-01-01

    The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) and the daughterless (da) genes encode helix-loop-helix proteins which have been shown to interact in vivo and to be required for neurogenesis. We show in vitro that heterodimers of three AS-C products with DA bind DNA strongly, whereas DA homodimers bind weakly and homo or heterocombinations of AS-C products not at all. Proteins unable to dimerize did not bind DNA. Target sequences for the heterodimers were found in the promoters of the hunchback and the achaete genes. Using sequences of the former we show that the DNA binding results obtained in vitro fully correlate with the ability of different combinations to activate the expression of a reporter gene in yeast. Embryos deficient for the lethal of scute gene fail to activate hunchback in some neural lineages in a pattern consistent with the lack of a member of a multigene family. Images PMID:1915272

  13. Production of the 2400 kb Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene transcript; transcription time and cotranscriptional splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, C.N.; Worton, R.G. [Univ. of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    The largest known gene in any organism is the human DMD gene which has 79 exons that span 2400 kb. The extreme nature of the DMD gene raises questions concerning the time required for transcription and whether splicing begins before transcription is complete. DMD gene transcription is induced as cultured human myoblasts differentiate to form multinucleated myotubes, providing a system for studying the kinetics of transcription and splicing. Using quantitative RT-PCR, transcript accumulation was monitored from four different regions within the gene following induction of expression. By comparing the accumulation of transcripts from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the gene we have shown that approximately 12 hours are required to transcribe 1770 kb of the gene, extrapolating to a time of 16 hours for the transcription unit expressed in muscle. Comparison of accumulation profiles for spliced and total transcript demonstrated that transcripts are spliced at the 5{prime} end before transcription is complete, providing strong evidence for cotranscriptional splicing of DMD gene transcripts. Finally, the rate of transcript accumulation was reduced at the 3{prime} end of the gene relative to the 5{prime} end, perhaps due to premature termination of transcription complexes as they traverse this enormous transcription unit. The lag between transcription initiation and the appearance of complete transcripts could be important in limiting transcript production in dividing cells and to the timing of mRNA appearance in differentiating muscle.

  14. An integrated approach utilizing chemometrics and GC/MS for classification of chamomile flowers, essential oils and commerical products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an ongoing research program on authentication, safety and biological evaluation of phytochemicals and dietary supplements, an in-depth chemical investigation of different types of chamomile was performed. A collection of chamomile samples including authenticated plants, commercial product...

  15. Dairy Products as Essential Contributors of (Micro) Nutrients in Reference Food Patterns: An Outline for Elderly People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staveren van W. A; J. M. Steijns; Groot de C. P. G. M

    2008-01-01

    he nutrient richness of dairy products is widely recognized, but mainly low fat or skimmed versions are generally advocated given the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. The question arises how to appraise this nutrient richness relative to the contribution of the saturated fraction of dairy fat. We reviewed available data - collected from elderly people - on

  16. ALTERING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GROWTH, MORPHOGENESIS AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION IN MENTHA SPICATA L. SHOOTS IN VITRO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Altering the physical environment profoundly alters the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (leave, root and shoot numbers) and secondary metabolism [i.e., production of the monoterpene (-)-carvone] of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) shoots cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium. The type of physica...

  17. K63-linked polyubiquitylation of IRF1 transcription factor is essential for IL-1-induced CCL5 and CXCL10 chemokine production

    PubMed Central

    Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Yester, Jessie W.; Surace, Michael J.; Oyeniran, Clement; Price, Megan M.; Huang, Wei-Ching; Hait, Nitai C.; Allegood, Jeremy C.; Yamada, Akimitsu; Kong, Xiangqian; Lazear, Helen M.; Bhardwaj, Reetika; Takabe, Kazuaki; Diamond, Michael S.; Luo, Cheng; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah; Kordula, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Although interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), its roles in immune and inflammatory responses and mechanisms of activation remain elusive. Here, we show that IRF1 is essential for IL-1-induced expression of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5 that recruit mononuclear cells into sites of sterile inflammation. Newly synthesized IRF1 acquires K63-linked polyubiquitylation mediated by cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (cIAP2), which is enhanced by the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P). In response to IL-1, cIAP2 and sphingosine kinase 1, the enzyme that generates S1P, form a complex with IRF1, which leads to its activation. Thus, IL-1 triggers a hitherto unknown signaling cascade that controls induction of IRF1-dependent genes important for sterile inflammation. PMID:24464131

  18. Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene and its Association with Expected Milk Production Traits in Dairy Bulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aruna Pal; A. K. Chakravarty; T. K. Bhattacharya; Arjava Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Pal, A., Chakravarty, A.K., Bhattacharya, T.K. and Sharma, A. 2005. Polymorphism of growth hormone gene and its association with expected milk production traits in dairy bulls. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 29–33.To explore polymorphism in 4th exon, 4th intron and 5th exon of growth hormone gene in Karan Fries (KF) cattle and Murrah buffalo bulls and its association with expected

  19. Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early 2 Gene Expression Blocks Virus-Induced Beta Interferon Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Travis Taylor; Wade A. Bresnahan

    2005-01-01

    The effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression on beta interferon (IFN-) expression was examined. We demonstrate that the HCMV immediate-early 2 (IE2) gene product IE86 can effectively block the induction of IFN- during HCMV infection. IE86 also efficiently blocked the induction of IFN- following Sendai virus infection, demonstrating that IE86's ability to block induction of IFN- is not limited

  20. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene product is localized in sarcolemma of human skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth E. Zubrzycka-Gaarn; Dennis E. Bulman; George Karpati; Arthur H. M. Burghes; Bonnie Belfall; Henry J. Klamut; Jim Talbot; Robert S. Hodges; Peter N. Ray; Ronald G. Worton

    1988-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and its milder form, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), are allelic X-linked muscle disorders in man1. The gene responsible for the disease has been cloned from knowledge of its map location at band Xp21 on the short arm of the X chromosome2-5. The product of the DMD gene, a protein of relative molecular mass 400,000 (Mr 400K)

  1. A mutation in the Corynebacterium glutamicum ltsA gene causes susceptibility to lysozyme, temperature-sensitive growth, and L-glutamate production.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, T; Wachi, M; Nagai, K

    2000-05-01

    The Corynebacterium glutamicum mutant KY9714, originally isolated as a lysozyme-sensitive mutant, does not grow at 37 degrees C. Complementation tests and DNA sequencing analysis revealed that a mutation in a single gene of 1,920 bp, ltsA (lysozyme and temperature sensitive), was responsible for its lysozyme sensitivity and temperature sensitivity. The ltsA gene encodes a protein homologous to the glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetases of various organisms, but it could not rescue the asparagine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli asnA asnB double mutant. Replacement of the N-terminal Cys residue (which is conserved in glutamine-dependent amidotransferases and is essential for enzyme activity) by an Ala residue resulted in the loss of complementation in C. glutamicum. The mutant ltsA gene has an amber mutation, and the disruption of the ltsA gene caused lysozyme and temperature sensitivity similar to that in the KY9714 mutant. L-Glutamate production was induced by elevating growth temperature in the disruptant. These results indicate that the ltsA gene encodes a novel glutamine-dependent amidotransferase that is involved in the mechanisms of formation of rigid cell wall structure and in the L-glutamate production of C. glutamicum. PMID:10781535

  2. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, João C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology () project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way. PMID:25346727

  3. Wheat TILLING Mutants Show That the Vernalization Gene VRN1 Down-Regulates the Flowering Repressor VRN2 in Leaves but Is Not Essential for Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Andrew; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Most of the natural variation in wheat vernalization response is determined by allelic differences in the MADS-box transcription factor VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1). Extended exposures to low temperatures during the winter (vernalization) induce VRN1 expression and promote the transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive phase. In contrast to its Arabidopsis homolog (APETALA1), which is mainly expressed in the apical meristem, VRN1 is also expressed at high levels in the leaves, but its function in this tissue is not well understood. Using tetraploid wheat lines with truncation mutations in the two homoeologous copies of VRN1 (henceforth vrn1-null mutants), we demonstrate that a central role of VRN1 in the leaves is to maintain low transcript levels of the VRN2 flowering repressor after vernalization. Transcript levels of VRN2 were gradually down-regulated during vernalization in both mutant and wild-type genotypes, but were up-regulated after vernalization only in the vrn1-null mutants. The up-regulation of VRN2 delayed flowering by repressing the transcription of FT, a flowering-integrator gene that encodes a mobile protein that is transported from the leaves to the apical meristem to induce flowering. The role of VRN2 in the delayed flowering of the vrn1-null mutant was confirmed using double vrn1-vrn2-null mutants, which flowered two months earlier than the vrn1-null mutants. Both mutants produced normal flowers and seeds demonstrating that VRN1 is not essential for wheat flowering, which contradicts current flowering models. This result does not diminish the importance of VRN1 in the seasonal regulation of wheat flowering. The up-regulation of VRN1 during winter is required to maintain low transcript levels of VRN2, accelerate the induction of FT in the leaves, and regulate a timely flowering in the spring. Our results also demonstrate the existence of redundant wheat flowering genes that may provide new targets for engineering wheat varieties better adapted to changing environments. PMID:23271982

  4. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3'UTR of ERAP1 gene with essential hypertension in the Northeastern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sibao; Liu, Xueyan; Gao, Yongjian; Ding, Mei; Li, Bing; Sun, Huan; He, Yuquan; Yang, Ping

    2015-04-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) may be involved in blood pressure regulation by inactivation of angiotensin II and generation of bradykinin. Our previous study with cDNA microarray indicated that the expression of ERAP1 is down-regulated in essential hypertension (EH) patients. Since the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) is known to play an important role in the post-transcriptional regulation by influencing the stability and translation process of mRNA, the present study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'UTR of ERAP1 gene in a case-control study among the Northeastern Han Chinese through PCR-sequencing, and analyze the association with EH. Our results further verified the lower expression level of ERAP1 in the peripheral blood cells in patients with EH (917.12±517.57 vs. 1506.59±1214.09pg/mL, P=0.011). Four SNPs, 3'UTR-761G>A, 3'UTR-787C>T, 3'UTR-1008A>C and 3'UTR-1055A>G, were identified in the 3'UTR of ERAP1. 3'UTR-1008A>C and 3'UTR-1055A>G were in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. Association analysis showed that the genotypic and allelic frequencies of 3'UTR-1008A>C and 3'UTR-1055A>G were significantly different between EH and the control groups. Logistic regression and haplotypic analysis indicated that alleles of E20-1037C and E20-1084G as well as haplotype of C-G were the risk factors of EH (P<0.05). Subgroup analysis performed by age suggested that the frequencies of genotype and allele of 3'UTR-1008A>C and 3'UTR-1055A>G as well as the haplotypes C-G and A-A were significantly different between EH and the control in the younger group (<50), but not in the older group (?50). Younger population with the 3'UTR-1008CC and/or 3'UTR-1055GG genotypes also tended to have higher blood pressure, especially the diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, the 3'UTR-1008A>C and 3'UTR-1055A>G polymorphisms of ERAP1 gene were associated with EH, especially in the younger population, and the haplotype C-G could be the independent marker of EH. PMID:25665737

  5. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  6. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  7. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  8. The paf gene product modulates asexual development in Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Sigl, Claudia; Zadra, Ivo; Pócsi, Istvan; Marx, Florentine

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (PAF). It has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism Aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. In this study we provide evidence for an additional function of PAF which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. Our data indicate that PAF enhances conidiation in P. chrysogenum by modulating the expression of brlA, the central regulatory gene for mitospore development. A paf deletion strain showed a significant impairment of mitospore formation which sustains our hypothesis that PAF plays an important role in balancing asexual differentiation in P. chrysogenum. PMID:21298690

  9. Overexpression of bacterial ethylene-forming enzyme gene in Trichoderma reesei enhanced the production of ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liang, Yong; Hua, Jing; Tao, Li; Qin, Wensheng; Chen, Sanfeng

    2010-01-01

    In order to efficiently utilize natural cellulose materials to produce ethylene, three expression vectors containing the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea were constructed. The target gene was respectively controlled by different promoters: cbh I promoter from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases I gene, gpd promoter from Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and pgk I promoter from T. reesei 3-phosphoglycerate kinase I gene. After transforming into T. reesei QM9414, 43 stable transformants were obtained by PCR amplification and ethylene determination. Southern blot analysis of 14 transformants demonstrated that the efe gene was integrated into chromosomal DNA with copy numbers from 1 to 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of 6 transformants showed that the heterologous gene was transcribed. By using wheat straw as a carbon source, the ethylene production rates of aforementioned 14 transformants were measured. Transformant C30-3 with pgk I promoter had the highest ethylene production (4,012 nl h-1 l-1). This indicates that agricultural wastes could be used to produce ethylene in recombinant filamentous fungus T. reesei. PMID:20150979

  10. Cloning of genes for production of Escherichia coli Shiga-like toxin type II.

    PubMed Central

    Newland, J W; Strockbine, N A; Neill, R J

    1987-01-01

    Genes controlling production of Shiga-like toxin type II (SLT-II) in Escherichia coli were cloned from the SLT-II-converting bacteriophage 933W and compared with the Shiga-like toxin type I (SLT-I) genes previously isolated and described from phage 933J. Subcloning analysis identified a region within the 4.9-kilobase EcoRI fragment of phage 933W that was associated with SLT-II production. Experiments with E. coli minicells containing these subclones demonstrated that the 4.9-kilobase EcoRI fragment encodes the structural genes for SLT-II. These experiments additionally showed the genetic organization of the SLT-II genes to be the same as that of the SLT-I genes, with the coding sequence for the large A subunit adjacent to that for the smaller B subunit. The mobilities of the SLT-II subunits in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were slightly greater than those determined for the SLT-I subunits. Although apparent processing of the SLT-I subunits was observed with polymyxin B treatment of the labeled minicells, no processing of the SLT-II subunits was detected. Southern blot hybridization studies suggested that the DNA fragment carrying the SLT-II structural genes shares approximately 50 to 60% homology with the DNA of the SLT-I structural genes. Images PMID:2822579

  11. Identification and characterization of a Bacteroides gene, csuF, which encodes an outer membrane protein that is essential for growth on chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Q; Yu, M C; Reeves, A R; Salyers, A A

    1995-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron can utilize a variety of polysaccharides, including charged mucopolysaccharides such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). Since the enzymes (chondroitin lyases I and II) that catalyze the first step in breakdown of CS and HA are located in the periplasm, we had proposed that the first step in utilization of these polysaccharides was binding to one or more outer membrane proteins followed by translocation into the periplasm, but no such outer membrane proteins had been shown to play a role in CS or HA utilization. Previously we have isolated a transposon-generated mutant, CS4, which was unable to grow on CS or HA but retained the ability to grow on disaccharide components of CS. This phenotype suggested that the mutation in CS4 either blocked the transport of the mucopolysaccharides into the periplasmic space or blocked the depolymerization of the mucopolysaccharides into disaccharides. We have mapped the CS4 mutation to a single gene, csuF, which is capable of encoding a protein of 1,065 amino acids and contains a consensus signal sequence. Although CsuF had a predicted molecular weight and pI similar to those of chondroitin lyases, it did not show significant sequence similarity to the Bacteroides chondroitin lyase II, a Proteus chondroitin ABC lyase, or two hyaluronidases from Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus pyogenes, nor was any CS-degrading enzyme activity associated with csuF expression in Bacteroides species or Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequence of CsuF exhibited features suggestive of an outer membrane protein. We obtained antibodies to CsuF and demonstrated that the protein is located in the outer membrane. This is the first evidence that a nonenzymatic outer membrane protein is essential for utilization of CS and HA. PMID:7601836

  12. Engineering validamycin production by tandem deletion of ?-butyrolactone receptor genes in Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Peng, Yao; Lu, Chenyang; Bai, Linquan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Paired homologs of ?-butyrolactone (GBL) biosynthesis gene afsA and GBL receptor gene arpA are located at different positions in genome of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008. Inactivation of afsA homologs dramatically decreased biosynthesis of validamycin, an important anti-fungal antibiotic and a critical substrate for antidiabetic drug synthesis, and the deletion of arpA homologs increased validamycin production by 26% (?shbR1) and 20% (?shbR3). By double deletion, the ?shbR1/R3 mutant showed higher transcriptional levels of adpA-H (the S. hygroscopicus ortholog of the global regulatory gene adpA) and validamycin biosynthetic genes, and validamycin production increased by 55%. Furthermore, by engineering a high-producing industrial strain via tandem deletion of GBL receptor genes, validamycin production and productivity were enhanced from 19 to 24g/L (by 26%) and from 6.7 to 9.7gL(-1)d(-1) (by 45%), respectively, which was the highest ever reported. The strategy demonstrated here may be useful to engineering other Streptomyces spp. with multiple pairs of afsA-arpA homologs. PMID:25527439

  13. A cross-species compendium of proteins/gene products related to cold stress identified by bioinformatic approaches.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Martin A; Tan, John C; Duman, John G

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to construct a compendium of low temperature responsive proteins/gene products across species as identified by bioinformatics based approaches, thus allowing low temperature researchers a searchable database. Another purpose was to identify specific low temperature responsive proteins/gene products across at least two different species. We generated a database containing 2030 low temperature responsive protein/gene product entries, of which 1353 were up-regulated and 549 were down-regulated in response to various cold exposures across 34 different species; including bacteria (9 species), yeast (1 species), animals (including nematodes (1 species), collembola (2 species), insects (5 species), fish (1 species), amphibians (1 species), reptiles (1 species), mammals (2 species)), and plants (moss (1 species), gymnosperms (1 species) and angiosperms (9 species)). There were 39 studies using 12 different cold treatments; 20 used proteomics and 18 used transcriptomics. Concerning our purpose of identifying specific temperature responsive proteins/gene products across species, we found 113 shared proteins/gene products groups, each of which was found in at least two species. Of these shared proteins/gene products groups, 58 proteins/gene products (including protein/gene product families) that were consistently regulated, meaning always either up- or down-regulated, across species. Another 23 proteins/gene products were inconsistently regulated, meaning that the proteins/gene products were up-regulated in some species and treatments while being down-regulated in other species and treatments. An additional 32 proteins/gene products that are part of larger family headings and are difficult to separate from related member proteins (such the ribosomal proteins, 30S, 50S, and others) were inconsistently regulated. This work is an attempt to create a centralized database and repository for low temperature responsive proteins/gene products in all species. PMID:21565197

  14. Repression of the Interleukin 6 Gene Promoter by p53 and the Retinoblastoma Susceptibility Gene Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma Santhanam; Anuradha Ray; Pravinkumar B. Sehgal

    1991-01-01

    The aberrant overexpression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is implicated as an autocrine mechanism in the enhanced proliferation of the neoplastic cell elements in various B- and T-cell malignancies and in some carcinomas and sarcomas; many of these neoplasms have been shown to be associated with a mutated p53 gene. The possibility that wild-type (wt) p53, a nuclear tumor-suppressor protein, but

  15. Identification of Pantoea ananatis gene encoding membrane pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and pqqABCDEF operon essential for PQQ biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Irina G; Golubeva, Lyubov I; Kuvaeva, Tatiana M; Gak, Evgueni R; Katashkina, Joanna I; Mashko, Sergey V

    2011-05-01

    Pantoea ananatis accumulates gluconate during aerobic growth in the presence of glucose. Computer analysis of the P. ananatis SC17(0) sequenced genome revealed an ORF encoding a homologue (named gcd) of the mGDH (EC 1.1.99.17) apoenzyme from Escherichia coli and a putative pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic operon homologous to pqqABCDEF from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Construction of ?gcd and ?pqq mutants of P. ananatis confirmed the proposed functions of these genetic elements. The P. ananatis pqqABCDEF was cloned in vivo and integrated into the chromosomes of P. ananatis and E. coli according to the Dual In/Out strategy. Introduction of a second copy of pqqABCDEF to P. ananatis SC17(0) doubled the accumulation of PQQ. Integration of the operon into E. coli MG1655?ptsG?manXY restored the growth of bacteria on glucose. The obtained data show the essential role of pqqABCDEF in PQQ biosynthesis in P. ananatis and E. coli. We propose that the cloned operon could be useful for an efficient phosphoenolpyruvate-independent glucose consumption pathway due to glucose oxidation and construction of E. coli strains with the advantage of phosphoenolpyruvate-derived metabolite production. PMID:21306430

  16. Disruption of cagA, the apoprotein gene of chromoprotein antibiotic C-1027, eliminates holo-antibiotic production, but not the cytotoxic chromophore.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhihui; Wang, Lifei; Wang, Songmei; Li, Guangwei; Hong, Bin

    2009-11-01

    C-1027 is a chromoprotein of the nine-membered enediyne antitumour antibiotic family, comprising apoprotein to stabilize and transport the enediyne chromophore. The disruption of apoprotein gene cagA within the C-1027 biosynthetic gene cluster abolished C-1027 holo-antibiotic production detected by an antibacterial assay, as well as the expression of the apoprotein and C-1027 chromophore extracted following protein precipitation of the culture supernatant. Complementation of the cagA-disrupted mutant AKO with the intact cagA gene restored C-1027 production, suggesting that cagA is indispensable for holo-antibiotic production. Overexpression of cagA in the wild-type strain resulted in a significant increase in C-1027 production as expected. Surprisingly, electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses suggested that the AKO mutant still produced the C-1027 enediyne chromophore [m/z=844 (M+H)(+)] and its aromatized product [m/z=846 (M+H)(+)]. Consistent with this, the results from gene expression analysis using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that transcripts of the positive regulator sgcR3 and the structural genes sgcA1, sgcC4, sgcD6 and sgcE were readily detected in the AKO mutant as well as in the wild-type and the complementation strain. These results provided, for the first time, evidence suggesting that the apoprotein of C-1027 is not essential in the self-resistance mechanism for the enediyne chromophore. PMID:19845765

  17. The FRIABLE1 Gene Product Affects Cell Adhesion in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Neumetzler, Lutz; Humphrey, Tania; Lumba, Shelley; Snyder, Stephen; Yeats, Trevor H.; Usadel, Björn; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Patel, Jignasha; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Persson, Staffan; Bonetta, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1), was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246). Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion. PMID:22916179

  18. Genes, language, cognition, and culture: towards productive inquiry.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-04-01

    The Queen Mary conference on “Integrating Genetic and Cultural Evolutionary Approaches to Language,” and the papers in this special issue, clearly illustrate the excitement and potential of trans-disciplinary approaches to language as an evolved biological capacity (phylogeny) and an evolving cultural entity (glossogeny). Excepting the present author, the presenters/authors are mostly young rising stars in their respective fields, and include scientists with backgrounds in linguistics, animal communication, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, anthropology, and computer science. On display was a clear willingness to engage with different approaches and terminology and a commitment to shared standards of scientific rigor, empirically driven theory, and logical argument. Because the papers assembled here, together with the introduction, speak for themselves, I will focus in this “extro-duction” on some of the terminological and conceptual difficulties which threaten to block this exciting wave of scientific progress in understanding language evolution, in both senses of that term. In particular I will first argue against the regrettably widespread practice of opposing cultural and genetic explanations of human cognition as if they were dichotomous. Second, I will unpack the debate concerning “general-purpose” and “domain-specific” mechanisms, which masquerades as a debate about nativism but is nothing of the sort. I believe that framing discussions of language in these terms has generated more heat than light, and that a modern molecular understanding of genes, development, behavior, and evolution renders many of the assumptions underlying this debate invalid. PMID:21615292

  19. Amino-terminal domains of c-myc and N-myc proteins mediate binding to the retinoblastoma gene product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustgi, Anil K.; Dyson, Nicholas; Bernards, Rene

    1991-08-01

    THE proteins encoded by the myc gene family are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and aberrant expression of myc proteins has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of neoplasms1. In the carboxyl terminus, myc proteins have two domains that encode a basic domain/helix-loop-helix and a leucine zipper motif, respectively. These motifs are involved both in DNA binding and in protein dimerization2-5. In addition, myc protein family members share several regions of highly conserved amino acids in their amino termini that are essential for transformation6,7. We report here that an N-terminal domain present in both the c-myc and N-myc proteins mediates binding to the retinoblastoma gene product, pRb. We show that the human papilloma virus E7 protein competes with c-myc for binding to pRb, indicating that these proteins share overlapping binding sites on pRb. Furthermore, a mutant Rb protein from a human tumour cell line that carried a 35-amino-acid deletion in its C terminus failed to bind to c-myc. Our results suggest that c-myc and pRb cooperate through direct binding to control cell proliferation.

  20. Analysis of Genes for Succinoyl Trehalose Lipid Production and Increasing Production in Rhodococcus sp. Strain SD-74

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Tomohiro; Tokumoto, Yuta; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Inoue, Naoyuki; Maseda, Hideaki; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2013-01-01

    Succinoyl trehalose lipids (STLs) are promising glycolipid biosurfactants produced from n-alkanes that are secreted by Rhodococcus species bacteria. These compounds not only exhibit unique interfacial properties but also demonstrate versatile biochemical actions. In this study, three novel types of genes involved in the biosynthesis of STLs, including a putative acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) transferase (tlsA), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (fda), and alkane monooxygenase (alkB), were identified. The predicted functions of these genes indicate that alkane metabolism, sugar synthesis, and the addition of acyl groups are important for the biosynthesis of STLs. Based on these results, we propose a biosynthesis pathway for STLs from alkanes in Rhodococcus sp. strain SD-74. By overexpressing tlsA, we achieved a 2-fold increase in the production of STLs. This study advances our understanding of bacterial glycolipid production in Rhodococcus species. PMID:24038682