Sample records for essential gene products

  1. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kobayashi; S. D. Ehrlichb; A. Albertini; G. Amati; K. Asaig Arnaudf; M. Arnaud; K. Asai; S. Ashikaga; S. Aymerich; P. Bessieres; F. Boland; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; K. Bunai; J. Chapuis; L. C. Christiansen; A. Danchin; M. Débarbouillé; E. Dervyn; E. Deuerling; K. Devine; S. K. Devine; O. Dreesen; J. Errington; S. Fillinger; S. J. Foster; Y. Fujita; A. Galizzi; R. Gardan; C. Eschevins; T. Fukushima; K. Haga; C. R. Harwood; M. Hecker; D. Hosoya; M. F. Hullo; H. Kakeshita; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; F. Kawamura; K. Koga; P. Koski; R. Kuwana; D. Imamura; M. Ishimaru; S. Ishikawa; I. Ishio; D. Le Coq; A. Masson; C. Mauël; R. Meima; R. P. Mellado; A. Moir; S. Moriya; E. Nagakawa; H. Nanamiya; S. Nakai; P. Nygaard; M. Ogura; T. Ohanan; M. O'Reilly; M. O'Rourke; Z. Pragai; H. M. Pooley; G. Rapoport; J. P. Rawlins; L. A. Rivas; C. Rivolta; A. Sadaie; Y. Sadaie; M. Sarvas; T. Sato; H. H. Saxild; E. Scanlan; W. Schumann; J. F. Seegers; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; M. Simon; P. Stragier; R. Studer; H. Takamatsu; T. Tanaka; M. Takeuchi; H. B. Thomaides; V. Vagner; J. M. van Dijl; K. Watabe; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; M. Yamamoto; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H. Yoshikawa; U. Zuber; N. Ogasawara

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively

  2. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Ehrlich, S D; Albertini, A; Amati, G; Andersen, K K; Arnaud, M; Asai, K; Ashikaga, S; Aymerich, S; Bessieres, P; Boland, F; Brignell, S C; Bron, S; Bunai, K; Chapuis, J; Christiansen, L C; Danchin, A; Débarbouille, M; Dervyn, E; Deuerling, E; Devine, K; Devine, S K; Dreesen, O; Errington, J; Fillinger, S; Foster, S J; Fujita, Y; Galizzi, A; Gardan, R; Eschevins, C; Fukushima, T; Haga, K; Harwood, C R; Hecker, M; Hosoya, D; Hullo, M F; Kakeshita, H; Karamata, D; Kasahara, Y; Kawamura, F; Koga, K; Koski, P; Kuwana, R; Imamura, D; Ishimaru, M; Ishikawa, S; Ishio, I; Le Coq, D; Masson, A; Mauël, C; Meima, R; Mellado, R P; Moir, A; Moriya, S; Nagakawa, E; Nanamiya, H; Nakai, S; Nygaard, P; Ogura, M; Ohanan, T; O'Reilly, M; O'Rourke, M; Pragai, Z; Pooley, H M; Rapoport, G; Rawlins, J P; Rivas, L A; Rivolta, C; Sadaie, A; Sadaie, Y; Sarvas, M; Sato, T; Saxild, H H; Scanlan, E; Schumann, W; Seegers, J F M L; Sekiguchi, J; Sekowska, A; Séror, S J; Simon, M; Stragier, P; Studer, R; Takamatsu, H; Tanaka, T; Takeuchi, M; Thomaides, H B; Vagner, V; van Dijl, J M; Watabe, K; Wipat, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, Y; Yamane, K; Yata, K; Yoshida, K; Yoshikawa, H; Zuber, U; Ogasawara, N

    2003-04-15

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life. PMID:12682299

  3. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Albertini, A.; Amati, G.; Andersen, K. K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S.; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S. C.; Bron, S.; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J.; Christiansen, L. C.; Danchin, A.; Débarbouillé, M.; Dervyn, E.; Deuerling, E.; Devine, K.; Devine, S. K.; Dreesen, O.; Errington, J.; Fillinger, S.; Foster, S. J.; Fujita, Y.; Galizzi, A.; Gardan, R.; Eschevins, C.; Fukushima, T.; Haga, K.; Harwood, C. R.; Hecker, M.; Hosoya, D.; Hullo, M. F.; Kakeshita, H.; Karamata, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kawamura, F.; Koga, K.; Koski, P.; Kuwana, R.; Imamura, D.; Ishimaru, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ishio, I.; Le Coq, D.; Masson, A.; Mauël, C.; Meima, R.; Mellado, R. P.; Moir, A.; Moriya, S.; Nagakawa, E.; Nanamiya, H.; Nakai, S.; Nygaard, P.; Ogura, M.; Ohanan, T.; O'Reilly, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Pragai, Z.; Pooley, H. M.; Rapoport, G.; Rawlins, J. P.; Rivas, L. A.; Rivolta, C.; Sadaie, A.; Sadaie, Y.; Sarvas, M.; Sato, T.; Saxild, H. H.; Scanlan, E.; Schumann, W.; Seegers, J. F. M. L.; Sekiguchi, J.; Sekowska, A.; Séror, S. J.; Simon, M.; Stragier, P.; Studer, R.; Takamatsu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Thomaides, H. B.; Vagner, V.; van Dijl, J. M.; Watabe, K.; Wipat, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamane, K.; Yata, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zuber, U.; Ogasawara, N.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among ?4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life. PMID:12682299

  4. The PKS4 Gene of Fusarium graminearum Is Essential for Zearalenone Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lysoe; Sonja S. Klemsdal; Karen R. Bone; Rasmus J. N. Frandsen; Thomas Johansen; Ulf Thrane; Henriette Giese

    2006-01-01

    Zearalenones are produced by several Fusarium species and can cause reproductive problems in animals. Some aurofusarin mutants of Fusarium pseudograminearum produce elevated levels of zearalenone (ZON), one of the estrogenic mycotoxins comprising the zearalenones. An analysis of transcripts from polyketide synthase genes identified in the Fusarium graminearum database was carried out for these mutants. PKS4 was the only gene with

  5. OGEE: an online gene essentiality database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Minguez, Pablo; Lercher, Martin J; Bork, Peer

    2012-01-01

    OGEE is an Online GEne Essentiality database. Its main purpose is to enhance our understanding of the essentiality of genes. This is achieved by collecting not only experimentally tested essential and non-essential genes, but also associated gene features such as expression profiles, duplication status, conservation across species, evolutionary origins and involvement in embryonic development. We focus on large-scale experiments and complement our data with text-mining results. Genes are organized into data sets according to their sources. Genes with variable essentiality status across data sets are tagged as conditionally essential, highlighting the complex interplay between gene functions and environments. Linked tools allow the user to compare gene essentiality among different gene groups, or compare features of essential genes to non-essential genes, and visualize the results. OGEE is freely available at http://ogeedb.embl.de. PMID:22075992

  6. Predicting essential genes in fungal genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Seringhaus; Alberto Paccanaro; Anthony Borneman; Michael Snyder; Mark Gerstein

    2006-01-01

    Essential genes are required for an organism's viability, and the ability to identify these genes in pathogens is crucial to directed drug development. Predicting essential genes through computational methods is appealing because it circumvents expensive and difficult experimental screens. Most such prediction is based on homology mapping to experimentally verified essential genes in model organisms. We present here a different

  7. Enzymes Are Enriched in Bacterial Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2011-01-01

    Essential genes, those indispensable for the survival of an organism, play a key role in the emerging field, synthetic biology. Characterization of functions encoded by essential genes not only has important practical implications, such as in identifying antibiotic drug targets, but can also enhance our understanding of basic biology, such as functions needed to support cellular life. Enzymes are critical for almost all cellular activities. However, essential genes have not been systematically examined from the aspect of enzymes and the chemical reactions that they catalyze. Here, by comprehensively analyzing essential genes in 14 bacterial genomes in which large-scale gene essentiality screens have been performed, we found that enzymes are enriched in essential genes. Essential enzymes have overrepresented ligases (especially those forming carbon-oxygen bonds and carbon-nitrogen bonds), nucleotidyltransferases and phosphotransferases, while have underrepresented oxidoreductases. Furthermore, essential enzymes tend to associate with more gene ontology domains. These results, from the aspect of chemical reactions, provide further insights into the understanding of functions needed to support natural cellular life, as well as synthetic cells, and provide additional parameters that can be integrated into gene essentiality prediction algorithms. PMID:21738765

  8. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A.R.; Shahbazzadeh, D.; Khalaj, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity. PMID:24294264

  9. The T3R alpha gene encoding a thyroid hormone receptor is essential for post-natal development and thyroid hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Fraichard, A; Chassande, O; Plateroti, M; Roux, J P; Trouillas, J; Dehay, C; Legrand, C; Gauthier, K; Kedinger, M; Malaval, L; Rousset, B; Samarut, J

    1997-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormones are thought to be mediated by two nuclear receptors, T3R alpha1 and T3R beta, encoded by the genes T3R alpha and T3R beta respectively. The T3R alpha gene also produces a non-ligand-binding protein T3R alpha2. The in vivo functions of these receptors are still unclear. We describe here the homozygous inactivation of the T3R alpha gene which abrogates the production of both T3R alpha1 and T3R alpha2 isoforms and that leads to death in mice within 5 weeks after birth. After 2 weeks of life, the homozygous mice become progressively hypothyroidic and exhibit a growth arrest. Small intestine and bones showed a strongly delayed maturation. In contrast to the negative regulatory function of the T3R beta gene on thyroid hormone production, our data show that the T3R alpha gene products are involved in up-regulation of thyroid hormone production at weaning time. Thus, thyroid hormone production might be balanced through a positive T3R alpha and a negative T3R beta pathway. The abnormal phenotypes observed on the homozygous mutant mice strongly suggest that the T3R alpha gene is essential for the transformation of a mother-dependent pup to an 'adult' mouse. These data define crucial in vivo functions for thyroid hormones through a T3R alpha pathway during post-natal development. PMID:9250685

  10. Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes pesL and pes1 Are Essential for Fumigaclavine C Production in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Gallagher, Lorna; Schrettl, Markus; Jöchl, Christoph; Kavanagh, Kevin; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of metabolites encoded by the majority of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, remains outstanding. We found that the nonribosomal peptide (NRP) synthetases PesL and Pes1 were essential for fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, the end product of the complex ergot alkaloid (EA) pathway in A. fumigatus. Deletion of either pesL (?pesL) or pes1 (?pes1) resulted in complete loss of fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, relatively increased production of fumitremorgins such as TR-2, fumitremorgin C and verruculogen, increased sensitivity to H2O2, and increased sensitivity to the antifungals, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Deletion of pesL resulted in severely reduced virulence in an invertebrate infection model (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that NRP synthesis plays an essential role in mediating the final prenylation step of the EA pathway, despite the apparent absence of NRP synthetases in the proposed EA biosynthetic cluster for A. fumigatus. Liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry analysis also revealed the presence of fumiquinazolines A to F in both A. fumigatus wild-type and ?pesL strains. This observation suggests that alternative NRP synthetases can also function in fumiquinazoline biosynthesis, since PesL has been shown to mediate fumiquinazoline biosynthesis in vitro. Furthermore, we provide here the first direct link between EA biosynthesis and virulence, in agreement with the observed toxicity associated with EA exposure. Finally, we demonstrate a possible cluster cross-talk phenomenon, a theme which is beginning to emerge in the literature. PMID:22344643

  11. Genome-wide essential gene identification in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Ge, Xiuchun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaojing; Dou, Yuetan; Xu, Jerry Z.; Patel, Jenishkumar R.; Stone, Victoria; Trinh, My; Evans, Karra; Kitten, Todd; Bonchev, Danail; Buck, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    A clear perception of gene essentiality in bacterial pathogens is pivotal for identifying drug targets to combat emergence of new pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, for synthetic biology, and for understanding the origins of life. We have constructed a comprehensive set of deletion mutants and systematically identified a clearly defined set of essential genes for Streptococcus sanguinis. Our results were confirmed by growing S. sanguinis in minimal medium and by double-knockout of paralogous or isozyme genes. Careful examination revealed that these essential genes were associated with only three basic categories of biological functions: maintenance of the cell envelope, energy production, and processing of genetic information. Our finding was subsequently validated in two other pathogenic streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans and in two other gram-positive pathogens, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our analysis has thus led to a simplified model that permits reliable prediction of gene essentiality. PMID:22355642

  12. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B. [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada); Theilmann, David A. [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada)], E-mail: TheilmannD@agr.gc.ca

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  13. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac142, a core gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Da, Xiaojiang [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada); Donly, Cam [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre (London), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, Ont., N5V 4T3 (Canada); Theilmann, David A. [Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H 1Z0 (Canada)], E-mail: TheilmannD@agr.gc.ca

    2008-03-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac142 is a baculovirus core gene and encodes a protein previously shown to associate with occlusion-derived virus (ODV). To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac142 deletion virus (AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}). Fluorescence and light microscopy revealed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} exhibits a single-cell infection phenotype. Titration assays and Western blot confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP} is unable to produce budded virus (BV). However, viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in AcBAC{sup ac142KO-PH-GFP}-transfected cells evidenced progression to very late phases of the viral infection. Western blot analysis showed that AC142 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection and that it is a structural component of BV and ODV which localizes to nucleocapsids. Electron microscopy indicates that ac142 is required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form ODV and their subsequent occlusion, a fundamental process to all baculoviruses.

  14. Identification of genes essential for leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Murray, Gerald L

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for the construction of defined mutants of pathogenic Leptospira has been a breakthrough in the study of leptospiral virulence. These methods have allowed the identification of genes essential for infection in animal models. This chapter describes methods for random transposon mutagenesis of pathogenic leptospires, identification of transposon insertion sites using direct sequencing from genomic DNA and a nested PCR utilizing degenerate oligonucleotides, and methods for testing mutant attenuation in the hamster model of infection. PMID:25636613

  15. Eliminating the requirement of an essential gene product in an already very small virus: scaffolding protein B-free řX174, B-free.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Uchiyama, Asako; Fane, Bentley A

    2007-10-19

    Unlike most viral assembly systems, two scaffolding proteins, B and D, mediate bacteriophage řX174 morphogenesis. The external scaffolding protein D is highly ordered in the atomic structure and proper function is very sensitive to mutation. In contrast, the internal scaffolding protein B is relatively unordered and extensive alterations do not eliminate function. Despite this genetic laxity, protein B is absolutely required for virus assembly. Thus, this system, with its complex arrangements of overlapping reading frames, can be regarded as an example of "irreducible complexity." To address the biochemical functions of a dual scaffolding protein system and the evolution of complexity, progressive and targeted genetic selections were employed to lessen and finally eliminate B protein-dependence. The biochemical and genetic bases of adaptation were characterized throughout the analysis that led to the sextuple mutant with a B-independent phenotype, as evaluated by plaque formation in wild-type cells. The primary adaptation appears to be the over-expression of a mutant external scaffolding protein. Progeny production was followed in lysis-resistant cells. The ability to produce infectious virions does not require all six mutations. However, the lag phase before progeny production is shortened as mutations accumulate. The results suggest that the primary function of the internal scaffolding protein may be to lower the critical concentration of the external scaffolding protein needed to nucleate procapsid formation. Moreover, they demonstrate a novel mechanism by which a stringently required gene product can be bypassed, even in a system encoding only eight strictly essential proteins. PMID:17825320

  16. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, Tamer Z. [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States) [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbial Molecular Biology, AGERI, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Division of Biomedical Sciences, Zewail University, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Zhang, Fengrui [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Thiem, Suzanne M., E-mail: smthiem@msu.edu [Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  17. Essential genes as antimicrobial targets and cornerstones of synthetic

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Eberl1 , and George M. Church2 1 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Plant Biology, University Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA Essential genes are absolutely required for the survival of any living to their indispensabil- ity for survival of bacteria, genes encoding essential cellular functions have great potential

  18. Conditional promoters for analysis of essential genes in Zymoseptoria tritici?

    PubMed Central

    Kilaru, S.; Ma, W.; Schuster, M.; Courbot, M.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Development of new fungicides, needed for sustainable control of fungal plant pathogens, requires identification of novel anti-fungal targets. Essential fungal-specific proteins are good candidates, but due to their importance, gene deletion mutants are not viable. Consequently, their cellular role often remains elusive. This hindrance can be overcome by the use of conditional mutants, where expression is controlled by an inducible/repressible promoter. Here, we introduce 5 inducible/repressible promoter systems to study essential genes in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We fused the gene for enhanced green-fluorescent protein (egfp) to the promoter region of Z. tritici nitrate reductase (Pnar1; induced by nitrogen and repressed by ammonium), 1,4-?-endoxylanase A (Pex1A; induced by xylose and repressed by maltodextrin), l-arabinofuranosidase B (PlaraB; induced by arabinose and repressed by glucose), galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 7 (Pgal7; induced by galactose and repressed by glucose) and isocitrate lyase (Picl1; induced by sodium acetate and repressed by glucose). This was followed by quantitative analysis of cytoplasmic reporter fluorescence under induced and repressed conditions. We show that Pnar1, PlaraB and Pex1A drive very little or no egfp expression when repressed, but induce moderate protein production when induced. In contrast, Pgal7 and Picl1 show considerable egfp expression when repressed, and were strongly induced in the presence of their inducers. Normalising the expression levels of all promoters to that of the ?-tubulin promoter Ptub2 revealed that PlaraB was the weakest promoter (?20% of Ptub2), whereas Picl1 strongly expressed the reporter (?250% of Ptub2). The use of these tools promises a better understanding of essential genes, which will help developing novel control strategies that protect wheat from Z. tritici. PMID:26092803

  19. Genome Scanning in Haemophilus influenzae for Identification of Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Karl A.; Chovan, Linda; Hessler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a method for identifying essential genes by using an in vitro transposition system, with a small (975 bp) insertional element containing an antibiotic resistance cassette, and mapping these inserts relative to the deduced open reading frames of Haemophilus influenzae by PCR and Southern analysis. Putative essential genes are identified by two methods: mutation exclusion or zero time analysis. Mutation exclusion consists of growing an insertional library and identifying open reading frames that do not contain insertional elements: in a growing population of bacteria, insertions in essential genes are excluded. Zero time analysis consists of monitoring the fate of individual insertions after transformation in a growing culture: the loss of inserts in essential genes is observed over time. Both methods of analysis permit the identification of genes required for bacterial survival. Details of the mutant library construction and the mapping strategy, examples of mutant exclusion, and zero time analysis are presented. PMID:10438768

  20. Essential genes from Arctic bacteria used to construct stable, temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Duplantis, Barry N.; Osusky, Milan; Schmerk, Crystal L.; Ross, Darrell R.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Nano, Francis E.

    2010-01-01

    All bacteria share a set of evolutionarily conserved essential genes that encode products that are required for viability. The great diversity of environments that bacteria inhabit, including environments at extreme temperatures, place adaptive pressure on essential genes. We sought to use this evolutionary diversity of essential genes to engineer bacterial pathogens to be stably temperature-sensitive, and thus useful as live vaccines. We isolated essential genes from bacteria found in the Arctic and substituted them for their counterparts into pathogens of mammals. We found that substitution of nine different essential genes from psychrophilic (cold-loving) bacteria into mammalian pathogenic bacteria resulted in strains that died below their normal-temperature growth limits. Substitution of three different psychrophilic gene orthologs of ligA, which encode NAD-dependent DNA ligase, resulted in bacterial strains that died at 33, 35, and 37 °C. One ligA gene was shown to render Francisella tularensis, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium smegmatis temperature-sensitive, demonstrating that this gene functions in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive lineage bacteria. Three temperature-sensitive F. tularensis strains were shown to induce protective immunity after vaccination at a cool body site. About half of the genes that could be tested were unable to mutate to temperature-resistant forms at detectable levels. These results show that psychrophilic essential genes can be used to create a unique class of bacterial temperature-sensitive vaccines for important human pathogens, such as S. enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20624965

  1. Methods for identifying an essential gene in a prokaryotic microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Shizuya, Hiroaki

    2006-01-31

    Methods are provided for the rapid identification of essential or conditionally essential DNA segments in any species of haploid cell (one copy chromosome per cell) that is capable of being transformed by artificial means and is capable of undergoing DNA recombination. This system offers an enhanced means of identifying essential function genes in diploid pathogens, such as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Lifespan Regulation by Evolutionarily Conserved Genes Essential for Viability

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Sean P; Ruvkun, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that control aging are predicted to have prereproductive functions in order to be subject to natural selection. Genes that are essential for growth and development are highly conserved in evolution, but their role in longevity has not previously been assessed. We screened 2,700 genes essential for Caenorhabditis elegans development and identified 64 genes that extend lifespan when inactivated postdevelopmentally. These candidate lifespan regulators are highly conserved from yeast to humans. Classification of the candidate lifespan regulators into functional groups identified the expected insulin and metabolic pathways but also revealed enrichment for translation, RNA, and chromatin factors. Many of these essential gene inactivations extend lifespan as much as the strongest known regulators of aging. Early gene inactivations of these essential genes caused growth arrest at larval stages, and some of these arrested animals live much longer than wild-type adults. daf-16 is required for the enhanced survival of arrested larvae, suggesting that the increased longevity is a physiological response to the essential gene inactivation. These results suggest that insulin-signaling pathways play a role in regulation of aging at any stage in life. PMID:17411345

  3. Training Set Selection for the Prediction of Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Li, Xiangchen; Liu, Yanlin; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    Various computational models have been developed to transfer annotations of gene essentiality between organisms. However, despite the increasing number of microorganisms with well-characterized sets of essential genes, selection of appropriate training sets for predicting the essential genes of poorly-studied or newly sequenced organisms remains challenging. In this study, a machine learning approach was applied reciprocally to predict the essential genes in 21 microorganisms. Results showed that training set selection greatly influenced predictive accuracy. We determined four criteria for training set selection: (1) essential genes in the selected training set should be reliable; (2) the growth conditions in which essential genes are defined should be consistent in training and prediction sets; (3) species used as training set should be closely related to the target organism; and (4) organisms used as training and prediction sets should exhibit similar phenotypes or lifestyles. We then analyzed the performance of an incomplete training set and an integrated training set with multiple organisms. We found that the size of the training set should be at least 10% of the total genes to yield accurate predictions. Additionally, the integrated training sets exhibited remarkable increase in stability and accuracy compared with single sets. Finally, we compared the performance of the integrated training sets with the four criteria and with random selection. The results revealed that a rational selection of training sets based on our criteria yields better performance than random selection. Thus, our results provide empirical guidance on training set selection for the identification of essential genes on a genome-wide scale. PMID:24466248

  4. Exploration of Essential Gene Functions via Titratable Promoter Alleles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanie Mnaimneh; Armaity P Davierwala; Jennifer Haynes; Jason Moffat; Wen-Tao Peng; Wen Zhang; Xueqi Yang; Jeff Pootoolal; Gordon Chua; Andres Lopez; Miles Trochesset; Darcy Morse; Nevan J Krogan; Shawna L Hiley; Zhijian Li; Quaid Morris; Jörg Grigull; Nicholas Mitsakakis; Christopher J Roberts; Jack F Greenblatt; Charles Boone; Chris A Kaiser; Brenda J Andrews; Timothy R Hughes

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 20% of yeast genes are required for viability, hindering genetic analysis with knockouts. We created promoter-shutoff strains for over two-thirds of all essential yeast genes and subjected them to morphological analysis, size profiling, drug sensitivity screening, and microarray expression profiling. We then used this compendium of data to ask which phenotypic features characterized different functional classes and used these

  5. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Salem, Tamer Z; Zhang, Fengrui; Thiem, Suzanne M

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production. PMID:23131351

  6. Neural stem cell transcriptional networks highlight genes essential for nervous

    E-print Network

    Brand, Andrea

    ­scute complex (Gonzalez et al, 1989; Jarman et al, 1993), and a homologue of the vertebrate neural stem celEMBO open Neural stem cell transcriptional networks highlight genes essential for nervous system, Cambridge, UK Neural stem cells must strike a balance between self-renewal and multipotency

  7. Transcriptional landscape and essential genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Remmele, Christian W.; Xian, Yibo; Albrecht, Marco; Faulstich, Michaela; Fraunholz, Martin; Heinrichs, Elisabeth; Dittrich, Marcus T.; Müller, Tobias; Reinhardt, Richard; Rudel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has recently classified Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a super-bacterium due to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistant derivatives and an overall dramatic increase in infection incidences. Genome sequencing has identified potential genes, however, little is known about the transcriptional organization and the presence of non-coding RNAs in gonococci. We performed RNA sequencing to define the transcriptome and the transcriptional start sites of all gonococcal genes and operons. Numerous new transcripts including 253 potentially non-coding RNAs transcribed from intergenic regions or antisense to coding genes were identified. Strikingly, strong antisense transcription was detected for the phase-variable opa genes coding for a family of adhesins and invasins in pathogenic Neisseria, that may have regulatory functions. Based on the defined transcriptional start sites, promoter motifs were identified. We further generated and sequenced a high density Tn5 transposon library to predict a core of 827 gonococcal essential genes, 133 of which have no known function. Our combined RNA-Seq and Tn-Seq approach establishes a detailed map of gonococcal genes and defines the first core set of essential gonococcal genes. PMID:25143534

  8. Essential genes in proximal 3L heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schulze, S; Sinclair, D A; Silva, E; Fitzpatrick, K A; Singh, M; Lloyd, V K; Morin, K A; Kim, J; Holm, D G; Kennison, J A; Honda, B M

    2001-02-01

    We have further characterized essential loci within the centric heterochromatin of the left arm of chromosome 3 (3L) of Drosophila melanogaster, using EMS, radiation and P element mutagenesis. We failed to find any new essential genes, a result that suggests a lower-than-average gene density in this region. Mutations affecting expression of the most proximal gene [lethal 1, l1 or l(3)80Fj] act as dominant suppressors of Polycomb (Pc), behavior which is consistent with a putative trithorax group (trx-G) gene. The third gene to the left of the centromere [lethal 3, l3 or l(3)80Fh] is likely to correspond to verthandi (vtd), a known trx-G gene that plays a role in the regulation of hedgehog (hh) expression and signalling. The intervening gene [lethal 2, l2 or l(3)80Fi] is required throughout development, and mutant alleles have interesting phenotypes; in various allelic combinations that survive, we observe fertility, bristle, wing, eye and cuticle defects. PMID:11254125

  9. Highly parallel identification of essential genes in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Biao; Cheung, Hiu Wing; Subramanian, Aravind; Sharifnia, Tanaz; Okamoto, Michael; Yang, Xiaoping; Hinkle, Greg; Boehm, Jesse S.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Weir, Barbara A.; Mermel, Craig; Barbie, David A.; Awad, Tarif; Zhou, Xiaochuan; Nguyen, Tuyen; Piqani, Bruno; Li, Cheng; Golub, Todd R.; Meyerson, Matthew; Hacohen, Nir; Hahn, William C.; Lander, Eric S.; Sabatini, David M.; Root, David E.

    2008-01-01

    More complete knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer will improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Efforts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas are systematically characterizing the structural basis of cancer, by identifying the genomic mutations associated with each cancer type. A powerful complementary approach is to systematically characterize the functional basis of cancer, by identifying the genes essential for growth and related phenotypes in different cancer cells. Such information would be particularly valuable for identifying potential drug targets. Here, we report the development of an efficient, robust approach to perform genome-scale pooled shRNA screens for both positive and negative selection and its application to systematically identify cell essential genes in 12 cancer cell lines. By integrating these functional data with comprehensive genetic analyses of primary human tumors, we identified known and putative oncogenes such as EGFR, KRAS, MYC, BCR-ABL, MYB, CRKL, and CDK4 that are essential for cancer cell proliferation and also altered in human cancers. We further used this approach to identify genes involved in the response of cancer cells to tumoricidal agents and found 4 genes required for the response of CML cells to imatinib treatment: PTPN1, NF1, SMARCB1, and SMARCE1, and 5 regulators of the response to FAS activation, FAS, FADD, CASP8, ARID1A and CBX1. Broad application of this highly parallel genetic screening strategy will not only facilitate the rapid identification of genes that drive the malignant state and its response to therapeutics but will also enable the discovery of genes that participate in any biological process. PMID:19091943

  10. A CLASS OF ESSENTIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF PRODUCT SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Argerami, Martin

    A CLASS OF ESSENTIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF PRODUCT SYSTEMS REMUS FLORICEL Abstract. We construct a family of essential representations of an arbitrary product system by generalizing some techniques intro of the product system on unital vectors. In the sequel, this classification shows explicitly that any E0

  11. Edinburgh Research Explorer The chicken talpid3 gene encodes a novel protein essential for

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer The chicken talpid3 gene encodes a novel protein essential for Hedgehog, 'The chicken talpid3 gene encodes a novel protein essential for Hedgehog signaling' Genes & Development date: 28. Jun. 2014 #12;The chicken talpid3 gene encodes a novel protein essential for Hedgehog

  12. Functional Analysis of the Molecular Interactions of TATA Box-Containing Genes and Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jisook

    2015-01-01

    Genes can be divided into TATA-containing genes and TATA-less genes according to the presence of TATA box elements at promoter regions. TATA-containing genes tend to be stress-responsive, whereas many TATA-less genes are known to be related to cell growth or “housekeeping” functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that there are striking differences among four gene sets defined by the presence of TATA box (TATA-containing) and essentiality (TATA-less) with respect to number of associated transcription factors, amino acid usage, and functional annotation. Extending this research in yeast, we identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways that are statistically enriched in TATA-containing or TATA-less genes and evaluated the possibility that the enriched pathways are related to stress or growth as reflected by the individual functions of the genes involved. According to their enrichment for either of these two gene sets, we sorted KEGG pathways into TATA-containing-gene-enriched pathways (TEPs) and essential-gene-enriched pathways (EEPs). As expected, genes in TEPs and EEPs exhibited opposite results in terms of functional category, transcriptional regulation, codon adaptation index, and network properties, suggesting the possibility that the bipolar patterns in these pathways also contribute to the regulation of the stress response and to cell survival. Our findings provide the novel insight that significant enrichment of TATA-binding or TATA-less genes defines pathways as stress-responsive or growth-related. PMID:25789484

  13. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome?wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl?sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real?time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co?expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  14. Airway Mucin Genes and Gene Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Callaghan Rose; Sandra J. Gendler

    \\u000a \\u000a MUC genes and their MUC gene products have been the subject of several reviews in the last few years [1-4] as expected in a field where the molec­ular tools to address fundamental and disease-related questions are becom­ing available.\\u000a A description and analysis of human mucin genes MUC\\/through MUC7 and of porcine canine murine rat and bovine mucin geneswere published in

  15. High-throughput screen of essential gene modules in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bibliometric approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The annotation of functional genome and signaling network in M. tuberculosis are still not systematic. Essential gene modules are a collection of functionally related essential genes in the same signaling or metabolic pathway. The determination of essential genes and essential gene modules at genomic level may be important for better understanding of the physiology and pathology of M. tuberculosis, and also helpful for the development of drugs against this pathogen. The establishment of genomic operon database (DOOR) and the annotation of gene pathways have felicitated the genomic analysis of the essential gene modules of M. tuberculosis. Method Bibliometric approach has been used to perform a High-throughput screen for essential genes of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Ant colony algorithm were used to identify the essential genes in other M. tuberculosis reference strains. Essential gene modules were analyzed by operon database DOOR. The pathways of essential genes were assessed by Biocarta, KEGG, NCI-PID, HumanCyc and Reactome. The function prediction of essential genes was analyzed by Pfam. Results A total approximately 700 essential genes were identified in M. tuberculosis genome. 40% of operons are consisted of two or more essential genes. The essential genes were distributed in 92 pathways in M. tuberculosis. In function prediction, 61.79% of essential genes were categorized into virulence, intermediary metabolism/respiration,cell wall related and lipid metabolism, which are fundamental functions that exist in most bacteria species. Conclusion We have identified the essential genes of M. tuberculosis using bibliometric approach at genomic level. The essential gene modules were further identified and analyzed. PMID:23687949

  16. Genome-wide characterization of the relationship between essential and TATA-containing genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Wook; Bae, Sang Hun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Kim, Ju Han; Moon, Jisook

    2013-03-01

    Essential genes are involved in most survival-related housekeeping functions. TATA-containing genes encode proteins involved in various stress-response functions. However, because essential and TATA-containing genes have been researched independently, their relationship remains unclear. The present study classified Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes into four groups: non-essential non-TATA, non-essential TATA, essential non-TATA, and essential TATA genes. The results showed that essential TATA genes have the most significant codon bias, the highest level of expression, and unique characteristics, including a large number of transcription factor binding sites, a higher degree in protein interaction networks, and significantly different amino acid usage patterns compared with the other gene groups. Notably, essential TATA genes were uniquely involved in functions such as unfolded protein binding, glycolysis, and alcohol and steroid-related processes. PMID:23337875

  17. Identifying essential genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by global phenotypic profiling.

    PubMed

    Long, Jarukit E; DeJesus, Michael; Ward, Doyle; Baker, Richard E; Ioerger, Thomas; Sassetti, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Transposon sequencing (TnSeq) is a next-generation deep sequencing-based method to quantitatively assess the composition of complex mutant transposon libraries after pressure from selection. Although this method can be used for any organism in which transposon mutagenesis is possible, this chapter describes its use in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. More specifically, the methods for generating complex libraries through transposon mutagenesis, design of selective pressure, extraction of genomic DNA, amplification and quantification of transposon insertions through next-generation deep sequencing are covered. Determining gene essentiality and statistical analysis on data collected are also discussed. PMID:25636614

  18. Coccidioides posadasii Contains a Single 1,3- Glucan Synthase Gene That Appears To Be Essential for Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. Kellner; Kris I. Orsborn; Erin M. Siegel; M. Alejandra Mandel; Marc J. Orbach; John N. Galgiani

    2005-01-01

    1,3--Glucan synthase is responsible for the synthesis of -glucan, an essential cell wall structural compo- nent in most fungi. We sought to determine whether Coccidioides posadasii possesses genes homologous to known fungal FKS genes that encode the catalytic subunit of 1,3--glucan synthase. A single gene, designated FKS1, was identified, and examination of its predicted protein product showed a high degree

  19. PTA1, an essential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affecting pre-tRNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, J P; Peebles, C L

    1992-01-01

    We have identified an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, PTA1, that affects pre-tRNA processing. PTA1 was initially defined by a UV-induced mutation, pta1-1, that causes the accumulation of all 10 end-trimmed, intron-containing pre-tRNAs and temperature-sensitive but osmotic-remedial growth. pta1-1 does not appear to be an allele of any other known gene affecting pre-tRNA processing. Extracts prepared from pta1-1 strains had normal pre-tRNA splicing endonuclease activity. pta1-1 was suppressed by the ochre suppressor tRNA gene SUP11, indicating that the pta1-1 mutation creates a termination codon within a protein reading frame. The PTA1 gene was isolated from a genomic library by complementation of the pta1-1 growth defect. Episome-borne PTA1 directs recombination to the pta1-1 locus. PTA1 has been mapped to the left arm of chromosome I near CDC24; the gene was sequenced and could encode a protein of 785 amino acids with a molecular weight of 88,417. No other protein sequences similar to that of the predicted PTA1 gene product have been identified within the EMBL or GenBank data base. Disruption of PTA1 near the carboxy terminus of the putative open reading frame was lethal. Possible functions of the PTA1 gene product are discussed. Images PMID:1508188

  20. Computational prediction of essential genes in an unculturable endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia of Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Wolbachia (wBm) is an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium of Brugia malayi, a parasitic filarial nematode of humans and one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. There is a pressing need for new drugs against filarial parasites, such as B. malayi. As wBm is required for B. malayi development and fertility, targeting wBm is a promising approach. However, the lifecycle of neither B. malayi nor wBm can be maintained in vitro. To facilitate selection of potential drug targets we computationally ranked the wBm genome based on confidence that a particular gene is essential for the survival of the bacterium. Results wBm protein sequences were aligned using BLAST to the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) version 5.2, a collection of 5,260 experimentally identified essential genes in 15 bacterial strains. A confidence score, the Multiple Hit Score (MHS), was developed to predict each wBm gene's essentiality based on the top alignments to essential genes in each bacterial strain. This method was validated using a jackknife methodology to test the ability to recover known essential genes in a control genome. A second estimation of essentiality, the Gene Conservation Score (GCS), was calculated on the basis of phyletic conservation of genes across Wolbachia's parent order Rickettsiales. Clusters of orthologous genes were predicted within the 27 currently available complete genomes. Druggability of wBm proteins was predicted by alignment to a database of protein targets of known compounds. Conclusion Ranking wBm genes by either MHS or GCS predicts and prioritizes potentially essential genes. Comparison of the MHS to GCS produces quadrants representing four types of predictions: those with high confidence of essentiality by both methods (245 genes), those highly conserved across Rickettsiales (299 genes), those similar to distant essential genes (8 genes), and those with low confidence of essentiality (253 genes). These data facilitate selection of wBm genes for entry into drug design pipelines. PMID:19943957

  1. Computational prediction of essential metabolic genes using constraint-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Basler, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the application of constraint-based modeling to predict the impact of gene deletions on a metabolic phenotype. The metabolic reactions taking place inside cells form large networks, which have been reconstructed at a genome-scale for several organisms at increasing levels of detail. By integrating mathematical modeling techniques with biochemical principles, constraint-based approaches enable predictions of metabolite fluxes and growth under specific environmental conditions or for genetically modified microorganisms. Similar to the experimental knockout of a gene, predicting the essentiality of a metabolic gene for a phenotype further allows to generate hypotheses on its biological function and design of genetic engineering strategies for biotechnological applications. Here, we summarize the principles of constraint-based approaches and provide a detailed description of the procedure to predict the essentiality of metabolic genes with respect to a specific metabolic function. We exemplify the approach by predicting the essentiality of reactions in the citric acid cycle for the production of glucose from fatty acids. PMID:25636620

  2. Shielding Production: An Essential Step in Production Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Ballard; Gregory Howell

    1997-01-01

    Effective production control systems are structured around the assignment as the unit of analysis. The quality of work assignments to production units such as construction crews and engineering squads is the key to production control and a key factor determining production unit productivity. Research has revealed that the quality of assignments can be substantially improved by forming and selecting them

  3. Statistical Analysis of Hurst Exponents of Essential/Nonessential Genes in 33 Bacterial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Baojin; Xu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Methods for identifying essential genes currently depend predominantly on biochemical experiments. However, there is demand for improved computational methods for determining gene essentiality. In this study, we used the Hurst exponent, a characteristic parameter to describe long-range correlation in DNA, and analyzed its distribution in 33 bacterial genomes. In most genomes (31 out of 33) the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the essential genes were significantly higher than for the corresponding full-gene-set, whereas the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the nonessential genes remained unchanged or increased only slightly. All of the Hurst exponents of essential genes followed a normal distribution, with one exception. We therefore propose that the distribution feature of Hurst exponents of essential genes can be used as a classification index for essential gene prediction in bacteria. For computer-aided design in the field of synthetic biology, this feature can build a restraint for pre- or post-design checking of bacterial essential genes. Moreover, considering the relationship between gene essentiality and evolution, the Hurst exponents could be used as a descriptive parameter related to evolutionary level, or be added to the annotation of each gene. PMID:26067107

  4. Statistical Analysis of Hurst Exponents of Essential/Nonessential Genes in 33 Bacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Baojin; Xu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Methods for identifying essential genes currently depend predominantly on biochemical experiments. However, there is demand for improved computational methods for determining gene essentiality. In this study, we used the Hurst exponent, a characteristic parameter to describe long-range correlation in DNA, and analyzed its distribution in 33 bacterial genomes. In most genomes (31 out of 33) the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the essential genes were significantly higher than for the corresponding full-gene-set, whereas the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the nonessential genes remained unchanged or increased only slightly. All of the Hurst exponents of essential genes followed a normal distribution, with one exception. We therefore propose that the distribution feature of Hurst exponents of essential genes can be used as a classification index for essential gene prediction in bacteria. For computer-aided design in the field of synthetic biology, this feature can build a restraint for pre- or post-design checking of bacterial essential genes. Moreover, considering the relationship between gene essentiality and evolution, the Hurst exponents could be used as a descriptive parameter related to evolutionary level, or be added to the annotation of each gene. PMID:26067107

  5. Concurrent Growth Rate and Transcript Analyses Reveal Essential Gene Stringency in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shan; Boberek, Jaroslaw M.; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Stach, Jem; Good, Liam

    2009-01-01

    Background Genes essential for bacterial growth are of particular scientific interest. Many putative essential genes have been identified or predicted in several species, however, little is known about gene expression requirement stringency, which may be an important aspect of bacterial physiology and likely a determining factor in drug target development. Methodology/Principal Findings Working from the premise that essential genes differ in absolute requirement for growth, we describe silencing of putative essential genes in E. coli to obtain a titration of declining growth rates and transcript levels by using antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and expressed antisense RNA. The relationship between mRNA decline and growth rate decline reflects the degree of essentiality, or stringency, of an essential gene, which is here defined by the minimum transcript level for a 50% reduction in growth rate (MTL50). When applied to four growth essential genes, both RNA silencing methods resulted in MTL50 values that reveal acpP as the most stringently required of the four genes examined, with ftsZ the next most stringently required. The established antibacterial targets murA and fabI were less stringently required. Conclusions RNA silencing can reveal stringent requirements for gene expression with respect to growth. This method may be used to validate existing essential genes and to quantify drug target requirement. PMID:19557168

  6. The functional diversity of essential genes required for mammalian cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Clowes, Christopher; Boylan, Michael GS; Ridge, Liam A; Barnes, Emma; Wright, Jayne A; Hentges, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    Genes required for an organism to develop to maturity (for which no other gene can compensate) are considered essential. The continuing functional annotation of the mouse genome has enabled the identification of many essential genes required for specific developmental processes including cardiac development. Patterns are now emerging regarding the functional nature of genes required at specific points throughout gestation. Essential genes required for development beyond cardiac progenitor cell migration and induction include a small and functionally homogenous group encoding transcription factors, ligands and receptors. Actions of core cardiogenic transcription factors from the Gata, Nkx, Mef, Hand, and Tbx families trigger a marked expansion in the functional diversity of essential genes from midgestation onwards. As the embryo grows in size and complexity, genes required to maintain a functional heartbeat and to provide muscular strength and regulate blood flow are well represented. These essential genes regulate further specialization and polarization of cell types along with proliferative, migratory, adhesive, contractile, and structural processes. The identification of patterns regarding the functional nature of essential genes across numerous developmental systems may aid prediction of further essential genes and those important to development and/or progression of disease. genesis 52:713–737, 2014. PMID:24866031

  7. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Is Positively Associated With Essential Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Miyamoto; Yoshihiko Saito; Noboru Kajiyama; Michihiro Yoshimura; Yukio Shimasaki; Masafumi Nakayama; Shigeki Kamitani; Masaki Harada; Masahiro Ishikawa; Koichiro Kuwahara; Emiko Ogawa; Ichiro Hamanaka; Nobuki Takahashi; Toshihiko Kaneshige; Hiroshi Teraoka; Takashi Akamizu; Nobuyuki Azuma; Yasunao Yoshimasa; Takaaki Yoshimasa; Hiroshi Itoh; Izuru Masuda; Hirofumi Yasue; Kazuwa Nakao

    2010-01-01

    Essential hypertension has a genetic basis. Accumulating evidence, including findings of elevation of arterial blood pressure in mice lacking the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, strongly suggests that alteration in NO metabolism is implicated in hypertension. There are, however, no reports indicating that polymorphism in the eNOS gene is associated with essential hypertension. We have identified a missense variant,

  8. Systematic Identification of Novel, Essential Host Genes Affecting Bromovirus RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gancarz, Brandi L.; Hao, Linhui; He, Qiuling; Newton, Michael A.; Ahlquist, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA virus replication involves viral proteins and cellular proteins at nearly every replication step. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a well-established model for dissecting virus-host interactions and is one of very few viruses whose RNA replication, gene expression and encapsidation have been reproduced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously, our laboratory identified ?100 non-essential host genes whose loss inhibited or enhanced BMV replication at least 3-fold. However, our isolation of additional BMV-modulating host genes by classical genetics and other results underscore that genes essential for cell growth also contribute to BMV RNA replication at a frequency that may be greater than that of non-essential genes. To systematically identify novel, essential host genes affecting BMV RNA replication, we tested a collection of ?900 yeast strains, each with a single essential gene promoter replaced by a doxycycline-repressible promoter, allowing repression of gene expression by adding doxycycline to the growth medium. Using this strain array of ?81% of essential yeast genes, we identified 24 essential host genes whose depleted expression reproducibly inhibited or enhanced BMV RNA replication. Relevant host genes are involved in ribosome biosynthesis, cell cycle regulation and protein homeostasis, among other cellular processes. BMV 2aPol levels were significantly increased in strains depleted for a heat shock protein (HSF1) or proteasome components (PRE1 and RPT6), suggesting these genes may affect BMV RNA replication by directly or indirectly modulating 2aPol localization, post-translational modification or interacting partners. Investigating the diverse functions of these newly identified essential host genes should advance our understanding of BMV-host interactions and normal cellular pathways, and suggest new modes of virus control. PMID:21915247

  9. Estimating the number of essential genes in a genome by random transposon mutagenesis

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    Estimating the number of essential genes in a genome by random transposon mutagenesis Natalie J, on the basis of data on viable mutants for which a single transposon was inserted after a random TA site genes would be to knock out each gene individually. Alternatively, one may use random transposon

  10. A pestivirus DNA vaccine based on a non-antibiotic resistance Escherichia coli essential gene marker.

    PubMed

    El-Attar, Laila M R; Scott, Sally; Goh, Shan; Good, Liam

    2012-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance genes are widely used to produce plasmid DNA vaccines, but risk unwanted exposure to antibiotic residues and the spread of resistance genes. To overcome the limitations of existing selection technologies, we developed an alternative system applying the widely used household biocide triclosan as the selective agent and an endogenous growth essential target gene, fabI, as the plasmid-borne marker in Escherichia coli. The fabI/triclosan system enables efficient, non-antibiotic selection of transformed bacteria, with improved safety and plasmid production features. Here we aimed to evaluate the performance of this non-antibiotic selection system using a plasmid DNA vaccine against bovine viral diarrhoea virus as an example. The new system displayed high-yield plasmid DNA production in a standard E. coli host strain and growth media. Notably, the purified pDNA provided efficient in vitro protein expression and a strong in vivo neutralising antibody response in a mouse model, with measures comparable to that of the parental plasmid DNA based on ampicillin resistance. The fabI/triclosan system requires only low levels of triclosan for selection (1 ?M) and residual triclosan in isolated DNA was below the limit of detection (< 20 parts per trillion). The fabI/triclosan selection system provides a simple, non-antibiotic resistance marker for plasmid selection, applicable to DNA vaccines and possibly other recombinant vaccine applications. PMID:22212129

  11. Screening essential genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the pathway enrichment method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangyu; Ni, Zhaohui; Shi, Yue; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wang, Huaidong; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Guoqing; Li, Fan

    2014-11-01

    The number of effective drugs for the prevention and control of tuberculosis is very limited. Therefore, high-throughput screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug targets is critical. In addition, determining the essential gene cluster is important for both understanding a survival mechanism and finding novel molecular targets for anti-tuberculosis drugs. In this study, we applied the pathway enrichment method to perform high throughput screening of genes encoding key molecules for potential drug targets for M. tuberculosis. Our results indicated 122 genes that existed in more than three pathways, while four existed in 11 pathways. We predicted 55 genes that are potentially essential genes. Four of them, namely, Rv0363c, Rv0408, Rv0409 and Rv0794c, had the highest probability to be essential genes, and thus further experimental validation is warranted. PMID:25098602

  12. Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

  13. The Drosophila Couch Potato Gene: An Essential Gene Required for Normal Adult Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, H. J.; Vaessin, H.; Bier, E.; Kolodkin, A.; D'Evelyn, D.; Kooyer, S.; Jan, Y. N.

    1992-01-01

    Through enhancer detection screens we have isolated 14 insertions in an essential gene that is expressed in embryonic sensory mother cells (SMC), in most cells of the mature embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS), and in glial cells of the PNS and the central nervous system (CNS). Embryos homozygote for amorphic alleles die, but show no obvious defects in their cuticle, PNS or CNS. The gene has been named couch potato (cpo) because several insertional alleles alter adult behavior. Homozygous hypomorphic cpo flies recover slowly from ether anaesthesia, show aberrant flight behavior, fail to move toward light and do not exhibit normal negative geotactic behavior. However, the flies are able to groom and walk, and some are able to fly when prodded, indicating that not all processes required for behavior are severely affected. A molecular analysis shows that the 14 insertions are confined to a few hundred nucleotides which probably contain key regulatory sequences of the gene. The orientation of these insertions and their position within this DNA fragment play an important role in the couch potato phenotype. In situ hybridization to whole mount embryos suggest that some insertions affect the levels of transcription of cpo in most cells in which it is expressed. PMID:1644278

  14. Identifying Coxiella burnetii Genes Essential for Subversion of the Host Immune System

    E-print Network

    Rowin, Kristina D

    2014-11-13

    due to its obligate intracellular lifestyle. Recent advances in both axenic growth and genetic manipulation of C. burnetii allowed efficient generation and isolation of random mutations and enabled more definitive studies of the genes essential...

  15. A Caenorhabditis Elegans RNA Polymerase II Gene, Ama-1 Iv, and Nearby Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, T. M.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II in Caenorhabditis elegans is encoded by the ama-1 gene, located approximately 0.05 map unit to the right of dpy-13 IV. Using the amanitin-resistant ama-1(m118) strain as a parent, we have isolated amanitin-sensitive mutants that carry recessive-lethal ama-1 alleles. Of the six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants examined, two are arrested late in embryogenesis. One of these is a large deficiency, mDf9, but the second may be a novel point mutation. The four other mutants are hypomorphs, and presumably produce altered RNA polymerase II enzymes with some residual function. Two of these mutants develop into sterile adults at 20° but are arrested as larvae at 25°, and two others are fertile at 20° and sterile at 25°. Temperature-shift experiments performed with the adult sterile mutant, ama-1(m118m238ts), have revealed a temperature-sensitive period that begins late in gonadogenesis and is centered around the initiation of egg-laying. Postembryonic development at 25° is slowed by 30%. By contrast, the amanitin-resistant allele of ama-1 has very little effect on developmental rate or fertility. We have identified 15 essential genes in an interval of 4.5 map units surrounding ama-1, as well as four ?-ray-induced deficiencies and two duplications that include the ama-1 gene. The larger duplication, mDp1, may include the entire left arm of chromosome IV, and it recombines with the normal homologue at a low frequency. The smallest deficiency, mDf10, complements all but three identified genes: let-278, dpy-13 and ama-1, which define an interval of only 0.1 map unit. The terminal phenotype of mDf10 homozygotes is developmental arrest during the first larval stage, suggesting that there is sufficient maternal RNA polymerase II to complete embryonic development. PMID:8608933

  16. Global Transposon Mutagenesis and Essential Gene Analysis of Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina R. Salama; Benjamin Shepherd; Stanley Falkow

    2004-01-01

    We have constructed a genome-saturating mutant library of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Microarray tracking of transposon mutants (MATT) allowed us to map the position of 5,363 transposon mutants in our library. While we generally found insertions well distributed throughout the genome, 344 genes had no detectable transposon insertions, and this list is predicted to be highly enriched for

  17. The Essential Human Cytomegalovirus Gene UL52 Is Required for Cleavage-Packaging of the Viral Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Maria Borst; Karen Wagner; Anne Binz; Beate Sodeik; Martin Messerle

    2008-01-01

    Replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) produces large DNA concatemers of head-to-tail-linked viral genomes that upon packaging into capsids are cut into unit-length genomes. The mechanisms underlying cleavage-packaging and the subsequent steps prior to nuclear egress of DNA-filled capsids are incompletely understood. The hitherto uncharacterized product of the essential HCMV UL52 gene was proposed to partic- ipate in these processes. To

  18. The Caenorhabditis elegans mucolipin-like gene cup-5 is essential for viability and regulates lysosomes

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    The Caenorhabditis elegans mucolipin-like gene cup-5 is essential for viability and regulates (ML-IV) homolog, the recently identified cup-5 (coelomocyte-uptake defec- tive) gene. ML-IV is a human- logical abnormalities. Our null mutations in cup-5 cause maternal- effect lethality. In addition, cup-5

  19. A genome-wide strategy for the identification of essential genes in Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Allyn Forsyth; Robert J. Haselbeck; Kari L. Ohlsen; Robert T. Yamamoto; Howard Xu; John D. Trawick; Daniel Wall; Liangsu Wang; Vickie Brown-Driver; Jamie M. Froelich; Paula King; Melissa McCarthy; Cheryl Malone; Brian Misiner; David Robbins; Zehui Tan; Zhan-yang Zhu; Grant Carr; Deborah A. Mosca; Carlos Zamudio; J. Gordon Foulkes; Judith W. Zyskind

    2002-01-01

    Summary To address the need for new approaches to antibiotic drug development, we have identified a large number of essential genes for the bacterial pathogen, Staphy- lococcus aureus, using a rapid shotgun antisense RNA method. Staphylococcus aureus chromosomal DNA fragments were cloned into a xylose-inducible expression plasmid and transformed into S. aureus. Homology comparisons between 658 S. aureus genes identified

  20. Transcription factor genes essential for cell proliferation and replicative lifespan in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Yuka; Tai, Akiko; Dakeyama, Shota; Yamamoto, Kaori; Inoue, Yamato; Kishimoto, Yoshifumi; Ohara, Hiroya; Mukai, Yukio

    2015-07-31

    Many of the lifespan-related genes have been identified in eukaryotes ranging from the yeast to human. However, there is limited information available on the longevity genes that are essential for cell proliferation. Here, we investigated whether the essential genes encoding DNA-binding transcription factors modulated the replicative lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterozygous diploid knockout strains for FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1 genes showed significantly short lifespan. (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated a characteristic metabolic profile in the ?fhl1/FHL1 mutant. These results strongly suggest that FHL1 regulates the transcription of lifespan related metabolic genes. Thus, heterozygous knockout strains could be the potential materials for discovering further novel lifespan genes. PMID:26022127

  1. The Dpy-30 Gene Encodes an Essential Component of the Caenorhabditis Elegans Dosage Compensation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, D. R.; Meyer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The need to regulate X chromosome expression in Caenorhabditis elegans arises as a consequence of the primary sex-determining signal, the X/A ratio (the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes), which directs 1X/2A animals to develop as males and 2X/2A animals to develop as hermaphrodites. C. elegans possesses a dosage compensation mechanism that equalizes X chromosome expression between the two sexes despite their disparity in X chromosome dosage. Previous genetic analysis led to the identification of four autosomal genes, dpy-21, dpy-26, dpy-27 and dpy-28, whose products are essential in XX animals for proper dosage compensation, but not for sex determination. We report the identification and characterization of dpy-30, an essential component of the dosage compensation machinery. Putative null mutations in dpy-30 disrupt dosage compensation and cause a severe maternal-effect, XX-specific lethality. Rare survivors of the dpy-30 lethality are dumpy and express their X-linked genes at higher than wild-type levels. These dpy-30 mutant phenotypes superficially resemble those caused by mutations in dpy-26, dpy-27 and dpy-28; however, detailed phenotypic analysis reveals important differences that distinguish dpy-30 from these genes. In contrast to the XX-specific lethality caused by mutations in the other dpy genes, the XX-specific lethality caused by dpy-30 mutations is completely penetrant and temperature sensitive. In addition, unlike the other genes, dpy-30 is required for the normal development of XO animals. Although dpy-30 mutations do not significantly affect the viability of XO animals, they do cause them to be developmentally delayed and to possess numerous morphological and behavioral abnormalities. Finally, dpy-30 mutations can dramatically influence the choice of sexual fate in animals with an ambiguous sexual identity, despite having no apparent effect on the sexual phenotype of otherwise wild-type animals. Paradoxically, depending on the genetic background, dpy-30 mutations cause either masculinization or feminization, thus revealing the complex regulatory relationship between the sex determination and dosage compensation processes. The novel phenotypes caused by dpy-30 mutations suggest that in addition to acting in the dosage compensation process, dpy-30 may play a more general role in the development of both XX and XO animals. PMID:7982580

  2. Essential role of the first intron in the transcription of hsp90? gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-fei Shen; Ju-hong Liu; Xiao-zhe Wang; Xiao-kuan Cheng; Yan-lin Wang; Ning-hua Wu

    1997-01-01

    The human HSP90 gene family contains introns. There are two typical heat shock elements (HSE) in the first intron of human hsp90? gene. As detected by chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter activity assays, the HSE-containing intron is essential in maintaining high constitutive expression and is critical for heat shock inducibility of the human hsp90? gene. Cellular heat shock factor 1

  3. A statistical framework for improving genomic annotations of transposon mutagenesis (TM) assigned essential genes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome transposon mutagenesis (TM) experiment followed by sequence-based identification of insertion sites is the most popular genome-wise experiment to identify essential genes in Prokaryota. However, due to the limitation of high-throughput technique, this approach yields substantial systematic biases resulting in the incorrect assignments of many essential genes. To obtain unbiased and accurate annotations of essential genes from TM experiments, we developed a novel Poisson model based statistical framework to refine these TM assignments. In the model, first we identified and incorporated several potential factors such as gene length and TM insertion information which may cause the TM assignment biases into the basic Poisson model. Then we calculated the conditional probability of an essential gene given the observed TM insertion number. By factorizing this probability through introducing a latent variable the real insertion number, we formalized the statistical framework. Through iteratively updating and optimizing model parameters to maximize the goodness-of-fit of the model to the observed TM insertion data, we finalized the model. Using this model, we are able to assign the probability score of essentiality to each individual gene given its TM assignment, which subsequently correct the experimental biases. To enable our model widely useable, we established a user-friendly Web-server that is accessible to the public: http://research.cchmc.org/essentialgene/. PMID:25636618

  4. Comprehensive identification of essential Staphylococcus aureus genes using Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Allen, Andrew G; Owen, Paul J; Shalom, Gil; Stone, Karl; Harrison, Marcus; Burgis, Timothy A; Lockyer, Michael; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J; Pleasance, Stephen J; Peters, Sarah E; Maskell, Duncan J; Charles, Ian G

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an increasing problem with Staphylococcus aureus strains that are resistant to treatment with existing antibiotics. An important starting point for the development of new antimicrobial drugs is the identification of "essential" genes that are important for bacterial survival and growth. Results We have developed a robust microarray and PCR-based method, Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH), that uses novel bioinformatics to identify transposon inserts in genome-wide libraries. Following a microarray-based screen, genes lacking transposon inserts are re-tested using a PCR and sequencing-based approach. We carried out a TMDH analysis of the S. aureus genome using a large random mariner transposon library of around a million mutants, and identified a total of 351 S. aureus genes important for survival and growth in culture. A comparison with the essential gene list experimentally derived for Bacillus subtilis highlighted interesting differences in both pathways and individual genes. Conclusion We have determined the first comprehensive list of S. aureus essential genes. This should act as a useful starting point for the identification of potential targets for novel antimicrobial compounds. The TMDH methodology we have developed is generic and could be applied to identify essential genes in other bacterial pathogens. PMID:19570206

  5. The yield of essential oils in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) is regulated through transcript abundance of genes in the MEP pathway.

    PubMed

    Webb, Hamish; Lanfear, Robert; Hamill, John; Foley, William J; Külheim, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaves contain large amounts of an essential oil, dominated by monoterpenes. Several enzymes of the chloroplastic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway are hypothesised to act as bottlenecks to the production of monoterpenes. We investigated, whether transcript abundance of genes encoding for enzymes of the MEP pathway were correlated with foliar terpenes in M. alternifolia using a population of 48 individuals that ranged in their oil concentration from 39 -122 mg x g DM(-1). Our study shows that most genes in the MEP pathway are co-regulated and that the expression of multiple genes within the MEP pathway is correlated with oil yield. Using multiple regression analysis, variation in expression of MEP pathway genes explained 87% of variation in foliar monoterpene concentrations. The data also suggest that sesquiterpenes in M. alternifolia are synthesised, at least in part, from isopentenyl pyrophosphate originating from the plastid via the MEP pathway. PMID:23544156

  6. The Yield of Essential Oils in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) Is Regulated through Transcript Abundance of Genes in the MEP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Hamish; Lanfear, Robert; Hamill, John; Foley, William J.; Külheim, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaves contain large amounts of an essential oil, dominated by monoterpenes. Several enzymes of the chloroplastic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway are hypothesised to act as bottlenecks to the production of monoterpenes. We investigated, whether transcript abundance of genes encoding for enzymes of the MEP pathway were correlated with foliar terpenes in M. alternifolia using a population of 48 individuals that ranged in their oil concentration from 39 -122 mg.g DM?1. Our study shows that most genes in the MEP pathway are co-regulated and that the expression of multiple genes within the MEP pathway is correlated with oil yield. Using multiple regression analysis, variation in expression of MEP pathway genes explained 87% of variation in foliar monoterpene concentrations. The data also suggest that sesquiterpenes in M. alternifolia are synthesised, at least in part, from isopentenyl pyrophosphate originating from the plastid via the MEP pathway. PMID:23544156

  7. High-Throughput Analysis of Gene Essentiality and Sporulation in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Dembek, Marcin; Barquist, Lars; Boinett, Christine J.; Cain, Amy K.; Mayho, Matthew; Lawley, Trevor D.; Fagan, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated intestinal infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Infection with C. difficile requires disruption of the intestinal microbiota, most commonly by antibiotic usage. Therapeutic intervention largely relies on a small number of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which further exacerbate intestinal dysbiosis and leave the patient acutely sensitive to reinfection. Development of novel targeted therapeutic interventions will require a detailed knowledge of essential cellular processes, which represent attractive targets, and species-specific processes, such as bacterial sporulation. Our knowledge of the genetic basis of C. difficile infection has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools, although recent developments have made some headway in addressing this limitation. Here we describe the development of a method for rapidly generating large numbers of transposon mutants in clinically important strains of C. difficile. We validated our transposon mutagenesis approach in a model strain of C. difficile and then generated a comprehensive transposon library in the highly virulent epidemic strain R20291 (027/BI/NAP1) containing more than 70,000 unique mutants. Using transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), we have identified a core set of 404 essential genes, required for growth in vitro. We then applied this technique to the process of sporulation, an absolute requirement for C. difficile transmission and pathogenesis, identifying 798 genes that are likely to impact spore production. The data generated in this study will form a valuable resource for the community and inform future research on this important human pathogen. PMID:25714712

  8. MEGA (Multiple Essential Genes Assembling) Deletion and Replacement Method for Genome Reduction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaoli; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Peng; Shao, Yangyang; Zhou, Min; Zhong, Li; Wu, Ronghai; Zhou, Jianting; Xia, Haiyang; Zhao, Guoping; Qin, Zhongjun

    2015-06-19

    Top-down reduction of the bacterial genome to construct desired chassis cells is important for synthetic biology. However, the current progress in the field of genome reduction is greatly hindered by indispensable life-essential genes that are interspersed throughout the chromosomal loci. Here, we described a new method designated as "MEGA (Multiple Essential Genes Assembling) deletion and replacement" that functions by assembling multiple essential genes in an E. coli-S. cerevisiae shuttle vector, removing targeted chromosomal regions containing essential and nonessential genes using a one-round deletion, and then integrating the cloned essential genes into the in situ chromosomal loci via I-SceI endonuclease cleavage. As a proof of concept, we separately generated three large deletions (80-205 kbp) in the E. coli MDS42 chromosome. We believe that the MEGA deletion and replacement method has potential to become widely used in large-scale genome reductions in other sequenced organisms in addition to E. coli. PMID:25494410

  9. Geptop: A Gene Essentiality Prediction Tool for Sequenced Bacterial Genomes Based on Orthology and Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen; Ning, Lu-Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2013-01-01

    Integrative genomics predictors, which score highly in predicting bacterial essential genes, would be unfeasible in most species because the data sources are limited. We developed a universal approach and tool designated Geptop, based on orthology and phylogeny, to offer gene essentiality annotations. In a series of tests, our Geptop method yielded higher area under curve (AUC) scores in the receiver operating curves than the integrative approaches. In the ten-fold cross-validations among randomly upset samples, Geptop yielded an AUC of 0.918, and in the cross-organism predictions for 19 organisms Geptop yielded AUC scores between 0.569 and 0.959. A test applied to the very recently determined essential gene dataset from the Porphyromonas gingivalis, which belongs to a phylum different with all of the above 19 bacterial genomes, gave an AUC of 0.77. Therefore, Geptop can be applied to any bacterial species whose genome has been sequenced. Compared with the essential genes uniquely identified by the lethal screening, the essential genes predicted only by Gepop are associated with more protein-protein interactions, especially in the three bacteria with lower AUC scores (<0.7). This may further illustrate the reliability and feasibility of our method in some sense. The web server and standalone version of Geptop are available at http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/geptop/ free of charge. The tool has been run on 968 bacterial genomes and the results are accessible at the website. PMID:23977285

  10. The Snail Family Gene Snai3 Is Not Essential for Embryogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xianghua; Booth, Carmen J.; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Krebs, Luke T.; Gridley, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Snail gene family encodes zinc finger-containing transcriptional repressor proteins. Three members of the Snail gene family have been described in mammals, encoded by the Snai1, Snai2, and Snai3 genes. The function of the Snai1 and Snai2 genes have been studied extensively during both vertebrate embryogenesis and tumor progression and metastasis, and play critically important roles during these processes. However, little is known about the function of the Snai3 gene and protein. We describe here generation and analysis of Snai3 conditional and null mutant mice. We also generated an EYFP-tagged Snai3 null allele that accurately reflects endogenous Snai3 gene expression, with the highest levels of expression detected in thymus and skeletal muscle. Snai3 null mutant homozygous mice are viable and fertile, and exhibit no obvious phenotypic defects. These results demonstrate that Snai3 gene function is not essential for embryogenesis in mice. PMID:23762348

  11. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products.

    PubMed

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessičre, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  12. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessičre, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  13. Essential Gene Discovery in the Basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans for Antifungal Drug Target Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Ianiri, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungal diseases represent a major burden to health care globally. As with other pathogenic microbes, there is a limited number of agents suitable for use in treating fungal diseases, and resistance to these agents can develop rapidly. Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete fungus that causes cryptococcosis worldwide in both immunocompromised and healthy individuals. As a basidiomycete, it diverged from other common pathogenic or model ascomycete fungi more than 500 million years ago. Here, we report C. neoformans genes that are essential for viability as identified through forward and reverse genetic approaches, using an engineered diploid strain and genetic segregation after meiosis. The forward genetic approach generated random insertional mutants in the diploid strain, the induction of meiosis and sporulation, and selection for haploid cells with counterselection of the insertion event. More than 2,500 mutants were analyzed, and transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertions in several genes required for viability were identified. The genes include those encoding the thioredoxin reductase (Trr1), a ribosome assembly factor (Rsa4), an mRNA-capping component (Cet1), and others. For targeted gene replacement, the C. neoformans homologs of 35 genes required for viability in ascomycete fungi were disrupted, meiosis and sporulation were induced, and haploid progeny were evaluated for their ability to grow on selective media. Twenty-one (60%) were found to be required for viability in C. neoformans. These genes are involved in mitochondrial translation, ergosterol biosynthesis, and RNA-related functions. The heterozygous diploid mutants were evaluated for haploinsufficiency on a number of perturbing agents and drugs, revealing phenotypes due to the loss of one copy of an essential gene in C. neoformans. This study expands the knowledge of the essential genes in fungi using a basidiomycete as a model organism. Genes that have no mammalian homologs and are essential in both Cryptococcus and ascomycete human pathogens would be ideal for the development of antifungal drugs with broad-spectrum activity. PMID:25827419

  14. Novel Genetic Variation in Exon 28 of FBN1 Gene Is Associated With Essential Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Shen; Xiangfeng Lu; Laiyuan Wang; Shufeng Chen; Yun Li; Xiaoli Liu; Jianxin Li; Jianfeng Huang; Dongfeng Gu

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundRecently, fibrillin-1 (FBN1) was reported to play an important role in maintaining the physiological arterial stiffness of essential hypertension (EH). Here, we designed a two-stage case–control study to investigate whether the FBN1 gene harbored any genetic variations associated with EH.MethodsIn stage 1, six candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FBN1 gene were genotyped and tested in 503 cases and 490

  15. Atrial natriuretic peptide and aldosterone synthase gene in essential hypertension: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sudhir; Saluja, Daman; Narang, Rajiv; Bhatia, Jagriti; Srivastava, Kamna

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and their candidate genes are principally involved in regulation of blood pressure through salt-water homeostasis. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) are the important RAAS mediators, play a major role in hypertension through regulation of cardiorenal homeostasis and water-electrolytes balance, respectively. Present study reports the expression of ANP and CYP11B2 gene at mRNA and proteins levels in patients with essential hypertension in North Indian subjects. Gene expression at mRNA and protein levels was carried out by Real time PCR and Western blot, respectively. We found a significant down regulation in the ANP gene expression at mRNA (85%) and protein (72.6%) levels and significant increase in the CYP11B2 protein expression in patients as compared to controls. A significant increase in Serum creatinine (14.6%), Sodium (1.15%) and decrease in the Blood urea (8.18%) and Potassium (2.32%) levels were also observed among the patients group having higher expression (based on median delta-CT value) in comparison to the lower expression of CYP11B2 gene. Our results suggest that the down-regulation of ANP gene expression at mRNA and protein levels and up-regulated CYP11B2 protein expression levels may be correlated with the essential hypertension and could serve as circulating prognostic biomarkers for essential hypertension. PMID:25917967

  16. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365?nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  17. The essential helicase gene RAD3 suppresses short-sequence recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bailis, A M; Maines, S; Negritto, M T

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated an allele of the essential DNA repair and transcription gene RAD3 that relaxes the restriction against recombination between short DNA sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Double-strand break repair and gene replacement events requiring recombination between short identical or mismatched sequences were stimulated in the rad3-G595R mutant cells. We also observed an increase in the physical stability of double-strand breaks in the rad3-G595R mutant cells. These results suggest that the RAD3 gene suppresses recombination involving short homologous sequences by promoting the degradation of the ends of broken DNA molecules. PMID:7623796

  18. Genes for the peptidoglycan synthesis pathway are essential for chloroplast division in moss.

    PubMed

    Machida, Mariko; Takechi, Katsuaki; Sato, Hiroshi; Chung, Sung Jin; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Takio, Susumu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fujita, Tomomichi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2006-04-25

    The general consensus is that a cyanobacterium phagocytosed by a host cell evolved into the plastids of red and green algae, land plants, and glaucophytes. In contrast to the plastids of glaucophytes, which retain a cyanobacterial-type peptidoglycan layer, no wall-like structures have been detected in plastids from other sources. Although the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains five genes that are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis, MurE, MurG, two genes for D-Ala-D-Ala ligase (Ddl), and the gene for translocase I (MraY), their functions have not been determined. We report that the moss Physcomitrella patens has nine homologous genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis: MurA, B, C, D, E, and F, Ddl, genes for the penicillin-binding protein Pbp, and dd-carboxypeptidase (Dac). Corroborating a computer prediction, analysis of the GFP fusion proteins with the N terminus of PpMurE or of PpPbp suggests that these proteins are located in the chloroplasts. Gene disruption of the PpMurE gene in P. patens resulted in the appearance of macrochloroplasts both in protonema and in leaf cells. Moreover, gene knockout of the P. patens Pbp gene showed inhibition of chloroplast division in this moss; however, no Pbp gene was found in A. thaliana. PMID:16618924

  19. Predicting essential genes and synthetic lethality via influence propagation in signaling pathways of cancer cell fates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Min; Li, Xue-Juan; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2015-06-01

    A major goal of personalized anti-cancer therapy is to increase the drug effects while reducing the side effects as much as possible. A novel therapeutic strategy called synthetic lethality (SL) provides a great opportunity to achieve this goal. SL arises if mutations of both genes lead to cell death while mutation of either single gene does not. Hence, the SL partner of a gene mutated only in cancer cells could be a promising drug target, and the identification of SL pairs of genes is of great significance in pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, we propose a hybridized method to predict SL pairs of genes. We combine a data-driven model with knowledge of signalling pathways to simulate the influence of single gene knock-down and double genes knock-down to cell death. A pair of genes is considered as an SL candidate when double knock-down increases the probability of cell death significantly, but single knock-down does not. The single gene knock-down is confirmed according to the human essential genes database. Our validation against literatures shows that the predicted SL candidates agree well with wet-lab experiments. A few novel reliable SL candidates are also predicted by our model. PMID:25669329

  20. Development of genomic array footprinting for identification of conditionally essential genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jetta J. E. Bijlsma; Peter Burghout; Tomas G. Kloosterman; Hester J. Bootsma; Anne de Jong; Peter W. M. Hermans; Oscar P. Kuipers

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of serious infections such as pneumonia and meningitis in both children and adults worldwide. Here, we describe the development of a high-throughput, genome-wide technique, genomic array footprinting (GAF), for the identification of genes essential for this bacterium at various stages during infection. GAF enables negative screens by means of a combination of transposon mutagenesis

  1. Tomato tos1 mutation identifies a gene essential for osmotic tolerance and abscisic acid sensitivity

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    Tomato tos1 mutation identifies a gene essential for osmotic tolerance and abscisic acid to intracellular abscisic acid (ABA) and this decreased ABA sensitivity of tos1 is a basic cellular trait expressed for osmotic tolerance. Keywords: abscisic acid, osmotic stress, tos1 mutant, tss2 mutant. Introduction Osmotic

  2. Improving discrimination of essential genes by modeling local insertion frequencies in transposon mutagenesis

    E-print Network

    Ioerger, Thomas R.

    College Station, TX 77843 {mad, ioerger}@cs.tamu.edu ABSTRACT Transposon mutagenesis experiments enable genes are essential in bacterial organisms is through transposon mutagenesis experiments. In these ex the genomic regions where they insert. The Himar1 transposon is frequently used in transposon mutagenesis

  3. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C GENE polymorphism and essential hypertension in San Luis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICIA VIVIANA LAPIERRE; MARIA ELENA ARCE; JOSÉ RAUL LOPEZ

    1166 C polymorphism, risk factors, RAS system, pharmacogenetics. ABSTRACT: Essential hypertension is considered a multifactorial trait resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor mediates the vasoconstrictor and growth- promoting effects of Ang II. The A 1166 C polymorphism of the AT1 receptor gene may be associated with cardiovascular phenotypes, such as high

  4. Essential Genes in the Core Genome of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Yoann; Belew, Ashton T; Valdes, Kayla M; Islam, Emrul; Curry, Patrick; Tettelin, Hervé; Shirtliff, Mark E; El-Sayed, Najib M; McIver, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) remains a major public health burden worldwide, infecting over 750 million people leading to over 500,000 deaths annually. GAS pathogenesis is complex, involving genetically distinct GAS strains and multiple infection sites. To overcome fastidious genetic manipulations and accelerate pathogenesis investigations in GAS, we developed a mariner-based system (Krmit) for en masse monitoring of complex mutant pools by transposon sequencing (Tn-seq). Highly saturated transposant libraries (Krmit insertions in ca. every 25 nucleotides) were generated in two distinct GAS clinical isolates, a serotype M1T1 invasive strain 5448 and a nephritogenic serotype M49 strain NZ131, and analyzed using a Bayesian statistical model to predict GAS essential genes, identifying sets of 227 and 241 of those genes in 5448 and NZ131, respectively. A large proportion of GAS essential genes corresponded to key cellular processes and metabolic pathways, and 177 were found conserved within the GAS core genome established from 20 available GAS genomes. Selected essential genes were validated using conditional-expression mutants. Finally, comparison to previous essentiality analyses in S. sanguinis and S. pneumoniae revealed significant overlaps, providing valuable insights for the development of new antimicrobials to treat infections by GAS and other pathogenic streptococci. PMID:25996237

  5. Cell-specific expression of artificial microRNAs targeting essential genes exhibit potent antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Chen, Ping; Ye, Jingjia; Teng, Lisong; Jia, Zhenyu; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    To achieve specific and potent antitumor effect of hepatocyte carcinoma cells, replication defective adenoviral vectors, namely rAd/AFP-amiRG, rAd/AFP-amiRE and rAd/AFP-amiRP, were constructed which were armed with artificial microRNAs (amiRs) targeting essential functional genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and DNA polymerase ? respectively under the control of a recombinant promoter comprised of human ?-fetoprotein enhancer and basal promoter. The AFP enhancer/promoter showed specific high transcription activity in AFP-positive HCC cells Hep3B, HepG2 and SMMC7721, while low in AFP-negative cell Bcap37. All artificial microRNAs exhibited efficient knockdown of target genes. Decreased ATP production and protein synthesis was observed in rAd/AFP-amiRG and rAd/AFP-amiRE treated HCC cells. All three recombinant adenoviruses showed efficient blockage of cell cycle progression and significant suppression of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice model bearing Hep3B xenograft, administration of rAd/AFP-amiRG showed potent antitumor effect. The strategy of tumor-specific knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and proliferation may suggest a novel promising approach for HCC gene therapy. PMID:25691059

  6. Female inheritance of malarial lap genes is essential for mosquito transmission.

    PubMed

    Raine, J Dale; Ecker, Andrea; Mendoza, Jacqui; Tewari, Rita; Stanway, Rebecca R; Sinden, Robert E

    2007-03-01

    Members of the LCCL/lectin adhesive-like protein (LAP) family, a family of six putative secreted proteins with predicted adhesive extracellular domains, have all been detected in the sexual and sporogonic stages of Plasmodium and have previously been predicted to play a role in parasite-mosquito interactions and/or immunomodulation. In this study we have investigated the function of PbLAP1, 2, 4, and 6. Through phenotypic analysis of Plasmodium berghei loss-of-function mutants, we have demonstrated that PbLAP2, 4, and 6, as previously shown for PbLAP1, are critical for oocyst maturation and sporozoite formation, and essential for transmission from mosquitoes to mice. Sporozoite formation was rescued by a genetic cross with wild-type parasites, which results in the production of heterokaryotic polyploid ookinetes and oocysts, and ultimately infective Deltapblap sporozoites, but not if the individual Deltapblap parasite lines were crossed amongst each other. Genetic crosses with female-deficient (Deltapbs47) and male-deficient (Deltapbs48/45) parasites show that the lethal phenotype is only rescued when the wild-type pblap gene is inherited from a female gametocyte, thus explaining the failure to rescue in the crosses between different Deltapblap parasite lines. We conclude that the functions of PbLAPs1, 2, 4, and 6 are critical prior to the expression of the male-derived gene after microgametogenesis, fertilization, and meiosis, possibly in the gametocyte-to-ookinete period of differentiation. The phenotypes detectable by cytological methods in the oocyst some 10 d after the critical period of activity suggests key roles of the LAPs or LAP-dependent processes in the regulation of the cell cycle, possibly in the regulation of cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratio, and, importantly, in the events of cytokinesis at sporozoite formation. This phenotype is not seen in the other dividing forms of the mutant parasite lines in the liver and blood stages. PMID:17335349

  7. A gene homologous to beta-type carbonic anhydrase is essential for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, S; Ohnishi, J; Hayashi, M; Ikeda, M

    2004-02-01

    Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the interconversion of CO(2) and bicarbonate. We focused on this enzyme in the amino acid-producing organism Corynebacterium glutamicum in order to assess the availability of bicarbonate for carboxylation reactions essential to growth and for those required for L-lysine overproduction. A whole-genome sequence revealed two genes encoding putative beta-type and gamma-type carbonic anhydrases in C. glutamicum. These genes encode polypeptides containing zinc ligands strictly conserved in each type of carbonic anhydrase and were designated bca and gca, respectively. Internal deletion of the chromosomal bca gene resulted in a phenotype showing severely reduced growth under atmospheric conditions (0.04% CO(2)) on both complete and minimal media. The growth defect of the Delta bca strain was restored under elevated CO(2) conditions (5% CO(2)). Introduction of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum carbonic anhydrase gene ( pca) could compensate for the bca deletion, allowing normal growth under an atmospheric level of CO(2). In contrast, the Delta gca strain behaved identically to the wild-type strain with respect to growth, irrespective of the CO(2) conditions. Attempts to increase the dosage of bca, gca, and pca in the defined L-lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum AHD-2 led to no discernable effects on growth and production. Northern blot analysis indicated that the bca transcript in strain AHD-2 and another L-lysine producer, C. glutamicum B-6, was present at a much higher level than in the wild-type strain, particularly during exponential growth phases. These results indicate that: (1) the bca product is essential to achieving normal growth under ordinary atmospheric conditions, and this effect is most likely due to the bca product's ability to maintain favorable intracellular bicarbonate/CO(2) levels, and (2) the expression of bca is induced during exponential growth phases and also in the case of L-lysine overproduction, both of which are conditions of higher bicarbonate demand. PMID:12937954

  8. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  9. Screening of candidate regulators for cellulase and hemicellulase production in Trichoderma reesei and identification of a factor essential for cellulase production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The soft rot ascomycetal fungus Trichoderma reesei is utilized for industrial production of secreted enzymes, especially lignocellulose degrading enzymes. T. reesei uses several different enzymes for the degradation of plant cell wall-derived material, including 9 characterized cellulases, 15 characterized hemicellulases and at least 42 genes predicted to encode cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic activities. Production of cellulases and hemicellulases is modulated by environmental and physiological conditions. Several regulators affecting the expression of cellulase and hemicellulase genes have been identified but more factors still unknown are believed to be present in the genome of T. reesei. Results We have used transcriptional profiling data from T. reesei cultures in which cellulase/hemicellulase production was induced by the addition of different lignocellulose-derived materials to identify putative novel regulators for cellulase and hemicellulase genes. Based on this induction data, supplemented with other published genome-wide data on different protein production conditions, 28 candidate regulatory genes were selected for further studies and they were overexpressed in T. reesei. Overexpression of seven genes led to at least 1.5-fold increased production of cellulase and/or xylanase activity in the modified strains as compared to the parental strain. Deletion of gene 77513, here designated as ace3, was found to be detrimental for cellulase production and for the expression of several cellulase genes studied. This deletion also significantly reduced xylanase activity and expression of xylan-degrading enzyme genes. Furthermore, our data revealed the presence of co-regulated chromosomal regions containing carbohydrate-active enzyme genes and candidate regulatory genes. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling results from glycoside hydrolase induction experiments combined with a previous study of specific protein production conditions was shown to be an effective method for finding novel candidate regulatory genes affecting the production of cellulases and hemicellulases. Recombinant strains with improved cellulase and/or xylanase production properties were constructed, and a gene essential for cellulase gene expression was found. In addition, more evidence was gained on the chromatin level regional regulation of carbohydrate-active enzyme gene expression. PMID:24472375

  10. Survival of UV-irradiated mammalian cells correlates with efficient DNA repair in an essential gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, V A; Okumoto, D S; Hanawalt, P C

    1986-01-01

    The survival of UV-irradiated mammalian cells is not necessarily correlated with their overall capacity to carry out DNA repair. Human cells typically remove 80% of the pyrimidine dimers produced by a UV dose of 5 J/m2 within 24 hr. In contrast, a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line survives UV irradiation equally well while removing only 15% of the dimers. Using a newly developed technique to measure dimer frequencies in single-copy specific sequences, we find that the CHO cells remove 70% of the dimers from the essential dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene but only 20% from sequences located 30 kilobases or more upstream from the 5' end of the gene in a 24-hr period. Repair-deficient human cells from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) are similar to the CHO cells in overall repair levels, but they are extremely sensitive to killing by UV irradiation. In the XPC cells, we find little or no repair in the DHFR gene; in contrast, in normal human fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes, greater than 80% of the dimers induced in the gene by 20 J/m2 are removed in 24 hr. Since the CHO and normal human cells exhibit similar UV resistance, much higher than that of XPC cells, our findings suggest a correlation between efficient repair of essential genes and resistance to DNA-damaging agents such as UV light. Images PMID:3459159

  11. Comprehensive identification of essential Staphylococcus aureus genes using Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH)

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Allen, Andrew G; Owen, Paul J; Shalom, Gil; Stone, Karl; Harrison, Marcus; Burgis, Timothy A; Lockyer, Michael; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J; Pleasance, Stephen J; Peters, Sarah E; Maskell, Duncan; Charles, Ian G

    2009-07-01

    Research, The Cruciform Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK, 6Current address: Division of Microbial Diseases, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London, WC1X 8LD, UK, 7Current address: Oxford Gene Technology, Begbroke Science Park... formation, which can be knocked out in B. subtilis result- ing in multiple FtsZ rings [53]. The nucleoid occlusion protein YyaA (also known as Noc) is essential for cell divi- sion in the absence of the Min system in B. subtilis; the genes encoding the Min...

  12. High-resolution phenotypic profiling defines genes essential for mycobacterial growth and cholesterol catabolism.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jennifer E; Gawronski, Jeffrey D; Dejesus, Michael A; Ioerger, Thomas R; Akerley, Brian J; Sassetti, Christopher M

    2011-09-01

    The pathways that comprise cellular metabolism are highly interconnected, and alterations in individual enzymes can have far-reaching effects. As a result, global profiling methods that measure gene expression are of limited value in predicting how the loss of an individual function will affect the cell. In this work, we employed a new method of global phenotypic profiling to directly define the genes required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A combination of high-density mutagenesis and deep-sequencing was used to characterize the composition of complex mutant libraries exposed to different conditions. This allowed the unambiguous identification of the genes that are essential for Mtb to grow in vitro, and proved to be a significant improvement over previous approaches. To further explore functions that are required for persistence in the host, we defined the pathways necessary for the utilization of cholesterol, a critical carbon source during infection. Few of the genes we identified had previously been implicated in this adaptation by transcriptional profiling, and only a fraction were encoded in the chromosomal region known to encode sterol catabolic functions. These genes comprise an unexpectedly large percentage of those previously shown to be required for bacterial growth in mouse tissue. Thus, this single nutritional change accounts for a significant fraction of the adaption to the host. This work provides the most comprehensive genetic characterization of a sterol catabolic pathway to date, suggests putative roles for uncharacterized virulence genes, and precisely maps genes encoding potential drug targets. PMID:21980284

  13. ADP ribosylation factor is an essential protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is encoded by two genes.

    PubMed Central

    Stearns, T; Kahn, R A; Botstein, D; Hoyt, M A

    1990-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) is a ubiquitous 21-kDa GTP-binding protein in eucaryotes. ARF was first identified in animal cells as the protein factor required for the efficient ADP-ribosylation of the mammalian G protein Gs by cholera toxin in vitro. A gene (ARF1) encoding a protein homologous to mammalian ARF was recently cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sewell and Kahn, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85:4620-4624, 1988). We have found a second gene encoding ARF in S. cerevisiae, ARF2. The two ARF genes are within 28 centimorgans of each other on chromosome IV, and the proteins encoded by them are 96% identical. Disruption of ARF1 causes slow growth, cold sensitivity, and sensitivity to normally sublethal concentrations of fluoride ion in the medium. Disruption of ARF2 causes no detectable phenotype. Disruption of both genes is lethal; thus, ARF is essential for mitotic growth. The ARF1 and ARF2 proteins are functionally homologous, and the phenotypic differences between mutations in the two genes can be accounted for by the level of expression; ARF1 produces approximately 90% of total ARF. Among revertants of the fluoride sensitivity of an arf1 null mutation were ARF1-ARF2 fusion genes created by a gene conversion event in which the deleted ARF1 sequences were repaired by recombination with ARF2. Images PMID:2123295

  14. The Transcription Factor Gene Nfib Is Essential for both Lung Maturation and Brain Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Steele-Perkins; C. Plachez; K. G. Butz; G. Yang; C. J. Bachurski; S. L. Kinsman; E. D. Litwack; L. J. Richards; R. M. Gronostajski

    2005-01-01

    The phylogenetically conserved nuclear factor I (NFI) gene family encodes site-specific transcription factors essential for the development of a number of organ systems. We showed previously that Nfia-deficient mice exhibit agenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain defects, whereas Nfic-deficient mice have agenesis of molar tooth roots and severe incisor defects. Here we show that Nfib-deficient mice possess unique

  15. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  16. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  17. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans for the Identification of Putative Essential Genes and Therapeutic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Shifa; Tong, Yigang

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. The present treatment options are limited and emergence of treatment resistant isolates represents a serious concern and a need for better therapeutics. Conventional drug discovery methods are time consuming and labor-intensive. Unfortunately, the slow growing nature of M. ulcerans in experimental conditions is also a barrier for drug discovery and development. In contrast, recent advancements in complete genome sequencing, in combination with cheminformatics and computational biology, represent an attractive alternative approach for the identification of therapeutic candidates worthy of experimental research. A computational, comparative genomics workflow was defined for the identification of novel therapeutic candidates against M. ulcerans, with the aim that a selected target should be essential to the pathogen, and have no homology in the human host. Initially, a total of 424 genes were predicted as essential from the M. ulcerans genome, via homology searching of essential genome content from 20 different bacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the most essential genes are associated with carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among these, 236 proteins were identified as non-host and essential, and could serve as potential drug and vaccine candidates. Several drug target prioritization parameters including druggability were also calculated. Enzymes from several pathways are discussed as potential drug targets, including those from cell wall synthesis, thiamine biosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and histidine biosynthesis. It is expected that our data will facilitate selection of M. ulcerans proteins for successful entry into drug design pipelines. PMID:22912793

  18. Systematic analysis of essential genes reveals important regulators of G protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Steven D; Baker, Rachael; Skowyra, Dorota; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2010-06-11

    The yeast pheromone pathway consists of a canonical heterotrimeric G protein and MAP kinase cascade. To identify additional signaling components, we systematically evaluated 870 essential genes using a library of repressible-promoter strains. Quantitative transcription-reporter and MAPK activity assays were used to identify strains that exhibit altered pheromone sensitivity. Of the 92 newly identified essential genes required for proper G protein signaling, those involved with protein degradation were most highly represented. Included in this group are members of the Skp, Cullin, F box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex. Further genetic and biochemical analysis reveals that SCF(Cdc4) acts together with the Cdc34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme at the level of the G protein; promotes degradation of the G protein alpha subunit, Gpa1, in vivo; and catalyzes Gpa1 ubiquitination in vitro. These insights to the G protein signaling network reveal the essential genome as an untapped resource for identifying new components and regulators of signal transduction pathways. PMID:20542006

  19. Metazoan Remaining Genes for Essential Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Sequence Conservation and Evolutionary Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Igor R.; Thompson, Julie D.; Ortega, José Miguel; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Essential amino acids (EAA) consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS) and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL) relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals. PMID:25545100

  20. Conditional repression of essential chloroplast genes: Evidence for new plastid signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rochaix, Jean-David; Ramundo, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    The development of a repressible chloroplast gene expression system in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has opened the door for studying the role of essential chloroplast genes. This approach has been used to analyze three chloroplast genes of this sort coding for the ? subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoA), a ribosomal protein (rps12) and the catalytic subunit of the ATP-dependent ClpP protease (clpP1). Depletion of the three corresponding proteins leads to growth arrest and cell death. Shutdown of chloroplast transcription and translation increases the abundance of a set of plastid transcripts that includes mainly those involved in transcription, translation and proteolysis and reveals multiple regulatory feedback loops in the chloroplast gene circuitry. Depletion of ClpP profoundly affects plastid protein homeostasis and elicits an autophagy-like response with extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of cells. It also triggers changes in chloroplast and nuclear gene expression resulting in increased abundance of chaperones, proteases, ubiquitin-related proteins and proteins involved in lipid trafficking and thylakoid biogenesis. These features are hallmarks of an unfolded protein response in the chloroplast and raise new questions on plastid protein homeostasis and plastid signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. PMID:25486627

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Novel Genes Essential for Heme Homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Anita U.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Mitreva, Makedonka; El-Sayed, Najib M.; Krause, Michael; Hamza, Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Heme is a cofactor in proteins that function in almost all sub-cellular compartments and in many diverse biological processes. Heme is produced by a conserved biosynthetic pathway that is highly regulated to prevent the accumulation of heme—a cytotoxic, hydrophobic tetrapyrrole. Caenorhabditis elegans and related parasitic nematodes do not synthesize heme, but instead require environmental heme to grow and develop. Heme homeostasis in these auxotrophs is, therefore, regulated in accordance with available dietary heme. We have capitalized on this auxotrophy in C. elegans to study gene expression changes associated with precisely controlled dietary heme concentrations. RNA was isolated from cultures containing 4, 20, or 500 µM heme; derived cDNA probes were hybridized to Affymetrix C. elegans expression arrays. We identified 288 heme-responsive genes (hrgs) that were differentially expressed under these conditions. Of these genes, 42% had putative homologs in humans, while genomes of medically relevant heme auxotrophs revealed homologs for 12% in both Trypanosoma and Leishmania and 24% in parasitic nematodes. Depletion of each of the 288 hrgs by RNA–mediated interference (RNAi) in a transgenic heme-sensor worm strain identified six genes that regulated heme homeostasis. In addition, seven membrane-spanning transporters involved in heme uptake were identified by RNAi knockdown studies using a toxic heme analog. Comparison of genes that were positive in both of the RNAi screens resulted in the identification of three genes in common that were vital for organismal heme homeostasis in C. elegans. Collectively, our results provide a catalog of genes that are essential for metazoan heme homeostasis and demonstrate the power of C. elegans as a genetic animal model to dissect the regulatory circuits which mediate heme trafficking in both vertebrate hosts and their parasites, which depend on environmental heme for survival. PMID:20686661

  2. Insilico analysis of hypothetical proteins unveils putative metabolic pathways and essential genes in Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Ravooru, Nithin; Ganji, Sandesh; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Nagendra, Holenarsipur G.

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania, which is active in two broad forms namely, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL or Kala Azar) and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). The disease is most prevalent in the tropical regions and poses a threat to over 70 countries across the globe. About 200 million people are estimated to be at risk of developing VL in the Indian subcontinent, and this refers to around 67% of the global VL disease burden. The Indian state of Bihar alone accounts for 50% of the total VL cases. While no vaccination exists, several pentavalent antimonials and drugs like Paromomycin, Amphotericin, Miltefosine etc. are used in the treatment of Leishmaniasis. However, due to their low efficacies and the resistance developed by the bug to these medications, there is an urgent need to look into newer species specific targets. The proteome information available suggests that among the 7960 proteins in Leishmania donavani, a staggering 65% remains classified as a hypothetical uncharacterized set. In this background, we have attempted to assign probable functions to these hypothetical sequences present in this parasite, to explore their plausible roles as druggable receptors. Thus, putative functions have been defined to 105 hypothetical proteins, which exhibited a GO term correlation and PFAM domain coverage of more than 50% over the query sequence length. Of these, 27 sequences were found to be associated with a reference pathway in KEGG as well. Further, using homology approaches, four pathways viz., Ubiquinone biosynthesis, Fatty acid elongation in Mitochondria, Fatty Acid Elongation in ER and Seleno-cysteine Metabolism have been reconstructed. In addition, 7 new putative essential genes have been mined with the help of Eukaryotic Database of Essential Genes (DEG). All these information related to pathways and essential genes indeed show promise for exploiting the select molecules as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25206363

  3. Ovicidal activity of essential oils from five plants against two stored-product insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?. Tunç; B. M. Berger; F. Erler; F. Da?l?

    2000-01-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapours distilled from anise Pimpinella anisum, cumin Cuminum cyminum, eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis, oregano Origanum syriacum var. bevanii and rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis were tested against eggs of two stored-product insects, the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella. The exposure to vapours of essential oils from anise and cumin resulted

  4. The Drosophila stonewall gene encodes a putative transcription factor essential for germ cell development.

    PubMed

    Clark, K A; McKearin, D M

    1996-03-01

    The differentiation of Drosophila germ cells is a useful model for studying mechanisms of cell specification. We report the identification of a gene, stonewall, that is required for germ cell development. Mutations in stonewall block proper oocyte differentiation and frequently cause the presumptive oocyte to develop as a nurse cell. Eventually, germ cells degenerate apoptotically. Stonewall is a germ cell nuclear protein; Stonewall has a DNA binding domain that shows similarities to the Myb and Adf-1 transcription factors and has other features that suggest that it is a transcription activating factor. We suggest that Stonewall transcriptional regulation is essential in cystocytes for maturation into specialized nurse cells and oocyte. PMID:8631271

  5. The Essential Role of the Deinococcus radiodurans ssb Gene in Cell Survival and Radiation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, J. Scott; DeVeaux, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has implicated single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) expression level as an important factor in microbial radiation resistance. The genome of the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans contains genes for two SSB homologs: the homodimeric, canonical Ssb, encoded by the gene ssb, and a novel pentameric protein encoded by the gene ddrB. ddrB is highly induced upon exposure to radiation, and deletions result in decreased radiation-resistance, suggesting an integral role of the protein in the extreme resistance exhibited by this organism. Although expression of ssb is also induced after irradiation, Ssb is thought to be involved primarily in replication. In this study, we demonstrate that Ssb in D. radiodurans is essential for cell survival. The lethality of an ssb deletion cannot be complemented by providing ddrB in trans. In addition, the radiation-sensitive phenotype conferred by a ddrB deletion is not alleviated by providing ssb in trans. By altering expression of the ssb gene, we also show that lower levels of transcription are required for optimal growth than are necessary for high radiation resistance. When expression is reduced to that of E. coli, ionizing radiation resistance is similarly reduced. UV resistance is also decreased under low ssb transcript levels where growth is unimpaired. These results indicate that the expression of ssb is a key component of both normal cellular metabolism as well as pathways responsible for the high radiation tolerance of D. radiodurans. PMID:23951213

  6. ZCURVE 3.0: identify prokaryotic genes with higher accuracy as well as automatically and accurately select essential genes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yan; Yuan, Ya-Zhou; Yang, De-Chang; Wei, Wen; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, we developed an ab initio program, ZCURVE 1.0, to find genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes. In this work, we present the updated version (i.e. ZCURVE 3.0). Using 422 prokaryotic genomes, the average accuracy was 93.7% with the updated version, compared with 88.7% with the original version. Such results also demonstrate that ZCURVE 3.0 is comparable with Glimmer 3.02 and may provide complementary predictions to it. In fact, the joint application of the two programs generated better results by correctly finding more annotated genes while also containing fewer false-positive predictions. As the exclusive function, ZCURVE 3.0 contains one post-processing program that can identify essential genes with high accuracy (generally >90%). We hope ZCURVE 3.0 will receive wide use with the web-based running mode. The updated ZCURVE can be freely accessed from http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/zcurve/ or http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/zcurveb/ without any restrictions. PMID:25977299

  7. ZCURVE 3.0: identify prokaryotic genes with higher accuracy as well as automatically and accurately select essential genes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yan; Yuan, Ya-Zhou; Yang, De-Chang; Wei, Wen; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-07-01

    In 2003, we developed an ab initio program, ZCURVE 1.0, to find genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes. In this work, we present the updated version (i.e. ZCURVE 3.0). Using 422 prokaryotic genomes, the average accuracy was 93.7% with the updated version, compared with 88.7% with the original version. Such results also demonstrate that ZCURVE 3.0 is comparable with Glimmer 3.02 and may provide complementary predictions to it. In fact, the joint application of the two programs generated better results by correctly finding more annotated genes while also containing fewer false-positive predictions. As the exclusive function, ZCURVE 3.0 contains one post-processing program that can identify essential genes with high accuracy (generally >90%). We hope ZCURVE 3.0 will receive wide use with the web-based running mode. The updated ZCURVE can be freely accessed from http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/zcurve/ or http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/zcurveb/ without any restrictions. PMID:25977299

  8. Cell, Vol. 118, 3144, July 9, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Exploration of Essential Gene Functions

    E-print Network

    Morris, Quaid

    ,1,2 Xueqi Yang,1 Jeff Pootoolal,1 for virtually all yeast genes, enabling an unparalleledGordon Chua and Microbiology protein-coding yeast genes (Cliften et al., 2003; KellisUniversity of Toronto et al., 2003 import and iron-sulfur complex assembly are essential, presumably because of the role of mito

  9. An essential yeast gene encoding a TTAGGG repeat-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Brigati, C; Kurtz, S; Balderes, D; Vidali, G; Shore, D

    1993-01-01

    A yeast gene encoding a DNA-binding protein that recognizes the telomeric repeat sequence TTAGGG found in multicellular eukaryotes was identified by screening a lambda gt11 expression library with a radiolabeled TTAGGG multimer. This gene, which we refer to as TBF1 (TTAGGG repeat-binding factor 1), encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 63 kDa. The TBF1 protein, produced in vitro by transcription and translation of the cloned gene, binds to (TTAGGG)n probes and to a yeast telomeric junction sequence that contains two copies of the sequence TTAGGG separated by 5 bp. TBF1 appears to be identical to a previously described yeast TTAGGG-repeat binding activity called TBF alpha. TBF1 produced in vitro yields protein-DNA complexes with (TTAGGG)n probes that have mobilities on native polyacrylamide gels identical to those produced by partially purified TBF alpha from yeast cells. Furthermore, when extracts are prepared from a strain containing a TBF1 gene with an antigen tag, we find that the antigen copurifies with the predominant (TTAGGG)n-binding activity in the extracts. The DNA sequence of TBF1 was determined. The predicted protein sequence suggests that TBF1 may contain a nucleotide-binding domain, but no significant similarities to any other known proteins were identified, nor was an obvious DNA-binding motif apparent. Diploid cells heterozygous for a tbf1::URA3 insertion mutation are viable but upon sporulation give rise to tetrads with only two viable spores, both of which are Ura-, indicating that the TBF1 gene is essential for growth. Possible functions of TBF1 (TFB alpha) are discussed in light of these new results. Images PMID:8423796

  10. Repression of Essential Chloroplast Genes Reveals New Signaling Pathways and Regulatory Feedback Loops in Chlamydomonas[W

    PubMed Central

    Ramundo, Silvia; Rahire, Michčle; Schaad, Olivier; Rochaix, Jean-David

    2013-01-01

    Although reverse genetics has been used to elucidate the function of numerous chloroplast proteins, the characterization of essential plastid genes and their role in chloroplast biogenesis and cell survival has not yet been achieved. Therefore, we developed a robust repressible chloroplast gene expression system in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based mainly on a vitamin-repressible riboswitch, and we used this system to study the role of two essential chloroplast genes: ribosomal protein S12 (rps12), encoding a plastid ribosomal protein, and rpoA, encoding the ?-subunit of chloroplast bacterial-like RNA polymerase. Repression of either of these two genes leads to the arrest of cell growth, and it induces a response that involves changes in expression of nuclear genes implicated in chloroplast biogenesis, protein turnover, and stress. This response also leads to the overaccumulation of several plastid transcripts and reveals the existence of multiple negative regulatory feedback loops in the chloroplast gene circuitry. PMID:23292734

  11. Ribosome-controlled transcription termination is essential for the production of antibiotic microcin C

    PubMed Central

    Zukher, Inna; Novikova, Maria; Tikhonov, Anton; Nesterchuk, Mikhail V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Sergiev, Petr V.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Microcin C (McC) is a peptide–nucleotide antibiotic produced by Escherichia coli cells harboring a plasmid-borne operon mccABCDE. The heptapeptide MccA is converted into McC by adenylation catalyzed by the MccB enzyme. Since MccA is a substrate for MccB, a mechanism that regulates the MccA/MccB ratio likely exists. Here, we show that transcription from a promoter located upstream of mccA directs the synthesis of two transcripts: a short highly abundant transcript containing the mccA ORF and a longer minor transcript containing mccA and downstream ORFs. The short transcript is generated when RNA polymerase terminates transcription at an intrinsic terminator located in the intergenic region between the mccA and mccB genes. The function of this terminator is strongly attenuated by upstream mcc sequences. Attenuation is relieved and transcription termination is induced when ribosome binds to the mccA ORF. Ribosome binding also makes the mccA RNA exceptionally stable. Together, these two effects—ribosome-induced transcription termination and stabilization of the message—account for very high abundance of the mccA transcript that is essential for McC production. The general scheme appears to be evolutionary conserved as ribosome-induced transcription termination also occurs in a homologous operon from Helicobacter pylori. PMID:25274735

  12. VITO-1 is an essential cofactor of TEF1-dependent muscle-specific gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Stefan; Mielcarek, Michal; Krüger, Marcus; Braun, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The expression of several muscle-specific genes is partially or completely regulated by MCAT elements, which bind members of the TEF family of transcription factors. TEF1 itself is unable to activate reporter plasmids bearing TEF1-binding sites, suggesting that additional bridging or co-activating factors are necessary to allow interaction of TEF1 with the transcriptional machinery. In addition, none of the known TEF genes are exclusively expressed in the cardiac or skeletal muscle lineage to account for the muscle-specific expression of MCAT-dependent genes. Here we describe that VITO-1, a new SID (scalloped interaction domain)-containing protein, binds to TEF1 in vitro and strongly stimulates transcription of a MCAT reporter plasmid together with TEF-1. Since VITO-1 is predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle lineage, it might serve as an essential transcriptional intermediary factor to promote muscle-specific expression via MCAT cis-regulatory elements. Although VITO-1 alone is not sufficient to initiate myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 fibroblastic cells, it enhanced MyoD-mediated myogenic conversion. In addition, interference with VITO-1 expression by siRNA attenuated differentiation of C2C12 muscle cells and MyoD-dependent myogenesis in 10T1/2 cells. We conclude that VITO-1 is a crucial new cofactor of the muscle regulatory programme. PMID:14762206

  13. Intrinsic biocontainment: multiplex genome safeguards combine transcriptional and recombinational control of essential yeast genes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yizhi; Agmon, Neta; Choi, Woo Jin; Ubide, Alba; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Caravelli, Katrina; Hao, Haiping; Bader, Joel S; Boeke, Jef D

    2015-02-10

    Biocontainment may be required in a wide variety of situations such as work with pathogens, field release applications of engineered organisms, and protection of intellectual properties. Here, we describe the control of growth of the brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using both transcriptional and recombinational "safeguard" control of essential gene function. Practical biocontainment strategies dependent on the presence of small molecules require them to be active at very low concentrations, rendering them inexpensive and difficult to detect. Histone genes were controlled by an inducible promoter and controlled by 30 nM estradiol. The stability of the engineered genes was separately regulated by the expression of a site-specific recombinase. The combined frequency of generating viable derivatives when both systems were active was below detection (<10(-10)), consistent with their orthogonal nature and the individual escape frequencies of <10(-6). Evaluation of escaper mutants suggests strategies for reducing their emergence. Transcript profiling and growth test suggest high fitness of safeguarded strains, an important characteristic for wide acceptance. PMID:25624482

  14. Aberrant methylation of the GCK gene body is associated with the risk of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Wang, Wei-Jie; Zhong, Qi-Long; Duan, Shi-Wei; Xu, Xu-Ting; Hao, Ling-Mei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Li-Na

    2015-08-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is commonly accompanied by a dysfunction of glucose metabolism. Glucokinase (GCK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GCK gene?body methylation contributed to the risk of EH. A total of 47 patients with EH and 47 age?matched controls were recruited for methylation research in the current study. GCK gene?body methylation was measured using bisulphite pyrosequencing technology. DNA methylation levels were closely correlated among CpG1, CpG2 and CpG3 (r>0.70; P<0.001), in contrast with a weaker correlation between CpG4 and the preceding three CpGs (r<0.3 or r=1; P>0.05). Significantly lower CpG1?3 methylation (cases vs. controls, 49.13±5.72 vs. 53.49±7.53%; adjusted P=0.006) and significantly higher CpG4 methylation (cases vs. controls, 46.34±6.48 vs. 34.74±12.73%; adjusted P=0.002) were observed in patients with EH. The present study indicated that aberrant methylation of the GCK gene body was significantly associated with the risk of EH in the population assessed. The discrepancies between CpG1?3 and CpG4 methylation may suggest distinct roles for each of them in the determination of the risk of EH. PMID:25892191

  15. Intrinsic biocontainment: Multiplex genome safeguards combine transcriptional and recombinational control of essential yeast genes

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yizhi; Agmon, Neta; Choi, Woo Jin; Ubide, Alba; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Caravelli, Katrina; Hao, Haiping; Bader, Joel S.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2015-01-01

    Biocontainment may be required in a wide variety of situations such as work with pathogens, field release applications of engineered organisms, and protection of intellectual properties. Here, we describe the control of growth of the brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using both transcriptional and recombinational “safeguard” control of essential gene function. Practical biocontainment strategies dependent on the presence of small molecules require them to be active at very low concentrations, rendering them inexpensive and difficult to detect. Histone genes were controlled by an inducible promoter and controlled by 30 nM estradiol. The stability of the engineered genes was separately regulated by the expression of a site-specific recombinase. The combined frequency of generating viable derivatives when both systems were active was below detection (<10?10), consistent with their orthogonal nature and the individual escape frequencies of <10?6. Evaluation of escaper mutants suggests strategies for reducing their emergence. Transcript profiling and growth test suggest high fitness of safeguarded strains, an important characteristic for wide acceptance. PMID:25624482

  16. Plasma Hydrogen Peroxide Production in Human Essential Hypertension Role of Heredity, Gender, and Ethnicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Lacy; Mala T. Kailasam; Daniel T. O'Connor; Geert W. Schmid-Schonbein; Robert J. Parmer

    Oxygen free radicals, including hydrogen peroxide, may mediate oxidative stress in target organ tissues and contribute to cardiovascular complications in hypertension. To examine heritability of hydrogen peroxide production, we investigated this trait in a family-based cohort consisting of family members (n5236) ascertained through probands (n557) with essential hypertension. Significant effects on hydrogen peroxide production were found for gender and ethnicity,

  17. Cytotoxicity and gene induction by some essential oils in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bakkali, F; Averbeck, S; Averbeck, D; Zhiri, A; Idaomar, M

    2005-08-01

    In order to get an insight into the possible genotoxicity of essential oils (EOs) used in traditional pharmacological applications we tested five different oils extracted from the medicinal plants Origanum compactum, Coriandrum sativum, Artemisia herba alba, Cinnamomum camphora (Ravintsara aromatica) and Helichrysum italicum (Calendula officinalis) for genotoxic effects using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clear cytotoxic effects were observed in the diploid yeast strain D7, with the cells being more sensitive to EOs in exponential than in stationary growth phase. The cytotoxicity decreased in the following order: Origanum compactum>Coriandrum sativum>Artemisia herba alba>Cinnamomum camphora>Helichrysum italicum. In the same order, all EOs, except that derived from Helichrysum italicum, clearly induced cytoplasmic petite mutations indicating damage to mitochondrial DNA. However, no nuclear genetic events such as point mutations or mitotic intragenic or intergenic recombination were induced. The capacity of EOs to induce nuclear DNA damage-responsive genes was tested using suitable Lac-Z fusion strains for RNR3 and RAD51, which are genes involved in DNA metabolism and DNA repair, respectively. At equitoxic doses, all EOs demonstrated significant gene induction, approximately the same as that caused by hydrogen peroxide, but much lower than that caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). EOs affect mitochondrial structure and function and can stimulate the transcriptional expression of DNA damage-responsive genes. The induction of mitochondrial damage by EOs appears to be closely linked to overall cellular cytotoxicity and appears to mask the occurrence of nuclear genetic events. EO-induced cytotoxicity involves oxidative stress, as is evident from the protection observed in the presence of ROS inhibitors such as glutathione, catalase or the iron-chelating agent deferoxamine. PMID:15975845

  18. Mining Predicted Essential Genes of Brugia malayi for Nematode Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Kshitiz; Foster, Jeremy M.; Novelli, Jacopo F.; Zhang, Yinhua; Wang, Shiliang; Spiro, David; Ghedin, Elodie; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression. PMID:18000556

  19. In silico comparative genomics analysis of Plasmodium falciparum for the identification of putative essential genes and therapeutic candidates.

    PubMed

    Rout, Subhashree; Warhurst, David Charles; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta

    2015-02-01

    A sequence of computational methods was used for predicting novel drug targets against drug resistant malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative genomics, orthologous protein analysis among same and other malaria parasites and protein-protein interaction study provide us new insights into determining the essential genes and novel therapeutic candidates. Among the predicted list of 21 essential proteins from unique pathways, 11 proteins were prioritized as anti-malarial drug targets. As a case study, we built homology models of two uncharacterized proteins using MODELLER v9.13 software from possible templates. Functional annotation of these proteins was done by the InterPro databases and from ProBiS server by comparison of predicted binding site residues. The model has been subjected to in silico docking study with screened potent lead compounds from the ZINC database by Dock Blaster software using AutoDock 4. Results from this study facilitate the selection of proteins and putative inhibitors for entry into drug design production pipelines. PMID:25486552

  20. Regulation of photoreceptor gene expression by the retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I.; Lou, Chih-Hong; Nekkalapudi, Srivamsi; Kelly, Lisa E.; Sater, Amy K.; El-Hodiri, Heithem M.

    2010-01-01

    The retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product is essential for eye development. However little is known about its molecular function. It has been demonstrated that Rx binds to photoreceptor conserved element (PCE-1), a highly conserved element found in the promoter region of photoreceptor-specific genes such as rhodopsin and red cone opsin. We verify that Rx is co-expressed with rhodopsin and red cone opsin in maturing photoreceptors and demonstrate that Rx binds to the rhodopsin and red cone opsin promoters in vivo. We also find that Rx can cooperate with the Xenopus analogs of Crx and Nrl, otx5b and XLMaf (respectively), to activate a Xenopus opsin promoter-dependent reporter. Finally, we demonstrate that reduction of Rx expression in tadpoles results in decreases in expression of several PCE-1 containing photoreceptor genes, abnormal photoreceptor morphology, and impaired vision. Our data suggests that Rx, in combination with other transcription factors, is necessary for normal photoreceptor gene expression, maintenance, and function. This establishes a direct role for Rx in regulation of genes expressed in a differentiated cell type. PMID:20060393

  1. A study of the production of essential oils in chamomile hairy root cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Máday; É. Szöke; Zs. Muskáth; É. Lemberkovics

    1999-01-01

    Summary  The active substances in chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) belong to chemically different structural types. The largest group of medically important compounds forming the essential\\u000a oils are primarily chamazulene, (?)-?-bisabolol, bisabololoxides, bisabolonoxide A,trans-?-farnesene, ?-farnesene, spathulenol and thecis\\/trans-en-in-dicycloethers. Flavonoids, coumarins, mucilages, mono- and oligosaccharides also have pharmacological effects. We studied\\u000a the production of essential oils in genetically transformed cultures. Sterile juvenile chamomile

  2. Characterization of an SNR gene locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that specifies both dispensible and essential small nuclear RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Zagorski, J; Tollervey, D; Fournier, M J

    1988-01-01

    A genetic locus is described that specifies two Saccharomyces cerevisiae small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). The genes specifying the two snRNAs are separated by only 67 base pairs and are transcribed in the same direction. The product RNAs contain 128 and 190 nucleotides and are designated snR128 and snR190, respectively. These RNAs resemble snRNAs of other eucaryotes in nuclear localization and possession of a 5' trimethylguanosine cap. Neither snRNA is related in sequence to previously described vertebrate or yeast snRNAs. Both RNAs exhibit properties consistent with nucleolar organization and hydrogen bonding to pre-rRNA species, suggesting possible roles in ribosome biogenesis. The snR128 species cosediments with deproteinized 27S pre-rRNA, whereas snR190 is associated with a 20S intermediate. Gene disruption in vitro followed by replacement of the chromosomal alleles reveals that SNR128 is essential, whereas SNR190 is not. Images PMID:2850487

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Pep5, a Gene Essential for Vacuolar Biogenesis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, C. A.; Dixon, C. K.; Manolson, M. F.; Wright, R.; Jones, E. W.

    1990-01-01

    pep5 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulate inactive precursors to the vacuolar hydrolases. The PEP5 gene was isolated from a genomic DNA library by complementation of the pep5-8 mutation. Deletion analysis localized the complementing activity to a 3.3-kb DNA fragment. DNA sequence analysis of the PEP5 gene revealed an open reading frame of 1029 codons with a calculated molecular mass for the encoded protein of 117,403 D. Deletion/disruption of the PEP5 gene did not kill the cells. The resulting strains grow very slowly at 37°. The disruption mutant showed greatly decreased activities of all vacuolar hydrolases examined, including PrA, PrB, CpY, and the repressible alkaline phosphatase. Apparently normal precursor forms of the proteases accumulated in pep5 mutants, as did novel forms of PrB antigen. Antibodies raised to a fusion protein that contained almost half of the PEP5 open reading frame allowed detection by immunoblot of a protein of relative molecular mass 107 kD in extracts prepared from wild-type cells. Cell fractionation showed the PEP5 gene product is enriched in the vacuolar fraction and appears to be a peripheral vacuolar membrane protein. PMID:2204580

  4. The you gene encodes an EGF-CUB protein essential for Hedgehog signaling in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Woods, Ian G; Talbot, William S

    2005-03-01

    Hedgehog signaling is required for many aspects of development in vertebrates and invertebrates. Misregulation of the Hedgehog pathway causes developmental abnormalities and has been implicated in certain types of cancer. Large-scale genetic screens in zebrafish have identified a group of mutations, termed you-class mutations, that share common defects in somite shape and in most cases disrupt Hedgehog signaling. These mutant embryos exhibit U-shaped somites characteristic of defects in slow muscle development. In addition, Hedgehog pathway mutations disrupt spinal cord patterning. We report the positional cloning of you, one of the original you-class mutations, and show that it is required for Hedgehog signaling in the development of slow muscle and in the specification of ventral fates in the spinal cord. The you gene encodes a novel protein with conserved EGF and CUB domains and a secretory pathway signal sequence. Epistasis experiments support an extracellular role for You upstream of the Hedgehog response mechanism. Analysis of chimeras indicates that you mutant cells can appropriately respond to Hedgehog signaling in a wild-type environment. Additional chimera analysis indicates that wild-type you gene function is not required in axial Hedgehog-producing cells, suggesting that You is essential for transport or stability of Hedgehog signals in the extracellular environment. Our positional cloning and functional studies demonstrate that You is a novel extracellular component of the Hedgehog pathway in vertebrates. PMID:15660164

  5. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYO2 gene encodes an essential myosin for vectorial transport of vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    After the initiation of bud formation, cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae direct new growth to the developing bud. We show here that this vectorial growth is facilitated by activity of the MYO2 gene. The wild-type MYO2 gene encodes an essential form of myosin composed of an NH2-terminal domain typical of the globular, actin-binding domain of other myosins. This NH2-terminal domain is linked by what appears to be a short alpha-helical domain to a novel COOH-terminal region. At the restrictive temperature the myo2-66 mutation does not impair DNA, RNA, or protein biosynthetic activity, but produces unbudded, enlarged cells. This phenotype suggests a defect in localization of cell growth. Measurements of cell size demonstrated that the continued development of initiated buds, as well as bud initiation itself, is inhibited. Bulk secretion continues in mutant cells, although secretory vesicles accumulate. The MYO2 myosin thus may function as the molecular motor to transport secretory vesicles along actin cables to the site of bud development. PMID:2016335

  6. AUT1, a gene essential for autophagocytosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpberger, M; Schaeffeler, E; Straub, M; Bredschneider, M; Wolf, D H; Thumm, M

    1997-01-01

    Autophagocytosis is a starvation-induced process responsible for transport of cytoplasmic proteins to the vacuole. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, autophagy is characterized by the phenotypic appearance of autophagic vesicles inside the vacuole of strains deficient in proteinase yscB. The AUT1 gene, essential for autophagy, was isolated by complementation of the sporulation deficiency of a diploid aut1-1 mutant strain by a yeast genomic library and characterized. AUT1 is located on the right arm of chromosome XIV, 10 kb from the centromere, and encodes a protein of 310 amino acids, with an estimated molecular weight of 36 kDa. Cells carrying a chromosomal deletion of AUT1 are defective in the starvation-induced bulk flow transport of cytoplasmic proteins to the vacuole. aut1 null mutant strains are completely viable but show decreased survival rates during starvation. Homozygous delta aut1 diploid cells fail to sporulate. The selective cytoplasm-to-vacuole transport of aminopeptidase I is blocked in logarithmically growing and in starved delta autl cells. Deletion of the AUT1 gene had no obvious influence on secretion, fluid phase endocytosis, or vacuolar protein sorting. This supports the idea of autophagocytosis as being a novel route transporting proteins from the cytoplasm to the vacuole. PMID:9023185

  7. A New Biological Rhythm Mutant of Drosophila Melanogaster That Identifies a Gene with an Essential Embryonic Function

    PubMed Central

    Newby, L. M.; Jackson, F. R.

    1993-01-01

    To identify components of a circadian pacemaker output pathway, we have sought Drosophila mutations that alter the timing of eclosion but do not perturb circadian period or the expression of the activity rhythm. A mutant named lark has been identified, for which daily peaks of eclosion occur abnormally early while populations are synchronized to either light/dark or temperature cycles. The temporal phasing of locomotor activity in lark mutants, however, is entirely normal, as is the free-running period of the circadian pacemaker. The lark strain carries a single P-element insertion which, interestingly, has a dominant effect on the timing of eclosion, but is also associated with a recessive embryonic lethal phenotype. The analysis of excision-generated alleles suggests that the lark gene encodes an essential function. This function is apparently mediated by a transcription unit that is interrupted by the P-induced lark mutation. A combination of in situ hybridization analysis and reporter (?-gal) staining indicates that this transcription unit expresses mRNAs throughout the embryonic central nervous system and in a defined subset of cells in the nervous system of pharate adults. RNAs are first detected at about embryonic stage 11, just prior to the stage at which lethality occurs in lark homozygotes. Based primarily on the observed mutant phenotypes, a function is proposed for the LARK product(s) that is consistent with the pleiotropic nature of lark mutations. PMID:8307324

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans dpy-14 : an essential collagen gene with unique expression profile and physiological roles in early development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Gallo; Allan K. Mah; Robert C. Johnsen; Ann M. Rose; David L. Baillie

    2006-01-01

    We describe the molecular characterisation of Caenorhabditis elegans dpy-14, a gene encoding an essential cuticular collagen annotated as col-59. Expression of dpy-14 starts at the 16 E cell stage, making it the earliest-expressing collagen reported to date. SAGE data and dpy-14 promoter::GFP reporter constructs indicate that the gene is transcribed mainly during embryogenesis, specifically in ciliated neurons and hypoderm. Water

  9. 29 CFR 779.105 - Employees engaged in activities “closely related” and “directly essential” to the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...relatedâ and âdirectly essentialâ to the production of goods for commerce. 779.105...Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.105...and “directly essential” to the production of goods for commerce. Some...

  10. 29 CFR 779.105 - Employees engaged in activities “closely related” and “directly essential” to the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...relatedâ and âdirectly essentialâ to the production of goods for commerce. 779.105...Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.105...and “directly essential” to the production of goods for commerce. Some...

  11. Association of ACE, FABP2 and GST genes polymorphism with essential hypertension risk among a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Shania; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Chandra, Anu; Rizvi, Saliha; Ahmed, Faisal; Eba, Ale; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-10-30

    Abstract Background: Hypertension has a multi-factorial background based on genetic and environmental interactive factors. ACE, FABP2 and GST genes have been suggested to be involved in the development of hypertension. However, the results have been inconsistent. Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the association of ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883) and GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphism with essential HTN cases and controls. Subjects and methods: This study includes 138 essential hypertension (HTN) patients and 116 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched control subjects. GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphisms were evaluated by multiplex PCR, ACE (rs4646994) gene polymorphisms by PCR and FABP2 (rs1799883) gene polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Results: Significant differences were obtained in the frequencies of ACE DD, II genotype (p?=?0.006, 0.003), GSTT1 null, GSTM1 positive genotype (p?=?0.048, 0.010) and FABP2 Ala54/Ala54 genotype (p?=?0.049) between essential HTN cases and controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that ACE (rs 4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883) and GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphism are associated with HTN. Further investigation with a larger sample size may be required to validate this study. PMID:25357227

  12. Identifying Druggable Disease-Modifying Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Scott J.; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Many disease genes encode proteins that are difficult to target directly using small molecule drugs. Improvements in libraries based on synthetic compounds, natural product and other types of molecules may ultimately allow some challenging proteins to be successfully targeted; however, these developments alone are unlikely to be sufficient. A complementary strategy exploits the functional interconnectivity of intracellular networks to find druggable targets, lying upstream, downstream or in parallel to a disease-causing gene, where modulation can influence the disease process indirectly. These targets can be selected using prior knowledge of disease-associated pathways or identified using phenotypic chemical and genetic screens in model organisms and cells. These approaches should facilitate the development of effective drugs for many genetic disorders. PMID:19740696

  13. Product 0-4661-P2 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF CDA MASTER CONTRACT

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Product 0-4661-P2 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF CDA MASTER CONTRACT Authors: James T. O'Connor G. Edward, and the Texas Department of Transportation. Abstract: This paper includes an overview of CDA Master Contract elements, a matrix of fundamental differences between CDA versus traditional contracting, and a set

  14. Urease and Nitrification Retardation Properties in Natural Essential Oils and Their By?products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Patra; Usha Kiran; Preeti Pande

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted with the natural essential oil of peppermint (Mentha spicata, MS), dementholized oil (DMO), terpenes, and a chemical inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD), as coating materials for retardation of soil urea hydrolysis and nitrification. Retardation of nitrification was highest with DCD. The urea hydrolysis and nitrification processes were inhibited by all three natural products. Intensity of inhibition

  15. A fungal conserved gene from the basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum is essential for efficient ectomycorrhiza formation.

    PubMed

    Doré, Jeanne; Marmeisse, Roland; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    We used Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis to identify genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum that are essential for efficient mycorrhiza formation. One of the mutants presented a dramatically reduced ability to form ectomycorrhizas when grown in the presence of Pinus pinaster. It failed to form mycorrhizas in the presence of glucose at 0.5 g liter(-1), a condition favorable for mycorrhiza formation by the wild-type strain. However, it formed few mycorrhizas when glucose was replaced by fructose or when glucose concentration was increased to 1 g liter(-1). Scanning electron microscopy examination of these mycorrhizas revealed that this mutant was unable to differentiate true fungal sheath and Hartig net. Molecular analyses showed that the single-copy disrupting T-DNA was integrated 6,884 bp downstream from the start codon, of an open reading frame potentially encoding a 3,096-amino-acid-long protein. This gene, which we named HcMycE1, has orthologs in numerous fungi as well as different other eukaryotic microorganisms. RNAi inactivation of HcMycE1 in the wild-type strain also led to a mycorrhizal defect, demonstrating that the nonmycorrhizal phenotype of the mutant was due to mutagenic T-DNA integration in HcMycE1. In the wild-type strain colonizing P. pinaster roots, HcMycE1 was transiently upregulated before symbiotic structure differentiation. Together with the inability of the mutant to differentiate these structures, this suggests that HcMycE1 plays a crucial role upstream of the fungal sheath and Hartig net differentiation. This study provides the first characterization of a fungal mutant altered in mycorrhizal ability. PMID:24918768

  16. Methylation silencing of ULK2, an autophagy gene, is essential for astrocyte transformation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sudhanshu; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Patil, Vikas; Shwetha, Shivayogi D; Hegde, Alangar S; Chandramouli, Bangalore A; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Santosh, Vani; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2014-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and shows very poor prognosis. Here, using genome-wide methylation analysis, we show that G-CIMP+ and G-CIMP-subtypes enrich distinct classes of biological processes. One of the hypermethylated genes in GBM, ULK2, an upstream autophagy inducer, was found to be down-regulated in GBM. Promoter hypermethylation of ULK2 was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. GBM and glioma cell lines had low levels of ULK2 transcripts, which could be reversed upon methylation inhibitor treatment. ULK2 promoter methylation and transcript levels showed significant negative correlation. Ectopic overexpression of ULK2-induced autophagy, which further enhanced upon nutrient starvation or temozolomide chemotherapy. ULK2 also inhibited the growth of glioma cells, which required autophagy induction as kinase mutant of ULK2 failed to induce autophagy and inhibit growth. Furthermore, ULK2 induced autophagy and inhibited growth in Ras-transformed immortalized Baby Mouse Kidney (iBMK) ATG5(+/+) but not in autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) cells. Growth inhibition due to ULK2 induced high levels of autophagy under starvation or chemotherapy utilized apoptotic cell death but not at low levels of autophagy. Growth inhibition by ULK2 also appears to involve catalase degradation and reactive oxygen species generation. ULK2 overexpression inhibited anchorage independent growth, inhibited astrocyte transformation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Of all autophagy genes, we found ULK2 and its homologue ULK1 were only down-regulated in all grades of glioma. Thus these results altogether suggest that inhibition of autophagy by ULK1/2 down-regulation is essential for glioma development. PMID:24923441

  17. Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase is not a rate-determining enzyme for essential oil production in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muńoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) is an economically important aromatic plant producing essential oils, whose components (mostly monoterpenes) are mainly synthesized through the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS), that catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, plays a crucial role in monoterpene precursors biosynthesis in spike lavender. To date, however, it is not known whether the DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), that catalyzes the conversion of DXP into MEP, is also a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in spike lavender. To investigate it, we generated transgenic spike lavender plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana DXR gene. Although two out of the seven transgenic T0 plants analyzed accumulated more essential oils than the controls, this is hardly imputable to the DXR transgene effect since a clear correlation between transcript accumulation and monoterpene production could not be established. Furthermore, these increased essential oil phenotypes were not maintained in their respective T1 progenies. Similar results were obtained when total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in both T0 transgenic plants and their progenies were analyzed. Our results then demonstrate that DXR enzyme does not play a crucial role in the synthesis of plastidial monoterpene precursors, suggesting that the control flux of the MEP pathway in spike lavender is primarily exerted by the DXS enzyme. PMID:25151124

  18. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5?days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22?days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5?days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4?>?O1?>?O6?>?O5?>?O2?>?O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5?days of treatment and decreased after 22?days. PMID:23409841

  19. TSHZ1-dependent gene regulation is essential for olfactory bulb development and olfaction.

    PubMed

    Ragancokova, Daniela; Rocca, Elena; Oonk, Anne M M; Schulz, Herbert; Rohde, Elvira; Bednarsch, Jan; Feenstra, Ilse; Pennings, Ronald J E; Wende, Hagen; Garratt, Alistair N

    2014-03-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) receives odor information from the olfactory epithelium and relays this to the olfactory cortex. Using a mouse model, we found that development and maturation of OB interneurons depends on the zinc finger homeodomain factor teashirt zinc finger family member 1 (TSHZ1). In mice lacking TSHZ1, neuroblasts exhibited a normal tangential migration to the OB; however, upon arrival to the OB, the neuroblasts were distributed aberrantly within the radial dimension, and many immature neuroblasts failed to exit the rostral migratory stream. Conditional deletion of Tshz1 in mice resulted in OB hypoplasia and severe olfactory deficits. We therefore investigated olfaction in human subjects from families with congenital aural atresia that were heterozygous for TSHZ1 loss-of-function mutations. These individuals displayed hyposmia, which is characterized by impaired odor discrimination and reduced olfactory sensitivity. Microarray analysis, in situ hybridization, and ChIP revealed that TSHZ1 bound to and regulated expression of the gene encoding prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2), a G protein–coupled receptor essential for OB development. Mutations in PROKR2 lead to Kallmann syndrome, characterized by anosmia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Our data indicate that TSHZ1 is a key regulator of mammalian OB development and function and controls the expression of molecules involved in human Kallmann syndrome. PMID:24487590

  20. TSHZ1-dependent gene regulation is essential for olfactory bulb development and olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Ragancokova, Daniela; Rocca, Elena; Oonk, Anne M.M.; Schulz, Herbert; Rohde, Elvira; Bednarsch, Jan; Feenstra, Ilse; Pennings, Ronald J.E.; Wende, Hagen; Garratt, Alistair N.

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) receives odor information from the olfactory epithelium and relays this to the olfactory cortex. Using a mouse model, we found that development and maturation of OB interneurons depends on the zinc finger homeodomain factor teashirt zinc finger family member 1 (TSHZ1). In mice lacking TSHZ1, neuroblasts exhibited a normal tangential migration to the OB; however, upon arrival to the OB, the neuroblasts were distributed aberrantly within the radial dimension, and many immature neuroblasts failed to exit the rostral migratory stream. Conditional deletion of Tshz1 in mice resulted in OB hypoplasia and severe olfactory deficits. We therefore investigated olfaction in human subjects from families with congenital aural atresia that were heterozygous for TSHZ1 loss-of-function mutations. These individuals displayed hyposmia, which is characterized by impaired odor discrimination and reduced olfactory sensitivity. Microarray analysis, in situ hybridization, and ChIP revealed that TSHZ1 bound to and regulated expression of the gene encoding prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2), a G protein–coupled receptor essential for OB development. Mutations in PROKR2 lead to Kallmann syndrome, characterized by anosmia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Our data indicate that TSHZ1 is a key regulator of mammalian OB development and function and controls the expression of molecules involved in human Kallmann syndrome. PMID:24487590

  1. Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Targeted to an Essential Gene Inhibit Burkholderia cepacia complex

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, David E.; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly R.; Brinster, Lauren R.; Zarember, Kol A.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Mellbye, Brett L.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Holland, Steven M.; Geller, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Many Bcc strains are antibiotic resistant requiring the exploration of novel antimicrobial approaches including antisense technologies, such as phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs). Methods: Peptide-conjugated PMOs (PPMOs) were developed to target the acpP gene, encoding an acyl carrier protein thought to be essential for growth. Their antimicrobial activities were tested against different strains of Bcc in vitro and in infection models. Results: PPMOs targeting acpP were bactericidal against clinical isolates of Bcc (> 4 log reduction), whereas a PPMO with a scrambled base sequence (Scr) had no effect on growth. Human neutrophils (PMN) were infected with B. multivorans, and treated with AcpP PPMO. AcpP PPMO augmented killing compared to PMN alone ± Scr PPMO. CGD mice infected with B. multivorans were treated with AcpP PPMO, Scr PPMO or water at 0, 3 and 6 hours post-infection. Compared to water treated controls, the AcpP PPMO treated mice showed a ~80% reduction in the risk of dying by day 30 and relatively little pathology. Conclusions: AcpP PPMO is active against Bcc infections in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20438352

  2. Getting essential health products to their end users: Subsidize, but how much?

    PubMed Central

    Dupas, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    Although coverage rates and health outcomes are improving, many poor people around the world still do not benefit from essential health products. An estimated two-thirds of child deaths could be prevented with increased coverage of products such as vaccines, point-of-use water treatment, iron fortification, and insecticide-treated bednets. What limits the flow of products from the producer's laboratory bench to the end users, and what can be done about it? Recent empirical research suggests a crucial role for heavy subsidies. PMID:25214612

  3. Identification of alcA, a Bordetella bronchiseptica gene necessary for alcaligin production.

    PubMed

    Giardina, P C; Foster, L A; Toth, S I; Roe, B A; Dyer, D W

    1995-12-29

    The alcA gene, essential for the production of the dihydroxamate siderophore, alcaligin, by Bordetella bronchiseptica, was cloned and sequenced. The alcA gene was identified on a 4.7-kb EcoRI genomic fragment adjacent to a Tn5lac transposon insertion that inactivated alcaligin production in strain MBORD846. Analysis of the alcA nucleotide sequence revealed a putative Fur-binding site, suggesting that expression of this gene is repressed by iron. The deduced amino-acid sequence of this open reading frame had significant homology with the Escherichia coli iucD gene product, an enzyme required for biosynthesis of the dihydroxamate siderophore aerobactin. PMID:8566764

  4. Combining Hierarchical and Associative Gene Ontology Relations with Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2007-03-01

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the Gene Ontology, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology (GO) annotations associated with the genes or gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene subontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene subontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy, and demonstrate that further improvements can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  5. Efficacy of Cuminum cyminum essential oil on FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides strains

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Mokhtari, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) essential oil on the growth and FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides) strains isolated from maize. Materials and Methods: All fungal strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slopes at 30°C for 7 days. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. One set of primers was F. verticillioides species specific, which selectively amplified the intergenic space region of rDNA. The other set of primers was specific to FUM1 gene region of fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides. FUM1 transcript levels were quantified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of C. cyminum oil against F. verticillioides strains varied from 0.195 to 0.781 µl.ml-1 (mean MIC value: 0.461 µl.ml-1) indicating 54.5% of the fungal strains inhibited at 0.390 µl.ml-1. PCR analysis of FUM1 gene expression revealed that DNA fragment of 183 bp was amplified in all the isolates of F. verticillioides before treatment with C. cyminum essential oil. Based on RT-PCR analyses, reduction in the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes was significant only for FUM1 gene (p<0.05), while no effect was observed on ITS gene. Conclusions: This study showed that all F. verticillioides isolates were susceptible to C. cyminum essential oil, indicating a significant reduction in the growth of fungal isolates. In addition, this oil completely inhibited the expression of FUM1 gene in concentrations dose-dependently. PMID:25767755

  6. Effect of yeast fumarase gene ( FUM1) disruption on production of malic, fumaric and succinic acids in sake mash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Magarifuchi; Kuniyasu Goto; Yuzuru Iimura; Makoto Tadenuma; Gakuzo Tamura

    1995-01-01

    Organic acids are essential flavor components in alcoholic beverages such as wine and sake (Japanese rice wine). The effects of fumarase deficiency on the productivity of malic, fumaric and succinic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined using the FUM1 gene disruptant. The single nuclear gene FUM1 encoding fumarase in S. cerevisiae, DBY746, was disrupted by a site-directed one-step gene disruption

  7. Generation of a Complete Single-Gene Knockout Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of Cowpox Virus and Identification of Its Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiyong; Zikos, Dimitrios; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus in the Poxviridae family. It infects a broad range of vertebrates and can cause zoonotic infections. CPXV has the largest genome among the orthopoxviruses and is therefore considered to have the most complete set of genes of all members of the genus. Since CPXV has also become a model for studying poxvirus genetics and pathogenesis, we created and characterized a complete set of single gene knockout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of the CPXV strain Brighton Red. These mutants allow a systematic assessment of the contribution of single CPXV genes to the outcome of virus infection and replication, as well as to the virus host range. A full-length BAC clone of CPXV strain Brighton Red (pBRF) harboring the gene expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of a viral late promoter was modified by introducing the mrfp1 gene encoding the monomeric red fluorescent protein driven by a synthetic early vaccinia virus promoter. Based on the modified BAC (pBRFseR), a library of targeted knockout mutants for each single viral open reading frame (ORF) was generated. Reconstitution of infectious virus was successful for 109 of the 183 mutant BAC clones, indicating that the deleted genes are not essential for virus replication. In contrast, 74 ORFs were identified as essential because no virus progeny was obtained upon transfection of the mutant BAC clones and in the presence of a helper virus. More than 70% of all late CPXV genes belonged to this latter group of essential genes. PMID:24155400

  8. [Substantiation studies for a method of enriching sour milk products with essential fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Pokrovski?, A A; Korobkina, G S; Brents, M Ia; Biriukova, Z A; Kurbatova, N Ia

    1978-01-01

    Comparative investigations were conducted to produce arguments in favour of technology employed in preparing special acidified dairy products with an elevated proportion of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids for baby and dietetic nutrition. These investigations included a study into oxidative changes occurring in the vegetable oil during preparation of acidified milk by following two technological patterns that provide for introduction of the vegetable oil into the milk prior to its souring and into sour milk. PMID:580662

  9. The Candida albicans UBI3 gene encoding a hybrid ubiquitin fusion protein involved in ribosome biogenesis is essential for growth.

    PubMed

    Roig, Patricia; Gozalbo, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    We have constructed a conditional null mutant Candida albicans strain for the UBI3 gene which encodes a ubiquitin fusion protein involved in ribosome biogenesis. A one-step gene disruption procedure, using the plasmid pCaDis, was designed to place the second copy of the UBI3 gene under the control of the tightly regulated MET3 promoter in a C. albicans heterozygous strain (UBI3/Deltaubi3::hisG), previously isolated in the first step of the ura-blaster protocol. Analysis of the conditional null mutant in repressing and inducing conditions indicates that UBI3 is an essential gene whose expression is required for growth of C. albicans. PMID:12702318

  10. Disruption of six open reading frames on chromosome X of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a cluster of four essential genes.

    PubMed

    Esser, K; Scholle, B; Michaelis, G

    1999-07-01

    In this study we report the construction and basic phenotypic analysis of six Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. The open reading frames (ORFs) YJL008C (gene symbol CCT8), YJL010C, YJL011C, YJL012C, YJL017W, and YJL020C from chromosome X have been disrupted by integration of deletion cassettes, comprising the bacterial KanMX4 marker gene and terminal long (LFH) or short (SFH) flanking sequences that are homologous to the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the respective ORFs. For correct disruption of ORF YJL008C, it was necessary to construct a deletion cassette flanked by 300-350 bp long target guide sequences by LFH-PCR. Transformations using ORF YJL008C gene disruption cassettes synthesized by standard SFH-PCR exclusively resulted in false-positive or multiple integration events, probably because seven additional genes homologous to CCT8 exist in the yeast genome. The other five ORFs have been disrupted using cassettes generated by SFH-PCR, comprising terminal homologous regions of approximately 50 bp to each target site. Correct genomic integration of the reporter modules was verified by analytical PCR and Southern hybridization. Deletion of YJL008C, YJL010C, YJL011C, and YJL012C was found to be lethal, as shown by sporulation and tetrad analysis. This result is in contrast to the finding that only 16-20% of the genes in S. cerevisiae are estimated to be essential. The four essential genes described in this work are clustered, while the two other non-essential ORFs are separated by further ORFs. Although the two viable deletion mutants were tested against 60 different inhibitors, heavy metal ions and salts, no phenotype could be detected that co-segregated with the deletion during meiosis. PMID:10407272

  11. The essential Escherichia coli msgB gene, a multicopy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive allele of the heat shock gene grpE, is identical to dapE.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, B; Georgopoulos, C; Ang, D

    1992-01-01

    The grpE gene product is one of three Escherichia coli heat shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that are essential for both bacteriophage lambda DNA replication and bacterial growth at all temperatures. In an effort to determine the role of GrpE and to identify other factors that it may interact with, we isolated multicopy suppressors of the grpE280 point mutation, as judged by their ability to reverse the temperature-sensitive phenotype of grpE280. Here we report the characterization of one of them, designated msgB. The msgB gene maps at approximately 53 min on the E. coli chromosome. The minimal gene possesses an open reading frame that encodes a protein with a predicted size of 41,269 M(r). This open reading frame was confirmed the correct one by direct amino-terminal sequence analysis of the overproduced msgB gene product. Genetic experiments demonstrated that msgB is essential for E. coli growth in the temperature range of 22 to 37 degrees C. Through a sequence homology search, MsgB was shown to be identical to N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (the dapE gene product), which participates in the diaminopimelic acid-lysine pathway involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Consistent with this finding, the msgB null allele mutant is viable only when the growth medium is supplemented with diaminopimelic acid. These results suggest that GrpE may have a previously unsuspected function(s) in cell wall biosynthesis in E. coli. Images PMID:1644751

  12. Screen for mitochondrial DNA copy number maintenance genes reveals essential role for ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Fukuoh, Atsushi; Cannino, Giuseppe; Gerards, Mike; Buckley, Suzanne; Kazancioglu, Selena; Scialo, Filippo; Lihavainen, Eero; Ribeiro, Andre; Dufour, Eric; Jacobs, Howard T

    2014-01-01

    The machinery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance is only partially characterized and is of wide interest due to its involvement in disease. To identify novel components of this machinery, plus other cellular pathways required for mtDNA viability, we implemented a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells, assaying for loss of fluorescence of mtDNA nucleoids stained with the DNA-intercalating agent PicoGreen. In addition to previously characterized components of the mtDNA replication and transcription machineries, positives included many proteins of the cytosolic proteasome and ribosome (but not the mitoribosome), three proteins involved in vesicle transport, some other factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or nuclear gene expression, > 30 mainly uncharacterized proteins and most subunits of ATP synthase (but no other OXPHOS complex). ATP synthase knockdown precipitated a burst of mitochondrial ROS production, followed by copy number depletion involving increased mitochondrial turnover, not dependent on the canonical autophagy machinery. Our findings will inform future studies of the apparatus and regulation of mtDNA maintenance, and the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and signaling in modulating mtDNA copy number. PMID:24952591

  13. Screen for mitochondrial DNA copy number maintenance genes reveals essential role for ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoh, Atsushi; Cannino, Giuseppe; Gerards, Mike; Buckley, Suzanne; Kazancioglu, Selena; Scialo, Filippo; Lihavainen, Eero; Ribeiro, Andre; Dufour, Eric; Jacobs, Howard T

    2014-01-01

    The machinery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance is only partially characterized and is of wide interest due to its involvement in disease. To identify novel components of this machinery, plus other cellular pathways required for mtDNA viability, we implemented a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells, assaying for loss of fluorescence of mtDNA nucleoids stained with the DNA-intercalating agent PicoGreen. In addition to previously characterized components of the mtDNA replication and transcription machineries, positives included many proteins of the cytosolic proteasome and ribosome (but not the mitoribosome), three proteins involved in vesicle transport, some other factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or nuclear gene expression, > 30 mainly uncharacterized proteins and most subunits of ATP synthase (but no other OXPHOS complex). ATP synthase knockdown precipitated a burst of mitochondrial ROS production, followed by copy number depletion involving increased mitochondrial turnover, not dependent on the canonical autophagy machinery. Our findings will inform future studies of the apparatus and regulation of mtDNA maintenance, and the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and signaling in modulating mtDNA copy number. PMID:24952591

  14. Products of lipid, protein and RNA oxidation as signals and regulators of gene expression in plants

    PubMed Central

    Chmielowska-B?k, Jagna; Izbia?ska, Karolina; Deckert, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are engaged in several processes essential for normal cell functioning, such as differentiation, anti-microbial defense, stimulus sensing and signaling. Interestingly, recent studies imply that cellular signal transduction and gene regulation are mediated not only directly by ROS but also by the molecules derived from ROS-mediated oxidation. Lipid peroxidation leads to non-enzymatic formation of oxylipins. These molecules were shown to modulate expression of signaling associated genes including genes encoding phosphatases, kinases and transcription factors. Oxidized peptides derived from protein oxidation might be engaged in organelle-specific ROS signaling. In turn, oxidation of particular mRNAs leads to decrease in the level of encoded proteins and thus, contributes to the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Present mini review summarizes latest findings concerning involvement of products of lipid, protein and RNA oxidation in signal transduction and gene regulation. PMID:26082792

  15. The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Luini, Alessandra; Bombelli, Raffaella; Corasaniti, Maria T; Bagetta, Giacinto; Marino, Franca

    2014-08-01

    Bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia) essential oil (BEO) is used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and anthelminthic and to facilitate wound healing. Evidence indicates that BEO has substantial antimicrobial activity; however its effects on immunity have never been examined. We studied the effects of BEO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the role of Ca(2+) in the functional responses evoked by BEO in these cells. Results show that BEO increased intracellular ROS production in human PMN, an effect that required the contribution of extracellular (and, to a lesser extent, of intracellular) Ca(2+) . Bergamot essential oil also significantly increased ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and reduced the response to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the ability of BEO to increase ROS production in human PMN. This effect could both contribute to the activity of BEO in infections and in tissue healing as well as underlie an intrinsic proinflammatory potential. The relevance of these findings for the clinical uses of BEO needs careful consideration. PMID:24458921

  16. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus growth and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Hua, Huijuan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150-250 µL/L with fumigation and 250-500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ? 100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ? 75 µg/mL and ? 150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn't fully inhibit OTA production at ? 200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Aspergillus ochraceus Growth and Ochratoxin A Production

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150–250 µL/L with fumigation and 250–500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ?100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ?75 µg/mL and ?150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn’t fully inhibit OTA production at ?200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  18. Identification of 113 conserved essential genes using a high-throughput gene disruption system in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane A. Thanassi; Sandra L. Hartman-Neumann; Thomas J. Dougherty; Brian A. Dougherty; Michael J. Pucci

    2002-01-01

    The recent availability of bacterial genome sequence information permits the identification of conserved genes that are potential targets for novel antibiotic drug discovery. Using a coupled bioinfor- matic\\/experimental approach, a list of candidate conserved genes was generated using a Microbial Concordance bioinformatics tool followed by a targeted disruption campaign. Pneumococcal sequence data allowed for the design of precise PCR primers

  19. The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF78 is essential for budded virus production and general occlusion body formation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xue Ying; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Joo Hyun; Liu, Qin; Kim, Song Eun; An, Saes Byeol; Lee, Seok Hee; Woo, Soo Dong; Jin, Byung Rae; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-08-01

    ORF78 (ac78) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a baculovirus core gene of unknown function. To determine the role of ac78 in the baculovirus life cycle, an AcMNPV mutant with ac78 deleted, Ac78KO, was constructed. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that ac78 is a late gene in the viral life cycle. After transfection into Spodoptera frugiperda cells, Ac78KO produced a single-cell infection phenotype, indicating that no infectious budded viruses (BVs) were produced. The defect in BV production was also confirmed by both viral titration and Western blotting. However, viral DNA replication was unaffected, and occlusion bodies were formed. An analysis of BVs and occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) revealed that AC78 is associated with both forms of the virions and is an envelope structural protein. Electron microscopy revealed that AC78 also plays an important role in the embedding of ODV into the occlusion body. The results of this study demonstrate that AC78 is a late virion-associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle. PMID:23698311

  20. A Yeast Gene that is Essential for Release from Glucose Repression Encodes a Protein Kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Celenza; Marian Carlson

    1986-01-01

    The SNF1 gene plays a central role in carbon catabolite repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, namely that SNF1 function is required for expression of glucose-repressible genes. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned SNF1 gene was determined, and the predicted amino acid sequence shows that SNF1 encodes a 72,040-dalton polypeptide that has significant homology to the conserved catalytic domain of

  1. Identification of essential genes in cultured mammalian cells using small interfering RNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Harborth; Sayda M. Elbashir; Kim Bechert; Thomas Tuschl; Klaus Weber; Cell Biology

    2001-01-01

    characterized by other methods such as knockout of murine genes are included as internal controls and gave identical results when RNAi was used. In the case of two nonessential genes (lamin A\\/C and zyxin) RNAi provides a recognizable phenotype. Our results complete the characterization of the mammalian nuclear lamins. While lamins A\\/C appear as nonessential proteins in the mouse embryo

  2. COMPARISON OF THE METHYL REDUCTASE GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA sequences encoding component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr genes) in Methanothermus fervidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanococcus vannielii, and Methanosarcina barkeri have been published. omparisons of transcription initiation and termination site...

  3. Production and pathogenicity of hepatitis C virus core gene products.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Chun; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Yang, Chee-Hing; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2014-06-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases, including steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and its infection is also associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. HCV, belonging to the Flaviviridae family, is a small enveloped virus whose positive-stranded RNA genome encoding a polyprotein. The HCV core protein is cleaved first at residue 191 by the host signal peptidase and further cleaved by the host signal peptide peptidase at about residue 177 to generate the mature core protein (a.a. 1-177) and the cleaved peptide (a.a. 178-191). Core protein could induce insulin resistance, steatosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma through various mechanisms. The peptide (a.a. 178-191) may play a role in the immune response. The polymorphism of this peptide is associated with the cellular lipid drop accumulation, contributing to steatosis development. In addition to the conventional open reading frame (ORF), in the +1 frame, an ORF overlaps with the core protein-coding sequence and encodes the alternative reading frame proteins (ARFP or core+1). ARFP/core+1/F protein could enhance hepatocyte growth and may regulate iron metabolism. In this review, we briefly summarized the current knowledge regarding the production of different core gene products and their roles in viral pathogenesis. PMID:24966583

  4. Identification of a gene essential for protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kazushige; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Sano, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Hosaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX during the synthesis of tetrapyrrole molecules. Protox is encoded by the hemY gene in eukaryotes and by the hemG gene in many ?-proteobacteria, including Escherichia coli. It has been suggested that other bacteria possess a yet unidentified type of Protox. To identify a unique bacterial gene encoding Protox, we first introduced the Arabidopsis hemY gene into the genome of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We subsequently mutagenized the cells by transposon tagging and screened the tagged lines for mutants that were sensitive to acifluorfen, which is a specific inhibitor of the hemY-type Protox. Several cell lines containing the tagged slr1790 locus exhibited acifluorfen sensitivity. The slr1790 gene encodes a putative membrane-spanning protein that is distantly related to the M subunit of NADH dehydrogenase complex I. We attempted to disrupt this gene in the wild-type background of Synechocystis, but we were only able to obtain heteroplasmic disruptants. These cells accumulated a substantial amount of protoporphyrin IX, suggesting that the slr1790 gene is essential for growth and Protox activity of cells. We found that most cyanobacteria and many other bacteria possess slr1790 homologs. We overexpressed an slr1790 homolog of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in Escherichia coli and found that this recombinant protein possesses Protox activity in vitro. These results collectively demonstrate that slr1790 encodes a unique Protox enzyme and we propose naming the slr1790 gene “hemJ.” PMID:20823222

  5. Cross-Ontological Analytics: Combining Associative and Hierarchical Relations in the Gene Ontologies to Assess Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.

    2006-05-28

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the gene ontologies, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes/gene products is obtained by comparing gene ontology (GO) annotations associated with the gene/gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene ontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene ontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy.

  6. Development of Inducible Systems To Engineer Conditional Mutants of Essential Genes of Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo G. Boneca; Chantal Ecobichon; Catherine Chaput; Aurelie Mathieu; Stephanie Guadagnini; Marie-Christine Prevost; Frederic Colland; Agnes Labigne; Hilde de Reuse

    2008-01-01

    polymerase. The amiE gene promoter of H. pylori was taken to constitutively express the LacIq repressor. Expression of the reporter gene lacZ was driven by either pTac (pILL2150) or a modified version of the ureI gene promoter in which one or two LacI-binding sites and\\/or mutated nucleotides between the ribosomal binding site and the ATG start codon (pILL2153 and pILL2157)

  7. Megakaryocytes are essential for HSC quiescence through the production of thrombopoietin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Takubo, Keiyo; Fujioka, Masato; Suda, Toshio

    2014-11-14

    Tissue homeostasis demands regulatory feedback, suggesting that hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity is controlled in part by HSC progeny. Yet, cell extrinsic HSC regulation has been well characterized only in niche cells of non-hematopoietic origin. Here we identify feedback regulation of HSCs by megakaryocytes (Mks), which are mature hematopoietic cells, through production of thrombopoietin (Thpo), a cytokine pertinent for HSC maintenance. Induced ablation of Mk cell population in mice perturbed quiescent HSCs in bone marrow (BM). The ablation of Mks resulted in decreased intra-BM Thpo concentration presumably due to Thpo production by Mks. Thpo administration Mk ablated mice restored HSC functions. Overall, our study establishes Mk as an essential cellular component of the HSC niche and delineates cytokine-oriented regulation of HSCs by their own progeny. PMID:25451253

  8. Identification and isolation of genes essential for H sub 2 oxidation in Rhodobacter capsulatus. [Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.W.; Love, J.; Borghese, R.; Wall, J.D. (Univ. of Missouri-Columbia (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus unable to grow photoautotrophically with H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were isolated. Those lacking uptake hydrogenase activity as measured by H{sub 2}-dependent methylene blue reduction were analyzed genetically and used in complementation studies for the isolation of the wild-type genes. Results of further subcloning and transposon Tn5 mutagenesis suggest the involvement of a minimum of five genes. Hybridization to the 2.2-kilobase-pair SstI fragment that lies within the coding region for the large and small subunits of Bradyrhizobium japonicum uptake hydrogenase showed one region of strong homology among the R. capsulatus fragments isolated, which we interpret to mean that one or both structural genes were among the genes isolated.

  9. Enzymatic modification of palmarosa essential oil: chemical analysis and olfactory evaluation of acylated products.

    PubMed

    Ramilijaona, Jade; Raynaud, Elsa; Bouhlel, Charfeddine; Sarrazin, Elise; Fernandez, Xavier; Antoniotti, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    We have developed an enzymatic protocol to modify the composition of palmarosa essential oil by acylation of its alcohol components by three different acyl donors at various rates. The resulting modified products were characterized by qualitative and quantitative analyses by gas chromatography, and their olfactory properties were evaluated by professional perfumers. We showed that our protocol resulted in two types of modifications of the olfactory properties. The first and most obvious effect observed was the decrease of the alcohol content, with the concomitant increase of the corresponding esters, along with their fruity notes (pear, most notably). The second and less obvious effect was the expression of notes from minor components ((E)-?-ocimene, linalool, ?-caryophyllene, and farnesene), originally masked by the sweet-floral-rose odor of geraniol, present in 70% in the palmarosa essential oil used, and emergence of citrus, green, spicy and clove characters in the modified products. This methodology might be considered in the future as a sustainable route to new natural ingredients for the perfumer. PMID:24327448

  10. Essential drugs production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS): opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ezziane, Zoheir

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines. PMID:25489593

  11. Two arginine biosynthesis genes are essential for pathogenicity of Colletotrichum higginsianum on Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Takahara; Aurelie Huser; Richard OConnell

    2012-01-01

    Random insertional mutagenesis of Colletotrichum higginsianum using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was utilised to tag genes required for fungal pathogenicity. Two of the mutants, path-19 and path-35, were arginine auxotrophs and produced no symptoms on susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The T-DNA tagged genes showed high homology to the polyprotein arg-6 precursor and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, respectively, both of which are involved in

  12. Use of animal models to search for candidate genes associated with essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margit Knoblauch; Klaus Lindpaintner

    1999-01-01

    The use of inbred genetically hypertensive animal models enables the dissection of the underlying complex genetic traits into\\u000a its individual components, and thus the elucidation and characterization of causative genes and gene variants. In addition,\\u000a genetically hypertensive animal models will also be useful for the investigation of genetic characteristics that influence\\u000a the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy with specific pharmacologic agents.

  13. An essential yeast gene with homology to the exonuclease-encoding XRN1/KEM1 gene also encodes a protein with exoribonuclease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kenna, M.; Douglas, M.G. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Stevens, A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); McCammon, M. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This is a study of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which was obtained in a screen for mutants reduced in the synthesis of binding of a hybrid protein which competes for the transport of protein precursors into mitochondria. Examination of this mutant lead to the characterization of a gene with significant primary sequence homology to a previously identified gene, XRN1 or KEM1. Often called XRN1/KEM1, it encodes a protein of 175kDa which appears to have a multitude of properties, including involvement in recombination, RNA processing and turnover, involvement in recombination, RNA processing and turnover, microtubule function, karyogamy and DNA replication. The related gene describes further characterization of the HKE1/RAT1 gene and an hkal mutant and shows that p116 is a protein having 5[prime]-->3[prime] exoribonuclease activity, a major activity of the product of the related XRN1/KEM1 gene.

  14. Polymorphisms of the Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) gene do not predispose to essential hypertension in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Ciara; Shields, Denis C; Stanton, Alice; O'Brien, Eoin; Lambert, Deborah M; O'Brien, John K; Treacy, Eileen P

    2005-01-01

    Background The recessive disorder trimethylaminuria is caused by defects in the FMO3 gene, and may be associated with hypertension. We investigated whether common polymorphisms of the FMO3 gene confer an increased risk for elevated blood pressure and/or essential hypertension. Methods FMO3 genotypes (E158K, V257M, E308G) were determined in 387 healthy subjects with ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, and in a cardiovascular disease population of 1649 individuals, 691(41.9%) of whom had a history of hypertension requiring drug treatment. Haplotypes were determined and their distribution noted. Results There was no statistically significant association found between any of the 4 common haplotypes and daytime systolic blood pressure in the healthy population (p = 0.65). Neither was a statistically significant association found between the 4 common haplotypes and hypertension status among the cardiovascular disease patients (p = 0.80). Conclusion These results suggest that the variants in the FMO3 gene do not predispose to essential hypertension in this population. PMID:16324215

  15. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf) of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Rasoul; Savabi, Omid; Kazemi, Mohammad; kamali, Sara; Salehi, Ahmad Reza; Eslami, Gilda; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016) culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes). Conclusions: Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention. PMID:25221772

  16. Characterization of Legionella pneumophila pmiA, a Gene Essential for Infectivity of Protozoa and Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Miyake; Takurou Watanabe; Hitomi Koike; Maelle Molmeret; Yasuyuki Imai; Y. Abu Kwaik

    2005-01-01

    The ability of Legionella pneumophila to cause pneumonia is dependent on intracellular replication within alveolar macrophages. The Icm\\/Dot secretion apparatus is essential for the ability of L. pneumophila to evade endocytic fusion, to remodel the phagosome by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and to replicate intracellu- larly. Protozoan and macrophage infectivity (pmi) mutants of L. pneumophila, which include 11 dot\\/icm mutants,

  17. Arabidopsis FAD2 Gene Encodes the Enzyme That Is Essential for Polyunsaturated Lipid Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Okuley; Jonathan Lightner; Kenneth Feldmann; Narendra Yadav; Ellen Lark; John Browseai

    1994-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleate and a-linolenate are important membrane components and are the essential fatty acids of human nutrition. The major enzyme responsible for the synthesis of these compounds is the plant oleate desaturase of the endoplasmic reticulum, and its activity is controlled in Arabidopsis by the fatty acid desaturation 2 (fad2) locus. A fad2 allele was identified in

  18. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY...Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011...provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with...

  19. Effect of Zingiber officinale essential oil on Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin production.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Ribeiro, Milene Mayumi Garcia; Grespan, Renata; Kohiyama, Cássia Yumie; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Filho, Benicio Alves de Abreu; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    The antifungal activity of ginger essential oil (GEO; Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was evaluated against Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GEO was determined by micro-broth dilution. The effects of GEO on fumonisin and ergosterol production were evaluated at concentrations of 500-5000 ?g/mL in liquid medium with a 5mm diameter mycelial disc of F. verticillioides. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the predominant components of GEO were ?-zingiberene (23.9%) and citral (21.7%). GEO exhibited inhibitory activity, with a MIC of 2500 ?g/mL, and 4000 and 5000 ?g/mL reduced ergosterol biosynthesis by 57% and 100%, respectively. The inhibitory effect on fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) production was significant at GEO concentrations of 4000 and 2000 ?g/mL, respectively. Thus, the inhibition of fungal biomass and fumonisin production was dependent on the concentration of GEO. These results suggest that GEO was able to control the growth of F. verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin production. PMID:23871071

  20. ThetaxGene of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 2 Is Essential for Transformation of Human T Lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TED M. ROSS; SHERRIE M. PETTIFORD; L. GREEN

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-mediated transformation and induction of malig- nancy is unknown; however, several studies have implicated the viral gene product, Tax. Conclusive evidence for the role of Tax in the HTLV malignant process has been impeded by the inability to mutate tax in the context of an infectious virus and dissociate viral replication from cellular

  1. Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M

    1993-01-01

    A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

  2. Defining essential genes and identifying virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis by massively parallel sequencing of transposon libraries (Tn-seq).

    PubMed

    Klein, Brian A; Duncan, Margaret J; Hu, Linden T

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development and progression of periodontal disease. Obstacles to the development of saturated transposon libraries have previously limited transposon mutant-based screens as well as essential gene studies. We have developed a system for efficient transposon mutagenesis of P. gingivalis using a modified mariner transposon. Tn-seq is a technique that allows for quantitative assessment of individual mutants within a transposon mutant library by sequencing the transposon-genome junctions and then compiling mutant presence by mapping to a base genome. Using Tn-seq, it is possible to quickly define all the insertional mutants in a library and thus identify nonessential genes under the conditions in which the library was produced. Identification of fitness of individual mutants under specific conditions can be performed by exposing the library to selective pressures. PMID:25636611

  3. Female aging alters expression of human cumulus cells genes that are essential for oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Al-Edani, Tamadir; Assou, Said; Ferričres, Alice; Bringer Deutsch, Sophie; Gala, Anna; Lecellier, Charles-Henri; Aďt-Ahmed, Ounissa; Hamamah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Impact of female aging is an important issue in human reproduction. There was a need for an extensive analysis of age impact on transcriptome profile of cumulus cells (CCs) to link oocyte quality and developmental potential with patient's age. CCs from patients of three age groups were analyzed individually using microarrays. RT-qPCR validation was performed on independent CC cohorts. We focused here on pathways affected by aging in CCs that may explain the decline of oocyte quality with age. In CCs collected from patients >37 years, angiogenic genes including ANGPTL4, LEPR, TGFBR3, and FGF2 were significantly overexpressed compared to patients of the two younger groups. In contrast genes implicated in TGF-? signaling pathway such as AMH, TGFB1, inhibin, and activin receptor were underexpressed. CCs from patients whose ages are between 31 and 36 years showed an overexpression of genes related to insulin signaling pathway such as IGFBP3, PIK3R1, and IGFBP5. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the microRNAs that are potential regulators of the differentially expressed genes of the study. It revealed that the pathways impacted by age were potential targets of specific miRNAs previously identified in our CCs small RNAs sequencing. PMID:25276836

  4. Epistasis — the essential role of gene interactions in the structure and evolution of genetic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Epistasis, or interactions between genes, has long been recognized as fundamentally important to understanding the structure and function of genetic pathways and the evolutionary dynamics of complex genetic systems. With the advent of high-throughput functional genomics and the emergence of systems approaches to biology, as well as a new-found ability to pursue the genetic basis of evolution down to specific

  5. EXPORTIN1 Genes are Essential for Development and Function of the Gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gametes are produced in plants through mitotic divisions in the haploid gametophytes. We investigated the role of EXPORTIN1 (XPO1) genes during the development of both female and male gametophytes of Arabidopsis. Exportins exclude target proteins from the nucleus and are also part of a complex recru...

  6. The hrp genes of Pseudomonas cichorii are essential for pathogenicity on eggplant but not on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kajihara, Shigeru; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2008-10-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii causes necrotic lesions in eggplant and rot in lettuce. Through transposon insertion into P. cichorii strain SPC9018 we produced two mutants, 4-57 and 2-99, that lost virulence on eggplant but not lettuce. Analyses showed that a transposon was inserted into the hrpG gene in 4-57 and the hrcT gene in 2-99. Nucleotide sequences of the hrp genes of SPC9018 are homologous to those of Pseudomonas viridiflava BS group strains. The pathogenicity of 4-57 on eggplant was restored by transformation with an hrpF operon, originating from either SPC9018 or the BS group member P. viridiflava strain 9504 (Pv9504). These data suggested the involvement of hrp genes in the pathogenicity of SPC9018 on eggplant, and functional conservation of hrpF operons between SPC9018 and Pv9504. Both the hrpS mutant and the hrpL mutant were unable to cause necrotic lesions on eggplant leaves but retained their pathogenicity against lettuce. These results suggest that the pathogenicity of P. cichorii is hrp-dependent in eggplant, but not in lettuce. PMID:18832299

  7. Preclinical evaluation of gene transfer products: safety and immunological aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marielle Christ

    2002-01-01

    As any new drug in development, gene transfer products have to be tested for their potential toxicity in preclinical studies. Strategies for preclinical safety evaluation of gene transfer compounds are similar to those undertaken for biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals with the added complexity of having to test additional components, such as the vector and genetic material. Some recommendations have been issued by

  8. Identification of genes essential for prey-independent growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100.

    PubMed

    Roschanski, Nicole; Klages, Sven; Reinhardt, Richard; Linscheid, Michael; Strauch, Eckhard

    2011-04-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is an obligate predatory bacterium that attacks and invades Gram-negative bacteria. The predator requires living bacteria to survive as growth and replication take place inside the bacterial prey. It is possible to isolate mutants that grow and replicate outside prey bacteria. Such mutants are designated host or prey independent, and their nutritional requirements vary. Some mutants are saprophytic and require prey extracts for extracellular growth, whereas other mutants grow axenically, which denotes the formation of colonies on complete medium in the absence of any prey components. The initial events leading to prey-independent growth are still under debate, and several genes may be involved. We selected new mutants by three different methods: spontaneous mutation, transposon mutagenesis, and targeted gene knockout. By all approaches we isolated mutants of the hit (host interaction) locus. As the relevance of this locus for the development of prey independence has been questioned, we performed whole-genome sequencing of five prey-independent mutants. Three mutants were saprophytic, and two mutants could grow axenically. Whole-genome analysis revealed that the mutation of a small open reading frame of the hit locus is sufficient for the conversion from predatory to saprophytic growth. Complementation experiments were performed by introduction of a plasmid carrying the wild-type hit gene into saprophytic mutants, and predatory growth could be restored. Whole-genome sequencing of two axenic mutants demonstrated that in addition to the hit mutation the colony formation on complete medium was shown to be influenced by the mutations of two genes involved in RNA processing. Complementation experiments with a wild-type gene encoding an RNA helicase, RhlB, abolished the ability to form colonies on complete medium, indicating that stability of RNA influences axenic growth. PMID:21278289

  9. NEON Data Products: Supporting the Validation of GCOS Essential Climate Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroy, S. B.; Fox, A. M.; Metzger, S.; Thorpe, A.; Meier, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale ecological observation platform designed to collect and disseminate data that contributes to understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON will collect in-situ and airborne data over 60 sites across the US, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The NEON Biomass, Productivity, and Biogeochemistry protocols currently direct the collection of samples from distributed, gradient, and tower plots at each site, with sampling occurring either multiple times during the growing season, annually, or on three- or five-year centers (e.g. for coarse woody debris). These data are processed into a series of field-derived data products (e.g. Biogeochemistry, LAI, above ground Biomass, etc.), and when combined with the NEON airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR imagery, are used support validation efforts of algorithms for deriving vegetation characteristics from the airborne data. Sites are further characterized using airborne data combined with in-situ tower measurements, to create additional data products of interest to the GCOS community, such as Albedo and fPAR. Presented here are a summary of tower/field/airborne sampling and observation protocols and examples of provisional datasets collected at NEON sites that may be used to support the ongoing validation of GCOS Essential Climate Variables.

  10. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter<235 nm (PDI<0.280) and a loading efficacy>75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control. PMID:24359912

  11. Identification of Siderophore Biosynthesis Genes Essential for Growth of Aeromonas salmonicida under Iron Limitation Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Najimi; Manuel L. Lemos; Carlos R. Osorio

    2008-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol- type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbG, asbF, asbD, asbC, asbB, and asbI, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses

  12. Neuron-specific feeding RNAi in C. elegans and its use in a screen for essential genes required for GABA neuron function.

    PubMed

    Firnhaber, Christopher; Hammarlund, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Forward genetic screens are important tools for exploring the genetic requirements for neuronal function. However, conventional forward screens often have difficulty identifying genes whose relevant functions are masked by pleiotropy. In particular, if loss of gene function results in sterility, lethality, or other severe pleiotropy, neuronal-specific functions cannot be readily analyzed. Here we describe a method in C. elegans for generating cell-specific knockdown in neurons using feeding RNAi and its application in a screen for the role of essential genes in GABAergic neurons. We combine manipulations that increase the sensitivity of select neurons to RNAi with manipulations that block RNAi in other cells. We produce animal strains in which feeding RNAi results in restricted gene knockdown in either GABA-, acetylcholine-, dopamine-, or glutamate-releasing neurons. In these strains, we observe neuron cell-type specific behavioral changes when we knock down genes required for these neurons to function, including genes encoding the basal neurotransmission machinery. These reagents enable high-throughput, cell-specific knockdown in the nervous system, facilitating rapid dissection of the site of gene action and screening for neuronal functions of essential genes. Using the GABA-specific RNAi strain, we screened 1,320 RNAi clones targeting essential genes on chromosomes I, II, and III for their effect on GABA neuron function. We identified 48 genes whose GABA cell-specific knockdown resulted in reduced GABA motor output. This screen extends our understanding of the genetic requirements for continued neuronal function in a mature organism. PMID:24244189

  13. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated molecular biology platform for production of optimized synthetic genes and improved industrial strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of synthetic assembled gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-bas...

  14. The sf32 Unique Gene of Spodoptera frugiperda Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) Is a Non-Essential Gene That Could Be Involved in Nucleocapsid Organization in Occlusion-Derived Virions

    PubMed Central

    Beperet, Inés; Barrera, Gloria; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Gasmi, Laila; Herrero, Salvador; Caballero, Primitivo

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null), unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV), was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac). Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration), speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity) to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs. PMID:24204916

  15. Aromatic plants essential oils activity on Fusarium verticillioides Fumonisin B(1) production in corn grain.

    PubMed

    López, A G; Theumer, M G; Zygadlo, J A; Rubinstein, H R

    2004-10-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Origanum vulgare, Aloysia triphylla, Aloysia polystachya and Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) against Fusarium verticillioides M 7075 (F. moniliforme, Sheldon) were assessed, using the semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) technique. O. vulgare, A. triphylla, A. polystachya and M. piperita EOs were evaluated at final concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 epsilonl per litre (epsilonl/l) of culture medium. A. triphylla and O. vulgare EOs showed the highest inhibitory effects on F. verticillioides mycelial development. This inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 epsilonl/l for EOs coming from Aloysia triphylla and O. vulgare, respectively. Thus, the effects of EOs on FB(1) production were evaluated using corn grain (Zea mays) as substrate. The EOs were inserted on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day of maize postinoculation with a conidia suspension of F. verticillioides. O. vulgare and A. triphylla were applied to give final concentrations of 30 ppm and 45 ppm, respectively. Different effects were observed in the toxicogenicity at the 20th day treatment. The O. vulgare EO decreased the production level of FB(1) (P < 0.01) while A. triphyla EO increased it (P < 0.001) with respect to those obtained in the inoculated maize, not EOs treated. Results obtained in the present work indicate that fumonisin production could be inhibited or stimulated by some constituents of EOs coming from aromatic plants. Further studies should be performed to identify the components of EOs with modulatory activity on the growth and fumonisins production of Fusarium verticillioides. PMID:15702272

  16. Repellency of an Over-the-counter Essential Oil Product from China against Workers of Red Imported Fire Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repellency of an over-the-counter essential oil product from China, and its major components against workers of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was evaluated using an ant digging bioassay. Three concentrations (1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 mg/kg in sand) of the product were tested. At 10...

  17. Functional Promoter Polymorphisms Govern Differential Expression of HMG-CoA Reductase Gene in Mouse Models of Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Parshuram J.; Sahu, Bhavani S.; Sasi, Binu K.; Geedi, Parimala; Lenka, Govinda; Mahapatra, Nitish R.

    2011-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase gene (Hmgcr) is a susceptibility gene for essential hypertension. Sequencing of the Hmgcr locus in genetically hypertensive BPH (blood pressure high), genetically hypotensive BPL (blood pressure low) and genetically normotensive BPN (blood pressure normal) mice yielded a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). BPH/BPL/BPN Hmgcr promoter-luciferase reporter constructs were generated and transfected into liver HepG2, ovarian CHO, kidney HEK-293 and neuronal N2A cells for functional characterization of the promoter SNPs. The BPH-Hmgcr promoter showed significantly less activity than the BPL-Hmgcr promoter under basal as well as nicotine/cholesterol-treated conditions. This finding was consistent with lower endogenous Hmgcr expression in liver and lower plasma cholesterol in BPH mice. Transfection experiments using 5?-promoter deletion constructs (strategically made to assess the functional significance of each promoter SNP) and computational analysis predicted lower binding affinities of transcription factors c-Fos, n-Myc and Max with the BPH-promoter as compared to the BPL-promoter. Corroboratively, the BPH promoter-luciferase reporter construct co-transfected with expression plasmids of these transcription factors displayed less pronounced augmentation of luciferase activity than the BPL construct, particularly at lower amounts of transcription factor plasmids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays also showed diminished interactions of the BPH promoter with HepG2 nuclear proteins. Taken together, this study provides mechanistic basis for the differential Hmgcr expression in these mouse models of human essential hypertension and have implications for better understanding the role of this gene in regulation of blood pressure. PMID:21304971

  18. EDS1, an essential component of R gene-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis has homology to eukaryotic lipases.

    PubMed

    Falk, A; Feys, B J; Frost, L N; Jones, J D; Daniels, M J; Parker, J E

    1999-03-16

    A major class of plant disease resistance (R) genes encodes leucine-rich-repeat proteins that possess a nucleotide binding site and amino-terminal similarity to the cytoplasmic domains of the Drosophila Toll and human IL-1 receptors. In Arabidopsis thaliana, EDS1 is indispensable for the function of these R genes. The EDS1 gene was cloned by targeted transposon tagging and found to encode a protein that has similarity in its amino-terminal portion to the catalytic site of eukaryotic lipases. Thus, hydrolase activity, possibly on a lipid-based substrate, is anticipated to be central to EDS1 function. The predicted EDS1 carboxyl terminus has no significant sequence homologies, although analysis of eight defective eds1 alleles reveals it to be essential for EDS1 function. Two plant defense pathways have been defined previously that depend on salicylic acid, a phenolic compound, or jasmonic acid, a lipid-derived molecule. We examined the expression of EDS1 mRNA and marker mRNAs (PR1 and PDF1.2, respectively) for these two pathways in wild-type and eds1 mutant plants after different challenges. The results suggest that EDS1 functions upstream of salicylic acid-dependent PR1 mRNA accumulation and is not required for jasmonic acid-induced PDF1.2 mRNA expression. PMID:10077677

  19. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Shamina M. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lindsley, Loren [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiaomei [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Shaughnessy, Stacey [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Daniels, Thomas G. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Szustakowski, Joseph [Genome and Proteome Sciences, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nirmala, N.R. [Genome and Proteome Sciences, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wu, Zhidan [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stevenson, Susan C. [Diabetes and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research Institutes, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

  20. cor, a Novel Carbon Monoxide Resistance Gene, Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, Vineetha M.; Manzanillo, Paolo S.; Nair, Vidhya R.; Marciano, Denise K.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Grishin, Nick V.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Shiloh, Michael U.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. PMID:24255121

  1. The Tolkin Gene Is a Tolloid/Bmp-1 Homologue That Is Essential for Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, A. L.; Xie, T.; Bossie, C. A.; Blackman, R. K.; Padgett, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene, a member of the tranforming growth factor ? superfamily of growth factors, is critical for specification of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, for proper formation of the midgut, and for formation of Drosophila adult structures. The Drosophila tolloid gene has been shown to genetically interact with dpp. The genetic interaction between tolloid and dpp suggests a model in which the tolloid protein participates in a complex containing the DPP ligand, its protease serving to activate DPP, either directly or indirectly. We report here the identification and cloning of another Drosophila member of the tolloid/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 1 family, tolkin, which is located 700 bp 5' to tolloid. Its overall structure is like tolloid, with an N-terminal metalloprotease domain, five complement subcomponents C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1 (CUB) repeats and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats. Its expression pattern overlaps that of tolloid and dpp in early embryos and diverges in later stages. In larval tissues, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed uniformly in the imaginal disks. In the brain, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed in the outer proliferation center, whereas tolkin has another stripe of expression near the outer proliferation center. Analysis of lethal mutations in tolkin indicate it is vital during larval and pupal stages. Analysis of its mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggests that its functions may be mostly independent of tolloid and dpp. PMID:8536976

  2. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and regulation of the Bacillus subtilis nadB gene and a nifS-like gene, both of which are essential for NAD biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, D; Setlow, P

    1993-01-01

    A number of Bacillus subtilis genes involved in NAD biosynthesis have been cloned and sequenced. One of the genes encodes a polypeptide homologous to Escherichia coli L-aspartate oxidase, and its mutation resulted in a nicotinic acid (Nic)-dependent phenotype; this gene was termed nadB. A second open reading frame (orf2) was found downstream of nadB, and an insertional plasmid separating orf2 and nadB also gave a Nic-dependent phenotype. This result suggests that orf2 may also be involved in NAD biosynthesis and that nadB and orf2 are in the same operon. Upstream of nadB was a third gene, transcribed in the opposite direction to that of nadB-orf2. The amino acid sequence derived from the third gene was quite similar to those derived from nifS genes of various nitrogen-fixing bacteria; therefore, the third gene was termed nifS. As with nadB and orf2, mutations in nifS also resulted in a Nic-dependent phenotype. The promoter regions of nadB and nifS overlapped each other and both contained -10 and -35 sequences which resemble those of E sigma A-type promoters. Transcription from both the nifS and nadB promoters, as well as expression of a nadB-lacZ fusion, was repressed by Nic. However, nadB transcription and nadB-lacZ expression were decreased, at most, only slightly by a deletion in nifS. The possible role of the nifS gene product in NAD biosynthesis is discussed. Images PMID:8444804

  3. A FUSCA gene of Arabidopsis encodes a novel protein essential for plant development.

    PubMed Central

    Castle, L A; Meinke, D W

    1994-01-01

    Arabidopsis fusca mutants display striking purple coloration due to anthocyanin accumulation in their cotyledons. We describe six recessive fusca mutants isolated from Agrobacterium-transformed Arabidopsis families. These mutants first become defective during embryogenesis and exhibit limited seedling development. Double mutant constructs revealed that developmental defects were not simply a consequence of anthocyanin accumulation. fusca seedlings showed altered responses to several environmental and endogenous factors. Allelism tests established that three fusca loci are represented by mutants previously described as defective in light-regulated responses. To study the molecular basis of the fusca phenotype, we cloned the FUS6 gene. FUS6 encodes a novel protein that is hydrophilic, alpha-helical, and contains potential protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. The FUSCA proteins appear to act in a network of signal transduction pathways critical for plant development. PMID:8130643

  4. Mutation of a gene essential for ribosome biogenesis, EMG1, causes Bowen-Conradi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Armistead, Joy; Khatkar, Sunita; Meyer, Britta; Mark, Brian L; Patel, Nehal; Coghlan, Gail; Lamont, Ryan E; Liu, Shuangbo; Wiechert, Jill; Cattini, Peter A; Koetter, Peter; Wrogemann, Klaus; Greenberg, Cheryl R; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Zelinski, Teresa; Triggs-Raine, Barbara

    2009-06-01

    Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired prenatal and postnatal growth, profound psychomotor retardation, and death in early childhood. Nearly all reported BCS cases have been among Hutterites, with an estimated birth prevalence of 1/355. We previously localized the BCS gene to a 1.9 Mbp interval on human chromosome 12p13.3. The 59 genes in this interval were ranked as candidates for BCS, and 35 of these, including all of the best candidates, were sequenced. We identified variant NM_006331.6:c.400A-->G, p.D86G in the 18S ribosome assembly protein EMG1 as the probable cause of BCS. This mutation segregated with disease, was not found in 414 non-Hutterite alleles, and altered a highly conserved aspartic acid (D) residue. A structural model of human EMG1 suggested that the D86 residue formed a salt bridge with arginine 84 that would be disrupted by the glycine (G) substitution. EMG1 mRNA was detected in all human adult and fetal tissues tested. In BCS patient fibroblasts, EMG1 mRNA levels did not differ from those of normal cells, but EMG1 protein was dramatically reduced in comparison to that of normal controls. In mammalian cells, overexpression of EMG1 harboring the D86G mutation decreased the level of soluble EMG1 protein, and in yeast two-hybrid analysis, the D86G substitution increased interaction between EMG1 subunits. These findings suggested that the D-to-G mutation caused aggregation of EMG1, thereby reducing the level of the protein and causing BCS. PMID:19463982

  5. Association of intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the EMILIN1 gene with essential hypertension in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Oh, V M S; Chua, B-M; Heng, C-K; Yeo, S-B; Yim, O-S; Yap, E P H

    2012-09-01

    Studies in mice suggest that the elastin microfibril interfacer-1 gene (EMILIN1), the gene encoding elastin microfibril interfacer-1 protein, contributes to the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH) in humans. EMILIN1 in part maintains elastic fibres in vessel walls, and hence peripheral arterial compliance. In a case-control study, we assessed 942 non-obese non-diabetic Chinese, comprising 467 patients with EH and 475 normotensive control subjects (166 without, and 309 with, family history of hypertension in first-degree relatives (FHH)). Hypertension in first-degree relatives occurred in 88%, 65% and 0% of cases, all controls and controls without FHH, respectively. We scanned for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyped them in the EMILIN1 gene using high-resolution melt-curve analysis. No exonic variants were detected. We assessed the association of SNPs and their haplotypes with EH. Three SNPs in introns 1 and 5 (rs2289360, rs2011616 and rs7424556) were in strong pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (r(2)>0.89). All three SNPs were significantly associated with hypertension. Genotypic frequencies at the three SNPs differed significantly between cases and only those controls without FHH. Healthy controls with FHH should be excluded to increase the odds of detecting association. All the G alleles of rs2289360 (odds ratio = 1.69, P = 0.010), rs2011616 (odds ratio = 1.52, P = 0.038) and rs7424556 (odds ratio = 1.59, P = 0.023) were high-risk alleles in the recessive genetic model. We observed significant overall haplotypic association with EH (empirical P = 0.0072); GGG is a risk haplotype (P = 0.043). The overall results support EMILIN1 as a candidate gene for human EH. PMID:21753788

  6. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF6 Gene Is Essential in Viral Lytic Replication

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Can; Chen, Jungang; Tang, Wei; Liu, Chunlan; Chen, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposis's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes at least 8 open reading frames (ORFs) that play important roles in its lytic DNA replication. Among which, ORF6 of KSHV encodes an ssDNA binding protein that has been proved to participate in origin-dependent DNA replication in transient assays. To define further the function of ORF6 in the virus life cycle, we constructed a recombinant virus genome with a large deletion within the ORF6 locus by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type) and BAC?6 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T-BAC36 and 293T-BAC?6 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, infectious virus was detected from the 293T-BAC36 cell supernatants only and not from the 293T- BAC?6 cell supernatants. DNA synthesis was defective in 293T-BAC?6 cells. Expression of ORF6 in trans in BAC?6-containing cells was able to rescue both defects. Our results provide genetic evidence that ORF6 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. The stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 and BAC?6 genomes could be used as tools to investigate the detailed functions of ORF6 in the lytic replication of KSHV. PMID:24911362

  7. The Zebrafish fleer Gene Encodes an Essential Regulator of Cilia Tubulin Polyglutamylation

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Narendra; Obara, Tomoko; Mangos, Steve; Liu, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Cilia and basal bodies are essential organelles for a broad spectrum of functions, including the development of left-right asymmetry, kidney function, cerebrospinal fluid transport, generation of photoreceptor outer segments, and hedgehog signaling. Zebrafish fleer (flr) mutants exhibit kidney cysts, randomized left-right asymmetry, hydrocephalus, and rod outer segment defects, suggesting a pleiotropic defect in ciliogenesis. Positional cloning flr identified a tetratricopeptide repeat protein homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans protein DYF1 that was highly expressed in ciliated cells. flr pronephric cilia were shortened and showed a reduced beat amplitude, and olfactory cilia were absent in mutants. flr cilia exhibited ultrastructural defects in microtubule B-tubules, similar to axonemes that lack tubulin posttranslational modifications (polyglutamylation or polyglycylation). flr cilia showed a dramatic reduction in cilia polyglutamylated tubulin, indicating that flr encodes a novel modulator of tubulin polyglutamylation. We also found that the C. elegans flr homologue, dyf-1, is also required for tubulin polyglutamylation in sensory neuron cilia. Knockdown of zebrafish Ttll6, a tubulin polyglutamylase, specifically eliminated tubulin polyglutamylation and cilia formation in olfactory placodes, similar to flr mutants. These results are the first in vivo evidence that tubulin polyglutamylation is required for vertebrate cilia motility and structure, and, when compromised, results in failed ciliogenesis. PMID:17761526

  8. Deletion of the Developmentally Essential Gene ATR in Adult Mice Leads to Age-Related Phenotypes and Stem Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Pinzon-Guzman, Carolina; Asare, Amma; Ong, Tony; Pontano, Laura; Cotsarelis, George; Zediak, Valerie P.; Velez, Marielena; Bhandoola, Avinash; Brown, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Developmental abnormalities, cancer and premature aging each have been linked to defects in the DNA damage response (DDR). Mutations in the ATR checkpoint regulator cause developmental defects in mice (pre-gastrulation lethality) and humans (Seckel syndrome). Herein we show that eliminating ATR in adult mice leads to defects in tissue homeostasis and the rapid appearance of age-related phenotypes, such as hair graying, alopecia, kyphosis, osteoporosis, thymic involution, fibrosis and other abnormalities. Histological and genetic analyses indicate that ATR deletion causes acute cellular loss in tissues where continuous cell proliferation is required for maintenance. Importantly, thymic involution and alopecia and hair graying in ATR knockout mice were associated with dramatic reductions in tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells and exhaustion of tissue renewal and homeostatic capacity. In aggregate, these studies suggest that reduced regenerative capacity in adults via deletion of a developmentally essential DDR gene is sufficient to cause characteristics of premature aging. PMID:18371340

  9. Individual Constituents from Essential Oils Inhibit Biofilm Mass Production by Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; Pagán, Rafael; López, Daniel; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus represents a problem in both the medical field and the food industry, because the biofilm structure provides protection to embedded cells and it strongly attaches to surfaces. This circumstance is leading to many research programs seeking new alternatives to control biofilm formation by this pathogen. In this study we show that a potent inhibition of biofilm mass production can be achieved in community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive strains using plant compounds, such as individual constituents (ICs) of essential oils (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene). The Crystal Violet staining technique was used to evaluate biofilm mass formation during 40 h of incubation. Carvacrol is the most effective IC, abrogating biofilm formation in all strains tested, while CA-MRSA was the most sensitive phenotype to any of the ICs tested. Inhibition of planktonic cells by ICs during initial growth stages could partially explain the inhibition of biofilm formation. Overall, our results show the potential of EOs to prevent biofilm formation, especially in strains that exhibit resistance to other antimicrobials. As these compounds are food additives generally recognized as safe, their anti-biofilm properties may lead to important new applications, such as sanitizers, in the food industry or in clinical settings. PMID:26102069

  10. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce. PMID:25038656

  11. Histone H3 Serine 28 Is Essential for Efficient Polycomb-Mediated Gene Repression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yung, Philip Yuk Kwong; Stuetzer, Alexandra; Fischle, Wolfgang; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    Trimethylation at histone H3K27 is central to the polycomb repression system. Juxtaposed to H3K27 is a widely conserved phosphorylatable serine residue (H3S28) whose function is unclear. To assess the importance of H3S28, we generated a Drosophila H3 histone mutant with a serine-to-alanine mutation at position 28. H3S28A mutant cells lack H3S28ph on mitotic chromosomes but support normal mitosis. Strikingly, all methylation states of H3K27 drop in H3S28A cells, leading to Hox gene derepression and to homeotic transformations in adult tissues. These defects are not caused by active H3K27 demethylation nor by the loss of H3S28ph. Biochemical assays show that H3S28A nucleosomes are a suboptimal substrate for PRC2, suggesting that the unphosphorylated state of serine 28 is important for assisting in the function of polycomb complexes. Collectively, our data indicate that the conserved H3S28 residue in metazoans has a role in supporting PRC2 catalysis. PMID:26004180

  12. Widespread expression of Huntington's disease gene (IT15) protein product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H Sharp; Scott J Loev; Gabriele Schilling; Shi-Hua Li; Xiao-Jiang Li; Jun Bao; Molly V Wagster; Joyce A Kotzuk; Joseph P Steiner; Amy Lo; John Hedreen; Sangram Sisodia; Solomon H Snyder; Ted M Dawson; David K Ryugo; Christopher A Ross

    1995-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat within a putative open reading frame of a recently identified gene, IT15. We have examined the expression of the gene's protein product using antibodies developed against the N-terminus and an internal epitope. Both antisera recognize a 350 kDa protein, the predicted size, indicating that the CAG repeat is translated

  13. IgM antigen receptor complex contains phosphoprotein products of B29 and mb-1 genes.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, K S; Hager, E J; Friedrich, R J; Cambier, J C

    1991-01-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) and mIgD are major B-lymphocyte antigen receptors, which function by internalizing antigens for processing and presentation to T cells and by transducing essential signals for proliferation and differentiation. Although ligation of mIgM or mIgD results in rapid activation of a phospholipase C and a tyrosine kinase(s), these receptors have cytoplasmic tails of only three amino acid residues (Lys-Val-Lys), which seem ill suited for direct physical coupling with cytoplasmic signal transduction structures. In this report, we identify the alpha, beta, and gamma components of the mIgM-associated phosphoprotein complex, which may play a role in signal transduction. Proteolytic peptide mapping demonstrated that the IgM-alpha chain differs from Ig-beta and Ig-gamma. The chains were purified, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed identity with two previously cloned B-cell-specific genes. One component, IgM-alpha, is a product of the mb-1 gene, and the two additional components, Ig-beta and Ig-gamma, are products of the B29 gene. Immunoblotting analysis using rabbit antibodies prepared against predicted peptide sequences of each gene product confirmed the identification of these mIgM-associated proteins. The deduced sequence indicates that these receptor subunits lack inherent protein kinase domains but include common tyrosine-containing sequence motifs, which are likely sites of induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Images PMID:2023945

  14. Pathogens and gene product normalization in the biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Vishnyakova, Dina; Pasche, Emilie; Teodoro, Douglas; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for pathogens and gene product normalization in the biomedical literature. The idea of this approach was motivated by needs such as literature curation, in particular applied to the field of infectious diseases thus, variants of bacterial species (S. aureus, Staphyloccocus aureus, ...) and their gene products (protein ArsC, Arsenical pump modifier, Arsenate reductase, ...). Our approach is based on the use of an Ontology Look-up Service, a Gene Ontology Categorizer (GOCat) and Gene Normalization methods. In the pathogen detection task the use of OLS disambiguates found pathogen names. GOCat results are incorporated into overall score system to support and to confirm the decisionmaking in normalization process of pathogens and their genomes. The evaluation was done on two test sets of BioCreativeIII benchmark: gold standard of manual curation (50 articles) and silver standard (507 articles) curated by collective results of BCIII participants. For the cross-species GN we achieved the precision of 46% for silver and 27% for gold sets. Pathogen normalization results showed 95% of precision and 93% of recall. The impact of GOCat explicitly improves results of pathogen and gene normalization, basically confirming identified pathogens and boosting correct gene identifiers on the top of the results' list ranked by confidence. A correct identification of the pathogen is able to improve significantly normalization effectiveness and to solve the disambiguation problem of genes. PMID:22491118

  15. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A. T. Y.; Hale, C.; Xia, J.; Tate, P. H.; Goulding, D.; Keane, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Forrester, L.; Billker, O.; Skarnes, W. C.; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dougan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  16. MALT1 Auto-Proteolysis Is Essential for NF-?B-Dependent Gene Transcription in Activated Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baens, Mathijs; Bonsignore, Luca; Somers, Riet; Vanderheydt, Charlotte; Weeks, Stephen D.; Gunnarsson, Jenny; Nilsson, Ewa; Roth, Robert G.; Thome, Margot; Marynen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) controls antigen receptor–mediated signalling to nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) through both its adaptor and protease function. Upon antigen stimulation, MALT1 forms a complex with BCL10 and CARMA1, which is essential for initial I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Parallel induction of MALT1 protease activity serves to inactivate negative regulators of NF-?B signalling, such as A20 and RELB. Here we demonstrate a key role for auto-proteolytic MALT1 cleavage in B- and T-cell receptor signalling. MALT1 cleavage occurred after Arginine 149, between the N-terminal death domain and the first immunoglobulin-like region, and did not affect its proteolytic activity. Jurkat T cells expressing an un-cleavable MALT1-R149A mutant showed unaltered initial I?B? phosphorylation and normal nuclear accumulation of NF-?B subunits. Nevertheless, MALT1 cleavage was required for optimal activation of NF-?B reporter genes and expression of the NF-?B targets IL-2 and CSF2. Transcriptome analysis confirmed that MALT1 cleavage after R149 was required to induce NF-?B transcriptional activity in Jurkat T cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that auto-proteolytic MALT1 cleavage controls antigen receptor-induced expression of NF-?B target genes downstream of nuclear NF-?B accumulation. PMID:25105596

  17. Expression cloning of LDLB, a gene essential for normal Golgi function and assembly of the ldlCp complex

    PubMed Central

    Chatterton, Jon E.; Hirsch, David; Schwartz, John J.; Bickel, Perry E.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Krieger, Monty

    1999-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants ldlC and ldlB, which exhibit almost identical phenotypes, define two genes required for multiple steps in the normal medial and trans Golgi-associated processing of glycoconjugates. The LDLC gene encodes ldlCp, an ?80-kDa protein, which in wild-type, but not ldlB, cells associates reversibly with the cytoplasmic surface of the Golgi apparatus. Here, we have used a retrovirus-based expression cloning system to clone a murine cDNA, LDLB, that corrects the pleiotropic mutant phenotypes of ldlB cells. The corresponding mRNA was not detected in ldlB mutants. LDLB encodes an ?110-kDa protein, ldlBp, which lacks homology to known proteins and contains no common structural motifs. Database searches identified short segments of homology to sequences from Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Caenorhabditis elegans, and the essentially full-length homologous human sequence (82% identity); however, as was the case for ldlCp, no homologue was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have found that in wild-type cell cytosols, ldlCp is a component of an ?950-kDa “ldlCp complex,” which is smaller, ?700 kDa, in ldlB cytosols. Normal assembly of this complex is ldlBp-dependent and may be required for Golgi association of ldlCp and for the normal activities of multiple luminal Golgi processes. PMID:9927668

  18. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Abd-alla, Adly Mohamed M; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-08-01

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3-6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. PMID:23632647

  19. The Arabidopsis thaliana multifunctional protein gene (MFP2) of peroxisomal beta-oxidation is essential for seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Eastmond, Peter J; Gilday, Alison D; Slocombe, Steve P; Larson, Tony R; Baker, Alison; Graham, Ian A

    2006-03-01

    The multifunctional protein (MFP) of peroxisomal beta-oxidation catalyses four separate reactions, two of which (2-trans enoyl-CoA hydratase and L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) are core activities required for the catabolism of all fatty acids. We have isolated and characterized five Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in the MFP2 gene that is expressed predominantly in germinating seeds. Seedlings of mfp2 require an exogenous supply of sucrose for seedling establishment to occur. Analysis of mfp2-1 seedlings revealed that seed storage lipid was catabolized more slowly, long-chain acyl-CoA substrates accumulated and there was an increase in peroxisome size. Despite a reduction in the rate of beta-oxidation, mfp2 seedlings are not resistant to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid, which is catabolized to the auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by beta-oxidation. Acyl-CoA feeding experiments show that the MFP2 2-trans enoyl-CoA hydratase only exhibits activity against long chain (C18:0) substrates, whereas the MFP2 L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is active on C6:0, C12:0 and C18:0 substrates. A mutation in the abnormal inflorescence meristem gene AIM1, the only homologue of MFP2, results in an abnormal inflorescence meristem phenotype in mature plants (Richmond and Bleecker, Plant Cell 11, 1999, 1911) demonstrating that the role of these genes is very different. The mfp2-1 aim1double mutant aborted during the early stages of embryo development showing that these two proteins share a common function that is essential for this key stage in the life cycle. PMID:16507084

  20. Gene discovery and product development for grain quality traits.

    PubMed

    Mazur, B; Krebbers, E; Tingey, S

    1999-07-16

    The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular marker-based breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets. PMID:10411493

  1. Fine-Structure Genetics of ama-1, an Essential Gene Encoding the Amanitin Binding Subunit of RNA Polymerase I1 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. E. Bullerjahn; Donald L. Riddle

    A fine-structure genetic map has been constructed for ama-1 N, an essential gene in Caenorhabditis elegans encoding the amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase 11. Sixteen EMS-induced recessive- lethal mutations have been positioned in the gene by determining their intragenic recombination frequencies with m118, a mutation that confers dominant resistance to a-amanitin. The 16 mutants, all isolated in the ama-l(mll8) background,

  2. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, ?-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  3. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5?336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  4. Domesticated transposable element gene products in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Jesse D; Dupuy, Adam J

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of transposable elements inserted within the genome to serve novel functions in a host cell, a process known as molecular domestication, is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Around fifty protein-coding genes in humans have arisen through this mechanism. Functional characterization of these domesticated genes has revealed involvement in a multitude of diverse cellular processes. Some of these functions are related to cellular activities and pathways known to be involved in cancer development. In this mini-review we discuss such roles of domesticated genes that may be aberrantly regulated in human cancer, as well as studies that have identified disrupted expression in tumors. We also describe studies that have provided definitive experimental evidence for transposable element-derived gene products in promoting tumorigenesis. PMID:24251072

  5. Identification and Localization of Polycystin, the PKD1 Gene Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Geng; Yoav Segal; Bernard Peissel; Nanhua Deng; York Pei; Frank Carone; Helmut G. Rennke; Alexandra M. Glücksmann-Kuis; Michael C. Schneider; Maria Ericsson; Stephen T. Reeders; Jing Zhou

    1996-01-01

    Polycystin, the product of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) 1 gene ( PKD1 ) is the cardinal member of a novel class of proteins. As a first step towards elucidating the function of polycystin and the pathogenesis of ADPKD, three types of information were collected in the current study: the subcellular localization of polycystin, the spatial and temporal distribution

  6. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Shaaya; Uzi Ravid; Nachman Paster; Benjamin Juven; Uzi Zisman; Vladimir Pissarev

    1991-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopteransRhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, andSitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most

  7. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil of Curcuma longa L. and curcumin on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Link.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Janeiro, Vanderly; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-15

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food and commodities poses serious hazards to the health of humans and animals. Turmeric, Curcuma longa L., is a native plant of Southeast Asia and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal properties. This paper reports the antiaflatoxigenic activities of the essential oil of C. longa and curcumin. The medium tests were prepared with the oil of C. longa, and the curcumin standard at concentrations varied from 0.01% to 5.0%. All doses of the essential oil of the plant and the curcumin standard interfered with mycotoxin production. Both the essential oil and curcumin significantly inhibited the production of aflatoxins; the 0.5% level had a greater than 96% inhibitory effect. The levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production were 1.0 and 42.7 ?g/mL, respectively, for the samples treated with the essential oil of C. longa L. and curcumin at a concentration of 0.5%. PMID:23122128

  8. Phox2a gene, A6 neurons, and noradrenaline are essential for development of normal respiratory rhythm in mice.

    PubMed

    Viemari, J C; Bévengut, M; Burnet, H; Coulon, P; Pequignot, J M; Tiveron, M C; Hilaire, G

    2004-01-28

    Although respiration is vital to the survival of all mammals from the moment of birth, little is known about the genetic factors controlling the prenatal maturation of this physiological process. Here we investigated the role of the Phox2a gene that encodes for a homeodomain protein involved in the generation of noradrenergic A6 neurons in the maturation of the respiratory network. First, comparisons of the respiratory activity of fetuses delivered surgically from heterozygous Phox2a pregnant mice on gestational day 18 showed that the mutants had impaired in vivo ventilation, in vitro respiratory-like activity, and in vitro respiratory responses to central hypoxia and noradrenaline. Second, pharmacological studies on wild-type neonates showed that endogenous noradrenaline released from pontine A6 neurons potentiates rhythmic respiratory activity via alpha1 medullary adrenoceptors. Third, transynaptic tracing experiments in which rabies virus was injected into the diaphragm confirmed that A6 neurons were connected to the neonatal respiratory network. Fourth, blocking the alpha1 adrenoceptors in wild-type dams during late gestation with daily injections of the alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin induced in vivo and in vitro neonatal respiratory deficits similar to those observed in Phox2a mutants. These results suggest that noradrenaline, A6 neurons, and the Phox2a gene, which is crucial for the generation of A6 neurons, are essential for development of normal respiratory rhythm in neonatal mice. Metabolic noradrenaline disorders occurring during gestation therefore may induce neonatal respiratory deficits, in agreement with the catecholamine anomalies reported in victims of sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:14749437

  9. Expression cloning of LDLB, a gene essential for normal Golgi function and assembly of the ldlCp complex.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, J E; Hirsch, D; Schwartz, J J; Bickel, P E; Rosenberg, R D; Lodish, H F; Krieger, M

    1999-02-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants ldlC and ldlB, which exhibit almost identical phenotypes, define two genes required for multiple steps in the normal medial and trans Golgi-associated processing of glycoconjugates. The LDLC gene encodes ldlCp, an approximately 80-kDa protein, which in wild-type, but not ldlB, cells associates reversibly with the cytoplasmic surface of the Golgi apparatus. Here, we have used a retrovirus-based expression cloning system to clone a murine cDNA, LDLB, that corrects the pleiotropic mutant phenotypes of ldlB cells. The corresponding mRNA was not detected in ldlB mutants. LDLB encodes an approximately 110-kDa protein, ldlBp, which lacks homology to known proteins and contains no common structural motifs. Database searches identified short segments of homology to sequences from Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Caenorhabditis elegans, and the essentially full-length homologous human sequence (82% identity); however, as was the case for ldlCp, no homologue was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have found that in wild-type cell cytosols, ldlCp is a component of an approximately 950-kDa "ldlCp complex," which is smaller, approximately 700 kDa, in ldlB cytosols. Normal assembly of this complex is ldlBp-dependent and may be required for Golgi association of ldlCp and for the normal activities of multiple luminal Golgi processes. PMID:9927668

  10. Genome-Wide High-Throughput Screening to Investigate Essential Genes Involved in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 Survival

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Mette T.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holmes, Mark A.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Sequence Type 398 (ST398) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to colonize and cause disease in several animal species including humans. To better understand the adaptation, evolution, transmission and pathogenic capacity, further investigations into the importance of the different genes harboured by LA-MRSA ST398 are required. In this study we generated a genome-wide transposon mutant library in an LA-MRSA ST398 isolate to evaluate genes important for bacterial survival in laboratory and host-specific environments. The transposon mutant library consisted of approximately 1 million mutants with around 140,000 unique insertion sites and an average number of unique inserts per gene of 44.8. We identified LA-MRSA ST398 essential genes comparable to other high-throughput S. aureus essential gene studies. As ST398 is the most common MRSA isolated from pigs, the transposon mutant library was screened in whole porcine blood. Twenty-four genes were specifically identified as important for bacterial survival in porcine blood. Mutations in 23 of these genes resulted in attenuated bacterial fitness. Seven of the 23 genes were of unknown function, whereas 16 genes were annotated with functions predominantly related to carbon metabolism, pH shock and a variety of regulations and only indirectly to virulence factors. Mutations in one gene of unknown function resulted in a hypercompetitive mutant. Further evaluation of these genes is required to determine their specific relevance in blood survival. PMID:24563689

  11. Integrated in silico Analyses of Regulatory and Metabolic Networks of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 Reveal Relationships between Gene Centrality and Essentiality.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Seob; McClure, Ryan S; Bernstein, Hans C; Overall, Christopher C; Hill, Eric A; Beliaev, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria dynamically relay environmental inputs to intracellular adaptations through a coordinated adjustment of photosynthetic efficiency and carbon processing rates. The output of such adaptations is reflected through changes in transcriptional patterns and metabolic flux distributions that ultimately define growth strategy. To address interrelationships between metabolism and regulation, we performed integrative analyses of metabolic and gene co-expression networks in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Centrality analyses using the gene co-expression network identified a set of key genes, which were defined here as "topologically important." Parallel in silico gene knock-out simulations, using the genome-scale metabolic network, classified what we termed as "functionally important" genes, deletion of which affected growth or metabolism. A strong positive correlation was observed between topologically and functionally important genes. Functionally important genes exhibited variable levels of topological centrality; however, the majority of topologically central genes were found to be functionally essential for growth. Subsequent functional enrichment analysis revealed that both functionally and topologically important genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 are predominantly associated with translation and energy metabolism, two cellular processes critical for growth. This research demonstrates how synergistic network-level analyses can be used for reconciliation of metabolic and gene expression data to uncover fundamental biological principles. PMID:25826650

  12. Integrated in silico Analyses of Regulatory and Metabolic Networks of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 Reveal Relationships between Gene Centrality and Essentiality

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Seob; McClure, Ryan S.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Overall, Christopher C.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria dynamically relay environmental inputs to intracellular adaptations through a coordinated adjustment of photosynthetic efficiency and carbon processing rates. The output of such adaptations is reflected through changes in transcriptional patterns and metabolic flux distributions that ultimately define growth strategy. To address interrelationships between metabolism and regulation, we performed integrative analyses of metabolic and gene co-expression networks in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Centrality analyses using the gene co-expression network identified a set of key genes, which were defined here as “topologically important.” Parallel in silico gene knock-out simulations, using the genome-scale metabolic network, classified what we termed as “functionally important” genes, deletion of which affected growth or metabolism. A strong positive correlation was observed between topologically and functionally important genes. Functionally important genes exhibited variable levels of topological centrality; however, the majority of topologically central genes were found to be functionally essential for growth. Subsequent functional enrichment analysis revealed that both functionally and topologically important genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 are predominantly associated with translation and energy metabolism, two cellular processes critical for growth. This research demonstrates how synergistic network-level analyses can be used for reconciliation of metabolic and gene expression data to uncover fundamental biological principles. PMID:25826650

  13. Variation at the M235T locus of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension: a population-based case-control study from Rochester, Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myriam Fornage; Stephen T. Turner; Charles F. Sing; Eric Boerwinkle

    1995-01-01

    A variant of the angiotensinogen gene, M235T, has been associated with essential hypertension in selected subjects from Paris, France and Salt Lake City, Utah. In the present report, we studied a population-based sample consisting of 104 subjects diagnosed with hypertension before age 60 and 195 matched normotensive individuals from Rochester, Minnesota. We determined whether there was a relationship between the

  14. Anode Biofilm Transcriptomics Reveals Outer Surface Components Essential for High Density Current Production in Geobacter sulfurreducens Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Glaven, Richard H.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Methé, Barbara A.; DiDonato, Raymond J.; Covalla, Sean F.; Franks, Ashley E.; Liu, Anna; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 µm) biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes. PMID:19461962

  15. Deduced products of C4-dicarboxylate transport regulatory genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum are homologous to nitrogen regulatory gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Ronson, C W; Astwood, P M; Nixon, B T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    We have sequenced two genes dctB and dctD required for the activation of the C4-dicarboxylate transport structural gene dctA in free-living Rhizobium leguminosarum. The hydropathic profile of the dctB gene product (DctB) suggested that its N-terminal region may be located in the periplasm and its C-terminal region in the cytoplasm. The C-terminal region of DctB was strongly conserved with similar regions of the products of several regulatory genes that may act as environmental sensors, including ntrB, envZ, virA, phoR, cpxA, and phoM. The N-terminal domains of the products of several regulatory genes thought to be transcriptional activators, including ntrC, ompR, virG, phoB and sfrA. In addition, the central and C-terminal regions of DctD were strongly conserved with the products of ntrC and nifA, transcriptional activators that require the alternate sigma factor rpoN (ntrA) as co-activator. The central region of DctD also contained a potential ATP-binding domain. These results are consistent with recent results that show that rpoN product is required for dctA activation, and suggest that DctB plus DctD-mediated transcriptional activation of dctA may be mechanistically similar to NtrB plus NtrC-mediated activation of glnA in E. coli. PMID:3671068

  16. Gene Ontology Automatic Annotation Using a Domain Based Gene Product Similarity Measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihail Popescu; James M. Keller; Joyce A Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosive growth in the amount of biological data available for analysis. The large volume of data collected makes it necessary to automatically classify and sort such data on a very large scale. Typically, investigators use computational sequence analysis tools to assign functions to newly found gene products. The problem is to find the functions of

  17. Natural Products Version 2.0: Connecting Genes to Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher T.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products have played a prominent role in the history of organic chemistry, and they continue to be important as drugs, biological probes, and targets of study for synthetic and analytical chemists. In this perspective, we explore how connecting Nature’s small molecules to the genes that encode them has sparked a renaissance in natural product research, focusing primarily on the biosynthesis of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. We survey monomer biogenesis, coupling chemistries from templated and non-templated pathways, and the broad set of tailoring reactions and hybrid pathways that give rise to the diverse scaffolds and functionalization patterns of natural products. We conclude by considering two questions: What would it take to find all natural product scaffolds? What kind of scientists will be studying natural products in the future? PMID:20121095

  18. BILIVERDIN REDUCTASE IS A TRANSPORTER OF HEME INTO THE NUCLEUS AND IS ESSENTIAL TO REGULATION OF HO-1 GENE EXPRESSION BY HEMATIN

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Cicerone; Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Engelborghs, Yves; Gibbs, Peter E. M; Maines, Mahin D.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) is an enzyme that reduces biliverdin (the product of heme oxygenase HO-1 and HO-2 activity) to the antioxidant bilirubin. It also functions as a kinase and as a transcription factor in the MAPK signaling cascade. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to investigate the mobility of hBVR in living cells and its function in the nuclear transport of hematin for induction of HO-1. In transiently transfected HeLa cells only kinase-competent hBVR translocates to the nucleus. A reduced mobility in the nucleus of hematintreated cells suggests formation of an hBVR:hematin complex and its further association with large nuclear components. The binding of hematin is specific, with the formation of a 1:1 molar complex and the C-terminal 7-residue fragment (KYCCSRK296) of hBVR contributes to the binding. The following data suggest formation of dynamic complexes of hBVR:hematin with chromatin: a) the reduction of hBVR mobility in the presence of hematin is greater in heterochromatic regions than in euchromatic domains and, b) hBVR mobility is not retarded by hematin in nuclear lysates that contain only soluble factors. Moreover, hBVR kinase activity is stimulated in the presence of double-stranded DNA fragments corresponding to HO-1 antioxidant and hypoxia response elements and by hematin. Experiments with nuclear localization and export signal mutants, and si-hBVR indicate that nuclear localization of hBVR is required for induction of HO-1 by hematin. Because gene regulation is energy-dependent and hematin regulates gene expression, our data suggest that hBVR functions as an essential component of the regulatory mechanisms for heme-responsive transcriptional activation. PMID:18412543

  19. Effects of a blend of essential oils on some end products of in vitro rumen fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Spanghero; C. Zanfi; E. Fabbro; N. Scicutella; C. Camellini

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate effects of increasing doses of a blend of essential oils (EO; oregano, cinnamon, thyme, orange peel) on in vitro rumen fermentation in rumen liquor from dairy cows and fattening bulls, as influenced by acidity at the start of the fermentation. Two in vitro fermentation experiments, which differed only in the origin of rumen liquor

  20. Production of CoQ10 in fission yeast by expression of genes responsible for CoQ10 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Daisuke; Hosono, Kouji; Fujii, Makoto; Washida, Motohisa; Nanba, Hirokazu; Kaino, Tomohiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential for energy production and has become a popular supplement in recent years. In this study, CoQ10 productivity was improved in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Ten CoQ biosynthetic genes were cloned and overexpressed in S. pombe. Strains expressing individual CoQ biosynthetic genes did not produce higher than a 10% increase in CoQ10 production. In addition, simultaneous expression of all ten coq genes did not result in yield improvements. Genes responsible for the biosynthesis of p-hydroxybenzoate and decaprenyl diphosphate, both of which are CoQ biosynthesis precursors, were also overexpressed. CoQ10 production was increased by overexpression of Eco_ubiC (encoding chorismate lyase), Eco_aroF(FBR) (encoding 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase), or Sce_thmgr1 (encoding truncated HMG-CoA reductase). Furthermore, simultaneous expression of these precursor genes resulted in two fold increases in CoQ10 production. PMID:25647499

  1. The potential of some spice essential oils in the control of A. parasiticus CFR 223 and aflatoxin production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. O. Atanda; I. Akpan; F. Oluwafemi

    2007-01-01

    Essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), cassia (Cinnamomum cassia), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) at 1–5% (v\\/v) concentration in palm kernel broth inoculated with spore suspension (106\\/ml) of Aspergillus parasiticus CFR 223 were evaluated for their potential in the control of aflatoxigenic fungus A. parasiticus CFR 223 and aflatoxin production. Healthy sorghum grains (120\\/treatment) immersed in

  2. Immunocytochemical Localization of the Cystic Fibrosis Gene Product CFTR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Crawford; Peter C. Maloney; Pamela L. Zeitlin; William B. Guggino; Stephen C. Hyde; Helen Turley; Kevin C. Gatter; Ann Harris; Christopher F. Higgins

    1991-01-01

    Antisera against two peptides, corresponding to different domains of the cystic fibrosis gene product CFTR, have been raised and extensively characterized. Both antisera recognize CFTR as a 165-kDa polypeptide in Western analysis of cells transfected with CFTR cDNA as well as in epithelial cell lines. The cell and tissue distribution of CFTR has been studied by immunocytochemistry. CFTR is abundant

  3. Lactobacillus reuteri-Specific Immunoregulatory Gene rsiR Modulates Histamine Production and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Hemarajata, P.; Gao, C.; Pflughoeft, K. J.; Thomas, C. M.; Saulnier, D. M.; Spinler, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Human microbiome-derived strains of Lactobacillus reuteri potently suppress proinflammatory cytokines like human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by converting the amino acid l-histidine to the biogenic amine histamine. Histamine suppresses mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cytokine production by signaling via histamine receptor type 2 (H2) on myeloid cells. Investigations of the gene expression profiles of immunomodulatory L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 highlighted numerous genes that were highly expressed during the stationary phase of growth, when TNF suppression is most potent. One such gene was found to be a regulator of genes involved in histidine-histamine metabolism by this probiotic species. During the course of these studies, this gene was renamed the Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory (rsiR) gene. The rsiR gene is essential for human TNF suppression by L. reuteri and expression of the histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene cluster on the L. reuteri chromosome. Inactivation of rsiR resulted in diminished TNF suppression in vitro and reduced anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis. A L. reuteri strain lacking an intact rsiR gene was unable to suppress colitis and resulted in greater concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the bloodstream of affected animals. The PhdcAB promoter region targeted by rsiR was defined by reporter gene experiments. These studies support the presence of a regulatory gene, rsiR, which modulates the expression of a gene cluster known to mediate immunoregulation by probiotics at the transcriptional level. These findings may point the way toward new strategies for controlling gene expression in probiotics by dietary interventions or microbiome manipulation. PMID:24123819

  4. Isolation and identification of precocenes and piperitone from essential oils as specific inhibitors of trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Atsushi; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Tsuyuki, Rie; Takahashi, Haruo; Nakajima, Takashi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2009-02-11

    Inhibitors of deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium graminearum are useful for protecting crops from deoxynivalenol contamination. We isolated precocenes and piperitone from the essential oils of Matricaria recutita and Eucalyptus dives, respectively, as specific inhibitors of the production of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, a biosynthetic precursor of deoxynivalenol. Precocenes I and II and piperitone inhibited 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol production by F. graminearum in a liquid culture with IC(50) values of 16.6, 1.2, and 306 microM, respectively, without inhibiting fungal growth. Precocene II also inhibited deoxynivalenol production by the fungus in a solid culture on rice with an IC(50) value of 2.0 ppm. Precocene II and piperitone decreased the mRNA levels of Tri4, Tri5, Tri6, and Tri10 encoding proteins required for deoxynivalenol biosynthesis. PMID:19191669

  5. Disruption of the FATB Gene in Arabidopsis Demonstrates an Essential Role of Saturated Fatty Acids in Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, Gustavo; Salas, Joaquin J.; Pollard, Michael R.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases determine the amount and type of fatty acids that are exported from the plastids. To better understand the role of the FATB class of acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases, we identified an Arabidopsis mutant with a T-DNA insertion in the FATB gene. Palmitate (16:0) content of glycerolipids of the mutant was reduced by 42% in leaves, by 56% in flowers, by 48% in roots, and by 56% in seeds. In addition, stearate (18:0) was reduced by 50% in leaves and by 30% in seeds. The growth rate was reduced in the mutant, resulting in 50% less fresh weight at 4 weeks compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, mutant plants produced seeds with low viability and altered morphology. Analysis of individual glycerolipids revealed that the fatty acid composition of prokaryotic plastid lipids was largely unaltered, whereas the impact on eukaryotic lipids varied but was particularly severe for phosphatidylcholine, with a >4-fold reduction of 16:0 and a 10-fold reduction of 18:0 levels. The total wax load of fatb-ko plants was reduced by 20% in leaves and by 50% in stems, implicating FATB in the supply of saturated fatty acids for wax biosynthesis. Analysis of C18 sphingoid bases derived from 16:0 indicated that, despite a 50% reduction in exported 16:0, the mutant cells maintained wild-type levels of sphingoid bases, presumably at the expense of other cell components. The growth retardation caused by the fatb mutation was enhanced in a fatb-ko act1 double mutant in which saturated fatty acid content was reduced further. Together, these results demonstrate the in vivo role of FATB as a major determinant of saturated fatty acid synthesis and the essential role of saturates for the biosynthesis and/or regulation of cellular components critical for plant growth and seed development. PMID:12671095

  6. Molecular characterization of genes involved in the production of the bacteriocin leucocin A from Leuconostoc gelidum.

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, M J; Stiles, M E

    1995-01-01

    Leucocin A is a small heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc gelidum UAL187. A 2.9-kb fragment of plasmid DNA that contains the leucocin structural gene and a second open reading frame (ORF) in an operon was previously cloned (J. W. Hastings, M. Sailer, K. Johnson, K. L. Roy, J. C. Vederas, and M. E. Stiles, J. Bacteriol. 173:7491-7500, 1991). When a 1-kb DraI-HpaI fragment containing this operon was introduced into a bacteriocin-negative variant (UAL187-13), immunity but no leucocin production was detected. Leucocin production was observed when an 8-kb SacI-HindIII fragment of the leucocin plasmid was introduced into L. gelidum UAL187-13 and Lactococcus lactis IL1403. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this 8-kb fragment revealed the presence of three ORFs in an operon upstream of and on the strand opposite from the leucocin structural gene. The first ORF (lcaE) encodes a putative protein of 149 amino acids with no apparent function in leucocin A production. The second ORF (lcaC) contains 717 codons that encode a protein homologous to members of the HlyB family of ATP-binding cassette transporters. The third ORF (lcaD) contains 457 codons that encode a protein with marked similarity to LcnD, a protein essential for the expression of the lactococcal bacteriocin lactococcin A. Deletion mutations in lcaC and lcaD resulted in loss of leucocin production, indicating that LcaC and LcaD are involved in production and translocation of leucocin A. The secretion apparatus for lactococcin A did not complement mutations in the lcaCD genes to express leucocin A in L. lactis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7486992

  7. Molecular characterization of genes involved in the production of the bacteriocin leucocin A from Leuconostoc gelidum.

    PubMed

    van Belkum, M J; Stiles, M E

    1995-10-01

    Leucocin A is a small heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc gelidum UAL187. A 2.9-kb fragment of plasmid DNA that contains the leucocin structural gene and a second open reading frame (ORF) in an operon was previously cloned (J. W. Hastings, M. Sailer, K. Johnson, K. L. Roy, J. C. Vederas, and M. E. Stiles, J. Bacteriol. 173:7491-7500, 1991). When a 1-kb DraI-HpaI fragment containing this operon was introduced into a bacteriocin-negative variant (UAL187-13), immunity but no leucocin production was detected. Leucocin production was observed when an 8-kb SacI-HindIII fragment of the leucocin plasmid was introduced into L. gelidum UAL187-13 and Lactococcus lactis IL1403. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this 8-kb fragment revealed the presence of three ORFs in an operon upstream of and on the strand opposite from the leucocin structural gene. The first ORF (lcaE) encodes a putative protein of 149 amino acids with no apparent function in leucocin A production. The second ORF (lcaC) contains 717 codons that encode a protein homologous to members of the HlyB family of ATP-binding cassette transporters. The third ORF (lcaD) contains 457 codons that encode a protein with marked similarity to LcnD, a protein essential for the expression of the lactococcal bacteriocin lactococcin A. Deletion mutations in lcaC and lcaD resulted in loss of leucocin production, indicating that LcaC and LcaD are involved in production and translocation of leucocin A. The secretion apparatus for lactococcin A did not complement mutations in the lcaCD genes to express leucocin A in L. lactis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7486992

  8. The nrfI gene is essential for the attachment of the active site haem group of Wolinella succinogenes cytochrome c nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Pisa, René; Stein, Torsten; Eichler, Robert; Gross, Roland; Simon, Jörg

    2002-02-01

    The cytochrome c nitrite reductase complex (NrfHA) is the terminal enzyme in the electron transport chain catalysing nitrite respiration of Wolinella succinogenes. The catalytic subunit NrfA is a pentahaem cytochrome c containing an active site haem group which is covalently bound via the cysteine residues of a unique CWTCK motif. The lysine residue serves as the axial ligand of the haem iron. The other four haem groups of NrfA are bound by conventional haem-binding motifs (CXXCH). The nrfHAIJ locus was restored on the genome of the W. succinogenes DeltanrfAIJ deletion mutant by integration of a plasmid, thus enabling the expression of modified alleles of nrfA and nrfI. A mutant (K134H) was constructed which contained a nrfA gene encoding a CWTCH motif instead of CWTCK. NrfA of strain K134H was found to be synthesized with five bound haem groups, as judged by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Its nitrite reduction activity with reduced benzyl viologen was 40% of the wild-type activity. Ammonia was formed as the only product of nitrite reduction. The mutant did not grow by nitrite respiration and its electron transport activity from formate to nitrite was 5% of that of the wild-type strain. The predicted nrfI gene product is similar to proteins involved in system II cytochrome c biogenesis. A mutant of W. succinogenes (stopI) was constructed that contained a nrfHAIJ gene cluster with the nrfI codons 47 and 48 altered to stop codons. The NrfA protein of this mutant did not catalyse nitrite reduction and lacked the active site haem group, whereas the other four haem groups were present. Mutant (K134H/stopI) which contained the K134H modification in NrfA in addition to the inactivated nrfI gene had essentially the same properties as strain K134H. NrfA from strain K134H/stopI contained five haem groups. It is concluded that NrfI is involved in haem attachment to the CWTCK motif in NrfA but not to any of the CXXCH motifs. The nrfI gene is obviously dispensable for maturation of a modified NrfA protein containing a CWTCH motif instead of CWTCK. Therefore, NrfI might function as a specific haem lyase that recognizes the active site lysine residue of NrfA. A similar role has been proposed for NrfE, F and G of Escherichia coli, although these proteins share no overall sequence similarity to NrfI and belong to system I cytochrome c biogenesis, which differs fundamentally from system II. PMID:11929530

  9. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Moore; Nicola J. Redhead; Jim Selfridge; James Hope; Jean C. Manson; David W. Melton

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector

  10. A gene and its product required for transposition of resistance transposon Tn2603.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Harafuji, H; Yamamoto, T

    1982-01-01

    Tn2603 is a multiple-resistance transposon encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury and having a molecular size of 20 kilobase pairs, with 200-base-pair inverted repeats at both ends. The essential sites and functions of Tn2603 which are required for its transposition were determined through construction and characterization of various deletion mutants affecting the efficiency of transposition. Deletions were introduced in plasmid pMK1::Tn2603 by partial digestion with restriction endonuclease EcoRI in vitro. Analysis of deletion mutants showed that the inverted repeat segments at both ends of the trans-acting diffusible product(s) encoded in the right-hand side of the central portion were required for the transposition of Tn2603. An essential gene product was revealed as a protein having a molecular weight of 110,000 by analysis of polypeptides synthesized in Escherichia coli minicells. This protein was assumed to be the so-called transposase. Images PMID:6284710

  11. Effect of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon and cantharidin on anthraquinone production by Rubia cordifolia callus cultures transformed with the rolB and rolC genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Bulgakov; G. K. Tchernoded; N. P. Mischenko; M. V. Khodakovskaya; V. P. Glazunov; S. V. Radchenko; E. V. Zvereva; S. A. Fedoreyev; Yu. N Zhuravlev

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes could play an essential role in the activation of secondary metabolite production in plant transformed cultures. This study investigated whether the content of anthraquinone phytoalexins was changed in callus cultures of Rubia cordifolia transgenic for the 35S-rolB and 35S-rolC genes in comparison with a non-transformed callus culture. The anthraquinone

  12. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials.

    PubMed

    Tantaoui-Elaraki, A; Beraoud, L

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effect of 13 chemically different essential oils (EO) on the mycelial growth of and aflatoxin synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus. Cinnamon, thyme, oregano, and cumin EO were able to stop mycelial growth at only 0.1% in the medium, while curcumin, ginger, lemon, and orange EO were unable to inhibit totally the growth even at 1% concentration. Coriander, black pepper, mugwort, bay, and rosemary EO caused the growth to stop at concentrations between 0.2 and 1%. The EO most active upon mycelial growth were also the most active against aflatoxinogenesis. However, aflatoxin synthesis was inhibited by all the EO at higher extent than the mycelial growth. PMID:7823297

  13. Identification of Genes Required for Alternative Oxidase Production in the Neurospora crassa Gene Knockout Library

    PubMed Central

    Nargang, Frank E.; Adames, Kelly; Rüb, Cornelia; Cheung, Serena; Easton, Nancy; Nargang, Cheryl E.; Chae, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) of Neurospora crassa transfers electrons from ubiquinol to oxygen. The enzyme is not expressed under normal conditions. However, when the function of the standard electron transport chain is compromised, AOX is induced, providing cells with a means to continue respiration and growth. Induction of the enzyme represents a form of retrograde regulation because AOX is encoded by a nuclear gene that responds to signals produced from inefficiently functioning mitochondria. To identify genes required for AOX expression, we have screened the N. crassa gene knockout library for strains that are unable to grow in the presence of antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III of the standard electron transport chain. From the 7800 strains containing knockouts of different genes, we identified 62 strains that have reduced levels of AOX when grown under conditions known to induce the enzyme. Some strains have virtually no AOX, whereas others have only a slight reduction of the protein. A broad range of seemingly unrelated functions are represented in the knockouts. For example, we identified transcription factors, kinases, the mitochondrial import receptor Tom70, three subunits of the COP9 signalosome, a monothiol glutaredoxin, and several hypothetical proteins as being required for wild-type levels of AOX production. Our results suggest that defects in many signaling or metabolic pathways have a negative effect on AOX expression and imply that complex systems control production of the enzyme. PMID:23173086

  14. Identification of the neurofibromatosis type 1 gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, D.H.; Wood, D.L.; Collins, F.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The gene for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was recently identified by positional cloning. The complete cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 2818 amino acids. To study the NF1 gene product, antibodies were raised against both fusion proteins and synthetic peptides. Initial characterization of two anti-peptide antibodies and one fusion-protein antibody demonstrated a specific protein of {approx}250 kDa by both immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. This protein was found in all tissues and cell lines examined and is detected in human, rat, and mouse tissues. To demonstrate that these antibodies specifically recognize the NF1 protein, additional fusion proteins containing the sequence specific to the synthetic peptide were generated. Both peptide antisera recognize the proper specific fusion proteins so generated. Immunoprecipitates using the peptide antisera were shown to recognize the same protein detected by immunoblotting with either the other peptide antiserum or the fusion-protein antiserum. Immunoblotting using antiserum specific to spatially distinct epitopes conducted on tissue homogenates demonstrated the NF1 protein in all adult tissues. Based on the homology between the NF1 gene product and members of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) superfamily, the name NF1-GAP-related protein (NF1GRP) is suggested.

  15. Genes for biosynthesis of butenolide-like signalling molecules in Streptomyces ghanaensis, their role in moenomycin production

    PubMed Central

    Mutenko, H.; Makitrinskyy, R.; Tsypik, O.; Walker, S.; Ostash, B.; Fedorenko, V.

    2015-01-01

    Moenomycins (Mm) – phosphoglycolipid compounds produced by Streptomyces ghanaensis ATCC14672 – are considered a promising model for development of novel class of antibiotics. In this regard it is important to generate Mm overproducing strains which would be a basis for economically justified production of this antibiotic. In this work a set of genes for synthesis and reception of low-molecular weight signaling molecules (LSM) in ATCC14672 were described and their significance for Mm production was studied. The ATCC14672 genome carries structural and regulatory genes for production of LSMs of avenolide and ?-butyrolactone families. Additional copies of LSM biosynthetic genes ssfg_07848 and ssfg_07725 did not alter the Mm production level. ATCC14672 LSMs are not capable of restoring the sporulation of butyrolactone-nonproducing mutant of S. griseus. Likewise, while the heterologous host S. lividans 1326 produced Mm, its mutant M707 (deficient in the butyrolactone synthase gene scbA) did not. Thus, while the natural level of LSMs production by ATCC14672 does not limit Mm synthesis, the former is essential for the synthesis of moenomycins. PMID:25624748

  16. Evidence that the Essential Response Regulator YycF in Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Expression of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Genes and Alters Membrane Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Luz Mohedano; Karin Overweg; Alicia de la Fuente; Mark Reuter; Silvia Altabe; Francis Mulholland; Diego de Mendoza; Paloma Lopez; Jerry M. Wells

    2005-01-01

    The YycFG two-component system, originally identified in Bacillus subtilis, is highly conserved among gram-positive bacteria with low GC contents. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the YycF response regulator has been reported to be essential for cell growth, but the signal to which it responds and the gene members of the regulon remain unclear. In order to investigate the role of YycFG in

  17. The Relationship of Target Organ Damage and 24Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring with Vitamin D Receptor Gene Fok-I Polymorphism in Essential Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyup Kulah; Ahmet Dursun; Serefden Acikgoz; Murat Can; Sebnem Kargi; Sevil Ilikhan; Sevcan Bozdogan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The contribution of genetic factors in hypertension cannot be denied. Methods: In this study we evaluated the relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (Bsm-I, Apa-I and Fok-I), and target organ damage in 74 patients (female\\/male 49\\/25, mean age 49.2 ± 8 years) with essential hypertension. The VDR genotypes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and digestion of

  18. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Nguyen, Diep M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Benn, Robert A.; Prybol, Cameron J.; Vaccaro, Brian J.; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  19. Alkaline serine protease AprE plays an essential role in poly-?-glutamate production during natto fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kada, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ohshima, Yoshifumi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Natto is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented by natto starter strains of Bacillus subtilis natto. It has been suggested that extracellular protease activity released by the bacteria are involved in the production of poly-?-glutamate (?-PGA) during natto fermentation. One of the natto starters, strain r22, possesses at least seven genes, each of which encoded an extracellular protease orthologous to its counterpart in B. subtilis 168, aprE, bpr, epr, mpr, nprE, vpr, and wprA, but it was found to lack nprB. Inactivating the aprE ortholog alone resulted in a severe decrease in ?-PGA production and in the total extracellular protease activity. The defect in ?-PGA production of the mutant lacking the aprE ortholog was complemented when the medium was supplemented with sufficient glutamate. These results suggest that the alkaline serine protease encoded by aprE plays an indispensable role in supplying materials to produce ?-PGA. On the other hand, simultaneous inactivation of all the protease genes except for aprE did not significantly affect either ?-PGA production or total protease activity. PMID:23563567

  20. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80°C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is ?15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37°C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

  1. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-08-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences. PMID:17656578

  2. Bioinformatics analysis of potential essential genes that response to the high intraocular pressure on astrocyte due to glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Duan, Jing-Zhu; Di, Yu; Gui, Dong-Mei; Gao, Dian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the gene expression response and predict the network in cell due to pressure effects on optic nerve injury of glaucoma. METHODS We used glaucoma related microarray data in public database [Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)] to explore the potential gene expression changes as well as correspondent biological process alterations due to increased pressure in astrocytes during glaucoma development. RESULTS A total of six genes were identified to be related with pressure increasing. Through the annotation and network analysis, we found these genes might be involved in cell morphological remodeling, angiogenesis, mismatch repair. CONCLUSION Increasing pressure in glaucoma on astrocytes might cause gene expression alterations, which might induce some cellular responses changes. PMID:25938062

  3. EDS1, an essential component of R gene-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis has homology to eukaryotic lipases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDERS FALK; BART J. FEYS; LOUISE N. FROST; J ONATHAN; D. G. JONES; M ICHAEL J. DANIELS; JANE E. PARKER

    1999-01-01

    A major class of plant disease resistance (R) genes encodes leucine-rich-repeat proteins that possess a nucleotide binding site and amino-terminal similarity to the cytoplasmic domains of the Drosophila Toll and human IL-1 receptors. In Arabidopsis thaliana, EDS1 is indispensable for the function of these R genes. The EDS1 gene was cloned by targeted transposon tagging and found to encode a

  4. Refined Characterization of the Expression and Stability of the SMN Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Vitte, Jérémie; Fassier, Coralie; Tiziano, Francesco D.; Dalard, Cécile; Soave, Sabrina; Roblot, Natacha; Brahe, Christine; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Bonnefont, Jean Paul; Melki, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons and caused by mutations of the SMN1 gene. SMN1 is duplicated in a homologous gene called SMN2, which remains present in patients. SMN has an essential role in RNA metabolism, but its role in SMA pathogenesis remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that in neurons the protein lacking the C terminus (SMN?7), the major product of the SMN2 gene, had a dominant-negative effect. We generated antibodies specific to SMNFL or SMN?7. In transfected cells, the stability of the SMN?7 protein was regulated in a cell-dependent manner. Importantly, whatever the human tissues examined, SMN?7 protein was undetectable because of the instability of the protein, thus excluding a dominant effect of SMN?7 in SMA. A similar decreased level of SMNFL was observed in brain and spinal cord samples from human SMA, suggesting that SMNFL may have specific targets in motor neurons. Moreover, these data indicate that the vulnerability of motor neurons cannot simply be ascribed to the differential expression or a more dramatic reduction of SMNFL in spinal cord when compared with brain tissue. Improving the stability of SMN?7 protein might be envisaged as a new therapeutic strategy in SMA. PMID:17717146

  5. Identification of genes and pathways involved in the synthesis of Mead acid (20:3n-9), an indicator of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ichi, Ikuyo; Kono, Nozomu; Arita, Yuka; Haga, Shizuka; Arisawa, Kotoko; Yamano, Misato; Nagase, Mana; Fujiwara, Yoko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (Mead acid, 20:3n-9) is synthesized from oleic acid during a state of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Mead acid is thought to be produced by the same enzymes that synthesize arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but the genes and the pathways involved in the conversion of oleic acid to Mead acid have not been fully elucidated. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cultured cells are generally very low compared to those in mammalian tissues. In this study, we found that cultured cells, such as NIH3T3 and Hepa1-6 cells, have significant levels of Mead acid, indicating that cells in culture are in an EFAD state under normal culture conditions. We then examined the effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of fatty acid desaturases and elongases on the level of Mead acid, and found that knockdown of Elovl5, Fads1, or Fads2 decreased the level of Mead acid. This and the measured levels of possible intermediate products for the synthesis of Mead acid such as 18:2n-9, 20:1n-9 and 20:2n-9 in the knocked down cells indicate two pathways for the synthesis of Mead acid: pathway 1) 18:1n-9?(Fads2)?18:2n-9?(Elovl5)?20:2n-9?(Fads1)?20:3n-9 and pathway 2) 18:1n-9?(Elovl5)?20:1n-9?(Fads2)?20:2n-9?(Fads1)?20:3n-9. PMID:24184513

  6. Peptide HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors from HIV-1 Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shintaro; Urano, Emiko; Hashimoto, Chie; Tsutsumi, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Toru; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Yuta; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Han, Yan; Hamatake, Makiko; Miyauchi, Kosuke; Pommier, Yves; Beutler, John A.; Sugiura, Wataru; Fuji, Hideyoshi; Hoshino, Tyuji; Itotani, Kyoko; Nomura, Wataru; Narumi, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Komano, Jun A.; Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Anti-HIV peptides with inhibitory activity against HIV-1 integrase (IN) have been found in overlapping peptide libraries derived from HIV-1 gene products. In a strand transfer assay using IN, inhibitory active peptides with certain sequential motifs related to Vpr- and Env-derived peptides were found. The addition of an octa-arginyl group to the inhibitory peptides caused a remarkable inhibition of the strand transfer and 3?-end-processing reactions catalyzed by IN and significant inhibition against HIV replication. PMID:20586421

  7. Growth, morphogenesis and essential oil production in Mentha spicata L. plantlets in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various physical environments were studied on the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (leaf, root and shoot numbers) and secondary metabolism [i.e., production of the monoterpene (-)-carvone] of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) shoots cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium. Carvone a...

  8. Bhlhe40 controls cytokine production by T cells and is essential for pathogenicity in autoimmune neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Bradstreet, Tara R.; Schwarzkopf, Elizabeth A.; Sim, Julia; Carrero, Javier A.; Chou, Chun; Cook, Lindsey E.; Egawa, Takeshi; Taneja, Reshma; Murphy, Theresa L.; Russell, John H.; Edelson, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    TH1 and TH17 cells mediate neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Pathogenic TH cells in EAE must produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). TH cell pathogenicity in EAE is also regulated by cell-intrinsic production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient for the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Bhlhe40 (Bhlhe40?/?) are resistant to the induction of EAE. Bhlhe40 is required in vivo in a T cell-intrinsic manner, where it positively regulates the production of GM-CSF and negatively regulates the production of IL-10. In vitro, GM-CSF secretion is selectively abrogated in polarized Bhlhe40?/? TH1 and TH17 cells, and these cells show increased production of IL-10. Blockade of IL-10 receptor in Bhlhe40?/? mice renders them susceptible to EAE. These findings identify Bhlhe40 as a critical regulator of autoreactive T cell pathogenicity. PMID:24699451

  9. Deletion of the Chloroplast-Localized Thylakoid Formation1 Gene Product in Arabidopsis Leads to

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan M.

    of the plastid. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Thylakoid formation1 (Thf1) gene product is shown here Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), designed to identify genes important for seedling viability, appearedDeletion of the Chloroplast-Localized Thylakoid Formation1 Gene Product in Arabidopsis Leads

  10. The impact of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum) essential oil and carvacrol on virulence gene transcription by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Mith, Hasika; Clinquart, Antoine; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Delcenserie, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and carvacrol, its major component, on the expression of virulence-associated genes in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC strain 35150. Both oregano oil and carvacrol demonstrated their efficacy firstly, by inhibiting the transcription of the ler gene involved in upregulation of the LEE2, LEE3 and LEE4 promoters and of attaching and effacing lesions and secondly by decreasing both Shiga toxin and fliC genes expression. In addition, a decrease in luxS gene transcription involved in quorum sensing was observed. These results were dose dependent and showed a specific effect of O. heracleoticum and carvacrol in downregulating the expression of virulence genes in EHEC O157:H7. These findings suggest that oregano oil and carvacrol have the potential to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by virulence gene expression in EHEC O157:H7, through the use of these substances as natural antibacterial additives in foods or as an alternative to antibiotics. PMID:25790499

  11. Variability in the Stability and Productivity of Transfected Genes in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells

    E-print Network

    Ng, Say Kong

    In the field of biologics production, productivity and stability of the transfected gene of interest are two very important attributes that dictate if a production process is viable. To further understand and improve these ...

  12. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  13. [Genes for biosynthesis of butenolide-like signalling molecules in Streptomyces ghanaensis, their role in moenomycin production].

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Moenomycins (Mm)--phosphoglycolipid compounds produced by Streptomyces ghanaensis ATCC14672--are considered a promising model for development of novel-class of antibiotics. In this regard it is important to generate Mm overproducing strains which would be a basis for economically justified production of this antibiotic. In this work a set of genes for synthesis and reception of low-molecularweight signaling molecules (LSM) in ATCC14672 were described and their significance for Mm production was studied. The ATCC 14672 genome carries structural and regulatory genes for production of LSMs of avenolide and ?-butyrolacone families. Additional copies of LSM biosynthetic genes ssfg_07848 and ssfg_07725 did not alter the Mm production level. ATCC14672 LSMs are not capable of restoring the sporulation of butyrolactone-nonpro-ucing mutant ofS . griseus. Likewise, while the heterologous host S. lividans 1326 produced Mm, its mutant M707 (deficient in the butyrolactone synthase gene scbA) did not. Thus, while the natural level of LSMs pro-uction by ATCC 14672 does not limit Mm synthesis, the former is essential for the synthesis of moenomycins. PMID:25715454

  14. The non-essential UL50 gene of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus encodes a functional dUTPase which is not a virulence factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Fuchs; Katharina Ziemann; Jens P. Teifke; Ortrud Werner; Thomas C. Mettenleiter

    The DNA sequence of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) UL50, UL51 and UL52 gene homologues was determined. Although the deduced UL50 protein lacks the first of five conserved domains of the corresponding proteins of mammalian alphaherpesviruses, the ILTV gene product was also shown to possess dUTPase activity. The generation of UL50-negative ILTV mutants was facilitated by recombination plasmids encoding green

  15. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  16. Stock-outs of essential health products in Mozambique-longitudinal analyses from 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Gimbel, Sarah; Hoek, Roxanne; Pfeiffer, James; Michel, Cathy; Manuel, Joăo Luis; Cuembelo, Fatima; Quembo, Titos; Afonso, Pires; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    objectives To assess the relationship between health system factors and facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique. methods Service provisions were assessed in 26 health facilities and 13 district warehouses in Sofala Province, Mozambique, from July to August in 2011–2013. Generalised estimating equations were used to model factors associated with facility-level availability of essential drugs, supplies and equipment. results Stock-out rates for drugs ranged from 1.3% for oral rehydration solution to 20.5% for Depo-Provera and condoms, with a mean stock-out rate of 9.1%; mean stock-out rates were 15.4% for supplies and 4.1% for equipment. Stock-outs at the district level accounted for 27.1% (29/107) of facility-level drug stock-outs and 44.0% (37/84) of supply stock-outs. Each 10-km increase in the distance from district distribution warehouses was associated with a 31% (CI: 22–42%), 28% (CI: 17–40%) or 27% (CI: 7–50%) increase in rates of drug, supply or equipment stock-outs, respectively. The number of heath facility staff was consistently negatively associated with the occurrence of stock-outs. conclusions Facility-level stock-outs of EHPs in Mozambique are common and appear to disproportionately affect those living far from district capitals and near facilities with few health staff. The majority of facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique occur when stock exists at the district distribution centre. Innovative methods are urgently needed to improve EHP supply chains, requesting and ordering of drugs, facility and district communication, and forecasting of future EHP needs in Mozambique. Increased investments in public-sector human resources for health could potentially decrease the occurrence of EHP stock-outs. PMID:24724617

  17. Functional annotation of human cytomegalovirus gene products: an update

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Ellen; Van Loock, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic double-stranded DNA virus with one of the largest viral genomes known. The 235 kB genome is divided in a unique long (UL) and a unique short (US) region which are flanked by terminal and internal repeats. The expression of HCMV genes is highly complex and involves the production of protein coding transcripts, polyadenylated long non-coding RNAs, polyadenylated anti-sense transcripts and a variety of non-polyadenylated RNAs such as microRNAs. Although the function of many of these transcripts is unknown, they are suggested to play a direct or regulatory role in the delicately orchestrated processes that ensure HCMV replication and life-long persistence. This review focuses on annotating the complete viral genome based on three sources of information. First, previous reviews were used as a template for the functional keywords to ensure continuity; second, the Uniprot database was used to further enrich the functional database; and finally, the literature was manually curated for novel functions of HCMV gene products. Novel discoveries were discussed in light of the viral life cycle. This functional annotation highlights still poorly understood regions of the genome but more importantly it can give insight in functional clusters and/or may be helpful in the analysis of future transcriptomics and proteomics studies. PMID:24904534

  18. [Association of porcine ATF4 gene polymorphism and production traits and analysis of gene expression].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Wu, Wang-Jun; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu

    2011-12-01

    In order to understand the function of gene ATF4 and identify new DNA markers involved in pig production traits, the cDNA fragment of porcine ATF4 was cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparison revealed an A159G substitution downstream of the initiation codon (ATG). We then carried out PCR-Alu?-RFLP analysis in Large white, Landrace, Tongcheng and Meishan pigs, followed by association analysis in F2 "Large white ×Meishan" resource family. In all the individuals tested, Large White and Landrace pigs possessed the AA genotype, while Meishan and Tongcheng pigs pos-sessed the GG genotype. Association analysis in F2 resource family showed that this site was highly associated with buttock fat thickness (BFT) (Pamp;0.01) and had significant effect on thorax-waist fat thickness (TFT), average backfat thickness (ABT), loin eye height (LEH), and loin eye area (LEA)(Pamp;0.05). Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of porcine ATF4 gene in longissimus dorsi at different development stages of Large White and Meishan pigs. The results showed that the gene expression levels of ATF4 were low 65 days after conception and 3 days after birth, but no signifi-cant differences were observed in both breeds. Meanwhile, the expression levels of porcine ATF4 gene were up-regulated 60 days and 120 days after birth in both breeds and the expression level in Meishan pigs was obviously higher than that in Large White pigs. These data could lay the foundation for further study on the molecular mechanism of porcine ATF4 gene in lipid metabolism. PMID:22207380

  19. The gene encoding pyolysin, the pore-forming toxin of Arcanobacterium pyogenes, resides within a genomic islet flanked by essential genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefani T. Rudnick; B. Helen Jost; J. Glenn Songer; Stephen J. Billington

    2003-01-01

    The plo gene, encoding the Arcanobacterium pyogenes cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin (PLO), was localized to a 2.7-kb genomic islet of reduced %G+C content and alternate codon usage frequency. This islet, conserved among isolates from diverse hosts and geographical locations, separated the housekeeping genes smc and ftsY, which are found adjacent in many prokaryotes. The ftsY and ffh genes, located downstream of

  20. Stress-inducible OsP5CS2 gene is essential for salt and cold tolerance in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghe Hur; Ki-Hong Jung; Choon-Hwan Lee; Gynheung An

    2004-01-01

    We isolated a rice T-DNA tagging line, in which T-DNA was inserted into the sixth intron of OsP5CS2. This gene encodes for a protein that is highly homologous to ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), a proline biosynthesis enzyme. The T-DNA contained the promoterless gus gene, allowing generation of a gene fusion between OsP5CS2 and gus. Therefore, the expression pattern of OsP5CS2 could

  1. Stress-inducible OsP5CS2gene is essential for salt and cold tolerance in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghe Hur; Ki-Hong Jung; Choon-Hwan Leeb; Gynheung Ana

    We isolated a rice T-DNA tagging line, in which T-DNA was inserted into the sixth intron of OsP5CS2. This gene encodes for a protein that is highly homologous to ? 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), a proline biosynthesis enzyme. The T-DNA contained the promoterless gus gene, allowing generation of a gene fusion between OsP5CS2 and gus. Therefore, the expression pattern of OsP5CS2

  2. [The e(y)3 gene codes for SAYP, an evolutionary conserved protein that is essential for ontogeny].

    PubMed

    2005-08-01

    Enhancers of yellow (e(y)) is a group of genetically and functionally related genes. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in transcription regulation. The e(y)3 gene under study codes for an ubiquitous nuclear protein, termed SAYP, which has homologs in various multicellular organisms. SAYP contains an AT-hook domain, two PHD domains, and a new evolutionarily conserved domain. SAYP mutants die during embryonic development. The weak e(y)ul mutation causes multiple malformations. The potent e(y)EMSl mutation causes embryonic death, implicating SAYP in early development. PMID:16161621

  3. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guiyang; Zhou, Li; Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Three new sesquiterpenes including a new elemane-type sesquiterpene, 5?H-elem-1,3,7,8-tetraen-8,12-olide (1), and two new carabrane-type sesquiterpenes, 7?,11-epoxy-6?-methoxy-carabrane-4,8-dione (2) and 8,11-epidioxy-8-hydroxy-4-oxo-6-carabren (3), together with eight known sesquiterpenes (4-11) were isolated from Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. A possible biogenetic scheme for the related compounds was postulated. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds are discussed. PMID:25819782

  4. One-Step Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation of Eight Genes Essential for Rhizobium Symbiotic Signaling Using the Novel Binary Vector System pHUGE

    PubMed Central

    Untergasser, Andreas; Bijl, Gerben J. M.; Liu, Wei; Bisseling, Ton; Schaart, Jan G.; Geurts, René

    2012-01-01

    Advancement in plant research is becoming impaired by the fact that the transfer of multiple genes is difficult to achieve. Here we present a new binary vector for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation, pHUGE-Red, in concert with a cloning strategy suited for the transfer of up to nine genes at once. This vector enables modular cloning of large DNA fragments by employing Gateway technology and contains DsRED1 as visual selection marker. Furthermore, an R/Rs inducible recombination system was included allowing subsequent removal of the selection markers in the newly generated transgenic plants. We show the successful use of pHUGE-Red by transferring eight genes essential for Medicago truncatula to establish a symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria as one 74 kb T-DNA into four non-leguminous species; strawberry, poplar, tomato and tobacco. We provide evidence that all transgenes are expressed in the root tissue of the non-legumes. Visual control during the transformation process and subsequent marker gene removal makes the pHUGE-Red vector an excellent tool for the efficient transfer of multiple genes. PMID:23112864

  5. mTORC1 Is Essential for Early Steps during Schwann Cell Differentiation of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Regulates Lipogenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schörghofer, David; Kinslechner, Katharina; Schütz, Birgit; Thi Thanh Pham, Ha; Rosner, Margit; Joo, Gabor Jozsef; Röhrl, Clemens; Weichhart, Thomas; Stangl, Herbert; Lubec, Gert; Hengstschläger, Markus; Mikula, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cell development is hallmarked by the induction of a lipogenic profile. Here we used amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells and focused on the mechanisms occurring during early steps of differentiation along the Schwann cell lineage. Therefore, we initiated Schwann cell differentiation in AFS cells and monitored as well as modulated the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, the major regulator of anabolic processes. Our results show that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is essential for glial marker expression and expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) target genes. Moreover, SREBP target gene activation by statin treatment promoted lipogenic gene expression, induced mTORC1 activation and stimulated Schwann cell differentiation. To investigate mTORC1 downstream signaling we expressed a mutant S6K1, which subsequently induced the expression of the Schwann cell marker S100b, but did not affect lipogenic gene expression. This suggests that S6K1 dependent and independent pathways downstream of mTORC1 drive AFS cells to early Schwann cell differentiation and lipogenic gene expression. In conclusion our results propose that future strategies for peripheral nervous system regeneration will depend on ways to efficiently induce the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:25221943

  6. Expression Cloning of LDLB, a Gene Essential for Normal Golgi Function and Assembly of the ldlCp Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon E. Chatterton; David Hirsch; John J. Schwartz; Perry E. Bickel; Robert D. Rosenberg; Harvey F. Lodish; Monty Krieger

    1999-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants ldlC and ldlB, which exhibit almost identical phenotypes, define two genes required for multiple steps in the normal medial and trans Golgi-associated processing of glycoconjugates. The LDLC gene encodes ldlCp, an ≈ 80-kDa protein, which in wild-type, but not ldlB, cells associates reversibly with the cytoplasmic surface of the Golgi apparatus. Here, we

  7. RAD25 (SSL2), the yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, E.; Prakash, L. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (United States)); Guzder, S.N.; Prakash, S. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)); Koken, M.H.M.; Jaspers-Dekker, I.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and seven complementation groups, A-G, have been identified. Homologs of human excision repair genes ERCC1, XPDC/ERCC2, and XPAC have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since no homolog of human XPBC/ERCC3 existed among the known yeast genes, we cloned the yeast homolog by using XPBC cDNA as a hybridization probe. The yeast homolog, RAD25 (SSL2), encodes a protein of 843 amino acids (M[sub r] 95,356). The RAD25 (SSL2)- and XPCX-encoded proteins share 55% identical and 72% conserved amino acid residues, and the two proteins resemble one another in containing the conserved DNA helicase sequence motifs. A nonsense mutation at codon 799 that deletes the 45 C-terminal amino acid residues in RAD25 (SSL2) confers UV sensitivity. This mutation shows epistasis with genes in the excision repair group, whereas a synergistic increase in UN sensitivity occurs when it is combined with mutations in genes in other DNA repair pathways, indicating that RAD25 (SSL2) functions in excision repair but not in other repair pathways. We also show that RAD25 (SSL2) is an essential gene. A mutation of the Lys[sup 392] residue to arginine in the conserved Walker type A nucleotide-binding motif is lethal, suggesting an essential role of the putative RAD 25 (SSL2) ATPase/DNA helicase activity in viability. 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Functional circadian clock genes are essential for the overwintering diapause of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Meuti, Megan E; Stone, Mary; Ikeno, Tomoko; Denlinger, David L

    2015-02-01

    The short day lengths of late summer are used to program the overwintering adult diapause (dormancy) of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens. Here, we investigated the role of clock genes in initiating this diapause and asked whether the circadian cycling of clock gene expression persists during diapause. We provide evidence that the major circadian clock genes continue to cycle throughout diapause and after diapause has been terminated. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to knock down the core circadian clock genes and to then assess the impact of the various clock genes on the ability of females to enter diapause. RNAi directed against negative circadian regulators (period, timeless and cryptochrome2) caused females that were reared under diapause-inducing, short day conditions to avert diapause. In contrast, knocking down the circadian-associated gene pigment dispersing factor caused females that were reared under diapause-averting, long day conditions to enter a diapause-like state. Our results implicate the circadian clock in the initiation of diapause in C. pipiens. PMID:25653422

  9. Identification of gene products encoded by the latency-related gene of bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, A; Schang, L M; Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) establishes a latent infection in sensory ganglionic neurons of infected animals. Expression of latency-related (LR) gene products is controlled by a 980-bp fragment (LR promoter). DNA sequence analysis revealed that two major open reading frames (ORFs) are in the LR gene. Antibodies directed against both ORFs were generated in rabbits by using synthetic peptides. Antibody P2, which is directed to sequences near the amino terminus of ORF 2, recognized a 41-kDa protein in lytically infected cells, suggesting that ORF 2 encodes a protein. When the LR gene was inserted into a mammalian expression vector and subsequently transfected into COS-7 cells, a 41-kDa protein was detected by use of silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and by the P2 antibody. In contrast, this protein was not detected in mock-transfected cells. Deletion of DNA sequences containing ORF 2 blocked synthesis of the 41-kDa protein in COS-7 cells. Reverse transcriptase-mediated PCRs indicated that splicing occurs near the C terminus of ORF 2. Further studies indicated that LR RNA was alternatively spliced in latently infected cattle and that a fraction of LR RNA was poly(A)+. Taken together, these studies suggested that a spliced LR transcript has the potential to encode a 41-kDa protein. PMID:7636978

  10. Post-translational processing of the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase gene product in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Kuge, O; Saito, K; Kojima, M; Akamatsu, Y; Nishijima, M

    1996-10-01

    We have isolated a full-length cDNA clone of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) pssC gene, which encodes mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. The cDNA clone is capable of increasing phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity to 11-fold in CHO-K1 cells. The pssC gene product predicted from the cDNA sequence is composed of 409 amino acid residues. In an in vitro translation system coupled with in vitro transcription, the cDNA clone directs the formation of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa. In CHO-K1 cells, the cDNA clone leads to the production of two major peptides with apparent molecular masses of 38 and 34 kDa, as determined by Western blotting with an antibody raised against a recombinant pssC protein. When CHO-K1 cells transfected with the cDNA clone are labelled with [35S]methionine for a short period, proteins immunoprecipitated with the antibody lack radioactive 38 and 34 kDa peptides, but contain two radioactive peptides with apparent molecular masses of 46 and 42 kDa instead. The pssC gene product predicted from the cDNA sequence has, near its C-terminus, a unique Leu-Gly-Ser-Thr sequence which is known as a processing site for Escherichia coli phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. A mutant pssC cDNA clone, in which Ser378 in the conserved sequence is replaced by Ala, leads to overproduction of 46, 42 and 38 kDa peptides, but not a 34 kDa peptide. This mutant clone is incapable of increasing phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity, in contrast to the wild-type clone. These results indicate that the processing at the Leu-Gly-Ser-Thr sequence is essential for formation of the active enzyme. Thus, the pssC gene product is converted into mature phosphatidylserine decarboxylase through multiple steps of post-translational processing. PMID:8870646

  11. Small interference RNA profiling reveals the essential role of human membrane trafficking genes in mediating the infectious entry of dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of Dengue fever and the life-threatening Dengue Haemorrhagic fever or Dengue shock syndrome. In the absence of anti-viral agents or vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop an effective anti-viral strategy against this medically important viral pathogen. The initial interplay between DENV and the host cells may represent one of the potential anti-viral targeting sites. Currently the involvements of human membrane trafficking host genes or factors that mediate the infectious cellular entry of dengue virus are not well defined. Results In this study, we have used a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) library to identify and profile key cellular genes involved in processes of endocytosis, cytoskeletal dynamics and endosome trafficking that are important and essential for DENV infection. The infectious entry of DENV into Huh7 cells was shown to be potently inhibited by siRNAs targeting genes associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The important role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis was confirmed by the expression of well-characterized dominant-negative mutants of genes in this pathway and by using the clathrin endocytosis inhibitor chlorpromazine. Furthermore, DENV infection was shown to be sensitive to the disruption of human genes in regulating the early to late endosomal trafficking as well as the endosomal acidic pH. The importance and involvement of both actin and microtubule dynamics in mediating the infectious entry of DENV was also revealed in this study. Conclusions Together, the findings from this study have provided a detail profiling of the human membrane trafficking cellular genes and the mechanistic insight into the interplay of these host genes with DENV to initiate an infection, hence broadening our understanding on the entry pathway of this medically important viral pathogen. These data may also provide a new potential avenue for development of anti-viral strategies and treatment of DENV infection. PMID:20122152

  12. Molecular genetic analysis of the region containing the essential Pseudomonas aeruginosa asd gene encoding aspartate- -semialdehyde dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tung T. Hoang; S. Williams; Herbert P. Schweizer; J. S. Lam

    1997-01-01

    asd mutants of Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria have an obligate requirement for diaminopimelic acid (DAP), an essential constituent of the cell wall of these organisms. In environments deprived of DAP, for example mammalian tissues, they will undergo lysis. This was previously exploited to develop vaccine strains of Salmonella typhimurium and cloning vectors containing asd as an in vivo selectable

  13. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Dictamnus dasycarpus Roots from China against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-06-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from traditional medicinal herbs, Dictamnus dasycarpus was found to possess contact toxicity and repellent activity against the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of D. dasycarpus roots was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, and the main components identified were syn-7-hydroxy-7-anisylnorbornene (1, 49.9%), 1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-inden-2-one (2, 11.6%), 5,6-diethenyl-1-methylcyclohexene (3, 7.4%), and 3,9-dimethyltricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5) ]dec-3-en-9-ol (4, 6.35%). The D. dasycarpus root oil exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila, with LD50 values of 12.4??g/adult and 27.2??g/cm(2) , respectively. Moreover, the essential oil also showed strong repellency against both stored-product insects tested. PMID:26080743

  14. Angiotensinogen M235T gene variants and its association with essential hypertension and plasma renin activity in Malaysian subjects: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Say, Yee-How; Ling, King-Hwa; Duraisamy, Gnanasothie; Isaac, Suzanne; Rosli, Rozita

    2005-01-01

    Background Essential hypertension is a major public health concern worldwide where its prevalence accounts for various cerebrovascular diseases. A common molecular variant of angiotensinogen (AGT), the precursor of potent vasoactive hormone angiotensin II, has been incriminated as a marker for genetic predisposition to essential hypertension in some ethnics. This case-control study was designed not only to determine the association of the AGT M235T gene variants with essential hypertension, but also its relationship to Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in subjects attending the Health Clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods The study involved 188 subjects, 101 hypertensives and 87 normotensives. Consents were obtained from all the participated subjects. M235T gene variants were investigated using allele specific polymerase chain reaction and PRA was determined by radioimmunoassay. Hypertensinogenic factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits were assessed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results The genotype and allele distribution of the M235T variant differed significantly in hypertensives and normotensives (?2 = 23.184, P < 0.001 and ?2 = 21.482, P < 0.001, respectively). The odds ratio for hypertension was 1.36 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.80) for subjects with homozygous mutated allele TT of the M235T variant compared with other genotypes or 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.46–2.67) for those carrying T allele compared to those carrying M allele. Plasma Renin Activity is also significantly higher in hypertensive subjects (PRA = 3.8 ± 2.5 ngAI/ml/hr for hypertensives, PRA = 2.6 ± 1.3 ngAI/ml/hr for normotensives, P < 0.001), but was not significantly different between groups of genotypes (P = 0.118). Conclusion The M235T variant of the AGT is significantly associated with essential hypertension whereas the genotype TT or allele T is a possible genetic marker or risk factor for hypertension in Malaysian subjects. PMID:15811183

  15. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 ?M, 10 ?M and 100 ?M) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner. PMID:23514759

  16. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  17. An intronic variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of the cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) gene modifies gene expression and is associated with essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinori Omi; Maki Kumada; Toyomi Kamesaki; Hiroshi Okuda; Lkhagvasuren Munkhtulga; Yoshiko Yanagisawa; Nanami Utsumi; Takaya Gotoh; Akira Hata; Masayoshi Soma; Satoshi Umemura; Toshio Ogihara; Norio Takahashi; Yasuharu Tabara; Kazuyuki Shimada; Hiroyuki Mano; Eiji Kajii; Tetsuro Miki; Sadahiko Iwamoto

    2006-01-01

    Cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) gene is a member of the NALP subfamily of the CATERPILLER protein family that is expressed predominantly in peripheral blood leukocytes, which is to regulate apoptosis or inflammation through the activation of NF-?B and caspase. Recent genetic analyses suggested an association between inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes in the development of hypertension. This is the

  18. The sps Gene Products Affect the Germination, Hydrophobicity, and Protein Adsorption of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Cangiano, Giuseppina; Sirec, Teja; Panarella, Cristina; Isticato, Rachele; Baccigalupi, Loredana; De Felice, Maurilio

    2014-01-01

    The multilayered surface of the Bacillus subtilis spore is composed of proteins and glycans. While over 70 different proteins have been identified as surface components, carbohydrates associated with the spore surface have not been characterized in detail yet. Bioinformatic data suggest that the 11 products of the sps operon are involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides present on the spore surface, but an experimental validation is available only for the four distal genes of the operon. Here, we report a transcriptional analysis of the sps operon and a functional study performed by constructing and analyzing two null mutants lacking either all or only the promoter-proximal gene of the operon. Our results show that both sps mutant spores apparently have normal coat and crust but have a small germination defect and are more hydrophobic than wild-type spores. We also show that spores lacking all Sps proteins are highly adhesive and form extensive clumps. In addition, sps mutant spores have an increased efficiency in adsorbing a heterologous enzyme, suggesting that hydrophobic force is a major determinant of spore adsorption and indicating that a deep understanding of the surface properties of the spore is essential for its full development as a surface display platform. PMID:25239894

  19. Genetic Dissection of the mamAB and mms6 Operons Reveals a Gene Set Essential for Magnetosome Biogenesis in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    Lohße, Anna; Borg, Sarah; Raschdorf, Oliver; Kolinko, Isabel; Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály; Faivre, Damien; Baumgartner, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of bacterial magnetosomes, which are intracellular membrane-enclosed, nanosized magnetic crystals, is controlled by a set of >30 specific genes. In Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, these are clustered mostly within a large conserved genomic magnetosome island (MAI) comprising the mms6, mamGFDC, mamAB, and mamXY operons. Here, we demonstrate that the five previously uncharacterized genes of the mms6 operon have crucial functions in the regulation of magnetosome biomineralization that partially overlap MamF and other proteins encoded by the adjacent mamGFDC operon. While all other deletions resulted in size reduction, elimination of either mms36 or mms48 caused the synthesis of magnetite crystals larger than those in the wild type (WT). Whereas the mms6 operon encodes accessory factors for crystal maturation, the large mamAB operon contains several essential and nonessential genes involved in various other steps of magnetosome biosynthesis, as shown by single deletions of all mamAB genes. While single deletions of mamL, -P, -Q, -R, -B, -S, -T, and -U showed phenotypes similar to those of their orthologs in a previous study in the related M. magneticum, we found mamI and mamN to be not required for at least rudimentary iron biomineralization in M. gryphiswaldense. Thus, only mamE, -L, -M, -O, -Q, and -B were essential for formation of magnetite, whereas a mamI mutant still biomineralized tiny particles which, however, consisted of the nonmagnetic iron oxide hematite, as shown by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). Based on this and previous studies, we propose an extended model for magnetosome biosynthesis in M. gryphiswaldense. PMID:24816605

  20. [Collaborative study on regulatory science for facilitating clinical development of gene therapy products for genetic diseases].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Eriko; Igarashi, Yuka; Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy products are expected as innovative medicinal products for intractable diseases such as life-threatening genetic diseases and cancer. Recently, clinical developments by pharmaceutical companies are accelerated in Europe and the United States, and the first gene therapy product in advanced countries was approved for marketing authorization by the European Commission in 2012. On the other hand, more than 40 clinical studies for gene therapy have been completed or ongoing in Japan, most of them are conducted as clinical researches by academic institutes, and few clinical trials have been conducted for approval of gene therapy products. In order to promote the development of gene therapy products, revision of the current guideline and/or preparation of concept paper to address the evaluation of the quality and safety of gene therapy products are necessary and desired to clearly show what data should be submitted before First-in-Human clinical trials of novel gene therapy products. We started collaborative study with academia and regulatory agency to promote regulatory science toward clinical development of gene therapy products for genetic diseases based on lentivirus and adeno-associated virus vectors; National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), Nippon Medical School and PMDA have been joined in the task force. At first, we are preparing pre-draft of the revision of the current gene therapy guidelines in this project. PMID:25707196

  1. Cloning of the Escherichia coli gene for primosomal protein i: the relationship to dnaT, essential for chromosomal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Masai, H; Bond, M W; Arai, K

    1986-03-01

    The Escherichia coli gene encoding one of the primosomal proteins, protein i, was cloned by the use of synthetic oligonucleotide probes. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a coding region for protein i of 537 base pairs preceded by a possible promoter sequence. The gene is located adjacent to the dnaC locus, probably both being in a single operon. The protein i gene was shown to be closely related to the dnaT locus based on the following observations. (i) A multicopy plasmid carrying only the protein i gene suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype of a dnaT strain and restores the ability of the strain to carry out stable DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis. (ii) An extract from a dnaT strain does not support replication of the plasmid pBR322 in vitro; addition of purified protein i restores its activity. These results indicate that protein i is encoded by dnaT and that it is essential for chromosomal DNA replication and is involved in the induction of stable DNA replication during the SOS response. PMID:3006041

  2. oriPIs Essential for EBNA Gene Promoter Activity in Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalized Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARYANN T. PUGLIELLI; MAXIMILIAN WOISETSCHLAEGER; ANDSAMUEL H. SPECK

    1996-01-01

    is initially active, followed by a switch to Cp for the duration of latency. In this study, the region upstream of Cp was analyzed for the presence of cis elements involved in regulating the activities of the EBNA gene promoters in established in vitro immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). It was determined thatoriP, theoriginforepisomalmaintenanceduringlatency,isessentialforefficienttranscriptioninitiationfromeither Cp or Wp in LCLs, as

  3. Recruitment of 5' Hoxa genes in the allantois is essential for proper extra-embryonic function in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Martina; Kmita, Marie

    2012-02-01

    The Hox gene family is well known for its functions in establishing morphological diversity along the anterior-posterior axis of developing embryos. In mammals, one of these genes, Hoxa13, is crucial for embryonic survival, as its function is required for the proper expansion of the fetal vasculature in the placenta. Thus, it appears that the developmental strategy specific to placental mammals is linked, at least in part, to the recruitment of Hoxa13 function in developing extra-embryonic tissues. Yet, the mechanism underlying this extra-embryonic recruitment is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that this functional novelty is not exclusive to Hoxa13 but is shared with its neighboring Hoxa11 and Hoxa10 genes. We show that the extra-embryonic function of these three Hoxa genes stems from their specific expression in the allantois, an extra-embryonic hallmark of amniote vertebrates. Interestingly, Hoxa10-13 expression in the allantois is conserved in chick embryos, which are non-placental amniotes, suggesting that the extra-embryonic recruitment of Hoxa10, Hoxa11 and Hoxa13 most likely arose in amniotes, i.e. prior to the emergence of placental mammals. Finally, using a series of targeted recombination and transgenic assays, we provide evidence that the regulatory mechanism underlying Hoxa expression in the allantois is extremely complex and relies on several cis-regulatory sequences. PMID:22219351

  4. A robust tool for discriminative analysis and feature selection in paired samples impacts the identification of the genes essential for reprogramming lung tissue to adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. The most common type of lung cancer is lung adenocarcinoma (AC). The genetic mechanisms of the early stages and lung AC progression steps are poorly understood. There is currently no clinically applicable gene test for the early diagnosis and AC aggressiveness. Among the major reasons for the lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers are the extraordinary heterogeneity of the cancer cells, complex and poorly understudied interactions of the AC cells with adjacent tissue and immune system, gene variation across patient cohorts, measurement variability, small sample sizes and sub-optimal analytical methods. We suggest that gene expression profiling of the primary tumours and adjacent tissues (PT-AT) handled with a rational statistical and bioinformatics strategy of biomarker prediction and validation could provide significant progress in the identification of clinical biomarkers of AC. To minimise sample-to-sample variability, repeated multivariate measurements in the same object (organ or tissue, e.g. PT-AT in lung) across patients should be designed, but prediction and validation on the genome scale with small sample size is a great methodical challenge. Results To analyse PT-AT relationships efficiently in the statistical modelling, we propose an Extreme Class Discrimination (ECD) feature selection method that identifies a sub-set of the most discriminative variables (e.g. expressed genes). Our method consists of a paired Cross-normalization (CN) step followed by a modified sign Wilcoxon test with multivariate adjustment carried out for each variable. Using an Affymetrix U133A microarray paired dataset of 27 AC patients, we reviewed the global reprogramming of the transcriptome in human lung AC tissue versus normal lung tissue, which is associated with about 2,300 genes discriminating the tissues with 100% accuracy. Cluster analysis applied to these genes resulted in four distinct gene groups which we classified as associated with (i) up-regulated genes in the mitotic cell cycle lung AC, (ii) silenced/suppressed gene specific for normal lung tissue, (iii) cell communication and cell motility and (iv) the immune system features. The genes related to mutagenesis, specific lung cancers, early stage of AC development, tumour aggressiveness and metabolic pathway alterations and adaptations of cancer cells are strongly enriched in the AC PT-AT discriminative gene set. Two AC diagnostic biomarkers SPP1 and CENPA were successfully validated on RT-RCR tissue array. ECD method was systematically compared to several alternative methods and proved to be of better performance and as well as it was validated by comparison of the predicted gene set with literature meta-signature. Conclusions We developed a method that identifies and selects highly discriminative variables from high dimensional data spaces of potential biomarkers based on a statistical analysis of paired samples when the number of samples is small. This method provides superior selection in comparison to conventional methods and can be widely used in different applications. Our method revealed at least 23 hundreds patho-biologically essential genes associated with the global transcriptional reprogramming of human lung epithelium cells and lung AC aggressiveness. This gene set includes many previously published AC biomarkers reflecting inherent disease complexity and specifies the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the lung AC. SPP1, CENPA and many other PT-AT discriminative genes could be considered as the prospective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung AC. PMID:22369099

  5. Intercellular Communication in Helicobacter pylori: luxS Is Essential for the Production of an Extracellular Signaling Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Mark H.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Individual bacteria of numerous species can communicate and coordinate their actions via the production, release, and detection of extracellular signaling molecules. In this study, we used the Vibrio harveyi luminescence bioassay to determine whether Helicobacter pylori produces such a factor. Cell-free conditioned media from H. pylori strains 60190 and 26695 each induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in V. harveyi than did sterile culture medium. The H. pylori signaling molecule had a molecular mass of <10 kDa, and its activity was unaffected by heating to 80°C for 5 min or protease treatment. The genome sequence of H. pylori 26695 does not contain any gene predicted to encode an acyl homoserine lactone synthase but does contain an orthologue of luxS, which is required for production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in V. harveyi. To evaluate the role of luxS in H. pylori, we constructed luxS null mutants derived from H. pylori 60190 and 26695. Conditioned media from the wild-type H. pylori strains induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in the V. harveyi bioassay than did conditioned medium from either mutant strain. Production of the signaling molecule was restored in an H. pylori luxS null mutant strain by complementation with a single intact copy of luxS placed in a heterologous site on the chromosome. In addition, Escherichia coli DH5? produced autoinducer activity following the introduction of an intact copy of luxS from H. pylori. Production of the signaling molecule by H. pylori was growth phase dependent, with maximal production occurring in the mid-exponential phase of growth. Transcription of H. pylori vacA also was growth phase dependent, but this phenomenon was not dependent on luxS activity. These data indicate that H. pylori produces an extracellular signaling molecule related to AI-2 from V. harveyi. We speculate that this signaling molecule may play a role in regulating H. pylori gene expression. PMID:10816463

  6. Intercellular communication in Helicobacter pylori: luxS is essential for the production of an extracellular signaling molecule.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, M H; Cover, T L

    2000-06-01

    Individual bacteria of numerous species can communicate and coordinate their actions via the production, release, and detection of extracellular signaling molecules. In this study, we used the Vibrio harveyi luminescence bioassay to determine whether Helicobacter pylori produces such a factor. Cell-free conditioned media from H. pylori strains 60190 and 26695 each induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in V. harveyi than did sterile culture medium. The H. pylori signaling molecule had a molecular mass of <10 kDa, and its activity was unaffected by heating to 80 degrees C for 5 min or protease treatment. The genome sequence of H. pylori 26695 does not contain any gene predicted to encode an acyl homoserine lactone synthase but does contain an orthologue of luxS, which is required for production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in V. harveyi. To evaluate the role of luxS in H. pylori, we constructed luxS null mutants derived from H. pylori 60190 and 26695. Conditioned media from the wild-type H. pylori strains induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in the V. harveyi bioassay than did conditioned medium from either mutant strain. Production of the signaling molecule was restored in an H. pylori luxS null mutant strain by complementation with a single intact copy of luxS placed in a heterologous site on the chromosome. In addition, Escherichia coli DH5alpha produced autoinducer activity following the introduction of an intact copy of luxS from H. pylori. Production of the signaling molecule by H. pylori was growth phase dependent, with maximal production occurring in the mid-exponential phase of growth. Transcription of H. pylori vacA also was growth phase dependent, but this phenomenon was not dependent on luxS activity. These data indicate that H. pylori produces an extracellular signaling molecule related to AI-2 from V. harveyi. We speculate that this signaling molecule may play a role in regulating H. pylori gene expression. PMID:10816463

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Essential tremor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding essential tremor? anxiety ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; benign ; cell ; dystonia ; familial ; gene ; ...

  8. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  9. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  10. Downregulation of the Host Gene jigr1 by miR-92 Is Essential for Neuroblast Self-Renewal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yuva-Aydemir, Yeliz; Xu, Xia-Lian; Aydemir, Ozkan; Gascon, Eduardo; Sayin, Serkan; Zhou, Wenke; Hong, Yang; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2015-05-01

    Intragenic microRNAs (miRNAs), located mostly in the introns of protein-coding genes, are often co-expressed with their host mRNAs. However, their functional interaction in development is largely unknown. Here we show that in Drosophila, miR-92a and miR-92b are embedded in the intron and 3'UTR of jigr1, respectively, and co-expressed with some jigr1 isoforms. miR-92a and miR-92b are highly expressed in neuroblasts of larval brain where Jigr1 expression is low. Genetic deletion of both miR-92a and miR-92b demonstrates an essential cell-autonomous role for these miRNAs in maintaining neuroblast self-renewal through inhibiting premature differentiation. We also show that miR-92a and miR-92b directly target jigr1 in vivo and that some phenotypes due to the absence of these miRNAs are partially rescued by reducing the level of jigr1. These results reveal a novel function of the miR-92 family in Drosophila neuroblasts and provide another example that local negative feedback regulation of host genes by intragenic miRNAs is essential for animal development. PMID:26000445

  11. FSim: A Novel Functional Similarity Search Algorithm and Tool for Discovering Functionally Related Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiang; Wang, ZhiGang; Zhang, ZhengGuo

    2014-01-01

    Background. During the analysis of genomics data, it is often required to quantify the functional similarity of genes and their products based on the annotation information from gene ontology (GO) with hierarchical structure. A flexible and user-friendly way to estimate the functional similarity of genes utilizing GO annotation is therefore highly desired. Results. We proposed a novel algorithm using a level coefficient-weighted model to measure the functional similarity of gene products based on multiple ontologies of hierarchical GO annotations. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated and found to be superior to the other tested methods. We implemented the proposed algorithm in a software package, FSim, based on R statistical and computing environment. It can be used to discover functionally related genes for a given gene, group of genes, or set of function terms. Conclusions. FSim is a flexible tool to analyze functional gene groups based on the GO annotation databases. PMID:25184141

  12. Support for the minimal essential MHC hypothesis: a parrot with a single, highly polymorphic MHC class II B gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R. Hughes; Shana Miles; Jaclyn M. Walbroehl

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the MHC class II B gene in the green-rumped parrotlet, Forpus passerinus. Three approaches were used: polymerase chain reaction amplification using primers complementary to conserved regions of\\u000a exon 2, sequencing clones from a genomic library, and amplification of exon 2 using species-specific primers. All three methods\\u000a indicate that there is only a single class II B locus in

  13. A hyphal-specific chitin synthase gene (CHS2) is not essential for growth, dimorphism, or virulence of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gow, N A; Robbins, P W; Lester, J W; Brown, A J; Fonzi, W A; Chapman, T; Kinsman, O S

    1994-06-21

    In the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans, the CHS2 gene encodes a chitin synthase that is expressed preferentially in the hyphal form. Gene disruption of CHS2 in this diploid asexual fungus was achieved by the "ura-blaster" protocol described for Saccharomyces [Alani, E., Cao, L. & Kleckner, N. (1987) Genetics 116, 541-545]. This involves the sequential disruption of multiple alleles by integrative transformation with URA3 as a single selectable marker. After disrupting the first CHS2 allele, the Ura- phenotype was recovered through cis recombination between repeated hisG sequences that flanked the URA3 marker in the disruption cassette, which was then used again to disrupt further CHS2 alleles. This method of gene disruption is well suited to the mutational analysis of this genetically recalcitrant human pathogen. Three rounds of disruption were required, suggesting that the strain SGY243 is triploid for the CHS2 locus. The resulting homozygous delta chs2::hisG null mutants were viable and made germ tubes with a normal morphology. The germ tubes were formed more slowly than parental strains in serum-containing medium and the germinating cells had a 40% reduction in their chitin content compared to germ tubes of the parent strain. The chitin content of the yeast form was not affected. A prototrophic strain of the chs2 null mutant was not attenuated significantly in its virulence when tested in normal and immunosuppressed mice. PMID:8016141

  14. Comparative Genomics of Cultured and Uncultured Strains Suggests Genes Essential for Free-Living Growth of Liberibacter

    PubMed Central

    Fagen, Jennie R.; Leonard, Michael T.; McCullough, Connor M.; Edirisinghe, Janaka N.; Henry, Christopher S.; Davis, Michael J.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    The full genomes of two uncultured plant pathogenic Liberibacter, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus and Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum, are publicly available. Recently, the larger genome of a closely related cultured strain, Liberibacter crescens BT-1, was described. To gain insights into our current inability to culture most Liberibacter, a comparative genomics analysis was done based on the RAST, KEGG, and manual annotations of these three organisms. In addition, pathogenicity genes were examined in all three bacteria. Key deficiencies were identified in Ca. L. asiaticus and Ca. L. solanacearum that might suggest why these organisms have not yet been cultured. Over 100 genes involved in amino acid and vitamin synthesis were annotated exclusively in L. crescens BT-1. However, none of these deficiencies are limiting in the rich media used to date. Other genes exclusive to L. crescens BT-1 include those involved in cell division, the stringent response regulatory pathway, and multiple two component regulatory systems. These results indicate that L. crescens is capable of growth under a much wider range of conditions than the uncultured Liberibacter strains. No outstanding differences were noted in pathogenicity-associated systems, suggesting that L. crescens BT-1 may be a plant pathogen on an as yet unidentified host. PMID:24416233

  15. MRE11 and RAD50, but not NBS1, are essential for gene targeting in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Schaefer, Didier G; Kozak, Jaroslav; Charlot, Florence; Vrielynck, Nathalie; Holá, Marcela; Angelis, Karel J; Cuming, Andrew C; Nogué, Fabien

    2012-04-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is unique among plant models for the high frequency with which targeted transgene insertion occurs via homologous recombination. Transgene integration is believed to utilize existing machinery for the detection and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We undertook targeted knockout of the Physcomitrella genes encoding components of the principal sensor of DNA DSBs, the MRN complex. Loss of function of PpMRE11 or PpRAD50 strongly and specifically inhibited gene targeting, whilst rates of untargeted transgene integration were relatively unaffected. In contrast, disruption of the PpNBS1 gene retained the wild-type capacity to integrate transforming DNA efficiently at homologous loci. Analysis of the kinetics of DNA-DSB repair in wild-type and mutant plants by single-nucleus agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that bleomycin-induced fragmentation of genomic DNA was repaired at approximately equal rates in each genotype, although both the Ppmre11 and Pprad50 mutants exhibited severely restricted growth and development and enhanced sensitivity to UV-B and bleomycin-induced DNA damage, compared with wild-type and Ppnbs1 plants. This implies that while extensive DNA repair can occur in the absence of a functional MRN complex; this is unsupervised in nature and results in the accumulation of deleterious mutations incompatible with normal growth and development. PMID:22210882

  16. MRE11 and RAD50, but not NBS1, are essential for gene targeting in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Schaefer, Didier G.; Kozak, Jaroslav; Charlot, Florence; Vrielynck, Nathalie; Holá, Marcela; Angelis, Karel J.; Cuming, Andrew C.; Nogué, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is unique among plant models for the high frequency with which targeted transgene insertion occurs via homologous recombination. Transgene integration is believed to utilize existing machinery for the detection and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We undertook targeted knockout of the Physcomitrella genes encoding components of the principal sensor of DNA DSBs, the MRN complex. Loss of function of PpMRE11 or PpRAD50 strongly and specifically inhibited gene targeting, whilst rates of untargeted transgene integration were relatively unaffected. In contrast, disruption of the PpNBS1 gene retained the wild-type capacity to integrate transforming DNA efficiently at homologous loci. Analysis of the kinetics of DNA-DSB repair in wild-type and mutant plants by single-nucleus agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that bleomycin-induced fragmentation of genomic DNA was repaired at approximately equal rates in each genotype, although both the Ppmre11 and Pprad50 mutants exhibited severely restricted growth and development and enhanced sensitivity to UV-B and bleomycin-induced DNA damage, compared with wild-type and Ppnbs1 plants. This implies that while extensive DNA repair can occur in the absence of a functional MRN complex; this is unsupervised in nature and results in the accumulation of deleterious mutations incompatible with normal growth and development. PMID:22210882

  17. Methyl Salicylate Production and Jasmonate Signaling Are Not Essential for Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Tatiana E.; Griebel, Thomas; Zeier, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) develops in response to local microbial leaf inoculation and renders the whole plant more resistant to subsequent pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) in noninfected plant parts is required for SAR, and methyl salicylate (MeSA) and jasmonate (JA) are proposed to have critical roles during SAR long-distance signaling from inoculated to distant leaves. Here, we address the significance of MeSA and JA during SAR development in Arabidopsis thaliana. MeSA production increases in leaves inoculated with the SAR-inducing bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae; however, most MeSA is emitted into the atmosphere, and only small amounts are retained. We show that in several Arabidopsis defense mutants, the abilities to produce MeSA and to establish SAR do not coincide. T-DNA insertion lines defective in expression of a pathogen-responsive SA methyltransferase gene are completely devoid of induced MeSA production but increase systemic SA levels and develop SAR upon local P. syringae inoculation. Therefore, MeSA is dispensable for SAR in Arabidopsis, and SA accumulation in distant leaves appears to occur by de novo synthesis via isochorismate synthase. We show that MeSA production induced by P. syringae depends on the JA pathway but that JA biosynthesis or downstream signaling is not required for SAR. In compatible interactions, MeSA production depends on the P. syringae virulence factor coronatine, suggesting that the phytopathogen uses coronatine-mediated volatilization of MeSA from leaves to attenuate the SA-based defense pathway. PMID:19329558

  18. Enhanced Hydrogen Production in Escherichia coli Through Chemical Mutagenesis, Gene Deletion, and Transposon Mutagenesis

    E-print Network

    Garzon Sanabria, Andrea Juliana

    2011-08-08

    ENHANCED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI THROUGH CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS, GENE DELETION, AND TRANSPOSON MUTAGENESIS A Thesis by ANDREA JULIANA GARZON SANABRIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2010 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ENHANCED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI THROUGH CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS, GENE DELETION...

  19. The effect of alpha-interferon on bone marrow megakaryocytes and platelet production rate in essential thrombocythemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J.; Ridell, B.; Revesz, P.; Jacobsson, S.; Magnusson, B.; Westin, J.; Vilen, L. (Ostra Hospital, Gothenburg, (Sweden))

    1991-05-15

    In 10 patients with previously untreated essential thrombocythemia (ET), by using {sup 111}In-labeled platelets and megakaryocyte morphometry, the relation between platelet production rate and bone marrow megakaryocytes was evaluated before and during alpha-2b-interferon (IFN) therapy. A highly significant decrease in platelet count occurred during IFN therapy; the platelet counts, at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of IFN therapy, were 1,102 +/- 345 x 10(9)/L, 524 +/- 169 x 10(9)/L (P less than .0001), and 476 +/- 139 x 10(9)/L (P less than .0001), respectively. The decrement in platelet count was mainly a result of diminished platelet production rate, which at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of IFN therapy was 89 +/- 30 x 10(10) platelets/d, 53 +/- 18 x 10(10) platelets/d (P = .0033), and 45 +/- 20 x 10(10) platelets/d (P less than .0001), respectively. Also, a slight shortening of platelet mean life-span (MLS) was observed in response to IFN treatment; platelet MLS was 7.96 +/- 0.69 days at baseline and 6.68 +/- 1.30 days (P = .012) after 6 months of IFN therapy. IFN induced a significant decrease in bone marrow megakaryocyte volume; both megakaryocyte nuclear and cytoplasmatic volumes were affected. The mean megakaryocyte volume was 372 +/- 126 x 10(2) pL/microL at baseline and 278 +/- 147 x 10(2) pL/microL (P = .049) after 6 months of IFN therapy. However, the number of megakaryocytes did not show any significant change in response to IFN. It is concluded that alpha-IFN reduces platelet production rate and the peripheral platelet count in ET mainly through an anti-proliferative action on the megakaryocytes and to a considerably lesser degree by a shortening of platelet MLS.

  20. Epigenetics and gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E R Gibney; C M Nolan

    2010-01-01

    Transcription, translation and subsequent protein modification represent the transfer of genetic information from the archival copy of DNA to the short-lived messenger RNA, usually with subsequent production of protein. Although all cells in an organism contain essentially the same DNA, cell types and functions differ because of qualitative and quantitative differences in their gene expression. Thus, control of gene expression

  1. Fine-Structure Genetics of Ama-1, an Essential Gene Encoding the Amanitin-Binding Subunit of RNA Polymerase II in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bullerjahn, AME.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A fine-structure genetic map has been constructed for ama-1 IV, an essential gene in Caenorhabditis elegans encoding the amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II. Sixteen EMS-induced recessive-lethal mutations have been positioned in the gene by determining their intragenic recombination frequencies with m118, a mutation that confers dominant resistance to ?-amanitin. The 16 mutants, all isolated in the ama-1(m118) background, include 13 that are early larval lethals, and three that are mid-larval lethals, at 25°. Six of the mutants exhibit temperature-dependence in the severity of their phenotype. Intragenic recombination between the lethal site and the parental resistance mutation was detected by means of resistance to amanitin. Recombinants were detected at frequencies as low as 2 X 10(-6). The segregation of the closely linked flanking markers, unc-17 and unc-5, revealed whether the lethal mutation was to the left or the right of m118. By adding the distances between the extreme left and right mutations, the ama-1 gene is estimated to be 0.011 map unit long, with m118 positioned 0.004 map unit from the left-most lethal mutation. To order the lethal mutations with respect to each other, viable heteroallelic strains were constructed using the free duplication, mDp1[unc-17(e113) dpy-13(+) ama-1(+)]. The heteroallelic strains were sensitive to amanitin, and recombination events between the lethal mutations were specifically selected by means of the dominant amanitin resistance encoded on the recombinant chromosome. The segregation of outside markers revealed the left-right order of the lethal mutations. The position of mutations within the gene is nonrandom. Functional domains of the ama-1 gene indicated by the various lethal phenotypes are discussed. PMID:3197955

  2. SPK1 is an essential S-phase-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes a nuclear serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, P; Fay, D S; Burton, J; Xiao, H; Pinkham, J L; Stern, D F

    1993-01-01

    SPK1 was originally discovered in an immunoscreen for tyrosine-protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used biochemical and genetic techniques to investigate the function of this gene and its encoded protein. Hybridization of an SPK1 probe to an ordered genomic library showed that SPK1 is adjacent to PEP4 (chromosome XVI L). Sporulation of spk1/+ heterozygotes gave rise to spk1 spores that grew into microcolonies but could not be further propagated. These colonies were greatly enriched for budded cells, especially those with large buds. Similarly, eviction of CEN plasmids bearing SPK1 from cells with a chromosomal SPK1 disruption yielded viable cells with only low frequency. Spk1 protein was identified by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. It was associated with protein-Ser, Thr, and Tyr kinase activity in immune complex kinase assays. Spk1 was localized to the nucleus by immunofluorescence. The nucleotide sequence of the SPK1 5' noncoding region revealed that SPK1 contains two MluI cell cycle box elements. These elements confer S-phase-specific transcription to many genes involved in DNA synthesis. Northern (RNA) blotting of synchronized cells verified that the SPK1 transcript is coregulated with other MluI box-regulated genes. The SPK1 upstream region also includes a domain highly homologous to sequences involved in induction of RAD2 and other excision repair genes by agents that induce DNA damage. spk1 strains were hypersensitive to UV irradiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that SPK1 is a dual-specificity (Ser/Thr and Tyr) protein kinase that is essential for viability. The cell cycle-dependent transcription, presence of DNA damage-related sequences, requirement for UV resistance, and nuclear localization of Spk1 all link this gene to a crucial S-phase-specific role, probably as a positive regulator of DNA synthesis. Images PMID:8355715

  3. The dlx5a/dlx6a Genes Play Essential Roles in the Early Development of Zebrafish Median Fin and Pectoral Structures

    PubMed Central

    Heude, Églantine; Shaikho, Sarah; Ekker, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The Dlx5 and Dlx6 genes encode homeodomain transcription factors essential for the proper development of limbs in mammalian species. However, the role of their teleost counterparts in fin development has received little attention. Here, we show that dlx5a is an early marker of apical ectodermal cells of the pectoral fin buds and of the median fin fold, but also of cleithrum precursor cells during pectoral girdle development. We propose that early median fin fold establishment results from the medial convergence of dlx5a-expressing cells at the lateral edges of the neural keel. Expression analysis also shows involvement of dlx5a during appendage skeletogenesis. Using morpholino-mediated knock down, we demonstrate that disrupted dlx5a/6a function results in pectoral fin agenesis associated with misexpression of bmp4, fgf8a, and1 and msx genes. In contrast, the median fin fold presents defects in mesenchymal cell migration and actinotrichia formation, whereas the initial specification seems to occur normally. Our results demonstrate that the dlx5a/6a genes are essential for the induction of pectoral fin outgrowth, but are not required during median fin fold specification. The dlx5a/6a knock down also causes a failure of cleithrum formation associated with a drastic loss of runx2b and col10a1 expression. The data indicate distinct requirements for dlx5a/6a during median and pectoral fin development suggesting that initiation of unpaired and paired fin formation are not directed through the same molecular mechanisms. Our results refocus arguments on the mechanistic basis of paired appendage genesis during vertebrate evolution. PMID:24858471

  4. The dlx5a/dlx6a genes play essential roles in the early development of zebrafish median fin and pectoral structures.

    PubMed

    Heude, Eglantine; Shaikho, Sarah; Ekker, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The Dlx5 and Dlx6 genes encode homeodomain transcription factors essential for the proper development of limbs in mammalian species. However, the role of their teleost counterparts in fin development has received little attention. Here, we show that dlx5a is an early marker of apical ectodermal cells of the pectoral fin buds and of the median fin fold, but also of cleithrum precursor cells during pectoral girdle development. We propose that early median fin fold establishment results from the medial convergence of dlx5a-expressing cells at the lateral edges of the neural keel. Expression analysis also shows involvement of dlx5a during appendage skeletogenesis. Using morpholino-mediated knock down, we demonstrate that disrupted dlx5a/6a function results in pectoral fin agenesis associated with misexpression of bmp4, fgf8a, and1 and msx genes. In contrast, the median fin fold presents defects in mesenchymal cell migration and actinotrichia formation, whereas the initial specification seems to occur normally. Our results demonstrate that the dlx5a/6a genes are essential for the induction of pectoral fin outgrowth, but are not required during median fin fold specification. The dlx5a/6a knock down also causes a failure of cleithrum formation associated with a drastic loss of runx2b and col10a1 expression. The data indicate distinct requirements for dlx5a/6a during median and pectoral fin development suggesting that initiation of unpaired and paired fin formation are not directed through the same molecular mechanisms. Our results refocus arguments on the mechanistic basis of paired appendage genesis during vertebrate evolution. PMID:24858471

  5. Peroxisomal L-bifunctional enzyme (Ehhadh) is essential for the production of medium-chain dicarboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Houten, Sander M.; Denis, Simone; Argmann, Carmen A.; Jia, Yuzhi; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Reddy, Janardan K.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2012-01-01

    L-bifunctional enzyme (Ehhadh) is part of the classical peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation pathway. This pathway is highly inducible via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) activation. However, no specific substrates or functions for Ehhadh are known, and Ehhadh knockout (KO) mice display no appreciable changes in lipid metabolism. To investigate Ehhadh functions, we used a bioinformatics approach and found that Ehhadh expression covaries with genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Based on these findings and the regulation of Ehhadh's expression by PPAR?, we hypothesized that the phenotype of Ehhadh KO mice would become apparent after fasting. Ehhadh mice tolerated fasting well but displayed a marked deficiency in the fasting-induced production of the medium-chain dicarboxylic acids adipic and suberic acid and of the carnitine esters thereof. The decreased levels of adipic and suberic acid were not due to a deficient induction of ?-oxidation upon fasting, as Cyp4a10 protein levels increased in wild-type and Ehhadh KO mice.We conclude that Ehhadh is indispensable for the production of medium-chain dicarboxylic acids, providing an explanation for the coordinated induction of mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidative pathways during fasting. PMID:22534643

  6. Shrinkage of Genome Size in a Plant RNA Virus upon Transfer of an Essential Viral Gene into the Host Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tromas, Nicolas; Zwart, Mark P.; Forment, Javier; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-01-01

    Nonretroviral integrated RNA viruses (NIRVs) are genes of nonretroviral RNA viruses found in the genomes of many eukaryotic organisms. NIRVs are thought to sometimes confer virus resistance, meaning that they could impact spread of the virus in the host population. However, a NIRV that is expressed may also impact the evolution of virus populations within host organisms. Here, we experimentally addressed the evolution of a virus in a host expressing a NIRV using Tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant RNA virus, and transgenic tobacco plants expressing its replicase, NIb. We found that a virus missing the NIb gene, TEV-?NIb, which is incapable of autonomous replication in wild-type plants, had a higher fitness than the full-length TEV in the transgenic plants. Moreover, when the full-length TEV was evolved by serial passages in transgenic plants, we observed genomic deletions within NIb—and in some cases the adjacent cistrons—starting from the first passage. When we passaged TEV and TEV-?NIb in transgenic plants, we found mutations in proteolytic sites, but these only occurred in TEV-?NIb lineages, suggesting the adaptation of polyprotein processing to altered NIb expression. These results raise the possibility that NIRV expression can indeed induce the deletion of the corresponding genes in the viral genome, resulting in the formation of viruses that are replication defective in hosts that do not express the same NIRV. Moreover, virus genome evolution was contingent upon the deletion of the viral replicase, suggesting NIRV expression could also alter patterns of virus evolution. PMID:24558257

  7. Shrinkage of genome size in a plant RNA virus upon transfer of an essential viral gene into the host genome.

    PubMed

    Tromas, Nicolas; Zwart, Mark P; Forment, Javier; Elena, Santiago F

    2014-03-01

    Nonretroviral integrated RNA viruses (NIRVs) are genes of nonretroviral RNA viruses found in the genomes of many eukaryotic organisms. NIRVs are thought to sometimes confer virus resistance, meaning that they could impact spread of the virus in the host population. However, a NIRV that is expressed may also impact the evolution of virus populations within host organisms. Here, we experimentally addressed the evolution of a virus in a host expressing a NIRV using Tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant RNA virus, and transgenic tobacco plants expressing its replicase, NIb. We found that a virus missing the NIb gene, TEV-?NIb, which is incapable of autonomous replication in wild-type plants, had a higher fitness than the full-length TEV in the transgenic plants. Moreover, when the full-length TEV was evolved by serial passages in transgenic plants, we observed genomic deletions within NIb--and in some cases the adjacent cistrons--starting from the first passage. When we passaged TEV and TEV-?NIb in transgenic plants, we found mutations in proteolytic sites, but these only occurred in TEV-?NIb lineages, suggesting the adaptation of polyprotein processing to altered NIb expression. These results raise the possibility that NIRV expression can indeed induce the deletion of the corresponding genes in the viral genome, resulting in the formation of viruses that are replication defective in hosts that do not express the same NIRV. Moreover, virus genome evolution was contingent upon the deletion of the viral replicase, suggesting NIRV expression could also alter patterns of virus evolution. PMID:24558257

  8. The Drosophila insulin receptor homolog: a gene essential for embryonic development encodes two receptor isoforms with different signaling potential.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, R; Tabarini, D; Azpiazu, N; Frasch, M; Schlessinger, J

    1995-01-01

    We report the cloning and primary structure of the Drosophila insulin receptor gene (inr), functional expression of the predicted polypeptide, and the isolation of mutations in the inr locus. Our data indicate that the structure and processing of the Drosophila insulin proreceptor are somewhat different from those of the mammalian insulin and IGF 1 receptor precursors. The INR proreceptor (M(r) 280 kDa) is processed proteolytically to generate an insulin-binding alpha subunit (M(r) 120 kDa) and a beta subunit (M(r) 170 kDa) with protein tyrosine kinase domain. The INR beta 170 subunit contains a novel domain at the carboxyterminal side of the tyrosine kinase, in the form of a 60 kDa extension which contains multiple potential tyrosine autophosphorylation sites. This 60 kDa C-terminal domain undergoes cell-specific proteolytic cleavage which leads to the generation of a total of four polypeptides (alpha 120, beta 170, beta 90 and a free 60 kDa C-terminus) from the inr gene. These subunits assemble into mature INR receptors with the structures alpha 2(beta 170)2 or alpha 2(beta 90)2. Mammalian insulin stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of both types of beta subunits, which in turn allows the beta 170, but not the beta 90 subunit, to bind directly to p85 SH2 domains of PI-3 kinase. It is likely that the two different isoforms of INR have different signaling potentials. Finally, we show that loss of function mutations in the inr gene, induced by either a P-element insertion occurring within the predicted ORF, or by ethylmethane sulfonate treatment, render pleiotropic recessive phenotypes that lead to embryonic lethality. The activity of inr appears to be required in the embryonic epidermis and nervous system among others, since development of the cuticle, as well as the peripheral and central nervous systems are affected by inr mutations. Images PMID:7628438

  9. Distribution and Diversity of Natural Product Genes in Marine and Freshwater Cyanobacterial Cultures and Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Ehrenreich; John B. Waterbury; Eric A. Webb

    2005-01-01

    Natural products are a functionally diverse class of biochemically synthesized compounds, which include antibiotics, toxins, and siderophores. In this paper, we describe both the detection of natural product activities and the sequence identification of gene fragments from two molecular systems that have previously been implicated in natural product production, i.e., nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and modular polyketide synthases (PKSs), in

  10. TET2 Plays an Essential Role in Erythropoiesis by Regulating Lineage-Specific Genes via DNA Oxidative Demethylation in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liang; Zhang, Rui-peng; Wan, Feng; Guo, Dong-yang; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although epigenetic modulation is critical for a variety of cellular activities, its role in erythropoiesis remains poorly understood. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) molecules participate in methylcytosine (5mC) hydroxylation, which results in DNA demethylation in several biological processes. In this research, the role of TETs in erythropoiesis was investigated by using the zebrafish model, where three TET homologs were identified. These homologs share conserved structural domains with their mammalian counterparts. Zebrafish TETs mediate the conversion of 5mC to hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in zebrafish embryos, and the deletion of TET2 inhibits erythropoiesis by suppressing the expression of the scl, gata-1, and cmyb genes. TET2-upregulated lineage-specific genes and erythropoiesis are closely associated with the occurrence of 5hmC and demethylation in the intermediate CpG promoters (ICPs) of scl, gata-1, cmyb, which frequently occur at specific regions or CpG sites of these ICPs. Moreover, TET2 regulates the formation and differentiation of erythroid progenitors, and deletion of TET2 leads to erythrocyte dysplasia and anemia. Here, we preliminarily proved that TET2 plays an essential role in erythrocyte development by regulating lineage-specific genes via DNA oxidative demethylation. This report is anticipated to broaden current information on hematopoiesis and pathogenesis of hematopoiesis-related diseases. PMID:24396069

  11. Cloning and characterization of four genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii involved in exopolysaccharide production and nodulation.

    PubMed

    van Workum, W A; Canter Cremers, H C; Wijfjes, A H; van der Kolk, C; Wijffelman, C A; Kijne, J W

    1997-03-01

    Four different genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain RBL5599 involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were identified by complementation of Tn5-induced EPS-deficient mutants (Exo mutants) with a cosmid bank. On one cosmid pssA was located, which was found to be almost identical to the pss4 gene from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae VF39 and highly homologous to a family of glycosyl transferases. Two pssA mutants, exo2 and exo4, were characterized and found to produce 19 and 1% of the wild-type amount of EPS, respectively. The three other genes were found to be closely linked on a different complementing cosmid. pssC revealed similarity to exoM and exoW of R. meliloti, both encoding glucosyl transferases involved in the synthesis of succinoglycan. A mutation in this gene (mutant exo50) did reduce EPS synthesis to 27% of the wild-type amount. We found an operon closely linked to pssC, consisting of two overlapping genes, pssD and pssE, that is essential for EPS production. Homology of pssD and pssE was found with cps14F and cps14G of Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively: two genes responsible for the second step in capsule polysaccharide synthesis. Furthermore, pssD and pssE were homologous to the 5' and 3' parts, respectively, of spsK of Sphingomonas S88, which encodes a putative glycosyl transferase. Structural analysis of EPS produced by Exo mutants exo2, exo4, and exo50 showed it to be identical to that of the parental strain RBL5599, with the exception of acetyl groups esterified to one of the glucose residues being absent. PMID:9057334

  12. Combining linkage and association mapping identifies RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 as an essential Arabidopsis shoot regeneration gene

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Hans; Vercauteren, Annelies; Depuydt, Stephen; Landschoot, Sofie; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan; Goormachtig, Sofie; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vereecke, Danny

    2014-01-01

    De novo shoot organogenesis (i.e., the regeneration of shoots on nonmeristematic tissue) is widely applied in plant biotechnology. However, the capacity to regenerate shoots varies highly among plant species and cultivars, and the factors underlying it are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the shoot regeneration capacity of 88 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and found that the process is blocked at different stages in different accessions. We show that the variation in regeneration capacity between the Arabidopsis accessions Nok-3 and Ga-0 is determined by five quantitative trait loci (QTL): REG-1 to REG-5. Fine mapping by local association analysis identified RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 (RPK1), an abscisic acid-related receptor, as the most likely gene underlying REG-1, which was confirmed by quantitative failure of an RPK1 mutation to complement the high and low REG-1 QTL alleles. The importance of RPK1 in regeneration was further corroborated by mutant and expression analysis. Altogether, our results show that association mapping combined with linkage mapping is a powerful method to discover important genes implicated in a biological process as complex as shoot regeneration. PMID:24850864

  13. Elicitor-Stimulated ion Fluxes and O2- from the Oxidative Burst are Essential Components in Triggering Defense Gene Activation and Phytoalexin Synthesis in Parsley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Jabs; Markus Tschope; Christiane Colling; Klaus Hahlbrock; Dierk Scheel

    1997-01-01

    Fungal elicitor stimulates a multicomponent defense response in cultured parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum). Early elements of this receptor-mediated response are ion fluxes across the plasma membrane and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), sequentially followed by defense gene activation and phytoalexin accumulation. Omission of Ca2+ from the culture medium or inhibition of elicitor-stimulated ion fluxes by ion channel blockers

  14. Somatostatin is essential for the sexual dimorphism of GH secretion, corticosteroid-binding globulin production, and corticosterone levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica M; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Qi, Nathan; Low, Malcolm J

    2015-03-01

    Distinct male and female patterns of pituitary GH secretion produce sexually differentiated hepatic gene expression profiles, thereby influencing steroid and xenobiotic metabolism. We used a fully automated system to obtain serial nocturnal blood samples every 15 minutes from cannulated wild-type (WT) and somatostatin knockout (Sst-KO) mice to determine the role of SST, the principal inhibitor of GH release, in the generation of sexually dimorphic GH pulsatility. WT males had lower mean and median GH values, less random GH secretory bursts, and longer trough periods between GH pulses than WT females. Each of these parameters was feminized in male Sst-KO mice, whereas female Sst-KO mice had higher GH levels than all other groups, but GH pulsatility was unaffected. We next performed hepatic mRNA profiling with high-density microarrays. Male Sst-KO mice exhibited a globally feminized pattern of GH-dependent mRNA levels, but female Sst-KO mice were largely unaffected. Among the differentially expressed female-predominant genes was Serpina6, which encodes corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Increased CBG was associated with elevated diurnal peak plasma corticosterone in unstressed WT females and both sexes of Sst-KO mice compared with WT males. Sst-KO mice also had exaggerated ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute restraint stress. However, consistent with their lack of phenotypic signs of excess glucocorticoids, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of free corticosterone in Sst-KO mice were not elevated. In summary, SST is necessary for the prolonged interpulse troughs that define masculinized pituitary GH secretion. SST also contributes to sexual dimorphism of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via GH-dependent regulation of hepatic CBG production. PMID:25551181

  15. Effects of Essential Oils on Methane Production and Fermentation by, and Abundance and Diversity of, Rumen Microbial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.

    2012-01-01

    Five essential oils (EOs), namely, clove oil (CLO), eucalyptus oil (EUO), garlic oil (GAO), origanum oil (ORO), and peppermint oil (PEO), were tested in vitro at 3 different doses (0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 g/liter) for their effect on methane production, fermentation, and select groups of ruminal microbes, including total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, archaea, and protozoa. All the EOs significantly reduced methane production with increasing doses, with reductions by 34.4%, 17.6%, 42.3%, 87%, and 25.7% for CLO, EUO, GAO, ORO, and PEO, respectively, at 1.0 g/liter compared with the control. However, apparent degradability of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber also decreased linearly with increasing doses by all EOs except GAO. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids were not affected by GAO, EUO, or PEO but altered linearly and quadratically by CLO and ORO, respectively. All the EOs also differed in altering the molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR, all the EOs decreased the abundance of archaea, protozoa, and major cellulolytic bacteria (i.e., Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and R. albus) linearly with increasing EO doses. On the basis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, different EOs changed the composition of both archaeal and bacterial communities to different extents. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H?) was reduced for archaea by all EOs in a dose-dependent manner but increased for bacteria at low and medium doses (0.25 and 0.50 g/liter) for all EOs except ORO. Due to the adverse effects on feed digestion and fermentation at high doses, a single EO may not effectively and practically mitigate methane emission from ruminants unless used at low doses in combinations with other antimethanogenic compounds. PMID:22492451

  16. Effects of essential oils on methane production and fermentation by, and abundance and diversity of, rumen microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan K; Yu, Zhongtang

    2012-06-01

    Five essential oils (EOs), namely, clove oil (CLO), eucalyptus oil (EUO), garlic oil (GAO), origanum oil (ORO), and peppermint oil (PEO), were tested in vitro at 3 different doses (0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 g/liter) for their effect on methane production, fermentation, and select groups of ruminal microbes, including total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, archaea, and protozoa. All the EOs significantly reduced methane production with increasing doses, with reductions by 34.4%, 17.6%, 42.3%, 87%, and 25.7% for CLO, EUO, GAO, ORO, and PEO, respectively, at 1.0 g/liter compared with the control. However, apparent degradability of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber also decreased linearly with increasing doses by all EOs except GAO. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids were not affected by GAO, EUO, or PEO but altered linearly and quadratically by CLO and ORO, respectively. All the EOs also differed in altering the molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR, all the EOs decreased the abundance of archaea, protozoa, and major cellulolytic bacteria (i.e., Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and R. albus) linearly with increasing EO doses. On the basis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, different EOs changed the composition of both archaeal and bacterial communities to different extents. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') was reduced for archaea by all EOs in a dose-dependent manner but increased for bacteria at low and medium doses (0.25 and 0.50 g/liter) for all EOs except ORO. Due to the adverse effects on feed digestion and fermentation at high doses, a single EO may not effectively and practically mitigate methane emission from ruminants unless used at low doses in combinations with other antimethanogenic compounds. PMID:22492451

  17. The Vaccinia Virus I7L Gene Product Is The Core Protein Proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Chelsea M.; Bolken, Tove' C.; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2002-01-01

    Maturation of vaccinia virus (VV) core proteins is required for the production of infectious virions. The VV G1L and I7L gene products are the leading candidates for the viral core protein proteinase (vCPP). Using transient-expression assays, data were obtained to demonstrate that the I7L gene product and its encoded cysteine proteinase activity are responsible for vCPP activity. PMID:12163618

  18. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    PubMed Central

    Thoquet, Philippe; Ghérardi, Michele; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Kereszt, Attila; Ané, Jean-Michel; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Huguet, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant. PMID:11825338

  19. ALLOANTISERUM-INDUCED INHIBITION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE GENE PRODUCT FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Shevach, Ethan M.; Paul, William E.; Green, Ira

    1974-01-01

    It has been previously shown that alloantisera prepared by reciprocal immunization of strain 2 and strain 13 guinea pigs specifically block the activation of T lymphocytes from immune guinea pigs by antigens, the response to which is controlled by Ir genes. In this report we have examined the effect of absorption of the 13 anti-2 serum with different populations of lymphoid cells. It is unlikely that the inhibitory activity of the anti-2 serum on the proliferation of (2 x 13)F1 lymphocytes to a DNP derivative of a copolymer of L-glutamic and L-lysine (DNP-GL) is due to the presence of antibodies specific for the unique antigenic determinants (idiotypes) of clonally distributed T-lymphocyte receptors. Thus, cells obtained from a normal animal and a DNP-GL immune animal were equivalent in their absorptive capacity. Populations of T lymphocytes were ineffective in absorbing either the cytotoxic or inhibitory activity of the anti-2 serum, while L2C leukemia cells, a malignant B-cell population, were most efficient in absorbing both activities. Thus, the antigen(s) against which the cytotoxic and inhibitory activities are directed are present to a greater extent on B lymphocytes than on T lymphocytes. However, these results do not allow us to definitively determine whether the inhibitory activity of the alloantisera is due to antibodies specific for Ir gene products or antibodies specific for linked antigens in the MHC. We also examined the effect of a number of anti-immunoglobulin reagents which had specificity for the heavy and/or light chains of guinea pig immunoglobulin on the in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to antigen. Under conditions in which we were able to completely and specifically suppress the response of (2 x 13)F1 lymphocytes to DNP-GL with anti-2 serum, the anti-immunoglobulin reagents were devoid of inhibitory effect on the response of these same F1 cells to DNP-GL, a copolymer of L-glutamic and L-tyrosine (GT), or purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). These results strongly suggest that conventional serum-type immunoglobulin is not important in antigen recognition by the T cells involved in the DNA synthetic response. PMID:4591174

  20. Lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus: Fermented Rice Straw Extracts Interferes with Methane Production and Gene Expression in Methanobrevibacter smithii

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Goh, Yong Meng; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Chin, James

    2013-01-01

    Lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl CoA) reductase. This is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea. In this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by Aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (FRSE) can inhibit growth and CH4 production in Methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen). By HPLC analysis, 75% of the total lovastatin in FRSE was in the active hydroxyacid form, and in vitro studies confirmed that this had a stronger effect in reducing both growth and CH4 production in M. smithii compared to commercial lovastatin. Transmission electron micrographs revealed distorted morphological divisions of lovastatin- and FRSE-treated M. smithii cells, supporting its role in blocking normal cell membrane synthesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that both commercial lovastatin and FRSE increased (P < 0.01) the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene (hmg). In addition, expressions of other gene transcripts in M. smithii. with a key involvement in methanogenesis were also affected. Experimental confirmation that CH4 production is inhibited by lovastatin in A. terreus-fermented rice straw paves the way for its evaluation as a feed additive for mitigating CH4 production in ruminants. PMID:23710454

  1. Biochemical Characterization of Sinorhizobium meliloti Mutants Reveals Gene Products Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Unusual Lipid A Very Long-chain Fatty Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Andreas F.; Wehmeier, Silvia; Muszy?ski, Artur; Kerscher, Bernhard; Fletcher, Vivien; Berry, Susan H.; Hold, Georgina L.; Carlson, Russell W.; Ferguson, Gail P.

    2011-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti forms a symbiosis with the legume alfalfa, whereby it differentiates into a nitrogen-fixing bacteroid. The lipid A species of S. meliloti are modified with very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which play a central role in bacteroid development. A six-gene cluster was hypothesized to be essential for the biosynthesis of VLCFA-modified lipid A. Previously, two cluster gene products, AcpXL and LpxXL, were found to be essential for S. meliloti lipid A VLCFA biosynthesis. In this paper, we show that the remaining four cluster genes are all involved in lipid A VLCFA biosynthesis. Therefore, we have identified novel gene products involved in the biosynthesis of these unusual lipid modifications. By physiological characterization of the cluster mutant strains, we demonstrate the importance of this gene cluster in the legume symbiosis and for growth in the absence of salt. Bacterial LPS species modified with VLCFAs are substantially less immunogenic than Escherichia coli LPS species, which lack VLCFAs. However, we show that the VLCFA modifications do not suppress the immunogenicity of S. meliloti LPS or affect the ability of S. meliloti to induce fluorescent plant defense molecules within the legume. Because VLCFA-modified lipids are produced by other rhizobia and mammalian pathogens, these findings will also be important in understanding the function and biosynthesis of these unusual fatty acids in diverse bacterial species. PMID:21454518

  2. Iterative reconstruction of a global metabolic model of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 using high-throughput growth phenotype and gene essentiality data

    PubMed Central

    Durot, Maxime; Le Fčvre, François; de Berardinis, Véronique; Kreimeyer, Annett; Vallenet, David; Combe, Cyril; Smidtas, Serge; Salanoubat, Marcel; Weissenbach, Jean; Schachter, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background Genome-scale metabolic models are powerful tools to study global properties of metabolic networks. They provide a way to integrate various types of biological information in a single framework, providing a structured representation of available knowledge on the metabolism of the respective species. Results We reconstructed a constraint-based metabolic model of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, a soil bacterium of interest for environmental and biotechnological applications with large-spectrum biodegradation capabilities. Following initial reconstruction from genome annotation and the literature, we iteratively refined the model by comparing its predictions with the results of large-scale experiments: (1) high-throughput growth phenotypes of the wild-type strain on 190 distinct environments, (2) genome-wide gene essentialities from a knockout mutant library, and (3) large-scale growth phenotypes of all mutant strains on 8 minimal media. Out of 1412 predictions, 1262 were initially consistent with our experimental observations. Inconsistencies were systematically examined, leading in 65 cases to model corrections. The predictions of the final version of the model, which included three rounds of refinements, are consistent with the experimental results for (1) 91% of the wild-type growth phenotypes, (2) 94% of the gene essentiality results, and (3) 94% of the mutant growth phenotypes. To facilitate the exploitation of the metabolic model, we provide a web interface allowing online predictions and visualization of results on metabolic maps. Conclusion The iterative reconstruction procedure led to significant model improvements, showing that genome-wide mutant phenotypes on several media can significantly facilitate the transition from genome annotation to a high-quality model. PMID:18840283

  3. Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1) Is Dispensable for Double-Strand Break Repair but Is Essential for Averting Improper Gene Expression during Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, James A.; Mehta, Monika; Kass, Elizabeth M.; Vuong, Bao Q.; Inagaki, Akiko; Egli, Dieter; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2013-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals) is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations. PMID:24244200

  4. Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1) is dispensable for double-strand break repair but is essential for averting improper gene expression during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, James A; Mehta, Monika; Kass, Elizabeth M; Vuong, Bao Q; Inagaki, Akiko; Egli, Dieter; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2013-11-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals) is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations. PMID:24244200

  5. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oils on Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Production on Asparagus racemosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyanka Singh; Ravindra Shukla; Ashok Kumar; Bhanu Prakash; Shubhra Singh; Nawal Kishore Dubey

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the

  6. Invariant NKT Cells Are Essential for the Regulation of Hepatic CXCL10 Gene Expression during Leishmania donovani Infection

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Mattias; Zubairi, Soombul; Maroof, Asher; Kazi, Fatima; Taniguchi, Masaru; Kaye, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-?)-regulated chemokines of the CXC family have been implicated as key regulators of a variety of T-cell-dependent inflammatory processes. However, the cellular source(s) of IFN-? that regulates their early expression has rarely been defined. Here, we have directly addressed this question in mice after Leishmania donovani infection. Comparison of CXCL10 mRNA accumulation in normal and IFN-?-deficient mice confirmed an absolute requirement for IFN-? for sustained (24 h) expression of CXCL10 mRNA accumulation in this model. In normal mice, IFN-? was produced by both CD3int NK1.1+ NKT cells and CD3? NK1.1+ NK cells, as detected by intracellular flow cytometry. Strikingly, B6.J?281?/? mice lacking NKT cells that express the invariant V?14J?18 T-cell-receptor ? chain, although retaining a significant population of IFN-?-producing NK cells and NKT cells, were unable to sustain CXCL10 mRNA accumulation. These data indicate that invariant NKT cells are indispensable for the regulation of hepatic CXCL10 gene expression during L. donovani infection. PMID:16239557

  7. The essential roles of core binding factors CfRunt and CfCBF? in hemocyte production of scallop Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Yue, Feng; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Sun, Rui; Jiang, Qiufen; Yi, Qilin; Zhang, Tao; Song, Linsheng

    2014-06-01

    Core binding factor (CBF) is a family of heterodimeric transcription factors composed of a DNA-binding CBF? subunit and a non-DNA-binding CBF? subunit, which plays critical roles in regulating hematopoiesis, osteogenesis and neurogenesis. In the present study, two genes encoding Runt (designed as CfRunt) and CBF? (designed as CfCBF?) were cloned and characterized from scallop Chlamys farreri. The full-length cDNA of CfRunt and CfCBF? consists of 2128 bp and 1729 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 530 and 183 amino acids with a conserved Runt domain and CBF? domain, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the recombinant CfRunt protein (rCfRunt) exhibited solid ability to bind specific DNA, whereas rCfCBF? could remarkably increase the DNA-binding affinity of rCfRunt. The mRNA transcripts of CfRunt and CfCBF? could be detected in all tested tissues, especially in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas or muscle. After bacterial challenge, the circulating total hemocyte count (THC) of scallop reduced to the lowest level at 6h (P<0.05), and then it recovered gradually to the control level at 48-96 h, while the mRNA expressions of CfRunt and CfCBF? were significant up-regulated between 6 and 48 h (P<0.05). After CfRunt gene was silenced by RNA interference, the hemocyte renewal rate and circulating THC both decreased significantly (P<0.05). However, following the RNA interference of CfRunt, the mRNA expression of CfRunt was significantly induced (P<0.05) and the attenuated hemocyte renewal rate and circulating THC could be repaired partially by LPS stimulation in the CfRunt-silenced scallops. The results collectively indicated that CfRunt and CfCBF?, as conserved transcription factors, played essential roles in regulating hemocyte production of scallop. PMID:24462835

  8. An Essential Set of Basic DNA Response Elements Is Required for Receptor-Dependent Transcription of the Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase (Lrat) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zolfaghari, Reza; Ross, A. Catharine

    2009-01-01

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is essential for vitamin A storage. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated transcriptional regulation of the Lrat gene in vivo by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and other retinoids. Analysis of a 2.5 kb segment of rat genomic DNA revealed that the region ~300 bp upstream from the transcription start site (TSS) is necessary for high luciferase (Luc) reporter activity in HEK293T and HepG2 cells. Although this region lacks retinoid receptor binding elements, it responded to the nuclear receptors RAR?, RAR? or RAR?, with RXR?, with and without ligand. Removal of -111 bp from the TSS, which is well conserved in human, rat and mouse genomes, completely eliminated activity. This region contains several basic elements (TATA box, SP3 site, AP-1 site, CAAT box), all of which were essential. Nuclear extracts from RA-treated cells exhibited enhanced binding. Therefore, this proximal region together with basal transcription factors may be sufficient to drive Lrat expression. PMID:19665987

  9. A Mutant Gene That Increases Gibberellin Production in Brassica1

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Stewart B.; Williams, Paul H.; Pearce, David; Murofushi, Noboru; Mander, Lewis N.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode [ein/ein]) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A3 (GA3) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA1 and GA3 were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [2H]GA1, as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA20 and GA1, and the rate of GA19 metabolism were simultaneously analyzed at day 7 by feeding [2H2]GA19 and measuring metabolites [2H2]GA20 and [2H2]GA1 and endogenous GA20 and GA1, with [2H5]GA20 and [2H5]GA1 as quantitative internal standards. Levels of GA1 and GA20 were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA20 and GA1 were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA1 biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of [3H]GA20 to [3H]GA1 was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA1 biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A1 and A3. The enhanced GA production probably underlies the accelerated shoot growth and development, and particularly, the increased shoot elongation. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667574

  10. Effects of three AM fungi on growth, distribution of glandular hairs, and essential oil production in Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Copetta; Guido Lingua; Graziella Berta

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils of basil are widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, and flavoring industries. Little is known about the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to affect their production in this aromatic plant. The effects of colonization by three AM fungi, Glomus mosseae BEG 12, Gigaspora margarita BEG 34, and Gigaspora rosea BEG 9 on shoot and root

  11. Effects of Addition of Essential Oils and Monensin Premix on Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, and Milk Composition in Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Benchaar; H. V. Petit; R. Berthiaume; T. D. Whyte; P. Y. Chouinard

    2006-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary addition of essential oils (0 vs. 2 g\\/d; EO) and monensin (0 vs. 350 mg\\/d; MO) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. Intake

  12. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases. PMID:25328170

  13. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as essential oils or in form of leaves supplementation on goat's production and metabolic statute.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Samir; Hajji, Hadhami; Bouzid, Kahena; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Muńoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-02-01

    The effects of rosemary supply in form of essential oils (REO) or leaves (RL) on performances of goats were investigated. Thirty goats were allocated into three equal groups, which were fed oat-hay ad libitum and 400 g of concentrate during the two last weeks of pregnancy and 600 g during the first 8 weeks of lactation. Three-control diet (C) was a mixture of barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement. The experimental concentrates contained the same mixture of the control diet plus 0.6 g/kg of REO or its equivalent supply RL (60 g/kg). Rosemary supply did not affect dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. While urinary nitrogen loss was higher for experimental groups than the C (P?=?0.03). Daily milk production was significantly higher (P?=?0.007) for rosemary groups (694 and 582 ml for RL and REO, respectively) than C group (442 ml). Rosemary decreased numerically (P?>?0.05) the fat content (23, 25 and 26.5 g/l for REO, RL and C groups, respectively) but significantly increased the fat (P?=?0.003) and protein content (P?=?0.008). The growth rate of kids was significantly higher (P?=?0.008) for RL (111 g) than that for REO and C (97 and 83 g, respectively). However, rosemary has not shown significant effect on the plasma metabolite concentrations. Given the facility to obtain the rosemary leaves, this form of rosemary use is recommended as natural alternative to improve the performances of goats. PMID:25425356

  14. Association of the ACE I/D Gene Polymorphisms with JAK2V617F-Positive Polycythemia Vera and Essential Thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Gorukmez, Orhan; Sag, ?ebnem Ozemri; Gorukmez, Özlem; Ture, Mehmet; Topak, Ali; Sahinturk, Serdar; Ozkaya, Güven; Gulten, Tuna; Ali, R?dvan; Yakut, Tahsin

    2015-06-01

    The renin-angiotensin system contributes to cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation in the bone marrow. We investigated the role of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism in 108 polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocytosis (ET) patients who were positive for the JAK2V617F mutation, with a thrombosis group (TG) of 95 patients who had a history of vascular events, but did not have a history of myeloproliferative neoplasms and compared these to a healthy control group (CG) of 72 subjects. In the patients, II genotype and I allele frequency (p=0.009, odds ratio [OR]=9.716, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.242-76.00, p=0.004, OR=2.019, 95% CI=1.243-3.280, respectively) were found to be higher than those in the controls. The DD genotype (p=0.021, OR=0.491, 95% CI=0.268-0.899) and D allele (p=0.004, OR=0.495, 95% CI=0.305-0.805) were found to be correlated with a decreased risk of a myeloproliferative neoplasm. These findings support the hypothesis that the ACE II genotype and I allele may be related to increased risk of ET and PV. Conversely, the DD genotype and D allele may be related to decreased risk of ET and PV. The results also indicated that the ACE I/D gene polymorphism was independent of thrombosis formation. PMID:25955555

  15. Identification of the Escherichia coli deoR and cytR gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, J T; Barbier, C S; Short, S A

    1985-01-01

    The protein products encoded by the Escherichia coli deoR and cytR structural genes have been identified based on results obtained from E. coli maxicells harboring (i) recombinant plasmids carrying wild-type deoR and cytR genes, (ii) deletion derivatives of the deoR+ and cytR+ plasmids, (iii) plasmids containing site-specific mutations in the deoR and cytR structural genes, and (iv) plasmids which have transposon Tn1000 inserted into the deoR and cytR structural genes. Analysis of the protein profiles obtained from all the maxicell experiments demonstrated that the deoR gene encodes a protein with a subunit molecular weight of 30,500 and that the product of the cytR gene is a protein with a subunit molecular weight of 37,000. Images PMID:2993233

  16. Morphological changes induced by class III chitin synthase gene silencing could enhance penicillin production of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Gong, Guohong; Wang, Li; Zhao, Genhai

    2013-04-01

    Chitin synthases catalyze the formation of ?-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between N-acetylglucosamine residues to form the unbranched polysaccharide chitin, which is the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi. Several studies have shown that chitin synthases are structurally and functionally divergent and play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis of the genus Aspergillus although little research on this topic has been done in Penicillium chrysogenum. We used BLAST to find the genes encoding chitin synthases in P. chrysogenum related to chitin synthase genes in Aspergillus nidulans. Three homologous sequences coding for a class III chitin synthase CHS4 and two hypothetical proteins in P. chrysogenum were found. The gene which product showed the highest identity and encoded the class III chitin synthase CHS4 was studied in detail. To investigate the role of CHS4 in P. chrysogenum morphogenesis, we developed an RNA interference system to silence the class III chitin synthase gene chs4. After transformation, mutants exhibited a slow growth rate and shorter and more branched hyphae, which were distinct from those of the original strain. The results also showed that the conidiation efficiency of all transformants was reduced sharply and indicated that chs4 is essential in conidia development. The morphologies of all transformants and the original strain in penicillin production were investigated by light microscopy, which showed that changes in chs4 expression led to a completely different morphology during fermentation and eventually caused distinct penicillin yields, especially in the transformants PcRNAi1-17 and PcRNAi2-1 where penicillin production rose by 27 % and 41 %, respectively. PMID:23179625

  17. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Redhead, N.J.; Selfridge, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector to reconstruct the inactivated allele, concomitantly introducing an engineered mutation. Five independent embryonic stem cell lines have been produced bearing different targeted alterations to the prion protein gene, including one which raises the level of expression. We have constructed mice bearing the codon 101 proline to leucine substitution linked to the human familial prion disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. We anticipate that this procedure will have applications to the study of human inherited diseases and the development of therapies. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Cytostatic Gene Therapy for Vascular Proliferative Disorders with a Constitutively Active Form of the Retinoblastoma Gene Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Chang; Eliav Barr; Jonathan Seltzer; Yue-Qin Jiang; Gary J. Nabe; Elizabeth G. Nable; Michael S. Parmacek; Jeffrey M. Leiden

    1995-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in response to injury is an important etiologic factor in vascular proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after balloon angioplasty. The retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) is present in the unphosphorylated and active form in quiescent primary arterial SMCs, but is rapidly inactivated by phosphorylation in response to growth factor stimulation in vitro. A

  19. The Genomisotopic Approach: A Systematic Method to Isolate Products of Orphan Biosynthetic Gene Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Gross; Virginia O. Stockwell; Marcella D. Henkels; Brian Nowak-Thompson; Joyce E. Loper; William H. Gerwick

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY With the increasing number of genomes se- quenced and available in the public domain, a large number of orphan gene clusters, for which the encoded natural product is unknown, have been identified. These orphan gene clus- ters represent a tremendous source of novel and possibly bioactive compounds. Here, we describe a ''genomisotopic approach,'' which employs a combination of genomic

  20. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  1. The FvMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase gene regulates conidiation, pathogenesis, and fumonisin production in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Choi, Yoon-E; Zou, Xuexiao; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important fungal pathogens to cause destructive diseases of maize worldwide. Fumonisins produced by the fungus are harmful to human and animal health. To date, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides is limited. Because MAP kinase pathways have been implicated in regulating diverse processes important for plant infection in phytopathogenic fungi, in this study we identified and functionally characterized the FvMK1 gene in F. verticillioides. FvMK1 is orthologous to FMK1 in F. oxysporum and GPMK1 in F. graminearum. The Fvmk1 deletion mutant was reduced in vegetative growth and production of microconidia. However, it was normal in sexual reproduction and increased in the production of macroconidia. In infection assays with developing corn kernels, the Fvmk1 mutant was non-pathogenic and failed to colonize through wounding sites. It also failed to cause stalk rot symptoms beyond the inoculation sites on corn stalks, indicating that FvMK1 is essential for plant infection. Furthermore, the Fvmk1 mutant was significantly reduced in fumonisin production and expression levels of FUM1 and FUM8, two genes involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. The defects of the Fvmk1 mutant were fully complemented by re-introducing the wild type FvMK1 allele. These results demonstrate that FvMK1 plays critical roles in the regulation of vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, fumonisin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity. PMID:20887797

  2. A nuclear mutation affects the synthesis of the chloroplast psbA gene production Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Girard-Bascou; Yves Pierre; Dominique Drapier

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the nuclear mutation F34 on the synthesis of chloroplast-encoded photosystem II (PSII) polypeptides has been controversal. While we had concluded that the synthesis of the psbC gene product (P6) was specifically deficient in this mutant, another laboratory has found that the synthesis of the psbA gene product, the herbicide-binding protein D1, was primarily affected. These conflicting results

  3. Determinants Outside the DevR C-Terminal Domain Are Essential for Cooperativity and Robust Activation of Dormancy Genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Uma Shankar; Chauhan, Santosh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2011-01-01

    Background DevR (also called as DosR) is a two-domain response regulator of the NarL subfamily that controls dormancy adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In response to inducing signals such as hypoxia and ascorbic acid, the N-terminal receiver domain of DevR (DevRN) is phosphorylated at Asp54. This results in DevR binding to DNA via its C-terminal domain (DevRC) and subsequent induction of the DevR regulon. The mechanism of phosphorylation-mediated activation is not known. The present study was designed to understand the role of the N- and C-terminal domains of DevR in DevR regulon genes activation. Methodology/Principal Findings Towards deciphering the activation mechanism of DevR, we compared the DNA binding properties of DevRC and DevR and correlated the findings with their ability to activate gene expression. We show that isolated DevRC can interact with DNA, but only with the high affinity site of a representative target promoter. Therefore, one role of DevRN is to mask the intrinsic DNA binding function of DevRC. However, unlike phosphorylated DevR, isolated DevRC does not interact with the adjacent low affinity binding site suggesting that a second role of DevRN is in cooperative binding to the secondary site. Transcriptional analysis shows that consistent with unmasking of its DNA binding property, DevRC supports the aerobic induction, albeit feebly, of DevR regulon genes but is unable to sustain gene activation during hypoxia. Conclusions/Significance DevR is a unique response regulator that employs a dual activation mechanism including relief of inhibition and cooperative interaction with binding sites. Importantly, both these functions reside outside the C-terminal domain. DevRN is also essential for stabilizing DevR and sustaining autoregulation under hypoxia. Hence, both domains of DevR are required for robust transcription activation. PMID:21304599

  4. Two Translation Products of Yersinia yscQ Assemble To Form a Complex Essential to Type III Secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P.; Hamaoka, Brent Y.; Ghosh, Partho (UCSD)

    2012-07-11

    The bacterial flagellar C-ring is composed of two essential proteins, FliM and FliN. The smaller protein, FliN, is similar to the C-terminus of the larger protein, FliM, both being composed of SpoA domains. While bacterial type III secretion (T3S) systems encode many proteins in common with the flagellum, they mostly have a single protein in place of FliM and FliN. This protein resembles FliM at its N-terminus and is as large as FliM but is more like FliN at its C-terminal SpoA domain. We have discovered that a FliN-sized cognate indeed exists in the Yersinia T3S system to accompany the FliM-sized cognate. The FliN-sized cognate, YscQ-C, is the product of an internal translation initiation site within the locus encoding the FliM-sized cognate YscQ. Both intact YscQ and YscQ-C were found to be required for T3S, indicating that the internal translation initiation site, which is conserved in some but not all YscQ orthologs, is crucial for function. The crystal structure of YscQ-C revealed a SpoA domain that forms a highly intertwined, domain-swapped homodimer, similar to those observed in FliN and the YscQ ortholog HrcQ{sub B}. A single YscQ-C homodimer associated reversibly with a single molecule of intact YscQ, indicating conformational differences between the SpoA domains of intact YscQ and YscQ-C. A 'snap-back' mechanism suggested by the structure can account for this. The 1:2 YscQ-YscQ-C complex is a close mimic of the 1:4 FliM-FliN complex and the likely building block of the putative Yersinia T3S system C-ring.

  5. The Hansenula polymorpha PER1 gene is essential for peroxisome biogenesis and encodes a peroxisomal matrix protein with both carboxy- and amino-terminal targeting signals

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning of the Hansenula polymorpha PER1 gene and the characterization of the gene and its product, PER1p. The gene was cloned by functional complementation of a per1 mutant of H. polymorpha, which was impaired in the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins (Pim- phenotype). The DNA sequence of PER1 predicts that PER1p is a polypeptide of 650 amino acids with no significant sequence similarity to other known proteins. PER1 expression was low but significant in wild-type H. polymorpha growing on glucose and increased during growth on any one of a number of substrates which induce peroxisome proliferation. PER1p contains both a carboxy- (PTS1) and an amino- terminal (PTS2) peroxisomal targeting signal which both were demonstrated to be capable of directing bacterial beta-lactamase to the organelle. In wild-type H. polymorpha PER1p is a protein of low abundance which was demonstrated to be localized in the peroxisomal matrix. Our results suggest that the import of PER1p into peroxisomes is a prerequisite for the import of additional matrix proteins and we suggest a regulatory function of PER1p on peroxisomal protein support. PMID:7962056

  6. B-cell translocation gene 2 promotes hepatic hepcidin production via induction of Yin Yang 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Jang, Won-Gu; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Yong Deuk

    2015-05-15

    Hepcidin is a peptide hormone secreted in the liver and plays a key role in maintaining iron homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is a key player in hepatic hepcidin regulation via induction of Yin Yang 1 (YY1). Hepatic hepcidin gene expression significantly enhanced by fasting states and glucagon exposure led to induction of gluconeogenic gene expression, and elevated serum hepcidin production in mice. Notably, overexpression of BTG2 using adenoviral system (Ad-BTG2) significantly elevated serum hepcidin levels via a significant induction of YY1 gene transcription. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that BTG2 physically interacted with YY1 and recruited on the hepcidin gene promoter. Finally, ablation of hepatic BTG2 gene by gene silencing markedly attenuated the elevation of serum hepcidin production along with YY1 and hepcidin mRNA expression in fasting state. Likewise, forskolin (FSK)-stimulated hepcidin promoter activity was dramatically disrupted by endogenous BTG2 knockdown. Overall, our current study provides a novel molecular mechanism of BTG2-mediated induction of hepcidin gene expression, thereby contributing to a better understanding of the hepatic hepcidin production involved in iron homeostasis. PMID:25839654

  7. Expression of the ERBB3 gene product in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, N. R.; Barnes, D. M.; Hollywood, D. P.; Hughes, C. M.; Smith, P.; Dublin, E.; Prigent, S. A.; Gullick, W. J.; Hurst, H. C.

    1992-01-01

    Abnormalities of the EGF receptor and/or the related ERBB2 receptor occur in a significant proportion of cases of human breast cancer and are important influences in the behaviour of this tumour type. In this report we demonstrate by nucleic acid analysis and immunohistochemistry that the recently recognised third member of this gene family, ERBB3, shows a wide range of expression in breast cancer, and shows stronger immunoreactivity than that observed in normal tissue in 43 out of 195 cases (22%) of primary breast cancer. Overexpression of ERBB3 appears to result from increased levels of gene transcription since in none of the cell lines or primary cancers analysed did we find evidence of gene amplification. High expression of ERBB3 is positively associated with the presence of lymph node metastases, but there was no demonstrable relationship with patient survival in this series. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1333787

  8. Differential Gene Expression Profile of First- and Second-Generation T-Rapa Cell Clinical Products

    PubMed Central

    Castiello, Luciano; Mossoba, Miriam; Viterbo, Antonella; Sabatino, Marianna; Fellowes, Vicki; Foley, Jason E.; Winterton, Matthew; Halverson, David C.; Civini, Sara; Jin, Ping; Fowler, Daniel H.; Stroncek, David F.

    2013-01-01

    We completed a phase II clinical trial evaluating rapamycin-resistant allogeneic T cells (T-Rapa) and now are evaluating a T-Rapa product manufactured in 6-days (T-Rapa6) rather than 12-days (T-Rapa12). Using gene expression microarrays, we addressed our hypothesis that the two products would express a similar phenotype. The products had similar phenotypes using conventional comparison methods of cytokine secretion and surface markers. Unsupervised analysis of 34,340 genes revealed that T-Rapa6 and T-Rapa12 products clustered together, distinct from culture input CD4+ T cells (CD4). Statistical analysis of T-Rapa6 products revealed differential expression of 19.3% of genes (n=6641) compared to input CD4 cells; similarly, 17.8% of genes (n=6147) were differentially expressed between T-Rapa12 products and input CD4 cells. Compared to input CD4 cells, T-Rapa6 and T-Rapa12 products were similar in terms of major gene families up-regulated (cell cycle, stress response, glucose catabolism, DNA metabolism) and down-regulated (inflammatory response, immune response, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation). However, when directly compared, T-Rapa6 and T-Rapa12 products showed differential expression of 5.8% of genes (n=1994; T-Rapa6 vs. T-Rapa12). Second-generation T-Rapa6 cells therefore possess a similar yet distinct gene expression profile relative to first-generation T-Rapa12 cells, and thus may mediate differential effects after adoptive transfer. PMID:23352462

  9. PU.1 as an essential activator for the expression of gp91phox gene in human peripheral neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Kumatori, Atsushi; Haagen, Inez-Anne; Fujii, Yoshito; Sadat, Mohamed Anowar; Jun, Hao Li; Tsuji, Yoshiro; Roos, Dirk; Nakamura, Michio

    1998-01-01

    We have reported a deficiency of a 91-kDa glycoprotein component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (gp91phox) in neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes of a patient with X chromosome-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Sequence analysis of his gp91phox gene revealed a single-base mutation (C ? T) at position ?53. Electrophoresis mobility-shift assays showed that both PU.1 and hematopoietic-associated factor 1 (HAF-1) bound to the inverted PU.1 consensus sequence centered at position ?53 of the gp91phox promoter, and the mutation at position ?53 strongly inhibited the binding of both factors. It was also indicated that a mutation at position ?50 strongly inhibited PU.1 binding but hardly inhibited HAF-1 binding, and a mutation at position ?56 had an opposite binding specificity for these factors. In transient expression assay using HEL cells, which express PU.1 and HAF-1, the mutations at positions ?53 and ?50 significantly reduced the gp91phox promoter activity; however, the mutation at position ?56 did not affect the promoter activity. In transient cotransfection study, PU.1 dramatically activated the gp91phox promoter in Jurkat T cells, which originally contained HAF-1 but not PU.1. In addition, the single-base mutation (C ? T) at position ?52 that was identified in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease inhibited the binding of PU.1 to the promoter. We therefore conclude that PU.1 is an essential activator for the expression of gp91phox gene in human neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes. PMID:9600921

  10. Exploring and dissecting genome-wide gene expression responses of Penicillium chrysogenum to phenylacetic acid consumption and penicillinG production

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Diana M; van der Krogt, Zita A; Klaassen, Paul; Raamsdonk, Leonie M; Hage, Susanne; van den Berg, Marco A; Bovenberg, Roel AL; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of the antibacterial activity of penicillin by Fleming 80 years ago, improvements of penicillin titer were essentially achieved by classical strain improvement through mutagenesis and screening. The recent sequencing of Penicillium chrysogenum strain Wisconsin1255-54 and the availability of genomics tools such as DNA-microarray offer new perspective. Results In studies on ?-lactam production by P. chrysogenum, addition and omission of a side-chain precursor is commonly used to generate producing and non-producing scenarios. To dissect effects of penicillinG production and of its side-chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA), a derivative of a penicillinG high-producing strain without a functional penicillin-biosynthesis gene cluster was constructed. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of the high-producing and cluster-free strains, PAA addition caused a small reduction of the biomass yield, consistent with PAA acting as a weak-organic-acid uncoupler. Microarray-based analysis on chemostat cultures of the high-producing and cluster-free strains, grown in the presence and absence of PAA, showed that: (i) Absence of a penicillin gene cluster resulted in transcriptional upregulation of a gene cluster putatively involved in production of the secondary metabolite aristolochene and its derivatives, (ii) The homogentisate pathway for PAA catabolism is strongly transcriptionally upregulated in PAA-supplemented cultures (iii) Several genes involved in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism were transcriptionally upregulated under penicillinG producing conditions only, suggesting a drain of amino-acid precursor pools. Furthermore, the number of candidate genes for penicillin transporters was strongly reduced, thus enabling a focusing of functional analysis studies. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of combinatorial transcriptome analysis in chemostat cultures to dissect effects of biological and process parameters on gene expression regulation. This study provides for the first time clear-cut target genes for metabolic engineering, beyond the three genes of the ?-lactam pathway. PMID:19203396

  11. Coregulation of Terpenoid Pathway Genes and Prediction of Isoprene Production in Bacillus subtilis Using Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Becky M.; Xue, Junfeng; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Wiley, H. Steven; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Linggi, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    The isoprenoid pathway converts pyruvate to isoprene and related isoprenoid compounds in plants and some bacteria. Currently, this pathway is of great interest because of the critical role that isoprenoids play in basic cellular processes, as well as the industrial value of metabolites such as isoprene. Although the regulation of several pathway genes has been described, there is a paucity of information regarding system level regulation and control of the pathway. To address these limitations, we examined Bacillus subtilis grown under multiple conditions and determined the relationship between altered isoprene production and gene expression patterns. We found that with respect to the amount of isoprene produced, terpenoid genes fall into two distinct subsets with opposing correlations. The group whose expression levels positively correlated with isoprene production included dxs, which is responsible for the commitment step in the pathway, ispD, and two genes that participate in the mevalonate pathway, yhfS and pksG. The subset of terpenoid genes that inversely correlated with isoprene production included ispH, ispF, hepS, uppS, ispE, and dxr. A genome-wide partial least squares regression model was created to identify other genes or pathways that contribute to isoprene production. These analyses showed that a subset of 213 regulated genes was sufficient to create a predictive model of isoprene production under different conditions and showed correlations at the transcriptional level. We conclude that gene expression levels alone are sufficiently informative about the metabolic state of a cell that produces increased isoprene and can be used to build a model that accurately predicts production of this secondary metabolite across many simulated environmental conditions. PMID:23840410

  12. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, ?-pinene, ?-terpineol, ?-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder. PMID:25893282

  13. Terpinen4-ol, the main component of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil), suppresses inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Hart; C. Brand; C. F. Carson; T. V. Riley; R. H. Prager; J. J. Finlay-Jones

    2000-01-01

    Objective and Design: To evaluate potential anti- inflammatory properties of tea tree oil, the essential oil steam distilled from the Australian native plant, Melaleuca alterni- folia. Material and Methods: The ability of tea tree oil to reduce the production in vitro of tumour necrosis factor-a (TNFa), interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-8, IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human peripheral blood

  14. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium proliferatum in maize grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Velluti; V. Sanchis; A. J. Ramos; J. Egido; S. Mar??n

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cinnamon, clove, oregano, palmarose and lemongrass oils on growth and FB1 production by three different isolates of F. proliferatum in irradiated maize grain at 0.995 and 0.950 aw and at 20 and 30 °C was evaluated. The five essential oils inhibited growth of F. proliferatum isolates at 0.995 aw at both temperatures, while at 0.950 aw only

  15. Drosophila Rif1 is an essential gene and controls late developmental events by direct interaction with PP1-87B

    PubMed Central

    Sreesankar, Easwaran; Bharathi, Vellaichamy; Mishra, Rakesh K.; Mishra, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Rif1, identified as a regulator of telomerase in yeast, is an evolutionarily conserved protein and functions in diverse processes including telomere length regulation, epigenetic gene regulation, anti-checkpoint activity, DNA repair and establishing timing of firing at replication origins. Previously we had identified that all Rif1 homologues have PP1 interacting SILK-RVxF motif. In the present study, we show that Drosophila Rif1 is essential for normal fly development and loss of dRif1 impairs temporal regulation of initiation of DNA replication. In multiple tissues dRif1 colocalizes with HP1, a protein known to orchestrate timing of replication in fly. dRif1 associates with chromosomes in a mitotic stage-dependent manner coinciding with dephosphorylation of histones. Ectopic expression of dRif1 causes enlarged larval imaginal discs and early pupal lethality which is completely reversed by co-expression of PP1 87B, the major protein phosphatase in Drosophila, indicating genetic and functional interaction. These findings suggest that dRif1 is an adaptor for PP1 and functions by recruiting PP1 to multiple sites on the chromosome. PMID:26022086

  16. The shut-down gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a novel FK506-binding protein essential for the formation of germline cysts during oogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Munn, K; Steward, R

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the process of oogenesis is initiated with the asymmetric division of a germline stem cell. This division results in the self-renewal of the stem cell and the generation of a daughter cell that undergoes four successive mitotic divisions to produce a germline cyst of 16 cells. Here, we show that shut-down is essential for the normal function of the germline stem cells. Analysis of weak loss-of-function alleles confirms that shut-down is also required at later stages of oogenesis. Clonal analysis indicates that shut-down functions autonomously in the germline. Using a positional cloning approach, we have isolated the shut-down gene. Consistent with its function, the RNA and protein are strongly expressed in the germline stem cells and in 16-cell cysts. The RNA is also present in the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. shut-down encodes a novel Drosophila protein similar to the heat-shock protein-binding immunophilins. Like immunophilins, Shut-down contains an FK506-binding protein domain and a tetratricopeptide repeat. In plants, high-molecular-weight immunophilins have been shown to regulate cell divisions in the root meristem in response to extracellular signals. Our results suggest that shut-down may regulate germ cell divisions in the germarium. PMID:10978289

  17. Drosophila Rif1 is an essential gene and controls late developmental events by direct interaction with PP1-87B.

    PubMed

    Sreesankar, Easwaran; Bharathi, Vellaichamy; Mishra, Rakesh K; Mishra, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Rif1, identified as a regulator of telomerase in yeast, is an evolutionarily conserved protein and functions in diverse processes including telomere length regulation, epigenetic gene regulation, anti-checkpoint activity, DNA repair and establishing timing of firing at replication origins. Previously we had identified that all Rif1 homologues have PP1 interacting SILK-RVxF motif. In the present study, we show that Drosophila Rif1 is essential for normal fly development and loss of dRif1 impairs temporal regulation of initiation of DNA replication. In multiple tissues dRif1 colocalizes with HP1, a protein known to orchestrate timing of replication in fly. dRif1 associates with chromosomes in a mitotic stage-dependent manner coinciding with dephosphorylation of histones. Ectopic expression of dRif1 causes enlarged larval imaginal discs and early pupal lethality which is completely reversed by co-expression of PP1 87B, the major protein phosphatase in Drosophila, indicating genetic and functional interaction. These findings suggest that dRif1 is an adaptor for PP1 and functions by recruiting PP1 to multiple sites on the chromosome. PMID:26022086

  18. Phylogenomic study of lipid genes involved in microalgal biofuel production-candidate gene mining and metabolic pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  19. Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production—Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  20. Nucleotide sequence, organization, and nature of the protein products of the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Armstrong; Marie Alberti; Francesca Leach; John E. Hearst

    1989-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments are essential for the protection of both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues from photooxidative damage. Although carotenoid biosynthesis has been studied in many organisms from bacteria to higher plants, little is known about carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes, or the nature and regulation of the genes encoding them. We report here the first DNA sequence of carotenoid genes from any organism.

  1. Repression of the interleukin 6 gene promoter by p53 and the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanam, U.; Ray, A.; Sehgal, P.B. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The aberrant overexpression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is implicated as an autocrine mechanism in the enhanced proliferation of the neoplastic cell elements in various B- and T-cell malignancies and in some carcinomas and sarcomas; many of these neoplasms have been shown to be associated with a mutated p53 gene. The possibility that wild-type (wt) p53, a nuclear tumor-suppressor protein, but not its transforming mutants might serve to repress IL-6 gene expression was investigated in HeLa cells. The authors transiently cotransfected these cells with constitutive cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/promoter expression plasmids overproducing wt or mutant human or murine p53 and with appropriate chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmids containing the promoter elements of human IL-6, c-fos, or {beta}-actin genes or of porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene in pN-38 to evaluate the effect of the various p53 species on these promoters. These observations identify transcriptional repression as a property of p53 and suggest that p53 and RB may be involved as transcriptional repressors in modulating IL-6 gene expression during cellular differentiation and oncogenesis.

  2. Thaxtomin A production and virulence are controlled by several bld gene global regulators in Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Bignell, Dawn R D; Francis, Isolde M; Fyans, Joanna K; Loria, Rosemary

    2014-08-01

    Streptomyces scabies is the main causative agent of common scab disease, which leads to significant annual losses to potato growers worldwide. The main virulence factor produced by S. scabies is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which functions as a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. Thaxtomin A production is controlled by the cluster-situated regulator TxtR, which activates expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes in response to cello-oligosaccharides. Here, we demonstrate that at least five additional regulatory genes are required for wild-type levels of thaxtomin A production and plant pathogenicity in S. scabies. These regulatory genes belong to the bld gene family of global regulators that control secondary metabolism or morphological differentiation in Streptomyces spp. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes was significantly downregulated in all five bld mutants and, in four of these mutants, this downregulation was attributed to the reduction in expression of txtR. Furthermore, all of the mutants displayed reduced expression of other known or predicted virulence genes, suggesting that the bld genes may function as global regulators of virulence gene expression in S. scabies. PMID:24678834

  3. Genes involved in cerebrospinal fluid production as candidate genes for late-onset Alzheimer's disease: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wostyn, Peter; van Dam, Debby; Audenaert, Kurt; de Deyn, Peter Paul

    2011-12-01

    In rare patients with autosomal dominant, early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding ?-amyloid precursor protein, and the ?-secretase-complex components presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 appear to result in ?-amyloid (A?) overproduction. The pathological accumulation of A? in the far more common late-onset AD is more likely to be the result of deficient clearance of A?. There is evidence that production and turnover of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) help to clear toxic molecules such as A? from the interstitial fluid space of the brain to the bloodstream. CSF production and turnover have been shown to be decreased in aging and in pathological conditions, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus and AD. Reduced formation of CSF, with diminished clearance of A?, may play an important role in the onset and progression of AD. If reduced CSF turnover is a risk factor for AD, then its incidence ought to be increased under conditions of CSF circulatory failure. In this paper, the authors hypothesize that genes and variations of genes involved in the CSF production and absorption may contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset AD. PMID:22023247

  4. Analysis of the autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus overlapping gene pair lef3 and ac68 reveals that AC68 is a per os infectivity factor and that LEF3 is critical, but not essential, for virus replication.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yingchao; Fang, Minggang; Erlandson, Martin A; Theilmann, David A

    2012-04-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac68 is a core gene that overlaps lef3 which encodes the single-stranded DNA binding protein. A knockout (KO) virus lacking both lef3 and ac68 was generated (lef3-ac68 2×KO) to enable the functional study of ac68. To produce an ac68KO virus that did not impact lef3 expression, the lef3-ac68 2×KO virus was repaired with a DNA fragment containing lef3 and ac68, in which ac68 contained point mutations so that only LEF3 was expressed. Repair of lef3-ac68 2×KO with just ac68 generated an lef3KO virus. Analysis of the ac68KO virus showed that viral DNA replication and budded virus (BV) levels were unaffected compared to levels in the double-repair or wild-type (WT) control virus. Bioassay analyses of Trichoplusia ni larvae injected with BV directly into the hemolymph, bypassing the gut, showed no difference in mortality rates between the ac68KO and the WT viruses. However, in oral bioassays the ac68KO occlusion bodies failed to kill larvae. These results show that the core gene ac68 encodes a per os infectivity factor (pif6). The lef3KO virus was also analyzed, and virus replication was drastically reduced compared to WT virus, but very low levels of lef3KO virus DNA replication and BV production could be detected. In addition, in transfected cells P143 was transported to the nucleus in the absence of LEF3. This study therefore shows for the first time that even though the loss of LEF3 severely impairs virus replication, it is not absolutely essential for P143 nuclear import or viral replication. PMID:22278232

  5. Analysis of the Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Overlapping Gene Pair lef3 and ac68 Reveals that AC68 Is a Per Os Infectivity Factor and that LEF3 Is Critical, but Not Essential, for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yingchao; Fang, Minggang; Erlandson, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac68 is a core gene that overlaps lef3 which encodes the single-stranded DNA binding protein. A knockout (KO) virus lacking both lef3 and ac68 was generated (lef3-ac68 2×KO) to enable the functional study of ac68. To produce an ac68KO virus that did not impact lef3 expression, the lef3-ac68 2×KO virus was repaired with a DNA fragment containing lef3 and ac68, in which ac68 contained point mutations so that only LEF3 was expressed. Repair of lef3-ac68 2×KO with just ac68 generated an lef3KO virus. Analysis of the ac68KO virus showed that viral DNA replication and budded virus (BV) levels were unaffected compared to levels in the double-repair or wild-type (WT) control virus. Bioassay analyses of Trichoplusia ni larvae injected with BV directly into the hemolymph, bypassing the gut, showed no difference in mortality rates between the ac68KO and the WT viruses. However, in oral bioassays the ac68KO occlusion bodies failed to kill larvae. These results show that the core gene ac68 encodes a per os infectivity factor (pif6). The lef3KO virus was also analyzed, and virus replication was drastically reduced compared to WT virus, but very low levels of lef3KO virus DNA replication and BV production could be detected. In addition, in transfected cells P143 was transported to the nucleus in the absence of LEF3. This study therefore shows for the first time that even though the loss of LEF3 severely impairs virus replication, it is not absolutely essential for P143 nuclear import or viral replication. PMID:22278232

  6. The trans-Golgi network-associated human ubiquitin-protein ligase POSH is essential for HIV type 1 production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Alroy; Shmuel Tuvia; Tsvika Greener; Daphna Gordon; Haim M. Barr; Daniel Taglicht; Revital Mandil-Levin; Danny Ben-Avraham; Dalit Konforty; Anat Nir; Orit Levius; Vivian Bicoviski; Mally Dori; Shenhav Cohen; Liora Yaar; Omri Erez; Oshrat Propheta-Meiran; Mordechai Koskas; Elanite Caspi-Bachar; Iris Alchanati; Alin Sela-Brown; Haim Moskowitz; Uwe Tessmer; Ulrich Schubert; Yuval Reiss

    2005-01-01

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) was shown to assemble either at the plasma membrane or in the membrane of late endosomes. Now, we report an essential role for human ubiquitin ligase POSH (Plenty of SH3s; hPOSH), a trans-Golgi network-associated protein, in the targeting of HIV-1 to the plasma membrane. Small inhibitory RNA-mediated silencing of hPOSH ablates virus secretion and Gag plasma

  7. Isolation of Aspergillus oryzae mutants for heterologous protein production from a double proteinase gene disruptant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nemoto; Taisuke Watanabe; Yutaka Mizogami; Jun-ichi Maruyama; Katsuhiko Kitamoto

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has attracted much attention as a host for heterologous protein production because of its high secretion ability and safety.\\u000a However, there have been only a few reports on construction of this organism to improve its properties as a production host.\\u000a We previously reported that the double disruptant of the proteinase gene (tppA, pepE) improved human lysozyme (HLY) production.

  8. Functional Analysis of the Validamycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Engineered Production of Validoxylamine A

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Linquan; Li, Lei; Xu, Hui; Minagawa, Kazuyuki; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Yirong; Zhou, Xiufen; Floss, Heinz G.; Mahmud, Taifo; Deng, Zixin

    2006-01-01

    Summary A 45 kb DNA sequencing analysis from Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008 involved in validamycin A (VAL-A) biosynthesis revealed 16 structural, 2 regulatory, and 5 genes related to transport, transposition/integration, tellurium resistance, and another 4 genes with no obvious identity. The VAL-A biosynthetic pathway was proposed, with assignment of the required genetic functions confined in the sequenced region. A cluster of eight reassembled genes was found to support the VAL-A synthesis in a heterologous host, S. lividans 1326. In vivo inactivation of the putative glycosyltransferase gene (valG) abolished the final attachment of glucose for VAL production, and resulted in the accumulation of the VAL-A precursor, validoxylamine, while the normal production of VAL-A could be restored by complementation with valG. The role of ValG in the glycosylation of validoxylamine to VAL-A was demonstrated in vitro by enzymatic assay. PMID:16632251

  9. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  10. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  11. Production of a novel neuropeptide encoded by the calcitonin gene via tissue-specific RNA processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Rosenfeld; Jean-Jacques Mermod; Susan G. Amara; Larry W. Swanson; Paul E. Sawchenko; Jean Rivier; Wylie W. Vale; Ronald M. Evans

    1983-01-01

    Alternative processing of the RNA transcribed from the calcitonin gene appears to result in the production of a messenger RNA in neural tissue distinct from that in thyroidal `C' cells. The thyroid mRNA encodes a precursor to the hormone calcitonin whereas that in neural tissues generates a novel neuropeptide, referred to as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The distribution of CGRP-producing

  12. Identification of the MAGE1 Gene Product by Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-Tseng Chen; Elisabeth Stockert; Yachi Chen; Pilar Garin-Chesa; Wolfgang J. Rettig; P. van der Bruggen; Thierry Boon; Lloyd J. Old

    1994-01-01

    The human MAGE-1 gene encodes a melanoma peptide antigen recognized by autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To produce antibodies against the MAGE-1 gene product, several approaches were taken. Three oligopeptides were synthesized based on predicted MAGE-1 amino acid sequences and were used to generate rabbit anti-peptide antisera. In addition, a truncated MAGE-1 cDNA was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector,

  13. The Hemochromatosis Gene Product Complexes with the Transferrin Receptor and Lowers Its Affinity for Ligand Binding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Feder; David M. Penny; Alivelu Irrinki; Vince K. Lee; Jose A. Lebron; Nicole Watson; Zenta Tsuchihashi; Elliott Sigal; Pamela J. Bjorkman; Randall C. Schatzman

    1998-01-01

    We recently reported the positional cloning of a candidate gene for hereditary hemochromatosis called HFE. The gene product, a member of the major histocompatibility complex class I-like family, was found to have a mutation, Cys-282 --> Tyr (C282Y), in 85% of patient chromosomes. This mutation eliminates the ability of HFE to associate with beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and prevents cell-surface

  14. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joăo C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology () project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way. PMID:25346727

  15. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joăo C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology () project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way. PMID:25346727

  16. Expanded natural product diversity revealed by analysis of lanthipeptide-like gene clusters in actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Doroghazi, James R; Zhao, Xiling; Walker, Mark C; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2015-07-01

    Lanthionine-containing peptides (lanthipeptides) are a rapidly growing family of polycyclic peptide natural products belonging to the large class of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs). Lanthipeptides are widely distributed in taxonomically distant species, and their currently known biosynthetic systems and biological activities are diverse. Building on the recent natural product gene cluster family (GCF) project, we report here large-scale analysis of lanthipeptide-like biosynthetic gene clusters from Actinobacteria. Our analysis suggests that lanthipeptide biosynthetic pathways, and by extrapolation the natural products themselves, are much more diverse than currently appreciated and contain many different posttranslational modifications. Furthermore, lanthionine synthetases are much more diverse in sequence and domain topology than currently characterized systems, and they are used by the biosynthetic machineries for natural products other than lanthipeptides. The gene cluster families described here significantly expand the chemical diversity and biosynthetic repertoire of lanthionine-related natural products. Biosynthesis of these novel natural products likely involves unusual and unprecedented biochemistries, as illustrated by several examples discussed in this study. In addition, class IV lanthipeptide gene clusters are shown not to be silent, setting the stage to investigate their biological activities. PMID:25888176

  17. STE16, a New Gene Required for Pheromone Production by a Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katherine L.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1987-01-01

    Genes required for mating by a and ? cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (STE, "sterile," genes) encode products such as peptide pheromones, pheromone receptors, and proteins responsible for pheromone processing. a-specific STE genes are those required for mating by a cells but not by ? cells. To identify new a-specific STE genes, we have employed a novel strategy that enabled us to determine if a ste mutant defective in mating as a is also defective in mating as ? without the need to do crosses. This technique involved a strain (K12-14b) of genotype mata 1 HML? HMR? sir3ts, which mates as a at 25° and as ? at 34°. We screened over 40,000 mutagenized colonies derived from K12-14b and obtained 28 a-specific ste mutants. These strains contained mutations in three known a-specific genes— STE2, STE6 and STE14—and in a new gene, STE16. ste16 mutants are defective in the production of the pheromone, a-factor, and exhibit slow growth. Based on the distribution of a-specific ste mutants described here, we infer that we have identified most if not all nonessential genes that can give rise to a-specific mating defects. PMID:3552875

  18. Detection of genes regulating beta-lactamase production in Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, R; Okubo, T; Inoue, M

    1996-01-01

    Four beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates (WH245, WH257, CH570, and DEL) of Enterococcus faecalis were examined for the presence of the staphylococcal beta-lactamase regulatory genes (blaR1 and blaI) by PCR using six primer pairs. All isolates produced small amounts of beta-lactamase constitutively. In WH245, CH570, and DEL, the corresponding regions of the regulatory genes have lost sequences of various lengths. However, the regulatory genes in WH257 appeared to be the same as those in staphylococcal plasmid pI258. The beta-lactamase genes could be transferred to enterococcal and staphylococcal recipients from WH257 and DEL by conjugation or transformation with selection for gentamicin resistance. After transformation, the expression of beta-lactamase from DEL was still constitutive, whereas the gene from WH257 showed inducible expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The gene coding for inducible beta-lactamase production from pI258 showed constitutive expression in E. faecalis. These findings suggest that constitutive beta-lactamase production in E. faecalis is due not only to the absence of functional regulatory genes but to some other factor(s) as well. PMID:8913462

  19. Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International policy towards access to essential medicines in Africa has focused until recently on international procurement of large volumes of medicines, mainly from Indian manufacturers, and their import and distribution. This emphasis is now being challenged by renewed policy interest in the potential benefits of local pharmaceutical production and supply. However, there is a shortage of evidence on the role of locally produced medicines in African markets, and on potential benefits of local production for access to medicines. This article contributes to filling that gap. Methods This article uses WHO/HAI data from Tanzania for 2006 and 2009 on prices and sources of a set of tracer essential medicines. It employs innovative graphical methods of analysis alongside conventional statistical testing. Results Medicines produced in Tanzania were equally likely to be found in rural and in urban areas. Imported medicines, especially those imported from countries other than Kenya (mainly from India) displayed 'urban bias’: that is, they were significantly more likely to be available in urban than in rural areas. This finding holds across the range of sample medicines studied, and cannot be explained by price differences alone. While different private distribution networks for essential medicines may provide part of the explanation, this cannot explain why the urban bias in availability of imported medicines is also found in the public sector. Conclusions The findings suggest that enhanced local production may improve rural access to medicines. The potential benefits of local production and scope for their improvement are an important field for further research, and indicate a key policy area in which economic development and health care objectives may reinforce each other. PMID:24612518

  20. The GDC1 Gene Encodes a Novel Ankyrin Domain-Containing Protein That Is Essential for Grana Formation in Arabidopsis1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong-Lan; Jia, Qi-Shi; Yin, Qian-Qian; Lin, Guan-Nan; Kong, Meng-Meng; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2011-01-01

    In land-plant chloroplasts, the grana play multiple roles in photosynthesis, including the potential increase of photosynthetic capacity in light and enhancement of photochemical efficiency in shade. However, the molecular mechanisms of grana formation remain elusive. Here, we report a novel gene, Grana-Deficient Chloroplast1 (GDC1), required for chloroplast grana formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In the chloroplast of knockout mutant gdc1-3, only stromal thylakoids were observed, and they could not stack together to form appressed grana. The mutant exhibited seedling lethality with pale green cotyledons and true leaves. Further blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the trimeric forms of Light-Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) were scarcely detected in gdc1-3, confirming previous reports that the LHCII trimer is essential for grana formation. The Lhcb1 protein, the major component of the LHCIIb trimer, was substantially reduced, and another LHCIIb trimer component, Lhcb2, was slightly reduced in the gdc1-3 mutant, although their transcription levels were not altered in the mutant. This suggests that defective LHCII trimer formation in gdc1-3 is due to low amounts of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2. GDC1 encodes a chloroplast protein with an ankyrin domain within the carboxyl terminus. It was highly expressed in Arabidopsis green tissues, and its expression was induced by photosignaling pathways. Immunoblot analysis of the GDC1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in 35S::GDC1-GFP transgenic plants with GFP antibody indicates that GDC1 is associated with an approximately 440-kD thylakoid protein complex instead of the LHCII trimer. This shows that GDC1 may play an indirect role in LHCII trimerization during grana formation. PMID:21098677

  1. Engineering validamycin production by tandem deletion of ?-butyrolactone receptor genes in Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Peng, Yao; Lu, Chenyang; Bai, Linquan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Paired homologs of ?-butyrolactone (GBL) biosynthesis gene afsA and GBL receptor gene arpA are located at different positions in genome of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008. Inactivation of afsA homologs dramatically decreased biosynthesis of validamycin, an important anti-fungal antibiotic and a critical substrate for antidiabetic drug synthesis, and the deletion of arpA homologs increased validamycin production by 26% (?shbR1) and 20% (?shbR3). By double deletion, the ?shbR1/R3 mutant showed higher transcriptional levels of adpA-H (the S. hygroscopicus ortholog of the global regulatory gene adpA) and validamycin biosynthetic genes, and validamycin production increased by 55%. Furthermore, by engineering a high-producing industrial strain via tandem deletion of GBL receptor genes, validamycin production and productivity were enhanced from 19 to 24 g/L (by 26%) and from 6.7 to 9.7 g/L(-1) d(-1) (by 45%), respectively, which was the highest ever reported. The strategy demonstrated here may be useful to engineering other Streptomyces spp. with multiple pairs of afsA-arpA homologs. PMID:25527439

  2. Identification and characterization of bovine herpesvirus type 5 glycoprotein H gene and gene products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Meyer; O. Bare; E. Thiry

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) is the causative agent of a fatal meningo-encephalitis in calves and is closely related to BHV-1 which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The gene encoding BHV-5 glycoprotein gH was sequenced. A high degree of conservation was found between BHV-1 and BHV-5 deduced gH amino acid sequences (86-4%), which is also observed for all alphaherpesvirus gH sequences.

  3. Possible involvement of the sco2127 gene product in glucose repression of actinorhodin production in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Forero, Angela; Sánchez, Mauricio; Chávez, Adán; Ruiz, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Servín-González, Luis; Sánchez, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor mutants resistant to 2-deoxyglucose are insensitive to carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Total reversion to CCR sensitivity is observed by mutant complementation with a DNA region harboring both glucose kinase glkA gene and the sco2127 gene. The sco2127 is located upstream of glkA and encodes a putative protein of 20.1 kDa. In S. coelicolor, actinorhodin production is subject to glucose repression. To explore the possible involvement of both SCO2127 and glucose kinase (Glk) in the glucose sensitivity of actinorhodin production, this effect was evaluated in a wild-type S. coelicolor A3(2) M145 strain and a sco2127 null mutant (?sco2127) derived from this wild-type strain. In comparison with strain M145, actinorhodin production by the mutant was insensitive to glucose repression. Under repressive conditions, only minor differences were observed in glucose utilization and Glk production between these strains. SCO2127 was detected mainly during the first 36 h of fermentation, just before the onset of antibiotic production, and its synthesis was not related to a particular carbon source. The glucose sensitivity of antibiotic production was restored to wild-type phenotype by transformation with an integrative plasmid containing sco2127. Our results support the hypothesis that SCO2127 is a negative regulator of actinorhodin production and suggest that the effect is independent of Glk. PMID:23051184

  4. Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits ?-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy. PMID:24051402

  5. CmPEX6, a Gene Involved in Peroxisome Biogenesis, Is Essential for Parasitism and Conidiation by the Sclerotial Parasite Coniothyrium minitans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Zhu, Wenjun; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Li, Bo; Jiang, Daohong; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong

    2013-01-01

    Coniothyrium minitans is a sclerotial parasite of the plant-pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and conidial production and parasitism are two important aspects for commercialization of this biological control agent. To understand the mechanism of conidiation and parasitism at the molecular level, we constructed a transfer DNA (tDNA) insertional library with the wild-type strain ZS-1. A conidiation-deficient mutant, ZS-1TN22803, was uncovered through screening of this library. This mutant could produce pycnidia on potato dextrose agar (PDA), but most were immature and did not bear conidia. Moreover, this mutant lost the ability to parasitize or rot the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum. Analysis of the tDNA flanking sequences revealed that a peroxisome biogenesis factor 6 (PEX6) homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, named CmPEX6, was disrupted by the tDNA insertion in this mutant. Targeted gene replacement and gene complementation tests confirmed that a null mutation of CmPEX6 was responsible for the phenotype of ZS-1TN22803. Further analysis showed that both ZS-1TN22803 and the targeted replacement mutants could not grow on PDA medium containing oleic acid, and they produced much less nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than wild-type strain ZS-1. The conidiation of ZS-1TN22803 was partially restored by adding acetyl-CoA or glyoxylic acid to the growth media. Our results suggest that fatty acid ?-oxidation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and possibly other unknown pathways in peroxisomes are involved in conidiation and parasitism by C. minitans. PMID:23563946

  6. Identification of Pantoea ananatis gene encoding membrane pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and pqqABCDEF operon essential for PQQ biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Irina G; Golubeva, Lyubov I; Kuvaeva, Tatiana M; Gak, Evgueni R; Katashkina, Joanna I; Mashko, Sergey V

    2011-05-01

    Pantoea ananatis accumulates gluconate during aerobic growth in the presence of glucose. Computer analysis of the P. ananatis SC17(0) sequenced genome revealed an ORF encoding a homologue (named gcd) of the mGDH (EC 1.1.99.17) apoenzyme from Escherichia coli and a putative pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic operon homologous to pqqABCDEF from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Construction of ?gcd and ?pqq mutants of P. ananatis confirmed the proposed functions of these genetic elements. The P. ananatis pqqABCDEF was cloned in vivo and integrated into the chromosomes of P. ananatis and E. coli according to the Dual In/Out strategy. Introduction of a second copy of pqqABCDEF to P. ananatis SC17(0) doubled the accumulation of PQQ. Integration of the operon into E. coli MG1655?ptsG?manXY restored the growth of bacteria on glucose. The obtained data show the essential role of pqqABCDEF in PQQ biosynthesis in P. ananatis and E. coli. We propose that the cloned operon could be useful for an efficient phosphoenolpyruvate-independent glucose consumption pathway due to glucose oxidation and construction of E. coli strains with the advantage of phosphoenolpyruvate-derived metabolite production. PMID:21306430

  7. Inhibitory effect of eugenol on aflatoxin B1 production in Aspergillus parasiticus by downregulating the expression of major genes in the toxin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Allameh, Abdolamir; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of grains and agro-products is a serious food safety issue and a significant economic concern worldwide. In the present study, the effects of eugenol on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production were studied in relation to the expression of some essential genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The fungus was cultured in presence of serial two-fold concentrations of eugenol (15.62-500 ?g mL(-1)) for 3 days at 28 °C. Mycelia dry weight was determined as an index of fungal growth, while aflatoxin production was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes including ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR were evaluated by real-time PCR. Eugenol strongly inhibited A. parasiticus growth in the range of 19.16-95.83 % in a dose-dependent manner. Aflatoxin B1 production was also inhibited by the compound in the range of 15.07-98.0 %. The expressions of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes were significantly suppressed by eugenol at concentrations of 62.5 and 125 ?g mL(-1). These results indicate that eugenol may be considered as a good candidate to control toxigenic fungal growth and the subsequent contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities by carcinogenic aflatoxins. PMID:25896772

  8. Amino-terminal domains of c-myc and N-myc proteins mediate binding to the retinoblastoma gene product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustgi, Anil K.; Dyson, Nicholas; Bernards, Rene

    1991-08-01

    THE proteins encoded by the myc gene family are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and aberrant expression of myc proteins has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of neoplasms1. In the carboxyl terminus, myc proteins have two domains that encode a basic domain/helix-loop-helix and a leucine zipper motif, respectively. These motifs are involved both in DNA binding and in protein dimerization2-5. In addition, myc protein family members share several regions of highly conserved amino acids in their amino termini that are essential for transformation6,7. We report here that an N-terminal domain present in both the c-myc and N-myc proteins mediates binding to the retinoblastoma gene product, pRb. We show that the human papilloma virus E7 protein competes with c-myc for binding to pRb, indicating that these proteins share overlapping binding sites on pRb. Furthermore, a mutant Rb protein from a human tumour cell line that carried a 35-amino-acid deletion in its C terminus failed to bind to c-myc. Our results suggest that c-myc and pRb cooperate through direct binding to control cell proliferation.

  9. Efficient production of safety-enhanced Escherichia coli ghosts by tandem expression of PhiX 174 mutant gene E and staphylococcal nuclease A gene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenxing; Zhang, Yuyu; Liu, Xinli

    2015-07-01

    The application of bacterial ghosts as vaccines is limited because of their low lysis efficiency and production and the presence of pathogenic islands and/or antibiotic resistance genes within ghost preparations. To overcome these problems, a new lysis plasmid with fusion gene of mutant gene E and staphylococcal nuclease A gene (mE-L-SNA) were constructed and characterized. The new plasmid pBV-mELS could efficiently induce the genetic inactivation of Escherichia coli cultures, accompanied by the intracellular degradation of the genetic material of host cells, devoid of the presence of pathogenic islands and antibiotic resistance genes within ghost preparations. Furthermore, the lysis efficiency of the plasmid pBV-mELS was not affected by bacterial concentration and could reach 99.99995% for E. coli at late-log phase. However, when the 74-bp non-encoding region of the gene mE-L-SNA were deleted or the first T nucleotide of the gene mE-L-SNA were substituted, these resulting genes lost the function of bacteriolysis, which suggested the 74-bp region of the gene mE-L-SNA, especially the first T nucleotide, played a crucial role in enhancement of bacteriolysis. The lysis system with the gene mE-L-SNA had predominance for large-scale production of safety-enhanced bacterial ghosts. The strategy may provide a promising avenue for efficient production of safe bacterial ghost vaccines. PMID:26070687

  10. The dam replacing gene product enhances Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 viability and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Bacal, Pawel; Wasiluk, Adrian; Trybunko, Anastasiya; Adamczyk-Poplawska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Many Neisseriaceae do not exhibit Dam methyltransferase activity and, instead of the dam gene, possess drg (dam replacing gene) inserted in the leuS/dam locus. The drg locus in Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 has a lower GC-pairs content (40.5%) compared to the whole genome of N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 (52%). The gonococcal drg gene encodes a DNA endonuclease Drg, with GmeATC specificity. Disruption of drg or insertion of the dam gene in gonococcal genome changes the level of expression of genes as shown by transcriptome analysis. For the drg-deficient N. gonorrhoeae mutant, a total of 195 (8.94% of the total gene pool) genes exhibited an altered expression compared to the wt strain by at least 1.5 fold. In dam-expressing N. gonorrhoeae mutant, the expression of 240 genes (11% of total genes) was deregulated. Most of these deregulated genes were involved in translation, DNA repair, membrane biogenesis and energy production as shown by cluster of orthologous group analysis. In vivo, the inactivation of drg gene causes the decrease of the number of live neisserial cells and long lag phase of growth. The insertion of dam gene instead of drg locus restores cell viability. We have also shown that presence of the drg gene product is important for N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 in adhesion, including human epithelial cells, and biofilm formation. Biofilm produced by drg-deficient strain is formed by more dispersed cells, compared to this one formed by parental strain as shown by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. Also adherence assays show a significantly smaller biomass of formed biofilm (OD570 = 0.242 ± 0.038) for drg-deficient strain, compared to wild-type strain (OD570 = 0.378 ± 0.057). Dam-expressing gonococcal cells produce slightly weaker biofilm with cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. This strain has also a five times reduced ability for adhesion to human epithelial cells. In this context, the presence of Drg is more advantageous for N. gonorrhoeae biology than Dam presence. PMID:25566225

  11. The dam replacing gene product enhances Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 viability and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Bacal, Pawel; Wasiluk, Adrian; Trybunko, Anastasiya; Adamczyk-Poplawska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Many Neisseriaceae do not exhibit Dam methyltransferase activity and, instead of the dam gene, possess drg (dam replacing gene) inserted in the leuS/dam locus. The drg locus in Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 has a lower GC-pairs content (40.5%) compared to the whole genome of N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 (52%). The gonococcal drg gene encodes a DNA endonuclease Drg, with GmeATC specificity. Disruption of drg or insertion of the dam gene in gonococcal genome changes the level of expression of genes as shown by transcriptome analysis. For the drg-deficient N. gonorrhoeae mutant, a total of 195 (8.94% of the total gene pool) genes exhibited an altered expression compared to the wt strain by at least 1.5 fold. In dam-expressing N. gonorrhoeae mutant, the expression of 240 genes (11% of total genes) was deregulated. Most of these deregulated genes were involved in translation, DNA repair, membrane biogenesis and energy production as shown by cluster of orthologous group analysis. In vivo, the inactivation of drg gene causes the decrease of the number of live neisserial cells and long lag phase of growth. The insertion of dam gene instead of drg locus restores cell viability. We have also shown that presence of the drg gene product is important for N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 in adhesion, including human epithelial cells, and biofilm formation. Biofilm produced by drg-deficient strain is formed by more dispersed cells, compared to this one formed by parental strain as shown by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. Also adherence assays show a significantly smaller biomass of formed biofilm (OD570 = 0.242 ± 0.038) for drg-deficient strain, compared to wild-type strain (OD570 = 0.378 ± 0.057). Dam-expressing gonococcal cells produce slightly weaker biofilm with cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. This strain has also a five times reduced ability for adhesion to human epithelial cells. In this context, the presence of Drg is more advantageous for N. gonorrhoeae biology than Dam presence. PMID:25566225

  12. Terminal amino acid sequences and proteolytic cleavage sites of mouse mammary tumor virus env gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L E; Sowder, R; Smythers, G; Oroszlan, S

    1983-01-01

    The mature envelope glycoproteins of mouse mammary tumor virus (gp52 and gp36) were isolated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of gp36 was determined for 28 residues. The C-terminal amino acid sequences of gp52 and gp36 were determined by carboxypeptidase digestion. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of gp52 has been reported previously (L. O. Arthur et al., J. Virol. 41:414-422, 1982). These data were aligned with the predicted amino acid sequence of the env gene product obtained by translation of the DNA sequence (S. M. S. Redmond and C. Dickson, Eur. Mol. Biol. Org. J. 2:125-131, 1983). The amino acid sequences of the mature viral proteins were in agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence of the env gene product over the regions of alignment. This alignment showed the sites of proteolytic cleavages of the env gene product leading to the mature viral envelope glycoproteins. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of gp52 starts at residue 99 of the predicted structure indicating proteolytic cleavage of a signal peptide. A dipeptide (Lys-Arg) is excised between the C-terminus of gp52 and the N-terminus of gp36. The C-terminal amino acid sequence of gp36 is identical to the sequence predicted by the codons immediately preceding the termination codon for the env gene product. The data show that there is no proteolytic processing at the C-terminal of the murine mammary tumor virus env gene product and that the env gene coding region extends into the long terminal repeat. Images PMID:6310154

  13. Essential thrombocythemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean B Bričre

    2007-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) characterized by a sustained elevation of platelet number with a tendency for thrombosis and hemorrhage. The prevalence in the general population is approximately 30\\/100,000. The median age at diagnosis is 65 to 70 years, but the disease may occur at any age. The female to male ratio is about 2:1. The

  14. [DNA shuffling of ptr resistance gene leads to improved pristinamycin production in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis].

    PubMed

    Jin, Q C; Shen, N; Yin, H; Yang, Y; Jin, Z H

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance pristinamycin production, six homologous ptr genes from high pristinamycin-producing strains of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis were selected for DNA shuffling, and the reason for the altered activities of the shuffled ptr gene was speculated by sequence alignment. The highest pristinamycin yield of 0.12 g/L was achieved with a sixfold increase in strain sps16 obtained by DNA shuffling when compared to ancestral strain ATCC 25486. Sequence analysis of theptr gene variant from the sps16 strain indicated that five mutations (H16P, N63D, T75P, Q107R, and P435A) were introduced into the gene, two of them (N63D and T75P) located in the second of the 14 transmembrane segments (TMS). Prediction of the secondary structure of the gene product indicated that mutations at the N-terminus resulted in the shortening of the corresponding ?-helix, while the mutation at the C-terminus lengthened the helix. In conclusion, combination of DNA shuffling with genome shuffling is an effective breeding strategy for increasing the antibiotic yield by directed evolution of target genes. PMID:26065256

  15. The Minute Virus of Mice NS2 proteins are not essential for productive infection of embryonic murine cells in utero.

    PubMed

    Tal, Saar; Mincberg, Michal; Rostovsky, Irina; Rommelaere, Jean; Salome, Nathali; Davis, Claytus

    2014-11-01

    The P4 promoter of the autonomous parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) drives the production of its non-structural proteins, NS1 and NS2. The NS2 isoforms are without enzymatic activity but interact with cellular proteins. While NS2 is crucial to the viral life cycle in cultured murine cells, NS2-null mutant virus productively infects transformed host cells of other species. In the mouse, sensitivity to MVM infection is age dependent, exhibiting limited subclinical infections in adults, but sustained and potentially lethal infection in embryos. We therefore questioned whether the species-dependent requirement for NS2 function in vitro would be retained in utero. We report here that it is not. NS2-null mutant MVMp is capable of mounting a productive, albeit much reduced, infection of normal embryonic mouse cells in vivo. Based on the data, we hypothesize that NS2 may bear an as-yet undescribed immunosuppressive function. PMID:25310499

  16. The FRIABLE1 Gene Product Affects Cell Adhesion in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Neumetzler, Lutz; Humphrey, Tania; Lumba, Shelley; Snyder, Stephen; Yeats, Trevor H.; Usadel, Björn; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Patel, Jignasha; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Persson, Staffan; Bonetta, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1), was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246). Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion. PMID:22916179

  17. Gene protein products of SA11 simian rotavirus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Arias, C F; López, S; Espejo, R T

    1982-01-01

    When MA104 cells were infected with SA11 rotavirus, 12 protein classes, absent in mock-infected cells, could be distinguished by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At least two of these proteins were glycosylated, and their synthesis could be blocked with tunicamycin. The oligosaccharides of both glycoproteins were cleaved by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, suggesting that they were residues of the "high-mannose" type. Of the 12 viral polypeptides observed in infected cells, 1 was probably the apoprotein of one of these glycoproteins; 5, including 1 glycoprotein, were structural components of the virions, whereas the other 6, including a second and possibly third glycoprotein, were nonstructural viral proteins. When the 11 double-stranded RNA genome segments of SA11 were translated, after denaturation, in an RNA-dependent cell-free translation system, at least 11 different polypeptides were synthesized. Ten of these polypeptides had electrophoretic migration patterns equal to those of viral proteins observed in tunicamycin-treated infected cells. Nine of the 11 double-stranded RNA genome segments were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were translated individually. Two were not resolved from each other and therefore were translated together. Correlation of each synthesized polypeptide with an individual RNA segment allowed us to make a probable gene-coding assignment for the different SA11 genome segments. Images PMID:6283128

  18. Regulatory structures for gene therapy medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Klug, Bettina; Celis, Patrick; Carr, Melanie; Reinhardt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the complexity and technical specificity of advanced therapy medicinal products: (gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products), a dedicated European regulatory framework was needed. Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, the "ATMP Regulation" provides tailored regulatory principles for the evaluation and authorization of these innovative medicines. The majority of gene or cell therapy product development is carried out by academia, hospitals, and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, acknowledging the particular needs of these types of sponsors, the legislation also provides incentives for product development tailored to them. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and, in particular, its Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) provide a variety of opportunities for early interaction with developers of ATMPs to enable them to have early regulatory and scientific input. An important tool to promote innovation and the development of new medicinal products by micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises is the EMA's SME initiative launched in December 2005 to offer financial and administrative assistance to smaller companies. The European legislation also foresees the involvement of stakeholders, such as patient organizations, in the development of new medicines. Considering that gene therapy medicinal products are developed in many cases for treatment of rare diseases often of monogenic origin, the involvement of patient organizations, which focus on rare diseases and genetic and congenital disorders, is fruitful. Two such organizations are represented in the CAT. Research networks play another important role in the development of gene therapy medicinal products. The European Commission is funding such networks through the EU Sixth Framework Program. PMID:22365782

  19. Lavender essential oil: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather M. A. Cavanagh; Jenny M. Wilkinson

    2005-01-01

    Lavender essential oil is popular as a complementary medicine in its own right and as an additive to many over the counter complementary medicine and cosmetic products ' \\\\ Indeed, products derived from the popular garden herb Lavender (Lavandula spp.) have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more 'recent ' addition, the essential oils derived from

  20. Preliminary validation of Albedo, FAPAR and LAI Essential Climate Variables products derived from PROBA-V observations in the Copernicus Global Land Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Fernando; Sanchez, Jorge; Lacaze, Roselyne; Smets, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    From 1st January 2013, the Copernicus Global Land Service is operational, providing in near real time a set of biophysical variables over the globe, including Surface Albedo (SA), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) Essential Climate Variables among other variables such as the Fraction of Vegetation Cover (FCover) are delivered at 1 km resolution and 10-days frequency. These ECVs are also key inputs for land surface applications such as agriculture monitoring, yield estimate, food security, environmental monitoring (e.g. desertification, drought). The first version of these Copernicus Global Land products were based on SPOT/VGT observations (1999-2004). The continuity of the production is currently based on PROBA-V 1 km observations, and the evolution of the services will provide enhanced spatial resolution (333m). This study presents the preliminary validation results of PROBA-V Albedo, FAPAR, LAI and FCover 1 km products, focused on the consistency with SPOT/VGT GEOV1 products during the overlap period (November 2013 - May 2014) and including intercomparison with MODIS C5 equivalent products. The procedure follows as much as possible guidelines and metrics defined by the Land Product Validation (LPV) group of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) for the validation of satellite-derived land products and propose additional metrics to quantify spatial and temporal consistency among the several products. Several criteria of performance were evaluated including product completeness, spatial consistency, temporal consistency, inter-annual precision and accuracy. Inter-comparison with reference satellite products (SPOT/VGT GEOV1 and MODIS C5) are presented over a network of sites (BELMANIP-2). The accuracy of PROBA-V LAI and FAPAR products was evaluated against a number of agricultural sites using the ImagineS database, whereas for Albedo few homogeneous sites with available ground data were considered coming from SURFRAD and EFDC networks. The ground data was collected, compiled or processed in the context of the FP7 ImagineS project in support of the evolution of Copernicus Land Service. Our results demonstrate that PROBA-V GEOV1 LAI and FAPAR products were found spatially and temporally consistent with similar products (SPOT/VGT, MODISC5), and good agreement with limited ground truth data. Albedo products are currently under evaluation, and preliminary results will be shown at the conference.

  1. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in staphylococci isolated from ready-to-eat meat products.

    PubMed

    Podkowik, M; Bystro?, J; Bania, J

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of mecA, blaZ, tetO/K/M, ermA/B/C, aph, and vanA/B/C/D genes conferring resistance to oxacillin, penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin was investigated in 65 staphylococcal isolates belonging to twelve species obtained from ready-to-eat porcine, bovine, and chicken products. All coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) and S. aureus isolates harbored at least one antibiotic resistance gene. None of the S. aureus possessed more than three genes, while 25% of the CNS isolates harbored at least four genes encoding resistance to clinically used antibiotics. In 15 CNS isolates the mecA gene was detected, while all S. aureus isolates were mecA-negative. We demonstrate that in ready-to-eat food the frequency of CNS harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes is higher than that of multiple resistant S. aureus, meaning that food can be considered a reservoir of bacteria containing genes potentially contributing to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in staphylococci. PMID:22844699

  2. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus. PMID:25962871

  3. Improving the safety of cell therapy products by suicide gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin S.; Lamb, Lawrence S.; Goldman, Frederick; Di Stasi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy can involve donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the administration of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte expanded ex-vivo, or more recently the use of T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells. However, cellular therapies can pose significant risks, including graft-vs.-host-disease and other on and off-target effects, and therefore strategies need to be implemented to permanently reverse any sign of toxicity. A suicide gene is a genetically encoded molecule that allows selective destruction of adoptively transferred cells. Suicide gene addition to cellular therapeutic products can lead to selective ablation of gene-modified cells, preventing collateral damage to contiguous cells and/or tissues. The “ideal” suicide gene would ensure the safety of gene modified cellular applications by granting irreversible elimination of “all” and “only” the cells responsible for the unwanted toxicity. This review presents the suicide gene safety systems reported to date, with a focus on the state-of-the-art and potential applications regarding two of the most extensively validated suicide genes, including the clinical setting: herpes-simplex-thymidine-kinase and inducible-caspase-9. PMID:25505885

  4. A recyclable Candida albicans URA3 cassette for PCR product-directed gene disruptions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R B; Davis, D; Enloe, B M; Mitchell, A P

    2000-01-15

    For some time, gene disruptions in Candida albicans have been made with the hisG-URA3-hisG ('Ura-blaster') cassette, which can be re-used in successive transformations of a single strain after homologous excision of URA3. However, the hisG repeats are too large for efficient PCR amplification of the entire cassette, so it cannot be used for PCR product-directed gene disruptions. We describe here a gene disruption cassette, URA3-dpl200, with 200 bp flanking repeats that permit efficient PCR amplification. After transformation and integration to produce both arg5::URA3-dpl200 and rim101::URA3-dpl200 alleles, we find that arg5::dpl200 and rim101::dpl200 segregants, respectively, can be obtained. We have used the cassette to create rim101::dpl200/rim101::URA3-dpl200 mutants exclusively through PCR product-directed disruption. PMID:10620776

  5. ALTERING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GROWTH, MORPHOGENESIS AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION IN MENTHA SPICATA L. SHOOTS IN VITRO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Altering the physical environment profoundly alters the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (leave, root and shoot numbers) and secondary metabolism [i.e., production of the monoterpene (-)-carvone] of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) shoots cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium. The type of physica...

  6. The Nuclear PolyA-Binding Protein Nab2p Is Essential for mRNA Production.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Manfred; Olszewski, Pawel; Pelechano, Vicent; Gupta, Ishaan; Steinmetz, Lars M; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2015-07-01

    Polyadenylation of mRNA is a key step in eukaryotic gene expression. However, despite the major impact of poly(A) tails on mRNA metabolism, the precise roles of poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) in nuclear mRNA biogenesis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that rapid nuclear depletion of the S. cerevisiae PABP Nab2p leads to a global loss of cellular mRNA, but not of RNA lacking poly(A) tails. Disappearance of mRNA is a nuclear event, but not due to decreased transcription. Instead, the absence of Nab2p results in robust nuclear mRNA decay by the ribonucleolytic RNA exosome in a polyadenylation-dependent process. We conclude that Nab2p is required to protect early mRNA and therefore constitutes a crucial nuclear mRNA biogenesis factor. PMID:26119729

  7. O-linked glycosylation of retroviral envelope gene products

    SciTech Connect

    Pinter, A.; Honnen, W.J. (Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York Inc., NY (USA))

    1988-03-01

    Treatment of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine-labeled Friend mink cell focus-forming virus (FrMCF) gp70 with excess peptide:N-glycanase F (PNGase F) resulted in removal of the expected seven N-linked oligosaccharide chains; however, approximately 10% of the glucosamine label was retained in the resulting 49,000-M{sub r} (49K) product. For ({sup 3}H)mannose-labeled gp70, similar treatment led to removal of all the carbohydrate label from the protein. Prior digestion of the PNGase F-treated gp70 with neuraminidase resulted in an addition size shift, and treatment with O-glycanase led to the removal of almost all of the PNGase F-resistant sugars. These results indicate that gp70 possesses sialic acid-containing O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of intracellular env precursors demonstrated that O-linked sugars were present in gPr90{sup env}, the polyprotein intermediate which contains complex sugars, but not in the primary translation product, gPr80{sup env}, and proteolytic digestion studies allowed localization of the O-linked carbohydrates to a 10K region near the center of the gp70 molecule. similar substituents were detected on the gp70s of ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses and two subgroups of feline leukemia virus, indicting that O-linked glycosylation is a conserved feature of retroviral env proteins.

  8. O-linked glycosylation of retroviral envelope gene products.

    PubMed

    Pinter, A; Honnen, W J

    1988-03-01

    Treatment of [3H]glucosamine-labeled Friend mink cell focus-forming virus (FrMCF) gp70 with excess peptide:N-glycanase F (PNGase F) resulted in removal of the expected seven N-linked oligosaccharide chains; however, approximately 10% of the glucosamine label was retained in the resulting 49,000-Mr (49K) product. For [3H]mannose-labeled gp70, similar treatment led to removal of all the carbohydrate label from the protein. Prior digestion of the PNGase F-treated gp70 with neuraminidase resulted in an additional size shift, and treatment with O-glycanase led to the removal of almost all of the PNGase F-resistant sugars. These results indicate that gp70 possesses sialic acid-containing O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of intracellular env precursors demonstrated that O-linked sugars were present in gPr90env, the polyprotein intermediate which contains complex sugars, but not in the primary translation product, gPr80env, and proteolytic digestion studies allowed localization of the O-linked carbohydrates to a 10K region near the center of the gp70 molecule. Similar substituents were detected on the gp70s of ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses and two subgroups of feline leukemia virus, indicating that O-linked glycosylation is a conserved feature of retroviral env proteins. PMID:2828650

  9. The expression of late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2) gene product in human brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Oka; Yukiko Kurachi; Masashi Mizuguchi; Masaharu Hayashi; Sachio Takashima

    1998-01-01

    We raised polyclonal antibodies against a gene product responsible for late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2). By Western blotting, all three antisera recognized the CLN2 protein at approximately 49 kDa in human brain homogenates. Immunohistochemistry using the antisera demonstrated the granular labelling in the cytoplasm of cerebral neurons and glial cells. The immunoreactivity on Western blots was absent from the

  10. Association between a polymorphism of the ?-lactalbumin gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Dong, C H

    2013-01-01

    The traits particularly important for milk production include milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, and the somatic cell score. Alpha-lactalbumin (?-LA) is an important whey protein of cow milk, and is also present in the milk of many other mammalian species. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of the ?-LA gene and their relationship to milk production traits (milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, and somatic cell score) in Chinese Holstein cows. The goal of this study was to contribute further molecular genetic information related to dairy cattle, to determine the molecular markers that are most closely linked with milk production traits, and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of economically relevant traits in cows. Fluorescence-based conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing, and ligation detection reaction techniques were used to analyze genetic variations of the ?-LA gene (5'-UTR, exons 1, 2, 3, 4, and 3'-UTR) in 923 Chinese Holstein cows. One novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), ?-LA2516, was identified in exon 4 of the ?-LA gene. Allele frequencies were as follows: T 0.674, C 0.326. Association analysis revealed that ?-LA2516 was not associated with milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, or somatic cell score (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that the SNP ?-LA2516 in the ?-LA gene likely does not have potential as a molecular marker for milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:24065678

  11. Inserted H-2 gene membrane products mediate immune response phenotype of antigen-presenting cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aya Jakobovits; Ayala Frenkel; Nathan Sharon; Irun R. Cohen

    1981-01-01

    Soluble protein antigens do not stimulate helper or effector T lymphocytes unless they have first been processed and exposed to the T lymphocytes by appropriate antigen-presenting cells. This antigen presentation was found to be controlled by products of genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), designated H-2 in the mouse. Efficient antigen presentation to T lymphocytes is obtained only when

  12. Role of nitric oxide and flavohemoglobin homolo genes in Aspergillus nidulans sexual development and mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavohemoglobins are widely distributed proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, conferring resistance against nitrosative stress. In the present study we investigated the role of two flavohemoglobin homologous genes, fhbA and fhbB, in morphogenesis and in the production of the mycotox...

  13. Regulation of E. coli SOS mutagenesis by dimeric intrinsically disordered umuD gene products

    E-print Network

    Simon, Sharotka M. (Sharotka Maria)

    2007-01-01

    Products of the umuD gene in E. coli are involved in regulating the timing of error-free DNA repair processes and mutagenic translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) during the SOS response to DNA damage. Homodimeric UmuD2 is ...

  14. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  15. Ethanol production by Escherichia coli strains co-expressing Zymomonas PDC and ADH genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Conway, Tyrrell (Lincoln, NE); Alterthum, Flavio (Gainesville, FL)

    1991-01-01

    A novel operon and plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase activities of Zymomonas mobilis are described. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of microorganisms or eukaryotic cells and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of microorganisms or cells.

  16. The Gene bldA, a Regulator of Morphological Differentiation and Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Stefanie; Bechthold, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Streptomyces species are well known for their particular features of morphological differentiation. On solid agar, a mold-like aerial mycelium is formed and spores are produced, in which the bld genes play a crucial role. In S. coelicolor, mutations in one specific bld gene called bldA led to a "naked" phenotype lacking aerial hyphae and spores. This peculiar behavior became a major interest for scientific research in the past and it was revealed that bldA is coding for a unique tRNA able to translate a UUA codon into the amino acid leucine. UUA codons are a very rare property of G?+?C-rich Streptomyces genomes. The impact of bldA on morphology can in parts be attributed to the regulatory effect of bldA on the translational level, because TTA-containing genes can only be translated into their corresponding protein in the presence of a fully functioning bldA gene. In addition to the visible effect of bldA expression on the phenotype of S. coelicolor, bldA mutants were also deficient in antibiotic production. This led to the assumption that the role of bldA must exceed translational control. Many TTA-containing genes are coding for transcriptional regulators which are activating or repressing the transcription of many more genes. Proteomics and transcriptomics are two powerful methods for identifying bldA target genes and it was possible to assign also post-translational regulation to bldA. This review wants to give a short overview on the importance of bldA as a regulator of morphological differentiation and antibiotic production by switching on "silent" gene clusters in Streptomyces. PMID:25917027

  17. The Product of a Developmental Gene, crgA, That Coordinates Reproductive Growth in Streptomyces Belongs to a Novel Family of Small Actinomycete-Specific Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Del Sol, Ricardo; Pitman, Andrew; Herron, Paul; Dyson, Paul

    2003-01-01

    On solid media, the reproductive growth of Streptomyces involves antibiotic biosynthesis coincident with the erection of filamentous aerial hyphae. Following cessation of growth of an aerial hypha, multiple septation occurs at the tip to form a chain of unigenomic spores. A gene, crgA, that coordinates several aspects of this reproductive growth is described. The gene product is representative of a well-conserved family of small actinomycete proteins with two C-terminal hydrophobic-potential membrane-spanning segments. In Streptomyces avermitilis, crgA is required for sporulation, and inactivation of the gene abolished most sporulation septation in aerial hyphae. Disruption of the orthologous gene in Streptomyces coelicolor indicates that whereas CrgA is not essential for sporulation in this species, during growth on glucose-containing media, it influences the timing of the onset of reproductive growth, with precocious erection of aerial hyphae and antibiotic production by the mutant. Moreover, CrgA subsequently acts to inhibit sporulation septation prior to growth arrest of aerial hyphae. Overexpression of CrgA in S. coelicolor, uncoupling any nutritional and growth phase-dependent regulation, results in growth of nonseptated aerial hyphae on all media tested, consistent with a role for the protein in inhibiting sporulation septation. PMID:14594842

  18. Novel genes induce uterine receptivity: the characterization of a specific gene product in the ewe uterus 

    E-print Network

    De Graauw, Jennifer Ann

    2013-02-22

    survive in a Day 6 uterus and vice-versa. One product, DD5, was found specific to a Day 6 uterus. A partial cDNA fragment of approximately 230 bases was isolated. Northern analysis revealed that DD5 is approximately 900 bases long. A complementary DNA...

  19. Development of Ecogenomic Sensors for Remote Detection of Marine Microbes, Their Genes and Gene Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholin, C.; Preston, C.; Harris, A.; Birch, J.; Marin, R.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Everlove, C.; Makarewicz, A.; Riot, V.; Hadley, D.; Benett, W.; Dzenitis, J.

    2008-12-01

    An internet search using the phrase "ecogenomic sensor" will return numerous references that speak broadly to the idea of detecting molecular markers indicative of specific organisms, genes or other biomarkers within an environmental context. However, a strict and unified definition of "ecogenomic sensor" is lacking and the phrase may be used for laboratory-based tools and techniques as well as semi or fully autonomous systems that can be deployed outside of laboratory. We are exploring development of an ecogenomic sensor from the perspective of a field-portable device applied towards oceanographic research and water quality monitoring. The device is known as the Environmental Sample Processor, or ESP. The ESP employs wet chemistry molecular analytical techniques to autonomously assess the presence and abundance of specific organisms, their genes and/or metabolites in near real-time. Current detection chemistries rely on low- density DNA probe and protein arrays. This presentation will emphasize results from 2007-8 field trials when the ESP was moored in Monterey Bay, CA, as well as current engineering activities for improving analytical capacity of the instrument. Changes in microbial community structure at the rRNA level were observed remotely in accordance with changing chemical and physical oceanographic conditions. Current developments include incorporation of a reusable solid phase extraction column for purifying nucleic acids and a 4-channel real-time PCR module. Users can configure this system to support a variety of PCR master mixes, primer/probe combinations and control templates. An update on progress towards fielding a PCR- enabled ESP will be given along with an outline of plans for its use in coastal and oligotrophic oceanic regimes.

  20. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner. PMID:24821800

  1. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production

    PubMed Central

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore “linked in repulsion.” Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner. PMID:24821800

  2. Intercellular Communication in Helicobacter pylori: luxS Is Essential for the Production of an Extracellular Signaling Molecule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK H. FORSYTH

    2000-01-01

    Individual bacteria of numerous species can communicate and coordinate their actions via the production, release, and detection of extracellular signaling molecules. In this study, we used the Vibrio harveyi lumines- cence bioassay to determine whether Helicobacter pylori produces such a factor. Cell-free conditioned media from H. pylori strains 60190 and 26695 each induced >100-fold-greater luminescence in V. harveyi than did

  3. MAP-Kinase Regulated Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Activity Is Essential for Production of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Particles

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Nicolas; Fischl, Wolfgang; Hueging, Kathrin; Bankwitz, Dorothea; Frentzen, Anne; Haid, Sibylle; Gentzsch, Juliane; Kaderali, Lars; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected around 160 million individuals. Current therapies have limited efficacy and are fraught with side effects. To identify cellular HCV dependency factors, possible therapeutic targets, we manipulated signaling cascades with pathway-specific inhibitors. Using this approach we identified the MAPK/ERK regulated, cytosolic, calcium-dependent, group IVA phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A) as a novel HCV dependency factor. Inhibition of PLA2G4A activity reduced core protein abundance at lipid droplets, core envelopment and secretion of particles. Moreover, released particles displayed aberrant protein composition and were 100-fold less infectious. Exogenous addition of arachidonic acid, the cleavage product of PLA2G4A-catalyzed lipolysis, but not other related poly-unsaturated fatty acids restored infectivity. Strikingly, production of infectious Dengue virus, a relative of HCV, was also dependent on PLA2G4A. These results highlight previously unrecognized parallels in the assembly pathways of these human pathogens, and define PLA2G4A-dependent lipolysis as crucial prerequisite for production of highly infectious viral progeny. PMID:22911431

  4. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion. PMID:20377912

  5. The SKP1-Like Gene Family of Arabidopsis Exhibits a High Degree of Differential Gene Expression and Gene Product Interaction during Development

    PubMed Central

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H.; Soulliere, Danielle M.; Dhaliwal, Rajdeep K.; Sareen, Madhulika; Crosby, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes several families of polypeptides that are known or predicted to participate in the formation of the SCF-class of E3-ubiquitin ligase complexes. One such gene family encodes the Skp1-like class of polypeptide subunits, where 21 genes have been identified and are known to be expressed in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis based on deduced polypeptide sequence organizes the family of ASK proteins into 7 clades. The complexity of the ASK gene family, together with the close structural similarity among its members raises the prospect of significant functional redundancy among select paralogs. We have assessed the potential for functional redundancy within the ASK gene family by analyzing an expanded set of criteria that define redundancy with higher resolution. The criteria used include quantitative expression of locus-specific transcripts using qRT-PCR, assessment of the sub-cellular localization of individual ASK:YFP auto-fluorescent fusion proteins expressed in vivo as well as the in planta assessment of individual ASK-F-Box protein interactions using bimolecular fluorescent complementation techniques in combination with confocal imagery in live cells. The results indicate significant functional divergence of steady state transcript abundance and protein-protein interaction specificity involving ASK proteins in a pattern that is poorly predicted by sequence-based phylogeny. The information emerging from this and related studies will prove important for defining the functional intersection of expression, localization and gene product interaction that better predicts the formation of discrete SCF complexes, as a prelude to investigating their molecular mode of action. PMID:23226441

  6. The Candida albicans KRE9 Gene is required for Cell Wall beta -1,6-glucan Synthesis and is Essential for Growth on Glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Lussier; Anne-Marie Sdicu; Serge Shahinian; Howard Bussey

    1998-01-01

    We have isolated CaKRE9, a gene from Candida albicans, that is a functional homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRE9 gene involved in beta -1,6-glucan synthesis. Disruption of the CaKRE9 gene in C. albicans shows that CaKre9p is required for the synthesis or assembly of this fungal polymer. Homozygous null disruptants of CaKRE9 grow poorly on galactose and fail to form

  7. Modern plant metabolomics: advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Lloyd W; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-28

    Covering: 2000 to 2014Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This review covers the approximate period of 2000 to 2014, and highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR for metabolite identifications, and X-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine. PMID:25342293

  8. Essential Metabolites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Their Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Gyanu; Freundlich, Joel S.; Ekins, Sean; Wickramaratne, Niluka; Nolan, Scott T.; Bishai, William R.

    2011-01-01

    An organism requires a range of biomolecules for its growth. By definition, these are essential molecules which constitute the basic metabolic requirements of an organism. A small organic molecule with chemical similarity to that of an essential metabolite may bind to the enzyme that catalyzes its production and inhibit it, likely resulting in the stasis or death of the organism. Here, we report a high-throughput approach for identifying essential metabolites of an organism using genetic and biochemical approaches and then implement computational approaches to identify metabolite mimics. We generated and genotyped 5,126 Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants and performed a statistical analysis to determine putative essential genes. The essential molecules of M. tuberculosis were classified as products of enzymes that are encoded by genes in this list. Although incomplete, as many enzymes of M. tuberculosis have yet to be identified and characterized, this is the first report of a large number of essential molecules of the organism. We identified essential metabolites of three distinct metabolic pathways in M. tuberculosis and selected molecules with chemical similarity using cheminformatics strategies that illustrate a variety of different pharmacophores. Our approach is aimed at systematic identification of essential molecules and their mimics as a blueprint for development of effective chemical probes of M. tuberculosis metabolism, with the ultimate goal of seeking drugs that can kill this pathogen. As an illustration of this approach, we report that compounds JFD01307SC and l-methionine-S-sulfoximine, which share chemical similarity with an essential molecule of M. tuberculosis, inhibited the growth of this organism at micromolar concentrations. PMID:21285434

  9. Production of 2-ketoisocaproate with Corynebacterium glutamicum strains devoid of plasmids and heterologous genes

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Michael; Haas, Sabine; Polen, Tino; van Ooyen, Jan; Bott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    2-Ketoisocaproate (KIC), the last intermediate in l-leucine biosynthesis, has various medical and industrial applications. After deletion of the ilvE gene for transaminase B in l-leucine production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, KIC became the major product, however, the strains were auxotrophic for l-isoleucine. To avoid auxotrophy, reduction of IlvE activity by exchanging the ATG start codon of ilvE by GTG was tested instead of an ilvE deletion. The resulting strains were indeed able to grow in glucose minimal medium without amino acid supplementation, but at the cost of lowered growth rates and KIC production parameters. The best production performance was obtained with strain MV-KICF1, which carried besides the ilvE start codon exchange three copies of a gene for a feedback-resistant 2-isopropylmalate synthase, one copy of a gene for a feedback-resistant acetohydroxyacid synthase and deletions of ltbR and iolR encoding transcriptional regulators. In the presence of 1?mM l-isoleucine, MV-KICF1 accumulated 47?mM KIC (6.1?g?l?1) with a yield of 0.20?mol/mol glucose and a volumetric productivity of 1.41?mmol?KIC?l?1?h?1. Since MV-KICF1 is plasmid free and lacks heterologous genes, it is an interesting strain for industrial application and as platform for the production of KIC-derived compounds, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol. PMID:25488800

  10. Production of 2-ketoisocaproate with Corynebacterium glutamicum strains devoid of plasmids and heterologous genes.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Michael; Haas, Sabine; Polen, Tino; van Ooyen, Jan; Bott, Michael

    2015-03-01

    2-Ketoisocaproate (KIC), the last intermediate in l-leucine biosynthesis, has various medical and industrial applications. After deletion of the ilvE gene for transaminase B in l-leucine production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, KIC became the major product, however, the strains were auxotrophic for l-isoleucine. To avoid auxotrophy, reduction of IlvE activity by exchanging the ATG start codon of ilvE by GTG was tested instead of an ilvE deletion. The resulting strains were indeed able to grow in glucose minimal medium without amino acid supplementation, but at the cost of lowered growth rates and KIC production parameters. The best production performance was obtained with strain MV-KICF1, which carried besides the ilvE start codon exchange three copies of a gene for a feedback-resistant 2-isopropylmalate synthase, one copy of a gene for a feedback-resistant acetohydroxyacid synthase and deletions of ltbR and iolR encoding transcriptional regulators. In the presence of 1?mM l-isoleucine, MV-KICF1 accumulated 47?mM KIC (6.1?g?l(-1)) with a yield of 0.20?mol/mol glucose and a volumetric productivity of 1.41?mmol?KIC?l(-1) ?h(-1). Since MV-KICF1 is plasmid free and lacks heterologous genes, it is an interesting strain for industrial application and as platform for the production of KIC-derived compounds, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol. PMID:25488800

  11. Use of Staby(®) technology for development and production of DNA vaccines free of antibiotic resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Reschner, Anca; Scohy, Sophie; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Daukandt, Marc; Jacques, Céline; Michel, Benjamin; Nauwynck, Hans; Xhonneux, Florence; Préat, Véronique; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Szpirer, Cédric

    2013-10-01

    The appearance of new viruses and the cost of developing certain vaccines require that new vaccination strategies now have to be developed. DNA vaccination seems to be a particularly promising method. For this application, plasmid DNA is injected into the subject (man or animal). This plasmid DNA encodes an antigen that will be expressed by the cells of the subject. In addition to the antigen, the plasmid also encodes a resistance to an antibiotic, which is used during the construction and production steps of the plasmid. However, regulatory agencies (FDA, USDA and EMA) recommend to avoid the use of antibiotics resistance genes. Delphi Genetics developed the Staby(®) technology to replace the antibiotic-resistance gene by a selection system that relies on two bacterial genes. These genes are small in size (approximately 200 to 300 bases each) and consequently encode two small proteins. They are naturally present in the genomes of bacteria and on plasmids. The technology is already used successfully for production of recombinant proteins to achieve higher yields and without the need of antibiotics. In the field of DNA vaccines, we have now the first data validating the innocuousness of this Staby(®) technology for eukaryotic cells and the feasibility of an industrial production of an antibiotic-free DNA vaccine. Moreover, as a proof of concept, mice have been successfully vaccinated with our antibiotic-free DNA vaccine against a deadly disease, pseudorabies (induced by Suid herpesvirus-1). PMID:24051431

  12. Major histocompatibility complex gene product expression on pancreatic beta cells in acutely diabetic BB rats.

    PubMed Central

    Issa-Chergui, B.; Yale, J. F.; Vigeant, C.; Seemayer, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus was induced in young, diabetes-prone BB rats by the passive transfer of concanavalin A-activated T lymphocytes from the spleens of acutely diabetic BB rats. The pancreas of the recipients was examined 1-2 days after the onset of glycosuria by immunocytochemistry by means of monoclonal antibodies for determining whether 1) Class I and/or II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products were expressed on beta cells and 2) the mononuclear cell infiltrates were represented by T cells. Marked expression of Class I MHC gene products was evident on beta cells. In contrast, Class II MHC gene products were not identified on normal-appearing beta cells. Dendritic cells dispersed throughout the acinar and interstitial pancreas were markedly increased in number. The mononuclear cell infiltrate contained few cells (1-15%) recognized by a pan-T cell marker. Although it is possible that this passive transfer model might differ considerably from the spontaneously occurring diabetic state in the rat, this study suggests that 1) Class I, rather than Class II, MHC gene expression may be pivotal to beta-cell injury in diabetic rats, and 2) non-T cells may constitute an effector cell population central to beta-cell necrosis in Type I diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3276208

  13. Unraveling the essential role in conjugation of the Tra protein of Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg S. Pettis; Stanley N. Cohen

    2001-01-01

    Plasmid pIJ101 from Streptomyces lividans encodes a single gene, tra, that is essential for both plasmid transfer and mobilization of chromosomes during mating. The tra gene product (Tra) is a membrane protein, a portion of which shows similarity to transfer proteins of other streptomycete plasmids as well as additional bacterial chromosome partitioning proteins. This paper reviews past and present work

  14. Analysis of the Chinese hamster P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance gene pgp1 reveals that the AP-1 site is essential for full promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Teeter, L D; Eckersberg, T; Tsai, Y; Kuo, M T

    1991-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the expression of P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance genes is crucial for the development of resistance to a number of lipophilic cancer chemotherapeutic agents. To better understand the regulatory mechanisms of pgp gene expression, we isolated and characterized a DNA fragment containing the 5' portion of a Chinese hamster pgp gene. DNA sequence analysis revealed that this gene is pgp1, the hamster homologue of murine mdr3/mdr1a. This gene is expressed at a higher level in intestines than in kidney and liver, consistent with the expression pattern for the murine mdr3/mdr1a gene. The major transcription start site, determined by the S1 nuclease protection, RNase protection, and primer extension methods, lies 67 nucleotides upstream of the murine and human downstream transcription start site. A chimera containing 101 base pairs upstream from this start site and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was able to direct CAT expression in transient transfection experiments. The AP-1 site, located at -48 base pairs, was crucial for the full pgp1 promoter activity, as demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis of this site, enhancement of the CAT expression by cotransfection with the expression vectors encoding c-Jun/c-Fos genes, but sequestration with those containing retinoic acid receptor genes. The sequestration effect could be partially abolished when c-Jun/c-Fos genes were also included in cotransfection. An AP-1 or AP-1-like site is also present at the same location in both human and mouse mdr homologues. The involvement of AP-1 in the expression of mammalian pgp1-class genes is discussed. PMID:1661134

  15. Agroinfiltration as an Effective and Scalable Strategy of Gene Delivery for Production of Pharmaceutical Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang; Hurtado, Jonathan; Stahnke, Jake; Leuzinger, Kahlin; Dent, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    Current human biologics are most commonly produced by mammalian cell culture-based fermentation technologies. However, its limited scalability and high cost prevent this platform from meeting the ever increasing global demand. Plants offer a novel alternative system for the production of pharmaceutical proteins that is more scalable, cost-effective, and safer than current expression paradigms. The recent development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed rapid and high-level transient expression of recombinant proteins, and in turn, provided a preferred plant based production platform. One of the remaining challenges for the commercial application of this platform was the lack of a scalable technology to deliver the transgene into plant cells. Therefore, this review focuses on the development of an effective and scalable technology for gene delivery in plants. Direct and indirect gene delivery strategies for plant cells are first presented, and the two major gene delivery technologies based on agroinfiltration are subsequently discussed. Furthermore, the advantages of syringe and vacuum infiltration as gene delivery methodologies are extensively discussed, in context of their applications and scalability for commercial production of human pharmaceutical proteins in plants. The important steps and critical parameters for the successful implementation of these strategies are also detailed in the review. Overall, agroinfiltration based on syringe and vacuum infiltration provides an efficient, robust and scalable gene-delivery technology for the transient expression of recombinant proteins in plants. The development of this technology will greatly facilitate the realization of plant transient expression systems as a premier platform for commercial production of pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:25077181

  16. Essential prerequisites for successful bioprocess development of biological CH4 production from CO2 and H2.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, Simon; Seifert, Arne; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    The production and storage of energy from renewable resources steadily increases in importance. One opportunity is to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2)-type hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which are an intriguing group of microorganisms from the domain Archaea, for conversion of hydrogen and CO2 to methane (CH4). This review summarizes the current state of the art of bioprocess development for biological CH4 production (BMP) from pure cultures with pure gasses. The prerequisites for successful quantification of BMP by using closed batch, as well as fed-batch and chemostat culture cultivation, are presented. This review shows that BMP is currently a much underexplored field of bioprocess development, which mainly focuses on the application of continuously stirred tank reactors. However, some promising alternatives, such as membrane reactors have already been adapted for BMP. Moreover, industrial-based scale-up of BMP to pilot scale and larger has not been conducted. Most crucial parameters have been found to be those, which influence gas-limitation fundamentals, or parameters that contribute to the complex effects that arise during medium development for scale-up of BMP bioprocesses, highly stressing the importance of holistic BMP quantification by the application of well-defined physiological parameters. The much underexplored number of different genera, which is mainly limited to Methanothermobacter spp., offers the possibility of additional scientific and bioprocess development endeavors for the investigation of BMP. This indicates the large potential for future bioprocess development considering the possible application of bioprocessing technological aspects for renewable energy storage and power generation. PMID:24020504

  17. Engineering broad root-knot resistance in transgenic plants by RNAi silencing of a conserved and essential root-knot nematode parasitism gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guozhong Huang; Rex Allen; Eric L. Davis; Thomas J. Baum; Richard S. Hussey

    2006-01-01

    Secreted parasitism proteins encoded by parasitism genes expressed in esophageal gland cells mediate infection and parasitism of plants by root-knot nematodes (RKN). Parasitism gene 16D10 encodes a conserved RKN secretory peptide that stimulates root growth and functions as a ligand for a putative plant transcription factor. We used in vitro and in vivo RNA interference approaches to silence this parasitism

  18. Alpha-factor structural gene mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects on alpha-factor production and mating.

    PubMed Central

    Kurjan, J

    1985-01-01

    The role of alpha-factor structural genes MF alpha 1 and MF alpha 2 in alpha-factor production and mating has been investigated by the construction of mf alpha 1 and mf alpha 2 mutations that totally eliminate gene function. An mf alpha 1 mutant in which the entire coding region is deleted shows a considerable decrease in alpha-factor production and a 75% decrease in mating. Mutations in mf alpha 2 have little or no effect on alpha-factor production or mating. The mf alpha 1 mf alpha 2 double mutants are completely defective in mating and alpha-factor production. These results indicate that at least one alpha-factor structural gene product is required for mating in MAT alpha cells, that MF alpha 1 is responsible for the majority of alpha-factor production, and that MF alpha 1 and MF alpha 2 are the only active alpha-factor genes. Images PMID:3887136

  19. Expression of three isoprenoid biosynthesis genes and their effects on the carotenoid production of the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Csernetics, Arpád; Nagy, Gábor; Iturriaga, Enrique A; Szekeres, András; Eslava, Arturo P; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás

    2011-07-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides accumulates ?-carotene as the main carotenoid compound. In this study, the applicability of some early genes of the general isoprenoid pathway to improve the carotenoid production in this fungus was examined. The isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase gene (ipi) was cloned and used together with the genes encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (isoA) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (carG) in overexpression studies. Transformation experiments showed that the first bottleneck in the pathway, from the aspect of carotenoid production, is the step controlled by the carG gene, but overexpression of the ipi and isoA genes also contributes to the availability of the precursors. Transformations with these isoprenoid genes in combination with a bacterial ?-carotene ketolase gene yielded Mucor strains producing canthaxanthin and echinenone. PMID:21443966

  20. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Gloria E; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, G L; Howlett, Allyn C

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1h or 5h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1h, IL1? was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1h by tobacco products. IL8, TNF?, VCAM1, and NF?B1 were suppressed after 5h with STE, whereas only TNF? and NF?B1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNF? were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. PMID:24927667

  1. Trans-activation function of a 3 prime truncated X gene-cell fusion product from integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shinako; Koike, Katsuro (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    To investigate the expression and transactivation function of the X gene in integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from chronic hepatitis tissues, a series of transfectants containing cloned integrated HBV DNAs was made and analyzed for X mRNA expression and trans-activation activity by using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Most of the integrated HBV DNAs expressed X mRNA and encoded a product with trans-activation activity in spite of the loss of the 3{prime} end region of the X gene due to integration. From cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of X mRNA transcribed from native or integrated HBV DNA, the X protein was found to be translated from the X open reading frame without splicing. For integrated HBV DNA, transcription was extended to a cellular flanking DNA and an X gene-cell fusion transcript was terminated by using a cellular poly(A) signal. The amino acid sequence deduced from an X-cell fusion transcript indicated truncation of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, but the upstream region of seven amino acids conserved among hepadnaviruses was retained in the integrated HBV DNA, suggesting that this conserved region is essential for the transactivation function of the X protein. These findings support the following explanation for hepatocarcinogenesis by HBV DNA integration: the expression of a cellular oncogene(s) is transactivated at the time of chronic infection by the increasing amounts of the integrated HBV gene product(s), such as the X-cell fusion product.

  2. Arginylation-dependent regulation of a proteolytic product of talin is essential for cell-cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangliang; Saha, Sougata; Kashina, Anna

    2012-06-11

    Talin is a large scaffolding molecule that plays a major role in integrin-dependent cell-matrix adhesion. A role for talin in cell-cell attachment through cadherin has never been demonstrated, however. Here, we identify a novel calpain-dependent proteolytic cleavage of talin that results in the release of a 70-kD C-terminal fragment, which serves as a substrate of posttranslational arginylation. The intracellular levels of this fragment closely correlated with the formation of cell-cell adhesions, and this fragment localized to cadherin-containing cell-cell contacts. Moreover, reintroduction of this fragment rescued the cell-cell adhesion defects in arginyltransferase (Ate1) knockout cells, which normally have a very low level of this fragment. Arginylation of this fragment further enhanced its ability to rescue cell-cell adhesion formation. In addition, arginylation facilitated its turnover, suggesting a dual role of arginylation in its intracellular regulation. Thus, our work identifies a novel proteolytic product of talin that is regulated by arginylation and a new role of talin in cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion. PMID:22665520

  3. Arginylation-dependent regulation of a proteolytic product of talin is essential for cell–cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangliang; Saha, Sougata

    2012-01-01

    Talin is a large scaffolding molecule that plays a major role in integrin-dependent cell–matrix adhesion. A role for talin in cell–cell attachment through cadherin has never been demonstrated, however. Here, we identify a novel calpain-dependent proteolytic cleavage of talin that results in the release of a 70-kD C-terminal fragment, which serves as a substrate of posttranslational arginylation. The intracellular levels of this fragment closely correlated with the formation of cell–cell adhesions, and this fragment localized to cadherin-containing cell–cell contacts. Moreover, reintroduction of this fragment rescued the cell–cell adhesion defects in arginyltransferase (Ate1) knockout cells, which normally have a very low level of this fragment. Arginylation of this fragment further enhanced its ability to rescue cell–cell adhesion formation. In addition, arginylation facilitated its turnover, suggesting a dual role of arginylation in its intracellular regulation. Thus, our work identifies a novel proteolytic product of talin that is regulated by arginylation and a new role of talin in cadherin-dependent cell–cell adhesion. PMID:22665520

  4. The Heterochronic Genes lin-28a and lin-28b Play an Essential and Evolutionarily Conserved Role in Early Zebrafish Development

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Jyunya; Iwamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic gene pathway, which consists of a set of regulatory genes, plays an important regulatory role in the timing of stage-specific cell lineage development in nematodes. Research into the heterochronic gene pathway gave rise to landmark microRNA (miRNA) studies and showed that these genes are important in stem cell and cancer biology; however, their functions in vertebrate development are largely unknown. To elucidate the function of the heterochronic gene pathway during vertebrate development, we cloned the zebrafish homologs of the C. elegans let-7 miRNA-binding protein, Lin-28, and analyzed their function in zebrafish development. The zebrafish genome contains two Lin28-related genes, lin-28a and lin-28b. Similar to mammalian Lin28 proteins, both zebrafish Lin-28a and Lin-28b have a conserved cold-shock domain and a pair of CCHC zinc finger domains, and are ubiquitously expressed during early embryonic development. In a reciprocal fashion, the expression of downstream heterochronic genes, let-7 and lin-4/miR-125 miRNA, occurred subsequent to lin-28 expression. The knockdown of Lin-28a or Lin-28b function by morpholino microinjection into embryos resulted in severe cell proliferation defects during early morphogenesis. We found that the expression of let-7 miRNA was upregulated and its downstream target gene, lin-41, was downregulated in these embryos. Interestingly, the expression of miR-430, a key regulator of maternal mRNA decay, was downregulated in lin-28a and lin-28b morphant embryos, suggesting a role for Lin-28 in the maternal-to-zygotic transition in zebrafish. Taken together, our results suggest an evolutionarily conserved and pivotal role of the heterochronic gene pathway in early vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:24516585

  5. Genome-Wide High-Throughput Screening to Investigate Essential Genes Involved in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 Survival

    E-print Network

    Christiansen, Mette T.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holmes, Mark A.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2014-02-12

    as important for bacterial survival in porcine blood. Mutations in 23 of these genes resulted in attenuated bacterial fitness. Seven of the 23 genes were of unknown function, whereas 16 genes were annotated with functions predominantly related to carbon... , centrifuged (7,000 rpm, 10 min.) and sterile filtered using a 0.45 mm Millipore filter. Recipient cells (S. aureus ST398 S0385) were grown to OD600 1–1.2, cells harvested by centrifugation (11,000 rpm, 10 min.) and re-suspended in TSB with 0.5 mM CaCl2...

  6. Expression of POX2 gene and disruption of POX3 genes in the industrial Yarrowia lipolytica on the ?-decalactone production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanqiong; Song, Huanlu; Wang, Zhaoyue; Ding, Yongzhi

    2012-04-20

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica growing on methyl ricinoleate can produce ?-decalactone, the worthy aroma compound, which can exhibit fruity and creamy sensorial notes, and recognized internationally as a safe food additive. Unfortunately, the yield is poor because of lactone degradation by enzyme Aox3 (POX3 gene encoded), which was responsible for continuation of oxidation after C(10) level and lactone reconsumption. In this paper, we chose the industrial Y. lipolytica (CGMCC accession number 2.1405), which is the diploid strain as the starting strain and constructed the recombinant strain Tp-12 by targeting the POX3 locus of the wild type, one copy of POX3 was deleted by CRF1+POX2 insertion. The other recombinant strain Tpp-11, which was a null mutant possessing multiple copies of POX2 and disrupted POX3 genes on two chromosomes, was constructed by inserting XPR2+hpt into the other copy of POX3 of Tp-12. The growth ability of the recombinants was changed after genetic modification in the fermentation medium. The production of ?-decalactone was increased, resulting from blocking ?-oxidation at the C(10) Aox level and POX2 overexpression. The recombinant strain Tpp-11 was stable. Because there was no reconsumption of ?-decalactone, the mutant strain could be grown in continuous fermentation of methyl ricinoleate to produce ?-decalactone. PMID:22115771

  7. Cloning of the Alcaligenes latus Polyhydroxyalkanoate Biosynthesis Genes and Use of These Genes for Enhanced Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONG-IL CHOI; SANG YUP LEE; KYUBOEM HAN

    1998-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbial polyesters that can be used as completely biodegradable polymers, but the high production cost prevents their use in a wide range of applications. Recombinant Escherichia coli strains harboring the Ralstonia eutropha PHA biosynthesis genes have been reported to have several advantages as PHA producers compared with wild-type PHA-producing bacteria. However, the PHA productivity (amount of PHA

  8. TITER AND PRODUCT AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF GENE EXPRESSION AFTER INTRAPUTAMINAL CONVECTION-ENHANCED DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Emborg, Marina E.; Hurley, Samuel A.; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P.M.; Swanson, Christine R.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders, like Parkinson’s disease, depends on appropriate distribution of gene expression. Objectives To assess if the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Methods Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received in the right and left ventral postcommisural putamen 30?l inoculation of a high or low titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Inoculations were performed using convection enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). Results IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiating from the catheter tip into surrounding area. Postmortem analysis six weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection side that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the Substantia Nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many SNpc and SNpr neurons. Conclusions After controlling for target and infusate volume, intracerebral distribution of gene product is affected by vector titer and product biology. PMID:24943657

  9. Essential Role of Cyclophilin A for Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Virus Production and Possible Link to Polyprotein Cleavage Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Artur; Pertel, Thomas; Schmitt, Jennifer; Kallis, Stephanie; Zayas Lopez, Margarita; Lohmann, Volker; Luban, Jeremy; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and therefore their replication completely depends on host cell factors. In case of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive-strand RNA virus that in the majority of infections establishes persistence, cyclophilins are considered to play an important role in RNA replication. Subsequent to the observation that cyclosporines, known to sequester cyclophilins by direct binding, profoundly block HCV replication in cultured human hepatoma cells, conflicting results were obtained as to the particular cyclophilin (Cyp) required for viral RNA replication and the underlying possible mode of action. By using a set of cell lines with stable knock-down of CypA or CypB, we demonstrate in the present work that replication of subgenomic HCV replicons of different genotypes is reduced by CypA depletion up to 1,000-fold whereas knock-down of CypB had no effect. Inhibition of replication was rescued by over-expression of wild type CypA, but not by a mutant lacking isomerase activity. Replication of JFH1-derived full length genomes was even more sensitive to CypA depletion as compared to subgenomic replicons and virus production was completely blocked. These results argue that CypA may target an additional viral factor outside of the minimal replicase contributing to RNA amplification and assembly, presumably nonstructural protein 2. By selecting for resistance against the cyclosporine analogue DEBIO-025 that targets CypA in a dose-dependent manner, we identified two mutations (V2440A and V2440L) close to the cleavage site between nonstructural protein 5A and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in nonstructural protein 5B that slow down cleavage kinetics at this site and reduce CypA dependence of viral replication. Further amino acid substitutions at the same cleavage site accelerating processing increase CypA dependence. Our results thus identify an unexpected correlation between HCV polyprotein processing and CypA dependence of HCV replication. PMID:19680534

  10. A novel gene product associated with mu chains in immature B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, T; Ohnishi, K; Hagiwara, S; Shigemoto, K; Takebe, Y; Rajewsky, K; Takemori, T

    1993-01-01

    A previously unreported B cell specific gene, which we have named 8HS-20, was isolated from the cDNA library of a pre-B cell clone by subtraction and differential hybridization. This gene is selectively expressed as a 0.75 kb transcript in pre-B and bone marrow-derived B cell lines; a transcript of the same size is also found in bone marrow and, albeit at low levels, in spleen. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 8HS-20 cDNA displayed homology to a B cell specific gene, VpreB-1, and to members of the immunoglobulin supergene family including V lambda, V kappa, VH, TCRV alpha, V beta and CD8. Biochemical analysis using purified antiserum against 8HS-20 oligopeptides indicates that the gene encodes proteins with mol. wts of 13.5, 14, 15.5 and 16 kDa, which associate with mu chains in pre-B cell lines, and that these molecules are expressed concomitantly with VpreB-1 and lambda 5 gene products in the same cell lines. Images PMID:8491176

  11. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  12. Localization of the mei-1 gene product of Caenorhaditis elegans, a meiotic-specific spindle component

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Genetic evidence suggests that the product of the mei-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans is specifically required for meiosis in the female germline. Loss-of-function mei-1 mutations block meiotic spindle formation while a gain-of-function allele instead results in spindle defects during the early mitotic cleavages. In this report, we use immunocytochemistry to examine the localization of the mei-1 product in wild-type and mutant embryos. During metaphase of meiosis I in wild- type embryos, mei-1 protein was found throughout the spindle but was more concentrated toward the poles. At telophase I, mei-1 product colocalized with the chromatin at the spindle poles. The pattern was repeated during meiosis II but no mei-1 product was visible during the subsequent mitotic cleavages. The mei-1 gain-of-function allele resulted in ectopic mei-1 staining in the centers of the microtubule- organizing centers during interphase and in the spindles during the early cleavages. This aberrant localization is probably responsible for the poorly formed and misoriented cleavage spindles characteristic of the mutation. We also examined the localization of mei-1(+) product in the presence of mutations of genes that genetically interact with mei-1 alleles. mei-2 is apparently required to localize mei-1 product to the spindle during meiosis while mel-26 acts as a postmeiotic inhibitor. We conclude that mei-1 encodes a novel spindle component, one that is specialized for the acentriolar meiotic spindles unique to female meiosis. The genes mei-2 and mel-26 are part of a regulatory network that confines mei-1 activity to meiosis. PMID:8027178

  13. Gene organization in a central DNA fragment of Oenococcus oeni bacteriophage fOg44 encoding lytic, integrative and non-essential functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Parreira; Carlos Săo-José; Anabela Isidro; Susana Domingues; Graça Vieira; Mário A. Santos

    1999-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment previously shown to contain the attachment site (attP) of Oenococcus oeni phage fOg44 (Santos et al., 1998. Arch. Virol. 143, 523–536) has been determined. Sequence analysis indicated that this 6226bp EcoRI fragment harbours an integrase gene, in the vicinity of a direct repeat rich region defining attP, as well as genes encoding a

  14. Cone-Rod Dystrophy Due to Mutations in a Novel Photoreceptor-Specific Homeobox Gene ( CRX ) Essential for Maintenance of the Photoreceptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol L Freund; Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans; Takahisa Furukawa; Myrto Papaioannou; Jens Looser; Lynda Ploder; James Bellingham; David Ng; Jo-Anne S Herbrick; Alessandra Duncan; Stephen W Scherer; Lap-Chee Tsui; Aphrodite Loutradis-Anagnostou; Samuel G Jacobson; Constance L Cepko; Shomi S Bhattacharya; Roderick R McInnes

    1997-01-01

    Genes associated with inherited retinal degeneration have been found to encode proteins required for phototransduction, metabolism, or structural support of photoreceptors. Here we show that mutations in a novel photoreceptor-specific homeodomain transcription factor gene (CRX) cause an autosomal dominant form of cone-rod dystrophy (adCRD) at the CORD2 locus on chromosome 19q13. In affected members of a CORD2-linked family, the highly

  15. Transcriptional Complex Formation of c-Fos, STAT3, and Hepatocyte NF1 Is Essential for Cytokine-Driven C-Reactive Protein Gene Expression1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teppei Nishikawa; Keisuke Hagihara; Satoshi Serada; Tomoyasu Isobe; Atsumi Matsumura; Jian Song; Toshio Tanaka; Ichiro Kawase; Tetsuji Naka; Kazuyuki Yoshizaki

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker and mediator of inflammation, whereas IL-6 blocking therapy can normalize serum levels of CRP in chronic inflammatory diseases. We investigated the precise synergistic induction mechanism of CRP gene expression by IL-1 and IL-6 in Hep3B cells. In the early induction phase, IL-1 inhibited IL-6-mediated CRP gene expression, and NF-B p65 inhibited the luciferase

  16. Overlapping coding regions and trancriptional units of two essential chromosomal genes (CCT8, TRP1)in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Gerads; Joachim F. Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Sequencing of the 34-untranslated region of the CCT8 gene of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans revealed that the CCT8 coding region overlaps 13 bp with the coding region of the convergently orientated TRP1 gene. The same overlap was found in three strains with different genetic backgrounds. 34-RACE was used to determine that the CCT8 and TRP1 transcripts extended significantly into

  17. CgDN3: an essential pathogenicity gene of colletotrichum gloeosporioides necessary to avert a hypersensitive-like response in the host Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, S A; Hatfield, J; Rusu, A G; Maclean, D J; Manners, J M

    2000-09-01

    A gene of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that is induced by nitrogen starvation in axenic culture and is expressed at the early stages of infection of the host Stylosanthes guianensis has been identified and its role in pathogenicity tested. The sequence of this gene, named CgDN3, indicated that it encodes a protein of 74 amino acids that contains a predicted 18 amino acid signal sequence for secretion of a basic 54 amino acid mature protein with weak homology to an internal region of plant wall-associated receptor kinases. Mutants of C. gloeosporioides were produced by homologous recombination in which part of the coding sequence and promoter region of the CgDN3 gene was replaced with a hygromycin-resistance gene cassette. Mutations in the CgDN3 gene were confirmed in two independent transformants and Northern (RNA) analysis demonstrated the disrupted CgDN3 gene was not expressed. The mutants had faster mycelial growth rates in vitro but produced spores that germinated to form appressoria normally on the leaf surface. However, the CgDN3 mutants were unable to infect and reproduce on intact host leaves. Microscopic analysis revealed small clusters of necrotic host cells at inoculation sites on leaves, suggesting that these mutants elicited a localized, host hypersensitive-like response. The mutants were able to grow necrotrophically and reproduce on leaves when conidia were inoculated directly onto wound sites. The putative promoter region of the CgDN3 gene was fused to a gene encoding a modified jellyfish green fluorescent protein and introduced into the fungus. Following inoculation, strong expression of green fluorescent protein was observed in primary infection vesicles in infected epidermal cells with weaker expression evident in hyphae growing within infected leaf tissue. These findings indicate that CgDN3 encodes a novel pathogenicity determinant associated with the biotrophic phase of primary infection and required to avert a hypersensitive-like response by a compatible host. PMID:10975650

  18. Association of class I, II, and III MHC gene products with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hartung; A. Fontana; M. Klar; H. Krippner; K. JiJrgens; B. Lang; H. H. Peter; W. J. Pichler; D. Schendel; M. Robin-Winn; H. Deicher

    1989-01-01

    Class I, II, and III MHC gene products were examined in 248 Central European SLE patients. The previously reported association with HLA-A1, -B8 and -DR3, and C4AQ0 alleles was confirmed. The frequency of HLA-DR2 was also slightly elevated in SLE patients, while no increase in C4BQ0 alleles was observed. Additional findings were a significantly increased frequency of HLA-B13 and a

  19. Effect of the Steel gene product on melanogenesis in avian neural crest cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lahav; L. Lecoin; C. Ziller; V. Nataf; J. F. Carnahan; F. H. Martin; N. M. Le Douarin

    1995-01-01

    Mutations at the Steel (Sl) and dominant white spotting (W) loci affect three embryonic lineages: primordial germ cells, hemopoietic stem cells and neural-crest-derived melanocytes. The gene products of these loci are a peptide growth factor, called here stem cell factor (SCF), and its tyrosine kinase receptor, the proto-oncogene c-kit. We have studied how chicken recombinant SCF affects the development of

  20. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with the Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Purwantini, Endang; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joăo C; Tyler, Brett M; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO) terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO) project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing "gold standards" for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/). PMID:25520705

  1. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with the Gene Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Purwantini, Endang; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joăo C.; Tyler, Brett M.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is a valuable fuel, constituting 70–95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO) terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO) project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing “gold standards” for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/). PMID:25520705

  2. Variability of bacterial gene-directed enzyme production in human genetically deficient cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jfirgen Horst; Friedrich Kluge; Wolfgang Gerok

    1979-01-01

    Human ß-galactosidase-deficient skin fibroblasts from a patient with generalized gangliosidosis (GM1-gangliosidosis type I) were treated with phage ? plac DNA, coding for Escherichia coli ß-galactosidase (ß-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23). New ß-galactosidase activity detected in cell extracts of phage DNA-treated GM1-gangliosidosis fibroblasts continued to vary considerably from one experiment to another. It behaved like the E. coliz-gene product upon immunochemical and

  3. Disruption of ten protease genes in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae highly improves production of heterologous proteins.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2011-02-01

    Proteolytic degradation by secreted proteases into the culture medium is one of the significant problems to be solved in heterologous protein production by filamentous fungi including Aspergillus oryzae. Double (tppA, and pepE) and quintuple (tppA, pepE, nptB, dppIV, and dppV) disruption of protease genes enhanced human lysozyme (HLY) and bovine chymosin (CHY) production by A. oryzae. In this study, we used a quintuple protease gene disruptant and performed successive rounds of disruption for five additional protease genes (alpA, pepA, AopepAa, AopepAd, and cpI), which were previously investigated by DNA microarray analyses for their expression. Gene disruption was performed by pyrG marker recycling with a highly efficient gene-targeting background (?ligD) as previously reported. As a result, the maximum yields of recombinant CHY and HLY produced by a decuple protease gene disruptant were approximately 30% and 35%, respectively, higher than those produced by a quintuple protease gene disruptant. Thus, we successfully constructed a decuple protease gene disruptant possessing highly improved capability of heterologous protein production. This is the first report on decuple protease gene disruption that improved the levels of heterologous protein production by the filamentous fungus A. oryzae. PMID:20957357

  4. Heterologous co-expression of accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes for improving long-chain fatty acid production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Jeon, Eunyoung; Jung, Yeontae; Lee, Jinwon

    2012-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to increase the content of intracellular long-chain fatty acids in two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, by co-overexpressing essential enzymes that are involved in the fatty acid synthesis metabolic pathway. Recently, microbial fatty acids and their derivatives have been receiving increasing attention as an alternative source of fuel. By introducing two genes (accA and fabD) of P. aeruginosa into the two bacterial strains and by co-expressing with them the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes (strain MGAS10270), we have engineered recombinant strains that are efficient producers of long-chain fatty acids (C16 and C18). The recombinant strains exhibit a 1.3-1.7-fold increase in the production of long-chain fatty acids over the wild-type strains. To enhance the production of total long-chain fatty acids, we researched the carbon sources for optimized culture conditions and results were used for post-culture incubation period. E. coli SGJS17 (containing the accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes) produced the highest content of intracellular total fatty acids; in particular, the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 20-fold higher than that in the wild-type E. coli. PMID:22460717

  5. Overlapping coding regions and trancriptional units of two essential chromosomal genes (CCT8, TRP1)in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gerads, M; Ernst, J F

    1998-11-15

    Sequencing of the 3'-untranslated region of the CCT8 gene of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans revealed that the CCT8 coding region overlaps 13 bp with the coding region of the convergently orientated TRP1 gene. The same overlap was found in three strains with different genetic backgrounds. 3'-RACE was used to determine that the CCT8 and TRP1 transcripts extended significantly into the coding region of the adjacent gene, which also contained sequences encoding the poly(A) addition site. A strain retaining one wild-type CCT8/TRP1 locus on one chromosome and a deletion on the other homologous chromosome contained both CCT8 and TRP1 transcripts; this result indicates that both transcripts are synthesized from the same gene locus. The CCT8/TRP1 gene pair of C . albicans constitutes an extreme natural case of transcriptional overlap in a eukaryote. The results confirm that convergent overlapping transcription units are compatible with expression of the overlapping genes. PMID:9801300

  6. A catalogue of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms in bovine orthologs of mammalian imprinted genes and associations with beef production traits.

    PubMed

    Magee, D A; Berkowicz, E W; Sikora, K M; Berry, D P; Park, S D E; Kelly, A K; Sweeney, T; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Wickham, B W; Spillane, C; Machugh, D E

    2010-12-01

    Genetic (or 'genomic') imprinting, a feature of approximately 100 mammalian genes, results in monoallelic expression from one of the two parentally inherited chromosomes. To date, most studies have been directed on imprinted genes in murine or human models; however, there is burgeoning interest in the effects of imprinted genes in domestic livestock species. In particular, attention has focused on imprinted genes that influence foetal growth and development and that are associated with several economically important production traits in cattle, sheep and pigs. We have re-sequenced regions in 20 candidate bovine imprinted genes in order to validate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may influence important production traits in cattle. Putative SNPs detected via re-sequencing were subsequently re-formatted for high-throughput SNP genotyping in 185 cattle samples comprising 138 performance-tested European Bos taurus (all Limousin bulls), 29 African B. taurus and 18 Indian B. indicus samples. Analysis of the resulting genotypic data identified 117 validated SNPs. Preliminary genotype-phenotype association analyses using 83 SNPs that were polymorphic in the Limousin samples with minor allele frequencies ?0.05 revealed significant associations between two candidate bovine imprinted genes and a range of important beef production traits: average daily gain, average feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio, residual feed intake and residual gain. These genes were the Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor gene (RASGRF1) and the zinc finger, imprinted 2 gene (ZIM2). Despite the relatively small sample size used in these analyses, the observed associations with production traits are supported by the purported biological function of the RASGRF1 and ZIM2 gene products. These results support the hypothesis that imprinted genes contribute significantly to important complex production traits in cattle. Furthermore, these SNPs may be usefully incorporated into future marker-assisted and genomic selection breeding schemes. PMID:22445369

  7. Production of Dwarf Lettuce by Overexpressing a Pumpkin Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Tomoya; Nishijima, Takaaki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu; Oyama-Okubo, Naomi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Hedden, Peter; Lange, Theo; Mander, Lewis N.; Koshioka, Masaji

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of overexpressing a pumpkin gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase gene encoding an enzyme that forms predominantly biologically inactive products on GA biosynthesis and plant morphology in transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv Vanguard) plants. Lettuce was transformed with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase gene downstream of a strong constitutive promoter cassette (El2–35S-?). The transgenic plants in which the pumpkin gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction were dwarfed in the T2 generation, whereas transformants with a normal growth phenotype did not contain the transgene. The result of Southern-blot analysis showed that the transgene was integrated as a single copy; the plants segregated three dwarfs to one normal in the T2 generation, indicating that the transgene was stable and dominant. The endogenous levels of GA1 and GA4 were reduced in the dwarfs, whereas large amounts of GA17 and GA25, which are inactive products of the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase, accumulated in these lines. These results indicate that a functional pumpkin GA 20-oxidase is expressed in the transgenic lettuce, resulting in a diversion of the normal pathway of GA biosynthesis to inactive products. Furthermore, this technique may be useful for controlling plant stature in other agricultural and horticultural species. PMID:11457947

  8. Essential thrombocythemia