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1

Bergamot essential oil extraction by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bergamot peel oil is the most valuable essential oil due to its unique fragrance and freshness. The essence finds application in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. However, strong limitations have been imposed on its use since bergamot oil contains several coumarins and psoralens which may be photoactive. Qualitative and quantitative analyses with GC–MS were carried out to evaluate the

A. Figoli; L. Donato; R. Carnevale; R. Tundis; G. A. Statti; F. Menichini; E. Drioli

2006-01-01

2

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from oregano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) in the extraction of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. was examined and the effects of microwave power and extraction time on the yield and composition of the product were investigated. Specific gravity and refractive index of the essential oil and its solubility in alcohol were also examined. Hydrodistillation was performed as control. GC–MS\\/FID

Beste Bayramoglu; Serpil Sahin; Gulum Sumnu

2008-01-01

3

Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The leaves (needles) of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extra...

4

Temperature Control System for Industrial Essential Oil Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a computerized instrumentation and control for an essential oil extraction involves a few sets of processes. These processes include the process of capturing, transmitting and interfacing the data with a computer, processing the data and finally perform a desired task based on the measurement results. The main objective of this paper is to design and build the

M. H. F. Rahiman; M. N. Tai

5

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical COâ extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts

E. Reverchon; C. Marrone; M. Poletto; J. Daghero; M. Mattea

1999-01-01

6

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

7

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Psammogeton canescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is outlined to probe the chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Psammogeton canescens. The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of P. canescens was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The main constituents of the oil were found to be ?-bisabolene (33.35%),

Mohammad Bagher Gholivand; Mehdi Rahimi-Nasrabadi; Hossein Batooli; Abdolrasoul H. Ebrahimabadi

2010-01-01

8

Autotoxic impact of essential oil extracted from Lantana camara L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of crude volatile oils extracted from the young leaves ofLantana camara var.camara was studied on the parent plant itself. The contents of water and chlorophyll, of leaves apart from seed germination, seed\\u000a vigour and length of seedlings of the parent plant were adversely affected with increasing concentration of theLantana oils; this indicated autotoxic potential of the oil. The

R. K. Arora; R. K. Kohli

1993-01-01

9

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising

Firas A. Al-Bayati

2008-01-01

10

Isolation of Clove Bud and Star Anise Essential Oil by Supercritical CO 2Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clove bud and star anise volatile oils were isolated by supercritical CO2extraction coupled to a fractional separation technique. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the various fractions obtained in different extraction and fractionation conditions allowed the identification of the best operating conditions for the isolation of essential oil. A good extraction performance was obtained operating at 90 bar and 50 °C

G Della Porta; R Taddeo; E D'Urso; E Reverchon

1998-01-01

11

Microwave steam diffusion for extraction of essential oil from orange peel: Kinetic data, extract’s global yield and mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave steam diffusion (MSDf) apparatus for extraction of essential oils from orange peel (by-products) was studied. MSDf has been compared with conventional steam diffusion (SDf). A response surface methodology (RSM) was realised to investigate the influence of process variables by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of orange

Asma Farhat; Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier; Mohamed El Maataoui; Jean-François Maingonnat; Mehrez Romdhane; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

12

Essential oils content and antioxidant properties of peel ethanol extract in 18 lemon cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of essential oils and antioxidant activity of peel ethanol extract were analyzed in 18 local lemon cultivars. Essential oils composition was determined by GC\\/FID analysis, and antioxidant activity with the ABTS method. Fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameters, peel thickness, seed number, juice percentage, titratable acidity and juice pH were also determined for each cultivar. The main component in

C. Di Vaio; G. Graziani; A. Gaspari; G. Scaglione; S. Nocerino; A. Ritieni

2010-01-01

13

Effect of essential oil compounds and plant extracts on decay and termite resistance of wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils and their derivatives have a long history of safe usage as antimicrobial agents in food industry. In this study various essential oils and extracts from plants were screened for their ability to inhibit wood decay and termite attack in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests using treated wood specimens. In the laboratory decay resistance tests, wood specimens treated

S. Nami Kartal; Won-Joung Hwang; Yuji Imamura; Yasuo Sekine

2006-01-01

14

Antimicrobial activity of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. extracts and essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. are used in traditional Thai and Chinese medicine for the treatment of septic wounds and other infections. In this study, the essential oil, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of these leaves were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities using the disc diffusion assay and agar microdilution method. The essential oil was the most potent,

Uthai Sakee; Sujira Maneerat; T. P. Tim Cushnie; Wanchai De-eknamkul

2011-01-01

15

Calculation of Essential Oil Yield without Prior Extraction—Application to the Genus Forsythia Vahl. (Oleaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphological, macroscopic and microscopic study of the leaves of 42 Forsythia (Oleaceae) taxa was performed in parallel with the extraction of essential oil from leaves of the same taxa. Statistical analysis of yield with stepwise multiple linear regression was used to model the variable in a mathematical equation compiled from a different data. The essential oil yield can thus

Chantal Marion; Yves Pelissier; Robert Sabatier; Claude Andary; Jean-Marie Bessiere

1994-01-01

16

Optimisation of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oil components of Diplotaenia cachrydifolia: Box–Behnken design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Diplotaenia cachrydifolia cultivated in Iran was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method. The oils were analysed by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation and mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70?eV). The effects of different parameters, such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume and extraction times (dynamic

Mostafa Khajeh

2011-01-01

17

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Studies of Vitex negundo Linn. Extracts  

PubMed Central

Essential oils from fresh leaves, flowers and dried fruits of Vitex negundo were obtained by hydrodistillation. Using Soxhlet extractor five successive extracts from dried and powdered leaves were also taken. The chemical constituents of essential oil of leaves, flowers and dried fruits were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS techniques. Main constituents identified in leaves oil were ?-guaiene, carryophyllene epoxide and ethyl-hexadecenoate; in flowers oil - ?-selinene, germacren-4-ol, carryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol while fruit oil showed ?-selinene, ?-cedrene, germacrene D and hexadecanoic acid as the main constituents. ?-Caryophyllene was only the constituent identified as common to all three oils. ?-Guaiene and guaia-3,7-diene were identified as common constituents in leaf and dried fruit oil while leaf and flower oils showed p -cymene, valencene, caryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol as common constituent. All the essential oils and successive extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. Each of the essential oils and extracts were found to give promising results against B. subtilis and E. coli. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. Fruits and leaves oil were found to be most active against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Only flowers oil was found to be active against P. aeruginosa.

Khokra, S. L.; Prakash, O.; Jain, S.; Aneja, K. R.; Dhingra, Yogita

2008-01-01

18

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Studies of Vitex negundo Linn. Extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils from fresh leaves, flowers and dried fruits of Vitex negundo were obtained by hydrodistillation. Using Soxhlet extractor five successive extracts from dried and powdered leaves were also taken. The chemical constituents of essential oil of leaves, flowers and dried fruits were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS techniques. Main constituents identified in leaves oil were delta-guaiene, carryophyllene epoxide and ethyl-hexadecenoate; in flowers oil - alpha-selinene, germacren-4-ol, carryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol while fruit oil showed beta-selinene, alpha-cedrene, germacrene D and hexadecanoic acid as the main constituents. beta-Caryophyllene was only the constituent identified as common to all three oils. alpha-Guaiene and guaia-3,7-diene were identified as common constituents in leaf and dried fruit oil while leaf and flower oils showed p -cymene, valencene, caryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol as common constituent. All the essential oils and successive extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. Each of the essential oils and extracts were found to give promising results against B. subtilis and E. coli. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. Fruits and leaves oil were found to be most active against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Only flowers oil was found to be active against P. aeruginosa. PMID:20046787

Khokra, S L; Prakash, O; Jain, S; Aneja, K R; Dhingra, Yogita

19

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts that are generally recognized as safe for their intended use, within the meaning of section 409 of the act, are as follows: Common name Derivation Ambergris Physeter macrocephalus...

2009-04-01

20

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18226481

Al-Bayati, Firas A

2007-12-14

21

[Study of the antimicrobial action of various essential oils extracted from Malagasy plants. II: Lauraceae].  

PubMed

The microbial growth inhibitory properties of some Lauraceae essential oils, Laurus nobilis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Ravensara anisata were studied by the determination of their respective M.I.C. (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration). Five bacterial strains, one fungi and two yeasts were used to evaluate the essential oils inhibitory capacities. These vegetable extracts, with decrease activity, were range also: C. zeylanicum--bark greater than R. anisata--bark greater than C. zeylanicum--leaves greater than L. nobilis greater than R. anisata--leaves. The essential oils extracted from cinnamon and R. anisata--bark were very interesting by their antifungic activities. PMID:2633710

Raharivelomanana, P J; Terrom, G P; Bianchini, J P; Coulanges, P

1989-01-01

22

Supercritical extraction of clove bud essential oil: isolation and mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clove bud essential oil has been isolated by supercritical CO2 extraction performed at 90 bar, 50°C plus a fractional separation of the extracts in two separators operated in series. The experiments have been performed at three CO2 flow rates and at four extraction bed heights. Different models based on the numerical integration of differential mass balances have been tested. The

E. Reverchon; C. Marrone

1997-01-01

23

A Simple Method to Extract Essential Oils from Tissue Samples by Using Microwave Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave protocol to extract lipophilic substances from tissue was modified to extract essential oils (EOs) from plant tissue and insect feculae. The material, in a solvent transparent to microwave radiation, is exposed for a short time to steam in a microwave oven. EO extracts are analyzed directly by GC or GC-MS when plant material is fresh and terpenes contained

Nélida E. Gómez; Ludger Witte

2001-01-01

24

Antitumoral and antioxidant effect of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant properties of essential oils and aqueous extracts from Salvia pisidica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to investigate antitumoral effect of essential oils on cancer cells and their possible protective\\u000a (antioxidant) effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. Also, in vitro antioxidant properties of essential oils\\u000a and aqueous extracts from wild form and cultivated form of Salvia pisidica were compared.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We found out that essential oils from wild form (IC50 128, and

Aysun Ozkan; Ayse Erdogan; Munevver Sokmen; Saadet Tugrulay; Orhan Unal

2010-01-01

25

Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. RESULTS: The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, ?-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and ?-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). CONCLUSION: O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23553824

Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

2013-02-01

26

Geometric and Reynolds number effects on oregano ( Lippia Berlandieri Schauer) essential oil extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of geometry and Reynolds number on the production of essential oil were investigated. Experiments, performed on an oregano packed bed, were designed to reproduce expected plant operating conditions. A diffusive model was found to apply to oil extraction and effective diffusion coefficients were calculated as a function of the bed L\\/D ratio and Reynolds number. Effective diffusivities were found

J. A. Pérez-Galindo; J. López-Miranda; I. R. Mart??n-Dominguez

2000-01-01

27

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

28

Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts), which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:19056546

Tomczykowa, Monika; Tomczyk, Micha?; Jakoniuk, Piotr; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta

2008-01-01

29

Antifungal activities of Hedychium essential oils and plant extracts against mycotoxigenic fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fu...

30

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

2012-01-01

31

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

2011-01-01

32

The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: ? and ?-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

2009-08-01

33

Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519

Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-04-26

34

A SIMPLE METHOD TO EXTRACT ESSENTIAL OILS FROM TISSUE SAMPLES BY USING MICROWAVE RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—A microwave,protocol to extract lipophilic substances from tissue was modified to extract essential oils (EOs) from plant tissue and insect feculae. The material, in a solvent transparent to microwave radiation, is exposed for a short time to steam in a microwave,oven. EO extracts are analyzed directly by GC or GC-MS when plant material is fresh and terpenes contained in glandular

ELIDA E. G ´; LUDGER WITTE

2001-01-01

35

Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.  

PubMed

In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment. PMID:20813373

Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

2010-08-11

36

Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Four commonly used spices plants in Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effect using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay. Essential oils and various extracts of Heracleum persicum, Nigella arvensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Zingiber officinale were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. All of the tested fractions have exhibited more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Essential oils of H. persicum and C. zeylanicum have shown the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 0.007 and 0.03 microg/ml respectively. None of aqueous extracts showed significant cytotoxicity. The analysis of the essential oil of H. persicum showed the hexyl butyrate and octyl acetate as the main compounds. These results suggest some limitation for using of these spices in diet. Furthermore, these plants could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which might be studied in more details. PMID:19553182

Sharififar, Fariba; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan; Dehghan-Nudehe, Gholamreza; Ameri, Alieh; Alishahi, Fahimeh; Pourhemati, Amin

2009-07-01

37

Comparison of essential oils of clove buds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and other three traditional extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from clove buds with CO2 was explored. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature (30°C, 40°C, 50°C), pressure(10MPa, 20MPa, 30MPa) and particle size (three degree index), on the extraction yield and the content of eugenol in extracts was investigated using three-level orthogonal array design. The experimental results show that the temperature has

Wenqiang Guan; Shufen Li; Ruixiang Yan; Shaokun Tang; Can Quan

2007-01-01

38

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS OF SPICES AGAINST SALMONELLAE AND OTHER ENTEROBACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ethanolic extracts and essential oils of 14 spices including cardamom, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cumin, garlic, ginger, holy basil, kaffir lime leaves and peels, lemongrass, mace, nutmeg, black and white pepper, and turmeric were examined for their antibacterial activity against 20 serotypes of Salmonella and 5 species of other enterobacteria using disk diffusion method as preliminary screening. Of these, 9

Suree Nanasombat; Pana Lohasupthawee

2005-01-01

39

Assessment of Pruned NNARX Network for Steam Distillation Essential Oil Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the pruning performance of the Neural Network AutoRegressive with eXogenous (NNARX) network in modelling the steam distillation essential oil extraction. The model order will be selected based on Lipschitz criterion. In the model training, the unregularised models are utilised. The number of hidden neuron and iteration are fixed before the training session. The networks are pruned by

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Nazurah Tajjudin; Mazidah Tajjudin; Mohd Nasir Taib

40

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

41

Evaluation of ARMAX structure for steam distillation essential oil extraction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an essential oil extraction system with a refilling line is modeled based on data collected from a dedicated acquisition system. The ARMAX model structure is assumed and PRBS signal was used to perturb the process. The optimization of ARMAX model structure such as model order criterions is discussed. The model order criterions consist of NSSE, AIC, FPE

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

42

Black box modeling of steam distillation essential oil extraction system using ARMAX structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the temperature response of a steam distillation essential oil extraction system with a refilling line is modeled based on data collected using a dedicated acquisition system. The autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) model structure is assumed and the pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS) signal was used to perturb the process. The optimization of ARMAX model structure

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

2007-01-01

43

Headspace single drop microextraction coupled with microwave extraction of essential oil from plant materials.  

PubMed

Headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) coupled with microwave extraction (ME) was developed and applied to the extraction of the essential oil from dried Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry and Cuminum cyminum L. The operational parameters, such as microdrop volume, microwave absorption medium (MAM), extraction time, and microwave power were optimized. Ten microliters of decane was used as the microextraction solvent. Ionic liquid and carbonyl iron powder were used as MAM. The extraction time was less than 7 min at the microwave power of 440 W. The proposed method was compared with hydrodistillation (HD). There were no obvious differences in the constituents of essential oils obtained by the two methods. PMID:21416601

Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ziming; Zhang, Yupu; Liu, He; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

2011-03-18

44

Response Surface Methodology to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Essential Oil from Amormum krevanh Pierre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was employed to investigate the effects of operating conditions and predict the optimal conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Amomum krevanh Pierre. The factors investigated were operating temperature (33–67°C), the operating pressure (91–259 bar), and the extraction time (20–70 min). The main effect of the operating pressure and the interaction effect between the operating temperature

Wipawee Yothipitak; Motonobu Goto; Nattanporn Tonanon; Panatpong Boonnoun; Artiwan Shotipruk

2009-01-01

45

Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.  

PubMed

Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts. PMID:23292852

Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

2013-01-01

46

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and Extract of Hypericum elongatum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HOFARIGHUN, RAEE flower, thousand eyes wort are popular names for Hypericum sp in Persian language mostly called H. perforatum. It has been used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antimigraine, antiepileptic and cholagouge. Tisane of these plants in red wine was used as snake bite and burning remedy. The volatile constituents, obtained from air-dried aerial parts of fruiting Hypericum elongatum were analyzed by GC/MS method. Thirty four components of about 96.50% of total oil were identified. Pinene (80.43%), Terpinene (4.23%) and Pinene <ß>(2.59%) were the principal components (87.16%). The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and anti-yeast activities by using disc diffusion method. Screening of the antimicrobials was investigated on Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112, Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1114, Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 8043), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli PTCC 1338, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1047, Salmonella typhi PTCC 1609), yeasts (Candida albicans ATCC 14053, Candida kefyr ATCC 3826) and fungi (Aspergillus niger PLM 1140, Aspergillus fumigatus PLM 712). The MIC of essential oil also was identified. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil against all of the microorganisms was observed, except Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. In spite of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract against bacteria, there was no antimicrobial activity against fungi and yeasts. A survey of the literature revealed no reports dealing with chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activity of Hypericum elongatum.

Ghasemi, Younes; Khalaj, Amir; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Khosravi, Ahmad Reza; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein

47

Growth inhibition of tomato-rot fungi by phenolic acids and essential oil extracts of pepperfruit ( Dennetia tripetala)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic and essential oil extracts of pepperfruit (Dennetia tripetala) showed antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces sp., Candida tropicalis, Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium sp. isolated from spoilt tomato fruits and cultured on agar plates. Antifungal activity of phenolic and essential oil extracts was observed at inhibitory concentrations (IC) in the range of

Bernard O. Ejechi; Obioma E. Nwafor; Fabian J. Okoko

1999-01-01

48

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

2003-01-01

49

Influence of the Processes Extraction on Essential Oil of Origanum glandulosum Desf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils obtained from Origanum glandulosum Desf. using supercritical carbon dioxide, micro wavedistillation, hydrodistillation and solvent ethanol were analyzed with GC/MS. The extraction with pressurized CO2 was performed at 15°C and 67 bar. The major valuable component extracted was thymol (63.8, 75.3, 55.6 and 82.4%), respectively, wile The p-cymene and ?-tepinene were revealed only in CO2 extract, microwavedistillation and hydrodistillation (13.7, 6.0 and 12.5%) and (6.8, 8.4 and 11.2%), respectively.

Bendahou, M.; Benyoucef, M.; Benkada, D.; Soussa Elisa, M. B. D.; Galvao, E. L.; Marques, M. M. O.; Muselli, A.; Desjobert, J. M.; Bernardini, A. F.; Costa, J.

50

A study on the essential oil of Ferulago campestris: how much does extraction method influence the oil composition?  

PubMed

The essential oil of different parts of Ferulago campestris (Bess.) collected in Sicily has been extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and by classic hydrodistillation (HD). A comparative qualitative-quantitative study on the composition of the oils was carried out. A total of 100 compounds were identified in the oils obtained by MAHD, whereas 88 compounds characterized the HD oils. The most prominent components were, in all different parts of F. campestris and in both extraction methods, 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde isomers; the latter was not previously found. The attempt to evaluate where the oil components are located in all parts of the plant was carried out by means of a kinetic study. Then, electron microscopy observation on the different parts before and after MAHD and HD was performed. PMID:21254397

Riela, Serena; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Saladino, Maria L; Caponetti, Eugenio; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice

2011-01-20

51

Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract.  

PubMed

This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53-76%) and seeds (51-95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300 mg kg(-1) dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of gastric lesions (91% and 95%, respectively) which was similar to that induced by omeprazole (94%). Essential oil and aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts of A. graveolens were tested to determine their antibacterial activity using the paper disc-diffusion method, the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration. Essential oil of A. graveolens was strongly inhibitory against Escherichia coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The chemical composition of the volatile oil was investigated by gas chromatography analysis. The major components identified were ?-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, ?-thuyene, ?-pinene, ?-phellendrene, p-cymene, ?-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene. PMID:22934666

Baananou, Sameh; Bouftira, Ibtissem; Mahmoud, Amor; Boukef, Kamel; Marongiu, Bruno; Boughattas, Naceur A

2012-08-30

52

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were compared with those of the essential oils extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. While MAHD at 660 W required half as much time as HD needed, similar antibacterial efficacies were found from the essential oils obtained by the two extraction methods on two food pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacterium, and Escherchia coli, a gram negative bacterium). Also, as it was the case with the essential oils extracted by HD, that of MAHD indicated greater influence on S. aureus than on E. coli. The compositions of the extracted essential oils were also studied using GC-MS analysis. The same components with negligible differences in their quantities were found in the extracted essential oils using the two methods outlined above. Overall, to reduce the extraction time, MAHD can be applied at higher microwave levels without any compromise in the antibacterial properties of the essential oils extracted.

Rezvanpanah, Shila; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi

2011-01-01

53

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.  

PubMed

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were compared with those of the essential oils extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. While MAHD at 660 W required half as much time as HD needed, similar antibacterial efficacies were found from the essential oils obtained by the two extraction methods on two food pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacterium, and Escherchia coli, a gram negative bacterium). Also, as it was the case with the essential oils extracted by HD, that of MAHD indicated greater influence on S. aureus than on E. coli. The compositions of the extracted essential oils were also studied using GC-MS analysis. The same components with negligible differences in their quantities were found in the extracted essential oils using the two methods outlined above. Overall, to reduce the extraction time, MAHD can be applied at higher microwave levels without any compromise in the antibacterial properties of the essential oils extracted. PMID:24031778

Rezvanpanah, Shila; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi

2011-12-01

54

Extraction and GC\\/MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil, which was obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae), was analyzed using both GC\\/MS and Kovat's indices. The major components extracted from the stems, leaves and inflorescences were found to be ?-thujone (8.3–21.7%), camphor (8.6–11.7%), 1, 8-cineole (7.7–15.2%), ?-pinene (3.8–7.8%) and sabinene (5.7–8.9%). More than sixty components have been identified; forty of

Jean-Marie Hachey; Guy-J. Collin; Michel-J. Gagnon; Sandra Simard; Sylvain Dufour; France-Ida Jean; Gaston Vernin; Daniel Fraisse

1990-01-01

55

Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle ( Myrtus communis var. italica L.) leaf, stem and flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Myrtus communis var. italica L. leaf, stem and flower. Myrtle leaf and flower were the valuable organs for the essential oil production representing a yield of 0.61% and 0.30% (w\\/w), respectively. The essential oil composition of myrtle leaf and flower

Wissem Aidi Wannes; Baya Mhamdi; Jazia Sriti; Mariem Ben Jemia; Olfa Ouchikh; Ghaith Hamdaoui; Mohamed Elyes Kchouk; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

56

Extraction of essential oils from garlic ( Allium sativum ) using ligarine as solvent and its immunity activity in gastric cancer rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent extraction (SE) of garlic essential oil (Allium sativum) was studied. A multivariate study based on a four-factor, three-level Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to evaluate the\\u000a influence of four major variables affecting the performance of the SE of garlic essential oil. The yield and the composition\\u000a of the essential oils from garlic obtained by SE were determined, and

Rui LiWei-chang; Wei-chang Chen; Wei-peng Wang; Wen-yan Tian; Xue-guang Zhang

2010-01-01

57

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

2011-10-19

58

Improved solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from dried Cuminum cyminum L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a recently developed green technique which is performed in atmospheric conditions without adding any solvent or water. SFME has already been applied to extraction of essential oil from fresh plant materials or dried materials prior moistened. The essential oil is evaporated by the in situ water in the plant materials. In this paper, it was observed that an improved SFME, in which a kind of microwave absorption solid medium, such as carbonyl iron powders (CIP), was added and mixed with the sample, can be applied to extraction of essential oil from the dried plant materials without any pretreatment. Because the microwave absorption capacity of CIP is much better than that of water, the extraction time while using the improved SFME is no more than 30 min using a microwave power of 85 W. Compared to the conventional SFME, the advantages of improved SFME were to speed up the extraction rate and need no pretreatment. Improved SFME has been compared with conventional SFME, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from dried Cuminum cyminum L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. By using GC-MS system the compositions of essential oil extracted by applying four kinds of extraction methods were identified. There was no obvious difference in the quality of essential oils obtained by the four kinds of extraction methods. PMID:16266711

Wang, Ziming; Ding, Lan; Li, Tiechun; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Hanqi; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Hongju; Zeng, Hong; He, Hui

2005-11-02

59

[Study on chemical constituents of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation].  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). Their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared. 48 compounds were identified for the essential oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, and its main components have been found to be myristic acid, myristicin, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene and safrole. 38 compounds were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components have been found to be beta-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene and beta-phellandrene. PMID:15810588

Qiu, Qin; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Xiaomin; Liu, Xinxin

2004-11-01

60

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional hydrodistillation in the extraction of essential oils from mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers.  

PubMed

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) is an advanced hydrodistillation (HD) technique, in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. MAHD and HD methods have been compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in the isolation of essential oils from fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers. MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (75 min against 4 h). The composition of the extracted essential oils was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results indicate that the use of microwave irradiation did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oils. MAHD was also found to be a green technology. PMID:21042260

Wang, Hong-Wu; Liu, Yan-Qing; Wei, Shou-Lian; Yan, Zi-Jun; Lu, Kuan

2010-10-29

61

Solvent free microwave extraction of Elletaria cardamomum L.: A multivariate study of a new technique for the extraction of essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of cardamom essential oil (Elletaria cardamomum L.) was studied. A multivariate study based on a central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of the solvent-free microwave extraction of cardamom seed. The yield and the composition of the essential oils from the dry cardamom seeds obtained

Marie E. Lucchesi; Jacqueline Smadja; Steven Bradshaw; Willem Louw; Farid Chemat

2007-01-01

62

Determination of the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extracts of Echinophora platyloba DC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Echinophora platyloba from Iran. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC\\/MS (mass spectrometry; MS) analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 29 compounds, which comprised 97.4% of the oil. The main constituents were found to be: (Z)-?-ocimene (26.7%),

M. B. Gholivand; M. Rahimi-Nasrabadi; E. Mehraban; M. Niasari; H. Batooli

2011-01-01

63

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.  

PubMed

Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

2010-09-01

64

Extraction of essential oil and pigments from Curcuma longa [L] by steam distillation and extraction with volatile solvents.  

PubMed

Curcuma longa [Linn] (turmeric), of the Zingiberaceae family, has a great importance in the food, textile, and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this work was to identify the best processing conditions to maximize the yields of essential oil and pigments, as well as their content of ar-turmerone, (alpha and beta)-turmerone, and the curcuminoids, respectively. Autoclave pressure and distillation time were the variables studied for the steam distillation process. The highest yields of essential oil (0.46 wt %) and pigment (0.16 wt %)-expressed as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin-were obtained at a pressure of 1.0 x 10(5) Pa and a time of 2 h. On the other hand, with extraction by volatile solvents, the best yield of essential oil (5.49 wt %) was obtained when using 0.175, 0.124, 0.088 mm particles (Foust, A. S.; Wenzel, L. A.; Clump, C. W.; Maus, L.; Andersen, L. B. Princípios das Operações Unitárias; Editora Guanabara Dois S.A.: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1982), at 40 degrees C, and 6 h of extraction. However, the best yield of pigment (7.98 wt %) was obtained under the same conditions, except for the temperature (30 degrees C). PMID:14582978

Manzan, Anna Carolina C M; Toniolo, Fabio S; Bredow, Eliane; Povh, Nanci P

2003-11-01

65

Essential-oil and fatty-acid composition, and antioxidant activity of extracts of Ficaria kochii.  

PubMed

The essential-oil and fatty-acid composition of the aerial parts of Ficaria kochii (Ledeb.) Iranshahr & Rech.f. native to Iran, and the antioxidant activity of various extracts of this plant were examined. The study by GC-FID and GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 61 compounds, representing 86.01% of the total oil composition. Phytol (10.49%), farnesol (7.72%), methyl linoleate (5.57%), and ?-farnesene (4.96%) were the main components. The fatty-acid composition of the aerial parts of F. kochii was also analyzed by GC/MS. The major components were palmitic acid (25.9%), linolenic acid (25.3%), and linoleic acid (17.5%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids. The possible antioxidant activity of various extracts (prepared by using solvents with different polarity) of the F. kochii aerial parts was evaluated by screening for their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(III) -reducing power, total antioxidant activity, and inhibitory activity in the linoleic acid-peroxidation system. H(2) O proved to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of antioxidants, as the H(2) O extract contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds (2.78±0.23 GAE/g dry matter) and also exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity in all the assays used. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that the aerial parts of F. kochii can be used as natural and safe nutrition supplement in place of synthetic ones. PMID:23255443

Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Naqinezhad, Alireza

2012-12-01

66

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and extracts of Saurauia lantsangensis hu root.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and n-hexane (HEE), chloroform (CHE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and methanol (MEE) extracts, respectively, from the root of Saurauia lantsangensis Hu were investigated. The GC-MS analysis revealed 39 compounds representing 96.41% of the oil containing T-muurolol (13.85%), acetophenone (7.46%), alpha-cadinol (6.26%), methyl palmitate (5.36%), n-hexadecanoic acid (4.31%), torreyol (3.69%), and isospathulenol (3.48%) as major components. Antioxidant activities determined by three various testing systems, i.e., DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and reducing power assay, increased in the order: HEE < CHE < oil < MEE < EAE. CHE, EAE, MEE and oil exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect determined as the diameter of zones of inhibition (13.3-16.2, 16.5-20.4, 13.5-16.6, and 16.5-22.7 mm), respectively, along with their respective MIC values (500-1000, 125-500, 250-500, and 250-500 microg/ml) against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), and a yeast (Hansenula anomala). PMID:22888533

Zhu, Liang; Zhu, Si-ming; Tian, Ying-juan

67

Antifungal properties of essential oil and crude extracts of Hypericum linarioides Bosse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum linarioides Bosse by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC–MS. It was determined that 74 compounds, which represent 84.1% of total oil, were present in the oil. The oil contains mainly ?-cadinene (6.9%), (Z)-?-farnesene (5.2%), ?-muurolene (5.5%), spathulenol (4.8%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (4.5%) and ?-selinene (4.0%). The oil was

Ahmet Cakir; Saban Kordali; Hamdullah Kilic; Ercan Kaya

2005-01-01

68

A surprising method for green extraction of essential oil from dry spices: Microwave dry-diffusion and gravity.  

PubMed

Without adding any solvent or water, we proposed a novel and green approach for the extraction of secondary metabolites from dried plant materials. This "solvent, water and vapor free" approach based on a simple principle involves the application of microwave irradiation and earth gravity to extract the essential oil from dried caraway seeds. Microwave dry-diffusion and gravity (MDG) has been compared with a conventional technique, hydrodistillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from dried caraway seeds. Essential oils isolated by MDG were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by HD, but MDG was better than HD in terms of rapidity (45min versus 300min), energy saving, and cleanliness. The present apparatus permits fast and efficient extraction, reduces waste, avoids water and solvent consumption, and allows substantial energy savings. PMID:20961551

Farhat, Asma; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Visinoni, Franco; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chemat, Farid

2010-10-01

69

Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques

2012-01-01

70

Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques

2011-01-01

71

Determination of the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extracts of Echinophora platyloba DC.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Echinophora platyloba from Iran. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/MS (mass spectrometry; MS) analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 29 compounds, which comprised 97.4% of the oil. The main constituents were found to be: (Z)-?-ocimene (26.7%), ?-3-carene (16.2%) and limonene (6.6%). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the methanolic extracts from E. platyloba were evaluated using three different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ?-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching and reducing power assays. In the DPPH system, the highest radical-scavenging activity was shown by the polar sub-fraction of methanol extract (71.2 ± 1.11 µg mL(-1)). Also in the second case, the relative inhibition capacity (%) of the essential oil (68.0 ± 1.14%) was found to be the stronger one. In addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the polar sub-fractions of methanolic extract (67.5 ± 0.48 µg mg(-1)), nonpolar sub-fractions of methanol extract (35.3 ± 0.12) and the oil (83.3 ± 0.24 µg mg(-1)) were determined. PMID:21644173

Gholivand, M B; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, M; Mehraban, E; Niasari, M; Batooli, H

2011-06-03

72

Screening of the antioxidant activity of essential oil and various extracts of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and various extracts of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. from Turkey. The total of the 40 identified components accounted for 97.23% (GC) and 95.10% (FID) of the total oil. Major components of the oil were borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and spathulenol. To determine the presence of

Ismihan Goze; Ahmet Alim; Arzuhan Sihoglu Tepe; Munevver Sokmen; Kemal Sevgi; Bektas Tepe

73

Determination of Essential Oil Composition of Prangos acaulis (DC) Bornm Obtained by Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition of the essential oil of the Prangos acaulis was extracted by Hydrodistillation (HD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) methods from aerial parts at full flowering stage. Their compositions were identified using GC/MS as the method of analysis. The analyses reveal that samples differ quantitatively and qualitatively. A total of 21 compounds constituting 89.1% of aerial parts oil were in SFE method. The oil obtained by SFE was under condition: pressure 120 bar, temperature 45°C and extraction time 45 min. On the other hand, 26 compounds constituting 98.74% of oil were in HD method. In according to our results, in both extracts, the two compounds present in the biggest quantity were: ?-pinene (13.7 versus 22.87% in the SFE and HD oil, respectively) and 3-ethylidene-2-methyl-1-hexen-4-yne (14.3 versus 21.36%).

Hadavand Mirzaei, Hossein; Hadi Meshkatalsadat, Mohammad; Soheilivand, Saeed

74

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

75

Effect of different liming levels on the biomass production and essential oil extraction yield of Cunila galioides Benth.  

PubMed

Poejo is an aromatic and medicinal plant native to highland areas of south Brazil, in acid soils with high Al3+ concentration. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of liming on the extraction yield of essential oil of three chemotypes of poejo (Cunila galioides Benth). For this purpose, the experiments were performed in a greenhouse, using 8-litre pots. The treatments were four dosages of limestone (0, 3.15, 12.5, and 25 g.L(-1)) and a completely random experimental design was used, with four replications and three chemotypes, set up in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The parameters evaluated were dry weight of aerial parts, essential oil content and chemical composition of essential oil. Results showed that liming affects the biomass production, essential oil yield and chemical composition, with cross interaction verified between chemotype and limestone dosage. For the higher dosage lower biomass production, lower yield of essential oil as well as the lowest content of citral (citral chemotype) and limonene (menthene chemotype) was observed. In the ocimene chemotype, no liming influence was observed on the essential oil yield and on the content of major compounds. The dosage of 3.15 g.L(-1) can be considered the best limestone dosage for the production of poejo for the experimental conditions evaluated. PMID:23295505

Mossi, A J; Pauletti, G F; Rota, L; Echeverrigaray, S; Barros, I B I; Oliveira, J V; Paroul, N; Cansian, R L

2012-11-01

76

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. The goal of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of R. officinalis collected from three different regions at four different time intervals of the year against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus feacalis,

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. E. Hames Kocabas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan; T. Ozek; K. H. C. Baser

2007-01-01

77

Assessment of ARMAX Structure as a Global Model for Self-Refilling Steam Distillation Essential Oil Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an essential oil extraction system with self-refilling system is modeled based on input- output data collected from a dedicated acquisition system. The ARMAX model structure is assumed and PRBS signal was used to perturb the process in open-loop manner. Two PRBS signals with different probability band were tested at different operating points. A total of three data

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

2007-01-01

78

Comparison between neural network and mathematical modeling of supercritical CO 2 extraction of black pepper essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feed-forward multi-layer neural network with Levenberg–Marquardt training algorithm was developed to predict yield for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper essential oil. Since yield of extraction strongly depends on five independent variables including residence time, supercritical carbon dioxide temperature and pressure, particle size and supercritical carbon dioxide mass flux per unit mass of substratum, these five inputs were

Mohammad Izadifar; Farzad Abdolahi

2006-01-01

79

Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Eucalyptus gillii essential oil and extracts.  

PubMed

In this study, essential oil and various extracts (hexane, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) of Eucalyptus gilii were screened for their chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), respectively. Thirty four compounds were identified, corresponding to 99.5% of the total essential oil. Tannins [104.9-251.3 g catechin equivalent (CE)/Kg dry mass], flavonoids [3.3-34.3 g quercetin equivalent (QE)/Kg dry mass], phenolics [4.7-216.6 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/Kg dry mass] and anthocyannins [1.2-45.3 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent (C3GE)/Kg dry mass] of various extracts were investigated. Free radical scavenging capacity of all samples was determinedt. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the IC50 of essential oil was 163.5 ± 10.7 mg/L and in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) assay, it was 94.7 ± 7.1 mg/L. Among the various extracts, the water extract showed the best result (IC50 = 11.4 ± 0.6 mg/L) in the DPPH assay which was comparable to vitamin C (IC50 = 4.4 ± 0.2 mg/L). The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against different bacterial and fungal strains. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive to the essential oil and extracts than Gram negative ones. Anthocyanins seem to have a major effect on the growth of Bacillus subtilis (R2 = 0.79). A significant antifungal activity was observed against the yeast and fungi. Correlations between chemical composition and antioxidant activities were studied and R2 values were about 0.96 for the effect of phenolics on the DPPH assay. PMID:22878228

Ben Hassine, Dorsaf; Abderrabba, Manef; Yvon, Yan; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Couderc, François; Bouajila, Jalloul

2012-08-09

80

Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.  

PubMed

Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be ?-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-?-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium. PMID:23027699

Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2012-10-02

81

Application of factorial design and Box-Behnken matrix in the optimisation of a microwave-assisted extraction of essential oils from Salvia mirzayanii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Salvia mirzayanii cultivated in Iran was obtained by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) procedures. The essential oil was analysed by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation and mass spectrometric detections. The effects of different parameters, such as microwave power, temperature, time and type of solvent on the MAE of Salvia mirzayanii oil were investigated. Results of the two-level

Mostafa Khajeh; Ahmad Ghanbari

2011-01-01

82

Biomolecular characterization of wild sicilian oregano: phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of wild Sicilian oregano was made. A total of 57 samples were collected from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. Based on morphological and production characteristics obtained from the 57 samples, cluster analysis was used to divide the samples into homogeneous groups, to identify the best biotypes. All samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying a cascade-extraction protocol and hydrodistillation, to obtain the non volatile components and the essential oils, respectively. The extracts contained thirteen polyphenol derivatives, i.e., four flavanones, seven flavones, and two organic acids. Their qualitative and quantitative characterization was carried out by LC/MS analyses. The essential oils were characterized using a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS analyses; a total of 81 components were identified. The major components of the oils were thymol, p-cymene, and ?-terpinene. Cluster analysis was carried out on both phytochemical profiles and resulted in the division of the oregano samples into different chemical groups. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts was investigated by the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) colorimetric assay, by UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and by determining the O(2)(?-)-scavenging activity. PMID:23495158

Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio; Speciale, Antonio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Pasquale, Andrea; Curcuruto, Giusy; Ruberto, Giuseppe

2013-03-01

83

Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of the essential oils and crude extracts of Merremia borneensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydro distilled essential leaves and stems oils of Merremia borneensis were analysed by GC–MS. Sixty-nine compounds representing 96.81% and 89.89% of the leaves and stems oils, respectively, were identified, of which chloromethyl propanoate (3.29% and 3.54%), methylcyclopropanemethanol (1.29% and 1.03%), oxirane (1.41% and 1.05%), 1-penten-3-ol (1.33% and 1.12%), 1-(2-propenyloxy)-heptane (3.44% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), l-octen-3-ol (1.56% and

M. Amzad Hossain; Muhammad Dawood Shaha; Senty Vun Sanga; Mahyar Sakarib

84

Essential oil composition and in vitro biological activity of Achillea millefolium L. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Achillea genus is one of the widely used genera to treat various medical ailments. In this study, gas chromatography (GS) and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the A. millefolium L. Human skin fi broblasts (HSF) viability based on spectrophotometrical 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Neutral Red (NR) methods and morphological analysis was

Roman Paduch; Magdalena Nowak-Kryska; Piotr Niedziela; Martyna Kandefer-Szersze?

85

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils and supercritical CO2 extracts of Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag.  

PubMed

Aerial parts of Apium nodiflorum collected in Portugal and Italy were submitted to hydrodistillation; also a supercritical fluid extract was obtained from Italian plants. The extracts were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Both essential oils, obtained from Portuguese and Italian plants, posses high content of phenylpropanoids (51.6 vs. 70.8%); in the former, the percentage split in myristicin (29.1%) and dillapiol (22.5%), whereas in the latter, the total percentage is only of dillapiol (70.8%). The co-occurrence of myristicin and dillapiol is frequent because dillapiol results from enzymatic methoxylation of myristicin. Antimicrobial activity of phenylpropanoids has been patented, what suggest the potential of plants with high amounts of these compounds. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration, determined according to NCCLS, were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oils against yeasts, Aspergillus species and dermatophytes. Essential oils exhibited higher antifungal activity than other Apiaceae against dermatophytes, with MIC ranging from 0.04 to 0.32 ?l/ml. These results support the potential of A. nodiflorum oil in the treatment of dermatophytosis and candidosis. PMID:22237925

Maxia, Andrea; Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Frau, Maria Assunta; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

2012-01-12

86

Studies on the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of Marrubium globosum subsp. globosum (lamiaceae) by three different chemical assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and sub-fractions of the methanol extract of Marrubium globosum subsp. globosum. The GC and GC–MS analysis of the essential oil were resulted in the determination of 84 components representing 88.2% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were spathulenol (15.8%),

Cengiz Sarikurkcu; Bektas Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Mansur Harmandar

2008-01-01

87

Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant. PMID:22466851

Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-03-30

88

[Research of the essential oil of Plumeria rubra var. actifolia from Laos by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction].  

PubMed

The orthogonal test and the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction were used for optimizing the extraction of the essential oil from Plumeria rubra var. actifolia for the first time. Compared with the steam distillation, the optimal operation parameter of extraction was as follows: extraction pressure 25 MPa, extraction temperature 45 degrees C; separator I pressure 12 MPa, separator I temperature 55 degrees C; separator II pressure 6 MPa, separator II temperature 30 degrees C. Under this condition the yield of the essential oil was 5.8927%. The components were separated and identified by GC-MS. 53 components of Plumeria rubra var. actifolia measured by SFE method were identified and determined by normalization method. The main components were 1, 6, 10-dodecatrien-3-ol, 3, 7, 11-trimethyl, benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, phenylmethyl ester, 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester,etc.. 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) este. took up 66.11% of the total amount, and there was much difference of the results from SD method. PMID:21954569

Xiao, Xin-Yu; Cui, Long-Hai; Zhou, Xin-Xin; Wu, Yan; Ge, Fa-Huan

2011-05-01

89

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidant and properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare plants. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare was analyzed by a GC\\/MS system. A total 62 constituents were identified. Caryophyllene and spathulenol were found to be the main constituents,

F ?ahin; M Güllüce; D Daferera; A Sökmen; M Sökmen; M Polissiou; G Agar; H Özer

2004-01-01

90

Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

91

Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

92

Thermodynamic and kinetic models for the extraction of essential oil from savory and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil with hot (subcritical) water and supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms that control the extraction rates of essential oil from savory (Satureja hortensis) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from historically-contaminated soil with hot water and supercritical carbon dioxide were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow-rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent

Alena Kubátová; Boris Jansen; Jean-François Vaudoisot; Steven B Hawthorne

2002-01-01

93

Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-11-12

94

Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. obtained by hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a perennial herb that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It is used as a food flavouring agent, and well known medicinally for its powerful antimutagenic, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. Essential oils were obtained from this plant by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent free microwave extraction (SFME). GC–MS analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 24 and

O. O. Okoh; A. P. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2010-01-01

95

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria.  

PubMed

A method for reproducibly determining minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of plant extracts towards fastidiously and facultatively anaerobic oral bacteria, predicated upon measurements of optical densities in microtitre plate wells, was devised. The antimicrobial properties of some botanical oils were surveyed; of these, Australian tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and sage oil proved to be the most potent essential oils, whereas thymol and eugenol were potent essential oil components. PMID:7478759

Shapiro, S; Meier, A; Guggenheim, B

1994-08-01

96

Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the

D. E. Cross; R. M. Mcdevitt; T. Acamovic

2011-01-01

97

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

98

Composition of Essential Oil Obtained From Tubular, Head and Ligulate Flowers of Calendula officinalis L. by Steam Distillation of Plant Material and CO2 Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil content of tubular, head and ligulate flowers of Calendula officinalis L. were determined using official steam distillation procedure. It was found that the ligulate flower sample had the highest oil content (0.16%). Applying SFE by means of CO2 (200 bar, 40°C, 3 h extraction time), the highest extraction yield was found in tubular and ligulate flower samples (3.67%

Lidija Petrovi?; Žika Lepojevi?; Verica Sovilj; Dušan Adamovi?; Vele Teševi?

2010-01-01

99

Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC\\/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and ?-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil

Federica Menichini; Rosa Tundis; Marco Bonesi; Bruno de Cindio; Monica R. Loizzo; Filomena Conforti; Giancarlo A. Statti; Roberta Menabeni; Ruggero Bettini; Francesco Menichini

2011-01-01

100

Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl\\/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53–76%) and seeds (51–95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300?mg?kg dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of

Sameh Baananou; Ibtissem Bouftira; Amor Mahmoud; Kamel Boukef; Bruno Marongiu; Naceur A. Boughattas

2012-01-01

101

Mass Transfer and Equilibrium Parameters on High-Pressure CO 2 Extraction of Plant Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Supercritical fluids (SCF) in general and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in particular allow convenient and environmentally friendly extraction processes because of their liquid-like solvent properties\\u000a and gas-like transport properties, that allow efficient and fast extraction processes, and complete elimination of solvent\\u000a traces from extracts and treated substrates. High-pressure CO2 is an inexpensive gas that offers safe and selective supercritical fluids

José M. Valle; Juan C. Fuente; Edgar Uquiche; Carsten Zetzl; Gerd Brunner

102

GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Coral Ginger ( Zingiber corallinum Hance) Rrhizome Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Steam Distillation Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical compositions of volatile oils extracted from Zingiber corallinum Hance were obtained by steam distillation extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry analysis. The effects of pressure, temperature, modifier volume, and extraction time on the SFE of Z. corallinum oil were investigated, and optimization of the conditions were: extraction temperature, 30 °C; dynamic extraction time,

Yang Zhannan; Luo Shiqiong; Peng Quancai; Zhao Chao; Yu Zhengwen

2009-01-01

103

Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay laurel EO were eucalyptol (27.2%), ?-terpinenyl acetate (10.2%), linalool (8.4%), methyleugenol (5.4%), sabinene (4.0%) and carvacrol (3.2%). The EO exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested foodborne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, whereas this activity was less pronounced or even nonexistent in the EE and AE. In contrast, EO exhibited low antioxidant activity compared to extracts (EX), and among the EX, the hot AE revealed the highest antioxidant ability. The results show that bay laurel EO and its EX have potential as natural alternatives to synthetic food preservatives, in order to enhance food safety and increase food shelf life. PMID:21756182

Ramos, C; Teixeira, B; Batista, I; Matos, O; Serrano, C; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Nunes, M L; Marques, A

2011-07-15

104

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oil and oleoresin from chamomile ( Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowers of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert) were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide using a fixed bed extractor. The experimental work was conducted to identify the best process conditions to maximize the yield of extract and its content of ?-bisabolol and chamazulene. The experimental setup used a fixed bed extractor (diameter of 3.96×10?2 m and length 16.55×10?2 m). The fixed

Nanci P. Povh; Marcia O. M. Marques; M. Angela A. Meireles

2001-01-01

105

[Quality evaluation of essential oils].  

PubMed

Essential oils on the market were analyzed using GC-MS and the main ingredients of each essential oil were quantified. Analysis of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis (lavender oil) showed that each sample had a different ratio of the contents of main ingredients, such as linalool, linalyl acetate, and camphor. In addition, some commercial lavender oils were analyzed by GC-MS for comparison with the Lavandula flagrans (lavandin oil) and the reference standard. As a result of this analysis, although the components of almost all commercial lavender oils were approximately the same as those of the reference standard, there were a few products that contained more than 0.5% of the amount of camphor in lavandin oil. This suggests that some lavender oil samples are mixed with lavandin oil to lower the price. Commercial essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (teatree oil) and Mentha piperita (peppermint oil) were also analyzed by GC-MS. Each of the peppermint oil samples had a different ratio in the content of its main ingredient. With respect to teatree oils, the amount of terpinens in each sample differed. These results led to concern about the efficacy of essential oils. For achieve the expected efficacy of essential oils, correct information on their ingredients should be available and quality control using instrumental analysis should be introduced. PMID:11905050

Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

2002-03-01

106

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum Grown in North-Western Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ?-fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ?-phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ?-pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ?-fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH•, reducing power and chelating ability on Fe2+ ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries.

Tiku, A. K.; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V. K.

2013-01-01

107

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil and extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum grown in north-western Himalaya.  

PubMed

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ? -fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ? -phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ? -pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ? -fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH(•), reducing power and chelating ability on Fe(2+) ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

Guleria, Sanjay; Tiku, A K; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V K

2013-05-28

108

Chemical composition and inhibitory parameters of essential oil and extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the floral parts of Nandina domestica Thunb. by hydrodistillation, and to test the efficacy of essential oil and various organic extracts against a panel of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19166, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1916, S. aureus ATCC6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC2004, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC2515, Salmonella enteridis KCCM12021, Escherichia coli 0157-Human, E. coli ATCC8739, E. coli 057:H7 ATCC43888 and Enterobacter aerognes KCTC2190. The chemical composition of essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. It was determined that 79 compounds, which represented 87.06% of total oil, were present in the oil. The oil contained mainly 1-indolizino carbazole (19.65%), 2-pentanone (16.4%), mono phenol (12.1%), aziridine (9.01%), methylcarbinol (4.6%), ethanone (3.3%), furfural (2.96%), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (1.29%) and 2(5H)-furanone (1.32%). The oil (1000 ppm/disc), and various organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol (1500 ppm/disc) exhibited promising antibacterial effect as a diameter of zones of inhibition (9-18 and 7-13 mm) and MIC values (62.5 to 1000 and 250 to 2000 microg/ml), respectively against the tested bacteria. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable count of the tested bacteria. These results indicate the potential efficacy of plant-based natural products such as essential oil and organic extracts of N. domestica to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. PMID:18541324

Bajpai, Vivek K; Rahman, Atiqur; Kang, Sun Chul

2008-03-30

109

Activity of essential oil and phenolic acid extracts of pepperfruit (Dennetia tripetala G. Barker; Anonaceae) against some food-borne microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous report showed that the essential oil and phenolic acid extracts of pepperfruit (Dennetia tripetala) inhibited the growth of tomato-rot fungi. The study was subsequently extended to other food- borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa., Proteus sp., Escherichia coli., Enterococcus faecalis., Serratia sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus) isolated from food products. All the

B. O. Ejechi; D. E. Akpomedaye

110

Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. using Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts of two plants including fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. have been studied with brine shrimp test. There is only one report about cytotoxicity of H. sphondylium in literature and so H. persicum has been used as second selection. At first

Mohammad Hassan Moshafi; Fariba Sharififar; Gholam-Reza Dehghan; Alieh Ameri

2009-01-01

111

Development of an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted method for simultaneous extraction and distillation for determination of proanthocyanidins and essential oil in Cortex cinnamomi.  

PubMed

Cortex cinnamomi is associated with many health benefits and is used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, an efficient ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) technique was used to extract cassia oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi; these were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the vanillin-HCl colorimetric method, respectively. 0.5M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 20.0 g sample were 230 W microwave irradiation power, 15 min microwave extraction time and 10 liquid-solid ratio. The yields of essential oil and proanthocyanidins were 1.24 ± 0.04% and 4.58 ± 0.21% under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Using the ILMSED method, the energy consumption was reduced and the extraction yields were improved. The proposed method was validated using stability, repeatability, and recovery experiments. The results indicated that the developed ILMSED method provided a good alternative for the extraction of both the essential oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi. PMID:22980836

Liu, Ye; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Wenjie

2012-07-07

112

Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and ?-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC?? value of 154.6 µg mL?¹) and AChE (IC?? value of 171.3 µg mL?¹. Interestingly, the oil obtained by cold-pressing exhibited a selective inhibitory activity against AChE. The essential oils have also been evaluated for the inhibition of NO production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted a significant inhibition of NO production with an IC?? value of 17 µg mL?¹ (IC?? of positive control 53 µg mL?¹). PMID:21337254

Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; de Cindio, Bruno; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menabeni, Roberta; Bettini, Ruggero; Menichini, Francesco

2011-02-15

113

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1!10 4 cells\\/well of KB cell line and 1! 10 5 cells\\/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962

Jiradej Manosroi; Pongsathorn Dhumtanom; Aranya Manosroi

2006-01-01

114

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1×104cells\\/well of KB cell line and 1×105cells\\/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962mg\\/ml. In KB cell line, Guava

Jiradej Manosroi; Pongsathorn Dhumtanom; Aranya Manosroi

2006-01-01

115

Antibacterial effect of five Zingiberaceae essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, turmeric, galangal, bastard cardamom and kaempferia were zingiberene, turmerone, methyl chavicol, and gamma-terpinene, respectively. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 mg/mL. PMID:17960105

Norajit, Krittika; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

2007-08-23

116

Seasonal changes in the composition of the essential oil extract of East Mediterranean sage (Salvia libanotica) and its toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Sage (Salvia libanotica) is an East Mediterranean plant, the extract of which is used for the treatment of colds, coughs, and stomach ache. Experimental studies on the toxicity of its oil are scarce despite its wide use in traditional medicine. This study aims to provide data on its acute toxicity and to investigate the relationship between seasonal changes in oil composition and toxicity. The composition of the oil extract from the leaves of this plant was determined at four different times of the year; August (summer), October (fall), January (winter) and April (spring). The toxicity of each fraction was investigated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection into mice. Distillations of oils from plants and GC analyses revealed that the main constituent of sage oil is 1,8-cineole. Other components included ketones such as camphor and alpha,beta-thujone, terpenes such as limonene and alpha,beta-pinene, and alcohols such as borneol and linalool. Major seasonal changes were found in the composition of the oil. Essential oil extracted from plants collected in the winter season (January) contained higher levels of camphor (12.3%), alpha,beta-thujone (1.9%), and camphene (4.8%). The winter extract was found to be the most toxic, (LD(50): 839 mg/kg body weight) and exhibited powerful convulsant properties. This indicates a strong correlation between the contents of camphor, thujones and camphene and the oils' toxicity. The spring extract was the least toxic (LD(50): 1200 mg/kg body weight) and contained lower levels of camphor (7.7%), alpha,beta-thujone (1.3%) and camphene (3.1%). Thus, we recommend that oil extracts of sage marketed for use in certain unconventional medicines be prepared from spring plants. PMID:11478969

Farhat, G N; Affara, N I; Gali-Muhtasib, H U

2001-10-01

117

Antibacterial Effect of Five Zingiberaceae Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger,

Krittika Norajit; Natta Laohakunjit; Orapin Kerdchoechuen

2007-01-01

118

"In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.  

PubMed

One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), ?-pinene (8.4%), and ?-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry. PMID:22526656

Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

2012-04-19

119

Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), ?-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides. PMID:20865426

Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

2010-09-24

120

Lavender essential oil: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender essential oil is popular as a complementary medicine in its own right and as an additive to many over the counter complementary medicine and cosmetic products ' \\\\ Indeed, products derived from the popular garden herb Lavender (Lavandula spp.) have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more 'recent ' addition, the essential oils derived from

Heather M. A. Cavanagh; Jenny M. Wilkinson

2005-01-01

121

Annonaceae Essential Oils: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species among the Tropical Annonaceae family are odorous; this property is due to the presence of essential oils which are mainly composed of mono- and sesquiterpene compounds. The aim of this work is to give an overview of all published studies on the chemical composition of essential oils of various plant parts taken from numerous species belonging to different

Gilbert Fournier; Michel Leboeuf; André Cavé

1999-01-01

122

Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils (orange oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, geranium oil, juniper oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, purified turpentine oil, thyme oil, Australian tea tree oil) and of menthol, the main component of peppermint oil, were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram (+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (?) Escherichia coli F'lac

Zsuzsanna Schelz; Joseph Molnar; Judit Hohmann

2006-01-01

123

Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well-defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg/kg and 100, 400 ?l/kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg/kg)/ethanol 50% v/v. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that RHE and REO are both effective to possess anti-colitic activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as a remedy for inflammatory bowel diseases in traditional medicine.

Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A. R.; Afsharipour, M.; Mahzouni, P.

2011-01-01

124

In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis L.  

PubMed

The present study was designated to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil, obtained by using a Clevenger distillation apparatus, water soluble (polar) and water insoluble (nonpolar) subfractions of the methanol extracts from aerial parts of Satureja hortensis L. plants, and methanol extract from calli established from the seeds using Gamborg's B5 basal media supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (1.0 ppm), 6-benzylaminopurine (N(6)-benzyladenine) (1.0 ppm), and sucrose (2.5%). The antimicrobial test results showed that the essential oil of S. hortensis had great potential antimicrobial activities against all 23 bacteria and 15 fungi and yeast species tested. In contrast, the methanol extract from callus cultures and water soluble subfraction of the methanol extract did not show antimicrobial activities, but the nonpolar subfraction had antibacterial activity against only five out of 23 bacterial species, which were Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus fecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Antioxidant studies suggested that the polar subfractions of the methanol extract of intact plant and methanol extract of callus cultures were able to reduce the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to the yellow-colored diphenylpicrylhydrazine. In this assay, the strongest effect was observed for the tissue culture extract, with an IC(50) value of 23.76 +/- 0.80 microgram/mL, which could be compared with the synthetic antioxidant agent butylated hydroxytoluene. On the other hand, linoleic acid oxidation was 95% inhibited in the presence of the essential oil while the inhibition was 90% with the chloroform subfraction of the intact plant. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of S. hortensis was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detection (FID) and a GC-mass spectrometry system. A total 22 constituents representing 99.9% of the essential oil were identified by GC-FID analaysis. Thymol (29.0%), carvacrol (26.5%), gamma-terpinene (22.6%), and p-cymene (9.3%) were the main components. PMID:12822930

Güllüce, M; Sökmen, M; Daferera, D; A?ar, G; Ozkan, H; Kartal, N; Polissiou, M; Sökmen, A; Sahin, F

2003-07-01

125

GC\\/MS analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Thymus caramanicus Jalas and its main constituent carvacrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition of the essential oil, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ?-carotene\\/linoleic acid assays), and total phenolic content (Folin–Ciocalteu assay) of aerial parts of Thymus caramanicus were determined. The highest radical-scavenging activity (DPPH test) was shown by the polar subfraction of the methanol extract (IC50=43.0?g\\/ml) which was also higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, IC50=19.7?g\\/ml). However, it was the nonpolar

Javad Safaei-Ghomi; Abdolrasoul H. Ebrahimabadi; Zahra Djafari-Bidgoli; Hossein Batooli

2009-01-01

126

Tea, Spices and Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils in 1985 were a record $106.6 million, nearly 16 percent greater than the previous year's shipments of $92.1 million. This increase largely reflects higher prices for lemon oil, which were more than double 1984 levels. Export...

1986-01-01

127

Optimized ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for determination of essential oil of Oliveria decumbens Vent.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UAE-DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) was applied for extraction and determination of essential oil constituents of the plant Oliveria decumbens Vent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to see the effect of ultrasonic radiation on the extraction efficiency. By comparison with hydrodistillation, UAE-DLLME is fast, low cost, simple, efficient and consuming small amount of plant materials (?1.0 g). The effects of various parameters such as temperature, ultrasonication time, volume of disperser and extraction solvents were investigated by a full factorial design to identify significant variables and their interactions. The results demonstrated that temperature and ultrasonication time had no considerable effect on the results. In the next step, a central composite design (CCD) was performed to obtain the optimum levels of significant parameters. The obtained optimal conditions were: 0.45 mL for disperser solvent (acetonitrile) and 94.84 ?L for extraction solvent (chlorobenzene). The limits of detection (LODs), linear dynamic range and determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.2-29 ng mL(-1), 1-2100 ng mL(-1) and 0.995-0.998, respectively. The main components of the essential oil were: thymol (47.06%), carvacrol (23.31%), gamma-terpinene (18.94%), p-cymene (8.71%), limonene (0.76%) and myristicin (0.63%). PMID:21679955

Sereshti, Hassan; Izadmanesh, Yahya; Samadi, Soheila

2011-05-18

128

Biological effects of essential oils – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components.

F. Bakkali; S. Averbeck; D. Averbeck; M. Idaomar

2008-01-01

129

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

130

Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

2009-01-01

131

Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.  

PubMed

Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

2012-03-27

132

Rapid analysis of the essential oils from dried Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. by improved solvent-free microwave extraction with three types of microwave-absorption medium.  

PubMed

A new method of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials has been studied. By adding a microwave-absorption medium (MAM) to a reactor, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was improved and can be used to extract essential oils from dried plant material without pretreatment. With a microwave irradiation power of 85 W it took only approximately 30 min to extract the essential oils completely. The whole extraction process is simple, rapid, and economical. Three types of MAM, iron carbonyl powder (ICP), graphite powder (GP), and activated carbon powder (ACP), and two types of dried plant material, Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc., were studied. The results were compared with those obtained by use of conventional SFME, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD), and conventional hydrodistillation (HD), and the conclusion drawn was that improved SFME was a feasible means of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials, because there were few differences between the composition of the essential oils extracted by improved SFME and by the other methods. PMID:17047940

Wang, Ziming; Wang, Lu; Li, Tiechun; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Lan; Yu, Yong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi

2006-09-19

133

Regulation of essential oil production in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a summary of the physiological dynamics andregulation of essential oil production, from the literature and availableinformation on diverse volatile oil crops. Essential oil production is highlyintegrated with the physiology of the whole plant and so depends on themetabolic state and preset developmental differentiation programme of thesynthesising tissue. Essential oil productivity is ecophysiologically andenvironmentally friendly. These and other

N. S. Sangwan; A. H. A. Farooqi; F. Shabih; R. S. Sangwan

2001-01-01

134

Variability of antioxidant and antibacterial effects of essential oils and acetonic extracts of two edible halophytes: Crithmum maritimum L. and Inula crithmo?des L.  

PubMed

This work aimed to assess the richness of the food halophytes Crithmum maritimum and Inula crithmo?des on phenolics and essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of these metabolites. Results displayed that extract of I. crithmo?des possesses considerable contents of phenolic compounds (14.1mg GAE.g(-1) DW) related to important antioxidant activities (IC50=13?gml(-1) for the DPPH test) as compared to C. maritimum. C. maritimum EOs composition is dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes, while I. crithmo?des one is mainly consisted by monoterpene hydrocarbons. EOs have low antioxidant activity as compared to acetone extracts; nevertheless, they show best antimicrobial activity. A significant variability is also depicted between the provenances of each species and depended on the chemical nature of antioxidant and antibacterial molecules as well as the used tests. PMID:24128580

Jallali, Ines; Zaouali, Yosr; Missaoui, Ibtissem; Smeoui, Abderrazek; Abdelly, Chedly; Ksouri, Riadh

2013-09-13

135

Comparative Physical Examination of Various Citrus Peel Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical parameters of various citrus peel essential oils were determined in this study. Essential oils from the peels of Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's early (C. reticulata, var. tangerine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C. paradisi) and eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted by applying cold expressing method. Eureka lemon had the

MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ AHMAD; FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM; EHSAN ELAHI BAJWA

2006-01-01

136

Antioxidant properties of essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography, we studied the antioxidant properties and stability during the storage\\u000a of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniper berry (Juniperus communis L.), fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum

T. A. Misharina; M. B. Terenina; N. I. Krikunova

2009-01-01

137

Essential oils encapsulated in liposomes: a review.  

PubMed

Abstract In the recent years there has been an increased interest toward the biological activities of essential oils. However, essential oils are unstable and susceptible to degradation in the presence of oxygen, light and temperature. So, attempts have been made to preserve them through encapsulation in various colloidal systems such as microcapsules, microspheres, nanoemulsions and liposomes. This review focuses specifically on encapsulation of essential oils into liposomes. First, we present the techniques used to prepare liposomes encapsulating essential oils. The effects of essential oils and other factors on liposome characteristics such as size, encapsulation efficiency and thermal behavior of lipid bilayers are then discussed. The composition of lipid vesicles membrane, especially the type of phospholipids, cholesterol content, the molar ratio of essential oils to lipids, the preparation method and the kind of essential oil may affect the liposome size and the encapsulation efficiency. Several essential oils can decrease the size of liposomes, homogenize the liposomal dispersions, increase the fluidity and reduce the oxidation of the lipid bilayer. Moreover, liposomes can protect the fluidity of essential oils and are stable at 4-5?°C for 6 months at least. The applications of liposomes incorporating essential oils are also summarized in this review. Liposomes encapsulating essential oils are promising agents that can be used to increase the anti-microbial activity of the essential oils, to study the effect of essential oils on cell membranes, and to provide alternative therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. PMID:23879218

Sherry, Mirna; Charcosset, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

2013-07-24

138

The essential oil of Achillea boissieri  

Microsoft Academic Search

essential oil composition of this species. Water-distilled essential oil from aerial parts of Achillea boissieri in Turkey have been analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. The resulting main components of the oil are shown in Table 1. The essential oil yield of A. boissieri was 0.2857%. Forty-eight compounds were identified, representing 93.0% of the oil. The major components were

F. Zehra Kucukbay; E. Kuyumcu; T. Arabaci

2010-01-01

139

In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.  

PubMed

In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (P<0.05). In contrast, fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and Candida non-albicans were less susceptible to cinnamon essential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (P<0.05). A relationship between the yeasts' susceptibilities and the chemical composition of the essential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations. PMID:18997851

Pozzatti, Patrícia; Scheid, Liliane Alves; Spader, Tatiana Borba; Atayde, Margareth Linde; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

2008-11-01

140

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils Extracted by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation From the Flowers of Two Plumeria Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) was applied to obtain essential oils from the fresh flowers ofPlumeria rubra Linn (PRL) andPlumeria rubra Linn var. acutifolia (PRLA) cultivated in China, which were subsequently analyzed via gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The essential oils were assessed for their antimicrobial activity. A variation of the chemical composition attributed to

Yanqing Liu; Hongwu Wang; Shoulian Wei; Zijun Yan

2012-01-01

141

Essential Oil of Tagetes minuta from Rwanda and France: Chemical Composition According to Harvesting Location, Growth Stage and Part of Plant Extracted  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oils produced from Tagetes minuta which was harvested in Rwanda and France at various locations and growth stages, and isolated from different plant parts (flowers, leaves, seeds), was studied. The samples analyzed fell into four categories. Generally, (Z)-?-ocimene predominated in oil from flowers, and dihydrotagetone predominated in that from leaves. Tagetones and tagetenones occurred

Jean-Claude Chalchat; Raymond-Philippe Garry; Ancilla Muhayimana

1995-01-01

142

Inhibitory effect of essential oils on decay fungi and mold growth on ...  

Treesearch

No weight loss occurred in specimens dip-treated with undiluted test oils. ... lemongrass oil, dill, rosemary, Aspergillus niger, wood-decaying fungi, molds, essences, essential oils, biodegradation, fungicides, plant extracts, antifungal agents, ...

143

Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile components of two essential oils obtained from plants indigenous to Nepal, anthopogon (Rhododendron anthopogon) and Curcuma zedoaria oils, and four oils, chamomile (Chamomilla recutita), French basil (Ocimum basilicum), cornmint (Mentha canadensis) and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini var. martini), which are exotic but produced in Nepal, were analyzed with GC\\/MS and the antimicrobial activity of all the six oils were

Minoba Yonzon; Dong Jin Lee; Toshihiro Yokochi; Yasuhiro Kawano; Toro Nakahara

2005-01-01

144

Distribution fitting 13. Analysis of independent, multiplicative effect of factors. Application to effect of essential oils extracts from plant species on bacterial species. Application to factors of antibacterial activity of plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factor effect study was conducted on a set of observations at the contingency of a series of plant species and bacteria species regarding the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracts. The study reveals a very good agreement between the observations and the hypothesis of independent and multiplicative effect of plant and bacteria species factors on the antibacterial activity. Shaping

Lorentz Jäntschi; Sorana D. Bolboacba; Mugur C. Bbalan; Radu E. Sestras

2011-01-01

145

Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.  

PubMed

1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed. PMID:21491246

Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

2011-04-01

146

Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested. PMID:12678685

Kalemba, D; Kunicka, A

2003-05-01

147

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn.  

PubMed

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex mixture of terpenoids, hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, acid derivatives and ketones. The main component of essential oil was ethyl homovanillate (11.79%) in buds and drimenol (29.42%) in roots. PMID:22574752

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2012-05-11

148

Antimicrobial activity of a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate (Olbas(®) Tropfen) in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients.  

PubMed

Plant extracts and essential oils have been widely studied and used as antimicrobial agents in the last decades. In our study we investigated the antimicrobial activities of Olbas(®) Tropfen (in the following named Olbas), a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate, in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients. Olbas (10 g) consists of three major components such as peppermint oil (5.3 g), eucalyptus oil (2.1 g), and cajuput oil (2.1 g) and of two minor constituents like juniper berry oil (0.3 g) and wintergreen oil (0.2 g). The composition of Olbas and the five individual essential oils were characterized by GLC-MS. According to GLC-MS analysis 1,8-cineol is the main component of the complex essential oil distillate followed by menthol and menthone. The minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations of Olbas and each of the single essential oils were evaluated in 17 species/strains of bacteria and fungi. Time-kill assay was performed to compare the microbicidal activity of Olbas and peppermint oil during several time intervals. Olbas displayed a high antimicrobial activity against all test strains used in this study, among them antibiotic resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and VRE (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus). Its antimicrobial activity was comparable to that of peppermint oil which was the most potent one of all individual essential oils tested. In the time kill assay Olbas as well as peppermint oil demonstrated similar microbicidal activities. Based on its wide antimicrobial properties Olbas can be a useful agent for the treatment of uncomplicated infections of skin and respiratory tract. PMID:22739414

Hamoud, Razan; Sporer, Frank; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

2012-06-26

149

Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as ?-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), ?-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), ?-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including ?-pinene, ?-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

2013-01-01

150

Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol  

PubMed Central

Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

2011-01-01

151

Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.  

PubMed

Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

2011-12-01

152

Examination of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Xenobiotic-Inducing Potential of Broccoli Extract and Various Essential Oils during a Mild DSS-Induced Colitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Phytogenic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed to evaluate possible protective and curative effects of broccoli extract (BE) and of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), thyme (To), and rosemary (Ro) in a rat model with a mild dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Therefore Wistar rats were fed a diet without an additive (Con) or diets with the addition of BE, Cuo, To, and Ro during the whole experiment. Pretreatment with Ro, Cuo, and To increased the expression of the tight junction protein Cldn3. All additives reduced mRNA of VCAM-1 which plays a crucial role in the first state of inflammatory response. Only Ro pretreatment affected the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO1, GPx2, and of glutathione-S-transferases. All additives counteracted the DSS-induced rise in COX2 and VCAM-1 expression. Colonic IL-10 was increased by Cuo, To, and Ro. During the recovery phase DSS pretreatment increased NF?B, VCAM-1, and MCP-1: This response was counter-regulated by all additives. We conclude that the phytogenic additives tested have a promising anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and a particular role in the prevention of IBD.

Blum, Nicole Michaela; Mueller, Andreas Stefan

2013-01-01

153

Three Essential Oils for the Medicine Cabinet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of Aromatherapy is a vast field of study, reaching out into many directions, and can be quite mind-boggling. There are well over 400 kinds of essential oils. Lavender, Tea tree, and Peppermint are three top essential oils that deserve a place in everyone's medicine cabinet.

Candace Welsh

1997-01-01

154

Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

2010-06-14

155

Recovery of Flavoring Components from Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process may be applied to any essential oil from which it is desired to isolate the flavoring components having an aldehyde or ketone structure, for example, lemon, orange, lime, citronella, rose, strawberry and other oils. The oil is reacted with a h...

W. L. Stanley R. M. Ikeda S. H. Vannier L. A. Rolle

1965-01-01

156

[Constituents of the essential oil of myrrh].  

PubMed

From the essential oil of myrrh, Commiphora abyssimica (Berg) Engler (Burseraceae) have been isolated: nine sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons, the sesquiterpene alcohol elemol and the furanosesquiterpenoids furanodiene, furanodienone, isofuranogermacrene, curzerenone and lindestrene. PMID:17402085

Brieskorn, C H; Noble, P

1982-02-01

157

Autumn essential oils of Greek oregano  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum plants collected in late autumn from six localities of three distinct geographic areas of Greece were analysed by means of GC and GC-mass spectrometry. A high quantitative variation was found in the amount of the four main components; ?-terpinene ranged from 0.6 to 3.6% of the total essential oil, p-cymeme from 17.3

Stella Kokkini; Regina Karousou; Antonia Dardioti; Nikos Krigas; Tom Lanaras

1997-01-01

158

Antibacterial activity of essential oils from palmarosa, evening primrose, lavender and tuberose.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

Lodhia, M H; Bhatt, K R; Thaker, V S

2009-03-01

159

Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Palmarosa, Evening Primrose, Lavender and Tuberose  

PubMed Central

Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils.

Lodhia, M. H.; Bhatt, K. R.; Thaker, V. S.

2009-01-01

160

Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves and different tissues of Cryptomeria japonica against pathogenic Legionella pneumophila at 42°C. Ten kinds of EOs were extracted by water distillation and their chemical constituents were quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). The results showed that cinnamon leaf EO possessed

Ching-Wen Chang; Wei-Lung Chang; Shang-Tzen Chang; Sen-Sung Cheng

2008-01-01

161

Epileptic seizure induced by fennel essential oil.  

PubMed

An epileptic seizure is reported in a 38-year-old woman, known to be an epileptic patient. Although she was under antiepileptic treatment and had well-controlled epilepsy, she developed a typical generalised tonic-clonic seizure and remained unconscious for 45 minutes following ingestion of a number of cakes containing an unknown quantity of fennel essential oil. Involuntary diarrhoea accompanied her epileptic seizure. This reported case recalls the fact that fennel essential oil can induce seizures and that this oil should probably be avoided by patients with epilepsy. Labelling of products with fennel essential oil should refer to the risk of seizures, particularly for patients with epilepsy. An awareness programme should involve all stakeholders affected by this issue. PMID:21865126

Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

2011-09-01

162

The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal™ (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed

V. Edwards-Jones; R. Buck; S. G. Shawcross; M. M. Dawson; K. Dunn

2004-01-01

163

Antifungal Activity of Three Essential Oils on Growth and Toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicillium viridicatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of eucalyptus, rosemary and mugwort essential oils was evaluated on the mycelial growth and toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. viridicatum. A significant decrease in mycelial dry weight was obtained with the addition of 0.05–2.5% of each of the three essential oils in yeast extract sucrose broth. The inhibition of mycelium growth was tested on malt extract agar,

Mustapha Khaddor; Ahmed Lamarti; Abdelrhafour Tantaoui-Elaraki; Mohammed Ezziyyani; Maria-Emilia Candela Castillo; Alain Badoc

2006-01-01

164

Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto

2012-01-01

165

Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

2012-11-01

166

[Studies on the chemical constituents of essential oil of Hunan Artemisia annua].  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of the essential oil of Hunan wild Artemisia annua L. in Xuefeng mountain region have been studied by means of the GC-MS. The essential oil was extracted from Artemisia annua L. by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative contents of them in the oil were determined with area normalization method. Forty-five components were separated and identified which accounted for 90% of total essential oil. These components identified from the essential oil indicate that Hunan wild Artemisia annua L. in Xuefeng mountain region is a good medical plant, and worth to exploiting. PMID:17039878

Liao, Hua-wei; Wang, Ding-yong; Li, Xiao-meng

2006-06-01

167

Repellent activity of essential oils: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource.

Luz Stella Nerio; Jesus Olivero-Verbel; Elena Stashenko

2010-01-01

168

Essential oil composition of smyrnium olusatrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of green and ripe fruits, herb, flowers and roots of Smyrnium olusatrum (alexanders), have been analyzed by means of GC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopic methods. Roots, herb and flowers are characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, most of them furanosesquiterpenoids, while green and ripe fruits are dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons with ?-phellandrene

Ulrike Mölleken; Volker Sinnwell; Karl-Heinz Kubeczka

1998-01-01

169

Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl4 administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that

H. Özbek; S. U?ra?; H. Dülger; ?. Bayram; ?. Tuncer; G. Öztürk; A. Öztürk

2003-01-01

170

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cottonseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide is a popular technique for oil extraction due to its high extraction efficiency, short extracting time, lower refining requirement and absence of chemical residues or contamination in the extracted oils. In this work, an attempt has been made to extract oil from a local variety of cottonseed using this technique. The effects of

Paramita Bhattacharjee; Rekha S. Singhal; Sudha R. Tiwari

2007-01-01

171

Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.  

PubMed

Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no proof that adding essential oils is more beneficial than massage alone. Further studies on the essential oil massage group showed a deterioration in the eczematous condition after two further 8 week periods of therapy, following a period of rest after the initial period of contact. This may have been due to a decline in the novelty of the treatment, or, it strongly suggests possible allergic contact dermatitis provoked by the essential oils themselves. The results of this study indicate the necessity of prolonged studies with novel plant extracts as short-term beneficial results could be overturned by adverse effects after repeated usage. PMID:10960901

Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

2000-09-01

172

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of several essential oils from Hypericum species from Tunisia.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from some Tunisian Hypericum species and their larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae were evaluated. The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the aerial plant parts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred and thirty-four compounds were identified, ranging between 85.1 and 95.4 % of the oil's composition. The components were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, non-terpenic hydrocarbons, and others. The larvicidal activity of the essential oils was evaluated using a method recommended by WHO. Larvicidal tests revealed that essential oils from the Hypericum species have a significant larvicidal activity against C. pipiens, with LC(50) ranging between 102.82 and 194.70 ppm. The most powerful essential oils against these larvae were Hypericum tomentosum and Hypericum humifusum samples, followed by the essential oil of Hypericum perforatum. PMID:23180126

Rouis, Zyed; Laamari, Ali; Abid, Nabil; Elaissi, Ameur; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido; Aouni, Mahjoub

2012-11-20

173

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L.  

PubMed

The need for a reduction in drug resistance led to the investigation of Argemone Mexicana L. as an agent against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea and Candida torulopsis, using well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations methods. The sensitivity of Bacillus Subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oils of both the aerial and root parts were determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to the essential oil from both the aerial and root part of the plant. C. torulopsis, C. stellatoidea and C. albicans were susceptible to the essential oils from the aerial and root part of the plant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 3.75 mg/ml and 4.0 mg/ml were recorded for Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae by the aerial and the root extracts, but P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were not susceptible to the aerial and root extracts. The observed inhibition of selected bacteria and fungi by oils of Physalis angulata makes it a promising antimicrobial agent. This study justifies its uses for treatment of sores, cuts, intestinal and digestive problems and some skin-diseases often reported in folkloric medicine. PMID:21731161

Osho, A; Adetunji, T; Fayemi, S O; Moronkola, D O

2010-07-03

174

Comparison of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation withthe traditional hydrodistillation method in the extractionof essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) is an advanced hydrodistillation (HD) technique utilizing a microwave oven in the extraction process. MAHD of essential oils from the aerial parts (tops) of Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) was studied and the results were compared with those of the conventional HD in terms of extraction time, extraction yield\\/efficiency, chemical composition, quality of the essential oils and

Mohammad-Taghi Golmakani; Karamatollah Rezaei

2008-01-01

175

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Near Year Earlier-Levels. Tea, Spices and Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils in 1984 totaled 10,991 tons valued at $92.1 million, almost unchanged from 1983's level. Smaller shipments were registered for orange, peppermint, cedarwood, clove, and nutmeg oils, while increases were recorded for lemon an...

1985-01-01

176

Composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from Curcuma zedoaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) has long been used as a folk medicine. The essential oil of its dried rhizome was isolated using simultaneous steam-distillation and solvent-extraction apparatus and its fractions were prepared by silica gel column chromatography. Totally, 36 compounds were identified in the essential oil, including 17 terpenes, 13 alcohols and 6 ketones. The yields of Fractions 2

Jeng-Leun Mau; Eric Y. C Lai; Nai-Phon Wang; Chien-Chou Chen; Chi-Huarng Chang; Charng-Cherng Chyau

2003-01-01

177

Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

178

Chemical Variability of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) Essential Oil in French Guiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two samples of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke were collected from ten localities in French Guiana. Essential oils were extracted from different parts of the tree (trunk wood, branch wood, roots, leaves) and analyzed. Yield measurements were performed by hydrodistillation; total linalool content and percentages of (-)-linalool or (+)-linalool were obtained by gas chromatography. Variations in essential oil yield were correlated with

Jean-Marie Chantraine; Jean-Marie Dhénin; Christian Moretti

2009-01-01

179

Rapid extraction of canola oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous size reduction and solvent extraction of canola seeds were studied using a laboratory blender and a small,\\u000a pilot-scale Szego mill. The laboratory tests established that over 95% of the oil may be removed from the seed in a single\\u000a contact stage. The effects of contact time and solvent-to-seed ratio were investigated. The extraction equilibrium favored\\u000a the extraction of

L. L. Diosady; L. J. Rubin; N. Ting; O. Trass

1983-01-01

180

Preparation of soybean protein isolate (SPI) drinks using ginger essential oil and oleoresin as flavouring agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger essential oil and oleoresin were extracted using steam distillation and solvent extraction respectively. Soybean protein isolate drink (SPID) using ginger oil and oleoresin was made and the functional properties and sensory evaluation were studied. Comparatively the bulk density, dispersibility and water absorption capacity increased in the SPI drink, whereas solubility increased in powdered drink from commercial grade soy milk

Alhassane Touré; Xiao-Ming Zhang; Michel Tolno; Li Xia; Xu Xueming

181

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. barks.  

PubMed

Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata. PMID:22976469

Sousa, Orlando V; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Alves, Maria S; Araújo, Aílson A L; Pinto, Míriam A O; Amaral, Maria P H; Rodarte, Mírian P; Kaplan, Maria A C

2012-09-13

182

Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.  

PubMed

White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:24006802

Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

2013-01-01

183

Processing of Vietnamese Essential Oils and Related Natural Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project document on processing of Vietnamese Essential Oils and related natural products was drawn up between the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam to develop an essential oils industry by u...

R. Gupta

1990-01-01

184

Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 ?l/cm² essential oil and 3.144 ?l/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC?? = 0.118 ?l/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC?? = 0.044 ?l/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD?? = 0.137 ?l/g) than the essential oil alone (LD?? = 0.193 ?l/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F? insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans. PMID:22410230

Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

2012-03-01

185

Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda. PMID:21941921

Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

2011-09-01

186

The use of essential oils in healing wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic plants have a long history of use for treating wounds, but the use of pure essential oils for wound care is rare. This article details a three year research program conducted in nursing homes with over 100 patients using essential oils to treat small to medium ulcers, skin tears, pressure sores and skin abrasions. The essential oils were used

John Kerr

2002-01-01

187

Physical properties of gum karaya-starch-essential oil patches.  

PubMed

Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin. PMID:20711695

Shcherbina, Yulia; Roth, Zvi; Nussinovitch, Amos

2010-08-14

188

The Influence of Essential Oils on Human Attention. I: Alertness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research on the effects of essential oils on human behavior lags behind the promises made by popular aromatherapy. Nearly all aspects of human behavior are closely linked to processes of attention, the basic level being that of alertness, which ranges from sleep to wakefulness. In our study we measured the influence of essential oils and components of essential oils

Josef Ilmberger; Eva Heuberger; Claudia Mahrhofer; Heidrun Dessovic; Dietlinde Kowarik; Gerhard Buchbauer

2001-01-01

189

In vitro effects of Artemisia dracunculus essential oil on ruminal and abomasal smooth muscle in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, essential oils have been substituted for synthetic antibiotics in improving rumen fermentation and animal performance.\\u000a When ingested, along with their positive properties, some adverse effects may also be observed in animals. This study was\\u000a primarily aimed at investigating the effects of the essential oils extracted from Artemisia dracunculus (EOAD) on ruminal and abomasal smooth muscle. EOAD was extracted using

Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin; Massoud Maham; Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh; Farshad Kheiri

190

Antioxidant effect of oregano ( Lippia berlandieri v. Shauer) essential oil and mother liquors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional steam distillation process for oregano (Lippia berlandieri v. Shauer) essential oil extraction produces large volumes of mother liquor. This residual liquid represents a potential value because the soluble antioxidants it contains. Essential oil and ethyl acetate mother liquor extracts (MLEs) were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities by the 2-2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, by the

N. E. Rocha-Guzmán; J. A. Gallegos-Infante; R. F. González-Laredo; M. Ramos-Gómez; M. E. Rodríguez-Muñoz; R. Reynoso-Camacho; A. Rocha-Uribe; M. R. Roque-Rosales

2007-01-01

191

Chemical composition and chemometric analysis of essential oils variation of Bidens tripartita L . during vegetation stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the content and composition of essential oils of Bidens tripartita L. grown in Lithuania has been studied using supercritical CO2 extraction followed by GC–MS. Extraction of essential oils was performed at two different pressures (9.1 and 15.1 MPa). Plant\\u000a material has been harvested at different phenological stages (from June to September). A total of 26 different compounds were

Vilma Kaškonien?; Paulius Kaškonas; Audrius Maruška; Ona Ragažinskien?

192

Cross-resistance of a chlorpyrifos-methyl resistant strain of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) to fumigant toxicity of essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus globulus and its major monoterpene, 1,8-cineole.  

PubMed

The fumigant toxicities of eucalyptus essential oil and 1,8-cineole, the major component of eucalyptus oil, were tested against a chlorpyrifos-methyl resistant strain and a reference strain of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). The resistant strain showed 1.9- and 2.2-fold higher tolerance against essential oil and 1,8-cineole fumigation toxicity, respectively, relative to the susceptible strain. The increased tolerance for the essential oil may be the result of cross-resistance. The resistance mechanisms in the resistant strain are discussed in relation to elevated detoxifying enzymes such as cytochrome P450 and esterases. PMID:10880815

Lee; Choi; Lee; Park

2000-10-15

193

In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils and their components are becoming increasingly popular as naturally occurring antimicrobial agents. In this work the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Thymus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Three essential oils obtained from different species of Thymus growing wild in Sardinia and a commercial sample of Thymus capitatus oil were analysed. The essential oil components were identified by GC/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the oils and components was determined against a panel of standard reference strains and multiple strains of food-derived spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, using a broth microdilution method. The GC/MS analysis showed that the major constituents of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes, but the concentration of these compounds varied greatly among the oils examined. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that essential oils extracted from Sardinian Thymus species have an antimicrobial activity comparable to the one observed in other thyme oils. It seems also confirmed that the antimicrobial properties of thyme essential oils are mainly related to their high phenolic content. Among the single compounds tested carvacrol and thymol turned out to be the most efficient against both reference strains and food-derived bacteria. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using thyme essential oils or some of their components in food systems to prevent the growth of foodborne bacteria and extend the shelf-life of processed foods. PMID:10499301

Cosentino, S; Tuberoso, C I; Pisano, B; Satta, M; Mascia, V; Arzedi, E; Palmas, F

1999-08-01

194

Antifungal activity and chemical composition of Essential oil of Origanum hypericifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endemic oregano's, Origanum hypericifolium O. Schwartz and P.H. Davis, essential oil was extracted to exert its biological activity in vitro. Twenty six components in its extracts performed by hydro distillation and DTD techniques were identified. The major components in the leaf volatiles of O. hypericifolium were p-cymene (42.94-44.14 g\\/100 g oil), carvacrol (22.38-31.74 g\\/100 g oil) and ?-terpinene (5.31-8.35 g\\/100

Ijlal Ocak; Ali Çelik; M. Zafer Özel; Elif Korcan; Muhsin Konuk

2010-01-01

195

Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Origanum Hypericifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endemic oregano's, Origanum hypericifolium O. Schwartz and P.H. Davis, essential oil was extracted to exert its biological activity in vitro. Fifteen components in its extracts performed by hydro distillation. The major components in the fruit and flower volatiles of O. hypericifolium were p-cymene (34.33 g\\/100 g oil), carvacrol (21.76 g\\/100 g oil), thymol (19.54 g\\/100 g) and ?-terpinene (13.91 g\\/100

Ijlal Ocak; Ali Çelik; M. Zafer Özel; Elif Korcan; Muhsin Konuk

2012-01-01

196

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Heracleum rechingeri Manden from Iran.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil from Heracleum rechingeri was analysed using GC-MS. Twenty-seven compounds, accounting for 94.62% of the extracted essential oil, were identified. The main oil compounds were octyl acetate (29.49%), elemicine (23.06%), (E)-caryophyllene (9.26%), caryophyllene oxide (6.42%), terpinolene (6.12%) and (Z)-3-octenyl acetate (4.72%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against three different bacteria by disc diffusion method and showed maximum inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis. PMID:20552523

Habibi, Zohreh; Eshaghi, Rasool; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Maryam

2010-07-01

197

Encapsulation of essential oils in zein nanosperical particles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils, oregano, red thyme, and cassia (100% pure oil), were encapsulated by phase separation into zein particles. Typical yields were between 65% and 75% of product. Encapsulation efficiency of all oils was 87% except for cassia oil which was 49%. Loading efficiency of all oils was 22% exce...

198

The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae).  

PubMed

The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus). PMID:22474966

Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

2012-02-01

199

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. PMID:22771867

Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

2012-07-04

200

The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius from Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was extracted using the hydrodistillation method. The oil yield obtained was 0.65%. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the major constituents of the essential oil were sabinene, ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, ?-pinene, terpinene-4-ol, trans-?-ocimene and myrcene. Using the hole-plate diffusion testing

M. Gundidza; N. Gweru; M. L. Magwa; V. Mmbengwa; A. Samie

2009-01-01

201

INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF 23 ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR MAJOR COMPOUNDS AGAINST ADULT LIPAPHIS PSEUDOBRASSICAE (DAVIS) (APHIDIDAE: HOMOPTERA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils from 23 species of plants comprising 14 genera and 4 plant families were extracted by Clevenger-type water distillation. Major compounds of these essential oils were identified with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Insecticidal activity of the oils and their major components was ...

202

Comparative study of the chemical composition and biological activities of Magnolia grandiflora and Magnolia virginiana flower essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological activities and the determined major volatile components in the Magnolia grandiflora and M. virginiana flowers extracts were compared. Volatile components were detected in the essential oil by dynamic headspace sampling (HS). 2-Phenylethanol (40% and 61%) was found as the main constituent in the essential oil and HS samples of M. virginiana, respectively. In the M. grandiflora oil sample,

Mohamed A. Farag; Dalia A. Al-Mahdy

2012-01-01

203

Essential oil composition analysis of three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae from Xinjiang, China  

PubMed Central

Objective: Three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae were analyzed for essential oil composition, Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, Ferula fukangensis K. M. Shen, and Ferula ovina, investigated differences among different genera of medicinal R. ferulae. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using normalization method to calculate relative amount. Results: Twenty-six compounds were identified in F. sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 99.001% of total essential oil; 21 compounds were identified in F. fukangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 100% of total essential oil; 25 compounds were identified in F. ovina, comprised 99.459% of total essential oil. n-Propyl sec-butyl disulfide is the main component in three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae, accounting for 55.875%, 49.797%, 53.781%, respectively. Conclusion: Little diversity among three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae from Xinjiang.

Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Yue'e; Zhu, Jun; Xiao, Qiong

2011-01-01

204

Antimicrobial properties of essential oils against Salmonella in organic soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil is one of the important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of essential...

205

Essential oil composition of smyrnium olusatrum.  

PubMed

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of green and ripe fruits, herb, flowers and roots of Smyrnium olusatrum (alexanders), have been analyzed by means of GC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopic methods. Roots, herb and flowers are characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, most of them furanosesquiterpenoids, while green and ripe fruits are dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons with beta-phellandrene and alpha-pinene as major constituents. The furanosesquiterpenoids, comprising a high proportion of furanodiene and isofuranogermacrene, are present in all parts of the plant. In roots and herbs furanoeremophil-1-one is the second important furanosesquiterpenoid, whereas 1beta-acetoxyfurano-4(15)-eudesmene was detected as a prominent component in green and ripe fruits. Additionally a new furanoeudesmane derivative has been isolated from the fruits. With the aid of (13)C, (1)H and 2D NMR the structure has been established as furano-4(15)-eudesmen-1-one. PMID:11711086

Mölleken, Ulrike; Sinnwell, Volker; Kubeczka, Karl Heinz

1998-11-20

206

Essential oils of Chiliadenus lopadusanus (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Chiliadenus lopadusanus growing on Lampedusa Island were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major component was camphor (39.4% in the leaves and 24.0% in the flowers), followed in the leaves by torreyol (6.7%), t-cadinol (5.2%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8%), while in the flowers by t-cadinol (15.2%), t-muurolol (5.1%) and torreyol (4.5%). Among the compounds identified, several seem to play a role in antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and spasmolytic activity. In addition, several compounds identified in this study seem to influence the attraction of Megachile (Eutricharaea) apicalis (Megachilidae) and Halictus (Seladonia) gemmeus (Halictidae), two hymenopteran here identified as pollinators of Chiliadenus lopadusanus. PMID:24079193

Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Scirica, Elena; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

2013-08-01

207

Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500?L/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000?L/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000?L/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000?L/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500?L/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000?L/L) and clove oils (3000?L/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000?L/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure as effective non-toxic biopreservatives against OTA contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23107498

Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

2012-09-12

208

Effects of Mentha longifolia essential oil on ruminal and abomasal longitudinal smooth muscle in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha longifolia is grown commercially for production of oils and leaves. For centuries, this plant has widely been used traditionally as a folk remedy for treatment of human and ruminant gastrointestinal complaints in the Northwest of Iran. The essential oil of the plant was extracted using hydrodistillation. In the present study a total of 12 constituents, representing 96.6% of the

Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin; Massoud Maham; Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh; Farshad Kheiri

2012-01-01

209

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) essential oil and identification of its antioxidant constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant capacities of the essential oil extracted from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were evaluated by three different in vitro assays: ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay and Fe2+-metal chelating assay. Results showed that the parsley oil (PO) possessed a certain degree of antioxidant activities in terms of ?-carotene bleaching capacity and free radical scavenging activity, but its metal chelating

Hui Zhang; Feng Chen; Xi Wang; Hui-Yuan Yao

2006-01-01

210

U.S. Essential Oil Trade, May 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils totaled $147 million in 1992, down from $157 million in 1991. Peppermint was the most import oil exported, accounting for over a third of the market. Mint oils, as a group, accounted for 56 percent, while citrus oils made up...

1993-01-01

211

Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essentials oils: anti-inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on THP-1 macrophages.  

PubMed

Two fractions (S1 and S2) of an oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction have been used to test anti-inflammatory effects on activated human THP-1 cells. The main compounds present in the supercritical extract fractions of oregano were trans-sabinene hydrate, thymol and carvacrol. Fractions toxicity was assessed using the mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction method for several concentrations during 24 and 48 h of incubation. Concentrations higher than 30 microg/mL of both supercritical S1 and S2 oregano fractions caused a reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidized-LDLs (oxLDLs) activated THP-1 macrophages were used as cellular model of atherogenesis and the release/secretion of cytokines (TNT-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10) and their respective mRNA expressions were quantified both in presence or absence of supercritical oregano extracts. The results showed a decrease in pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 cytokines synthesis, as well as an increase in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results may suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of oregano extracts and their compounds in a cellular model of atherosclerosis. PMID:20332013

Ocaña-Fuentes, A; Arranz-Gutiérrez, E; Señorans, F J; Reglero, G

2010-03-21

212

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrancois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbre, Severine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

213

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-04-11

214

Composition of the essential oil from Thymus moesiacus from Macedonia.  

PubMed

Composition of the essential oil of Thymus moesiacus Velen. from Macedonia was examined by GC and GC-MS methods. The main constituents of the oil were geraniol, linalool, geranyl acetate, and terpenyl acetate. PMID:17252417

Kulevanova, S; Risti?, M; Stafilov, T

1996-02-01

215

In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.

Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hoseini, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

2012-01-01

216

[Antiradical properties of oregano, thyme, and savory essential oils].  

PubMed

In model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the antiradical properties of essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgare), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and savory (Satureja hortensis) that are similar in the qualitative composition, but differ in the quantitative content of the main components, were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol. The reaction rates of components of essential oils with the radical were almost identical for all essential oils and were twice the reaction rate of ionol. The antiradical efficiency values were close to each other for all essential oils and by an order of magnitude smaller than for ionol. PMID:23662455

Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D

217

Chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from the leaves of Feronia limonia was extracted and the chemical constituents and antibacterial activity were studied. The GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that\\u000a the leaf essential oil of F. limonia contained fourteen compounds representing about 98.4% of the total oil. The major chemical compounds identified were Eudesma-4\\u000a (14).11-dine (46.3%), carvacrol (29.6%) and 1,5-cyclodecandine (13.4%). The essential

A. Senthil Kumar; V. Venkatesalu; K. Kannathasan; M. Chandrasekaran

2010-01-01

218

Antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) by Apulian region.  

PubMed

Some essential oils from several plants (Artemisia verlotorum, Lavandula augustifolia, Ocimum gratissimum) have proved to have acaricidal, antifungal and antibacterial activity. Inula viscosa Ait. (Asteraceae), a plant growing spontaneously in the Mediterranean area, is currently used by popular medicine for its therapeutic effects. Flavonoids, azulenes, sesquiterpenes, and essential oils have been isolated and identified from its leaves. This paper reports the results of the composition and antifungal activity in vitro against dermatophytes and Candida spp. of the four essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the leaves, flowers, whole plant and whole plants without flower extracts of I. viscosa. All the extracts proved to have a significant antifungal activity against dermatophytes even at low concentrations (0.01 mg/ml). The leaf extracts exhibited the greatest antifungal efficacy. The high concentration of the sesquiterpene (carboxyeudesmadiene), occurring in the leaf extracts, may explain its greater antifungal activity. PMID:12701377

Cafarchia, C; De Laurentis, N; Milillo, M A; Losacco, V; Puccini, V

2002-12-01

219

Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chairgulprasert, V., Krisornpornsan, B. and Hamad, A. Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) fruits Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(2) : 321-326 The pulp of longkong fruits (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.), collected from Narathiwat province, was dried and extracted by steam distillation to obtain the essential oil in 0.48% yield. The GC-MS data

Vanida Chairgulprasert; Boonsong Krisornpornsan; Abdulhakim Hamad

220

Antifungal activity of volatile fractions of essential oils from four aromatic wild plants in israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils were extracted fromMajorana syriaca, Satureja thymbra, Micromeria fruticosa, andSalvia triloba, and their volatile fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against the soil-borne pathogensFusarium oxysporum andMacrophomina phaseolina and the foliar pathogensBotrytis cinerea andExserohilum turcicum. Results showed a fungistatic effect of 1, 2.5, and 5µl of the various essential oils on fungal mycelium growth. The most significant effect was

Moshe Shimoni; Eli Putievsky; Uzi Ravid; Reuven Reuveni

1993-01-01

221

EDIBLE OIL EXTRACTION SOLVENTS: FDA REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When a solvent is used to extract edible oil from oil bearing materials in the United States, federal and state workplace, environmental, and food safety regulations have to be complied with. Hexane has been the solvent of choice to extract edible oils since 1940's. The main component of hexane, n...

222

Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In aromatherapy, essential oils are used as anti-inflammatory remedies, but experimental studies on their action mechanisms are very limited. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To assess their anti-inflammatory activities, the effects of essential oils on neutrophil recruitment in mice were examined in vivo. METHOD: The effect of essential oils on leukocyte and neutrophil recruitment induced 6 h after intraperitoneal injection of casein in mice was examined. RESULTS: Leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice was suppressed by intraperitoneal injections of geranium, lemongrass and spearmint oils at the dose of 5 microl/mouse, but was not by tea tree oil. This recruitment was inhibited dose-dependently by geranium oil. The suppression of leukocyte recruitment resulted from inhibition of neutrophil accumulation. CONCLUSION: Some essential oils used as anti-inflammatory remedies suppress neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice.

Abe, Shigeru; Maruyama, Naho; Hayama, Kazumi; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

2004-01-01

223

Chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the leaves of Feronia limonia was extracted and the chemical constituents and antibacterial activity were studied. The GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of F. limonia contained fourteen compounds representing about 98.4% of the total oil. The major chemical compounds identified were Eudesma-4 (14).11-dine (46.3%), carvacrol (29.6%) and 1,5-cyclodecandine (13.4%). The essential oil was screened for its antibacterial activity against different clinically isolated Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The essential oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains with MIC values ranging from 125 to 500 ?g/mL except Proteus mirabilis. PMID:22815575

Kumar, A Senthil; Venkatesalu, V; Kannathasan, K; Chandrasekaran, M

2010-11-25

224

Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2. The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil

B. Marongiu; A. Piras; S. Porcedda; D. Falconieri; A. Maxia; M. J. Gonçalves; C. Cavaleiro; L. Salgueiro

2010-01-01

225

Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS. C. cyminum and R. officinalis contained ?-pinene (29.1%,14.9%), 1,8-cineole (17.9%,7.43%) and linalool (10.4%,14.9%), respectively, as the major compounds. C. cyminum oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than did R. officinalis oil against E. coli, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. Complete death time

Latif Gachkar; Davood Yadegari; Mohammad Bagher Rezaei; Masood Taghizadeh; Shakiba Alipoor Astaneh; Iraj Rasooli

2007-01-01

226

Fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Citrus sinensis on post-harvest pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The essential oil extracted from the epicarp of Citrus sinensis exhibited absolute fungitoxicity against the 10 post-harvest pathogens. GC–MS studies of the oil revealed the presence of\\u000a 10 chemical constituents, of which limonene was found to be the major component (84.2%). The activity of the oil was tested\\u000a by the poisoned food technique (PF) and the volatile activity (VA) assay

Neeta Sharma; Abhishek Tripathi

2006-01-01

227

Variation in the susceptibility of two Callosobruchus species to essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

GC\\/MS analysis of essential oils extracted from two Cymbopogon species revealed that limonene (23%) and p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol in cis (14.3%) and trans (5.6%) forms were the main compounds in Cymbopogon giganteus oil whereas citronellal (31%) and geraniol (24%) were identified in Cymbopogon nardus oil. The toxicity tests performed by fumigation on eggs and adults of Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus subinnotatus using

Wolali S. Nyamador; Guillaume K. Ketoh; Komina Amévoin; Yaovi Nuto; Honoré K. Koumaglo; Isabelle A. Glitho

2010-01-01

228

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

229

Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins. PMID:18706468

Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

2008-07-29

230

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants were evaluated in vitro and in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1,000 mul/liter. At this concentration, most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Essential oils of Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha rotundifolia, and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. These oils and those from Origanum vulgare, O. syriacum, and Coridothymus capitatus mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the root galling of cucumber seedlings in pot experiments. The main components of these essential oils were tested for their nematicidal activity. Carvacrol, t-anethole, thymol, and (+)-carvone immobilized the juveniles and inhibited hatching at >125 mul/liter in vitro. Most of these components mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 75 and 150 mg/kg reduced root galling of cucumber seedlings. In 3-liter pot experiments, nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides. PMID:18944489

Oka, Y; Nacar, S; Putievsky, E; Ravid, U; Yaniv, Z; Spiegel, Y

2000-07-01

231

Mass propagation and essential oil analysis of Artemisia vulgaris.  

PubMed

Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) is a threatened and valuable medicinal plant. Attempts have been made in this research to mass propagate its plantlets through in vitro liquid culture technology using Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-benzyl adenine (BA) (0.44-8.88 microM). Initially, 22.6 shoots (99.9% shooting frequency) developed from shoot tip explants cultured in MS with 4.44 microM BA at 100 ml flask capacity. This was further subcultured at increasing flask capacity (150, 250, and 500 ml) for shoot proliferation. Of the different concentrations of BA and flask capacities tested, 4.44 microM BA and 500 ml flask capacity were found to produce a maximum of 85.5 shoots after 30 d of culture. Shoot proliferation was found to increase with increasing flask capacity whereas shoot number decreased with increasing BA concentration (>4.44 microM). Individual shoots were isolated and rooted on MS medium containing 8.56 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Then the plantlets were acclimatized under standard laboratory conditions and later under greenhouse conditions. Fresh leaves were collected from greenhouse-grown plants and subjected to essential oil analysis by the simultaneous distillation and extraction method. GC-MS results revealed the presence of 88 components and the extracted oil was rich in camphor (16.8%), alpha-thujone (11.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), camphene (6.5%), 1,8-cineole (5.8%) and beta-caryophyllene (5.4%). This in vitro strategy can be a reliable method for the steady production of a large number of plants for essential oil production, which is reported for the first time for A. vulgaris. PMID:18397765

Govindaraj, Sujatha; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido

2008-03-01

232

Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ?-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure. Volatile terpenes in essential oils, which could influence milk flavor, are transferred into milk via both gastrointestinal and respiratory exposure. PMID:23628249

Lejonklev, J; Løkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

2013-04-28

233

U.S. Essential Oil Exports Increase Moderately in 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. exported 9,396 metric tons of essential oils valued at $86 million in 1981, up from 1980 exports of 8,514 tons valued at $85 million. Both domestic and foreign users of essential oils are tending to maintain low inventories because of high intere...

G. Patty

1982-01-01

234

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Lower in 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poor global economic conditions, high interest rates, and a strong dollar, U.S. trade in essential oils in 1982 declined in both volume and value from a year earlier. U.S. exports of specified essential oils in 1982 totaled 8,715 tons valued at $86.9 mill...

1983-01-01

235

Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata).  

PubMed

Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use. PMID:24031950

Nuñez, L; Aquino, M D'

2012-06-01

236

Effect of a Diffused Essential Oil Blend on Bacterial Bioaerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thieves, a commercial blend of five essential oils, was tested for its antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosols. An aerosol suspension of each bacterial culture was sprayed into a 0.4 m enclosed fume hood previously sterilized by ultraviolet light. Thieves essential oil blend was then diffused into the hood for a given time. Depositional sampling

Sue C. Chao; D. Gary Young; Craig J. Oberg

1998-01-01

237

Biocontrol of Salmonella in organic soil using essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil is one of the most important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of esse...

238

Screening the essential oil composition of wild Sicilian oregano  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oils obtained from wild Sicilian oregano plants has been investigated. Samples were collected from three areas of Sicily namely Val Mazara (M), Val di Noto (N) and Val Demona (D). These areas are based on historical territorial subdivision. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID-MS. Seventy eight compounds

Edoardo M. Napoli; Giusy Curcuruto; Giuseppe Ruberto

2009-01-01

239

U.S. Essential Oil Trade, April 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. essential oil exports in 1988 were a record $122.8 million, reflecting larger shipments of orange, peppermint, and spearmint oils, and higher market prices for these items. Lemon oil exports dropped by nearly a third, but unit export values recov...

1989-01-01

240

OLFACTORY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN IRRADIATED ESSENTIAL OILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

lt has been found that the olfactory properties of a range of essential ; oils and isolates may be improved by small doses of radiation. At the dose most ; favorable to the process, no changes in the physical or chemical properties of ; the irradiated oils can be detected. In the case of Brazilian peppermint oil ; very high

H. Fazakerley; P. G. Garratt; P. R. Hills; R. Roberts

1961-01-01

241

Screening of the essential oil composition of wild Sicilian thyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty samples of wild thyme collected from as many Sicilian locations have been analysed for their qualitative and quantitative essential oil profiles. The oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, have been analysed by a combination of GC-FID-MS; in all, 46 components, representing more than 98% of the oils, were fully characterized. Monoterpenes, both hydrocarbons and oxygenated, were the most highly represented components:

Edoardo M. Napoli; Giusy Curcuruto; Giuseppe Ruberto

2010-01-01

242

Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides.  

PubMed

In countries where leishmaniasis is endemic, there are not very many treatment alternatives and most options have problems associated with their use. Plants and their natural products constitute good sources of interesting lead compounds that could be potentially active against Leishmania. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a plant that is widely used in popular medicine and its antiparasitic effects have been documented, including the antileishmanial potentialities of Chenopodium oil. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, in-vitro cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of essential oils extracted from C. ambrosioides, which received different treatments prior to extraction. The chemical characterization by GC-MS of the three essential oil samples showed similar composition and the major components were alpha-terpinene (17.0-20.7%), p-cymene (20.2-21.1%) and ascaridole (30.5-47.1%). The essential oils exhibited similar antileishmanial activities against intracellular amastigote form, with IC50 values between 4.7 and 12.4 microg/mL. However, a lower cytotoxicity was displayed by the essential oil extracted from fresh green vegetable material, which was statistically different (P < 0.05) from the other samples. This study demonstrated that the prior treatment of plant material did not interfere with the antiparasitic activity of essential oils from C. ambrosioides but did change their cytotoxicity, which should be taken into account in further studies. PMID:21425695

Monzote, Lianet; Nance, Marcelina R; García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Setzer, William N

2011-02-01

243

[Studies on chemical constituents in essential oil from wild Atractylodes lancea in dabie mountains].  

PubMed

The chemical constituents in essential oil of wild Atractylodes lancea (Thumb.) DC. from Dabie Mountains were studied. The essential oil was extracted by simultaneous distillation and extraction equipment and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. 49 compounds were identified and they represent 92.49% of the total peak aeras. The extraction method and solvent selection of the essential oil were studied. The oil yields and major constituents from Atractylodes lancea (Thumb.) DC. from Dabie Mountains were contrasted to that had been reported. The results showed that Atractylodes lancea (Thumb.) DC. from Dabie Mountains had more essential oil (10.14%) and there were more constituents in it. The main constituents in the essential oil were hinesol, beta-eudesmol, 1H-cyclopropa (a) naphthalene, 1a,2,3,5,6,7,7a,7b-octaphdro-1,1,7,7a-tetramethyl-, [1aR-(1a. alpha, 7. alpha, 7a. alpha,7b. alpha-)] -and gamma-eudesmol. Both the major constituents and contents were different from that had been reported. PMID:15658816

Jia, Chunxiao; Mao, Duobin; Zhang, Wenye; Sun, Xiaoli

2004-08-01

244

Comparative Essential Oil Composition of Lavendula species from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils of two species of Lavendula—Lavendula stoechas and L. angustifolia—from India was investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The essential oil yield from the flowering spikes were 0.86% in L. stoechas and 1.56% in L. angustifolia. Twenty-five components amounting to 96.7% of the oil were identified in L. stoechas, and 31 compounds were

Archana P. Raina; K. S. Negi

2012-01-01

245

Investigation on phenylpropanoids rich Melaleuca decora (Salisb.) Britt. essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Melaleuca decora twigs has been obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID, GC\\/MS and H-, C-NMR experiments. The most abundant class of compounds in M. decora twig oil was phenylpropanoids represented by methyl eugenol (92.4%) as the most exclusive constituent. In terms of molecular diversity, phenylpropanoids dominate M. decora essential oil with low terpenoid (3.9%) proportion.

Neharica Gupta; N. Manika; Suman Singh; S. C. Singh; V. S. Pragadheesh; Anju Yadav; C. S. Chanotiya

2011-01-01

246

Composition of the essential oil of rootstock from Cimicifuga simplex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils from rootstock of Cimicifuga simplex has been investigated by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. The main components in essential oil were m-acetanisole (27.57%), (E)-cinnamaldehyde (6.84%), paeonol (5.58%), caproic acid (5.07%) and atractylone (3.10%). The oil was characterized by a high content of aromatic components (52.59%).

Mitsuo Miyazawa; Jyunichi Kawata

2006-01-01

247

Composition of the essential oil of rootstock from Cimicifuga simplex.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oils from rootstock of Cimicifuga simplex has been investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS. The main components in essential oil were m-acetanisole (27.57%), (E)-cinnamaldehyde (6.84%), paeonol (5.58%), caproic acid (5.07%) and atractylone (3.10%). The oil was characterized by a high content of aromatic components (52.59%). PMID:16835085

Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kawata, Jyunichi

2006-05-20

248

Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements of Mexican Citrus Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Methodology in the Transmission Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic methodology in the transmission configuration (PMTC) was used to study the thermophysical properties and their relation with the composition in Mexican citrus essential oils providing the viability of using photothermal techniques for quality control and for authentication of oils and their adulteration. Linear relations for the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample's thickness, for the PMTC was obtained through a theoretical model fit to the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in Mexican orange, pink grapefruit, mandarin, lime type A, centrifuged essential oils, and Mexican distilled lime essential oil. Gas chromatography for distilled lime essential oil and centrifuged lime essential oil type A is reported to complement the study. Experimental results showed close thermal-diffusivity values between Mexican citrus essential oils obtained by centrifugation, but a significant difference of this physical property for distilled lime oil and the corresponding value obtained by centrifugation, which is due to their different chemical compositions involved with the extraction processes.

Muñoz, G. A. López; González, R. F. López; López, J. A. Balderas; Martínez-Pérez, L.

2011-05-01

249

Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.  

PubMed

Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations. PMID:17883004

Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

2007-07-01

250

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-12-01

251

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

Glamoclija, Jasmina; Sokovic, Marina; Tesevic, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-01-01

252

Effect of salt, drought and metal stress on essential oil yield and quality in plants.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from plants is of high commercial value in medicine, cosmetics and perfumery. Enhancing yield and maintaining the quality of oil is of significant commercial importance. Production of oil in plants is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors to which the plants are subjected during their growth. Plants are exposed to various degrees of stress on account of natural and human-induced factors. Salinization, drought and presence of heavy metals in the substratum cause substantial effect on the yield and quality of bioactive constituents in the oil. In many plants, the level and kind of stress have detrimental effects on the growth and development. This review provides an account of the studies on some common abiotic stresses to which essential oil plants are exposed during their growth period and their influence on quality and quantity of oil. The yield and quality vary in different plants and so is the response. Enhancing essential oil productivity is an important challenge, and understanding the role played by stress may offer significant advantages to the essential oil farmers and processing industry. Scientific evaluation of the data on many important but unexplored essential oil plants will also help in mitigating, ameliorating and minimizing the harmful effects caused by stress. PMID:22164806

Biswas, Shreyasee; Koul, Monika; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

2011-10-01

253

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Thyme Essential Oil in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juhás Š., D. Buj?áková, P. Rehák, Š. ?ikoš, S. Czikková, J. Veselá, G. I?ková, J. Koppel: Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Thyme Essential Oil in Mice. Acta Vet. Brno 2008, 77: 327-334. Plant essential oils are plant secondary metabolites possessing various pharmacological properties, primarily anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulatory ones. The aim of this work was to study the effects of thyme essential

Š. Juhás; D. Buj?áková; P. Rehák; Š. ?ikoš; S. Czikková; J. Veselá; G. I?ková; J. Koppel

2008-01-01

254

Antifungal activities of essential oils and their constituents from indigenous cinnamon ( Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves against wood decay fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is one of the hardwood species indigenous to Taiwan that possesses significant antifungal activity. To examine the antifungal activity of leaf essential oils and dominant constituents from C. osmophloeum, the essential oils of leaves from three clones (A, B, and C) collected from Haw-Lin experimental forest were extracted and their components analyzed by gas chromatography. Results from

Sheng-Yang Wang; Pin-Fun Chen; Shang-Tzen Chang

2005-01-01

255

Effects of Tropical Citrus Essential Oils on Growth, Aflatoxin Production, and Ultrastructure Alterations of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated essential oils from five cultivars of tropical citrus epicarps were evaluated\\u000a for their inhibitory activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium sp. using disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Essential oils prepared from kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) and acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) epicarps exhibited stronger antifungal activity to

Kadsarin Rammanee; Tipparat Hongpattarakere

2011-01-01

256

Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition, antifungal activity, and insecticidal activity.  

PubMed

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were determined to be thymol methyl ether (=methyl thymol) (36.3%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (20.8%) and myrcene (15.7%). Antifungal activity of the essential oil was weak against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides in direct bioautography assay. The E. capillifolium oil showed promising repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, whereas the oil exhibited moderate activity against the mosquito's first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Topical applications of the oil showed no activity against the blood-feeding female adults of A. aegypti. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil showed a linear dose response between adult lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides) mortality and increasing oil concentration in an adulticidal activity bioassay. The dog-fennel oil was more potent than the conventional insecticide malathion. In conclusion, these combined results showed Eupatorium capillifolium oil is a promising novel source of a biological insecticide with multiple modes of action. PMID:20922999

Tabanca, Nurhayat; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Becnel, James J; Sampson, Blair; Werle, Chris; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Blythe, Eugene K; Pounders, Cecil; Wedge, David E

2010-09-01

257

In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils  

PubMed Central

Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

258

COMPOSITION AND INSECT ATTRACTING ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalisL. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major

HARALAMBOS E. KATERINOPOULOS; GEORGIA PAGONA; ATHANASIOS AFRATIS; NICOLAOS STRATIGAKIS; NIKOLAOS RODITAKIS

2005-01-01

259

Composition of the Essential Oil of Tephrosia egregia Sandw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and stems of Tephrosia egregia Sandw (Leguminosae) were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Nine and 10 volatile compounds have been identified in the leaf and stem oils, respectively. The major components of the leaf oil were geijerene (50.3%) and pregeijerene (21.0%), whereas the stem oil contained geijerene (39.0%) and pregeijerene (13.8%) as main

Ângela M. C. Arriaga; Francisco E. A. Magalhães; Ednilza M. A. Feitosa; Grazielle Tavares Malcher; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Ronaldo F. Nascimento

2005-01-01

260

Essential Oils of Curcuma longa L. from Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) were isolated from its rhizomes and leaves by hydrodistillation. The oils were analyzed by high resolution GC and GC\\/MS. The rhizome oils contained more than 40 constituents, of which the major ones were ?-turmerone (30–32%), ar-turmerone (17–26%) and ?-turmerone (15–18%). The leaf oil contained about 60 compounds and the main constituents were

Rabin K. Sharma; Bhabani P. Misra; Tarun C. Sarma; Ajit K. Bordoloi; Madan G. Pathak; Piet A. Leclercq

1997-01-01

261

Efficacy of Several Essential Oils as Culex and Aedes Repellents  

Microsoft Academic Search

D EET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is an effective repellent. However, it may be toxic to some users, so that an effective DEET substitute needs to be found. Essential oils, eg, eucalyptus, clove, and citronella oils, are safer. This study aimed to compare which of these oils was most effective, to determine whether these oils (as DEET substitutes) might be acceptable as standard

Susy Tjahjani

2008-01-01

262

Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh  

PubMed Central

The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay.

Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N.

2013-01-01

263

[Essential oils for the nutrition of poultry, swine and ruminants].  

PubMed

Essential oils are very complex mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Due to their lipophility they posses a good intestinale and percutane absorption. Under external application essential oils demonstrate antiphlogistic or rubefacient to pro-inflammatority activities. Orally intake they stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes and increase gastric and intestinal motility. Moreover they show spasmolytic, expectorative and diuretic activities. Besides antimicrobial properties on bacteria and fungi have been observed in vitro and in vivo. Due to their various effects essential oils increasingly gain attention in animal nutrition and are discussed to be alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. In some studies essential oils have been reported to reduce intestinal pathogens in broilers and piglets. When administered to ruminants essential oils decrease ruminal ammonia production by suppression the growth of deaminative microorganisms. However, the observed effects on growth performance are inconsistent among studies. In conclusion, there are still some unanswered questions concerning the mode of action, metabolic pathway and optimal dosage of essential oils in different animal species. Further scientific research is therefore needed to use essential oils effectivly in livestock feeding. PMID:16320571

Westendarp, H

2005-10-01

264

Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).  

PubMed

A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control. PMID:14650521

Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

2003-10-01

265

Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components.  

PubMed

Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

2012-01-25

266

Antiherpetic activity of the traditionally used complex essential oil Olbas.  

PubMed

Essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. The antiviral effect of Olbas, a traditionally used complex essential oil, and of cajuput oil, a major constitutent of Olbas, against HSV type 1 was examined. The antiviral activity of these essential oils was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Olbas and cajuput oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 1.8 microg/ml and 7.5 microg/ml, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of these oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99% for Olbas and 66% for cajuput oil. The selectivity index of 150 for Olbas against herpes simplex virus was superior to a rather low selectivity index for cajuput oil. The mode of antiviral action of these essential oils was assessed by time-on-addition assays. Herpesvirus was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with Olbas essential oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Olbas affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus Olbas exerted a direct antiviral effect on HSV. A clearly time-dependent antiviral activity for Olbas and cajuput oil could be demonstrated. Considering the lipophilic nature of the Olbas complex essential oil mixture, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Olbas might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:24020128

Heidary Navid, M; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

2013-08-01

267

Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats.  

PubMed

Essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. In the present study, the essential oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which is commercially used in soap, toothpaste and cosmetics, was extracted. Essential oil extracted from C. obtusa contains several types of terpenes, which have been shown to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil in vivo and in vitro following the induction of inflammation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats. While LPS induced an inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs), these levels were reduced when essential oil was pre-administered. Additionally, the mechanism of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil was investigated by measuring the mRNA expression of inflammation?associated genes. LPS treatment significantly induced the expression of transforming growth factor ? (TNF?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rats, while C. obtusa essential oil inhibited this effect. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. obtusa essential oil exerts anti?inflammatory effects by regulating the production of PGE2 and TNF? gene expression through the COX-2 pathway. These findings suggest that C. obtusa essential oil may constitute a novel source of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23652412

An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Hong-Seok; Choi, In-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jin; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2013-05-08

268

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium growing wild in Iran.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to investigate the composition of essential oil of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) growing wild in Iran. The wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area between Deylaman and Asiabar villages, at Alborz altitudes in Guilan province in September 2005. Aerial parts were dried at shade (room temperature) for several days and their essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that essential oil yield was 1.3%. Twenty eight components representing 93.3% of the oil were identified, which were mostly monoterpenes. beta-pinene and beta-thujone were the main components, which their contents were 23.8 and 18.6% respectively. The largest part of the essential oil was formed by hydrocarbon monoterpenes (47.8%). The results proved that chemotype of the studied wormwood essential oil was specific and different from other wormwood essential oil chemotypes, which have been reported so far. PMID:18814663

Rezaeinodehi, A; Khangholi, S

2008-03-15

269

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

2012-03-12

270

Leishmanicidal activity of carvacrol-rich essential oil from Lippia sidoides Cham.  

PubMed

Leishamaniasis is a disease that affects more than 2 million people worldwide, whose causative agent is Leishmania spp. The current therapy for leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory. All available drugs, including pentavalent antimony, require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Moreover, an increase in clinical resistance to these drugs has been reported. In this scenario, plant essential oils used traditionally in folk medicine are emerging as alternative sources for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a thymol- and a carvacrol-rich essential oil from leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. were investigated. The essential oils were extracted and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Both essential oils showed significant activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. However, we found that carvacrol-rich essential oil was more effective, with IC50/72 h of 54.8 ?g/mL compared to 74.1 ?g/mL for thymol-rich oil. Carvacrol also showed lower IC50 than thymol. Our data suggest that L. sidoides essential oils are indeed promising sources of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:23558998

Farias-Junior, Paulo A; Rios, Marcos C; Moura, Tauanny A; Almeida, Roque P; Alves, Pericles B; Blank, Arie F; Fernandes, Roberta P M; Scher, Ricardo

2012-01-01

271

Intraspecific variation of Chiliadenus iphionoides essential oil in Israel.  

PubMed

Chiliadenus iphionoides (Asteraceae), a shrub endemic to the Mediterranean region and widespread throughout Israel, is used in the traditional eastern Mediterranean medicine. Although recent research confirmed its pharmacological potential, C. iphionoides essential oil has not been adequately characterized chemically. Essential-oil samples were collected from representative wild populations throughout Israel and characterized by GC/MS analysis. Considerable interpopulation variation was found for the composition of the essential oils. Multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between the chemical composition and the geographic location, with three main chemotypes identified. PMID:21674780

Tamir, Hilla; Satovic, Zlatko; Gorelick, Jonathan; Danin, Avinoam; Fischer, Ravit; Chaimovitsh, David; Dudai, Nativ

2011-06-01

272

Synergistic antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils with chitosan films.  

PubMed

The synergistic antimicrobial activities of three natural essential oils (i.e., clove bud oil, cinnamon oil, and star anise oil) with chitosan films were investigated. Cinnamon oil had the best antimicrobial activity among three oils against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Aspergillus oryzae , and Penicillium digitatum . The chitosan solution exhibited good inhibitory effects on the above bacteria except the fungi, whereas chitosan film had no remarkable antimicrobial activity. The cinnamon oil-chitosan film exhibited a synergetic effect by enhancing the antimicrobial activities of the oil, which might be related to the constant release of the oil. The cinnamon oil-chitosan film had also better antimicrobial activity than the clove bud oil-chitosan film. The results also showed that the compatibility of cinnamon oil with chitosan in film formation was better than that of the clove bud oil with chitosan. However, the incorporated oils modified the mechanical strengths, water vapor transmission rate, moisture content, and solubility of the chitosan film. Furthermore, chemical reaction took place between cinnamon oil and chitosan, whereas phase separation occurred between clove bud oil and chitosan. PMID:22034912

Wang, Lina; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yanfeng; Chai, Zhi; Li, Pinglan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Jing, Hao; Leng, Xiaojing

2011-11-09

273

In vitro biological activity and essential oil composition of four indigenous South African Helichrysum species.  

PubMed

Helichrysum species are used widely to treat various medical conditions. In this study, the anti-microbial, anti-oxidant (DPPH assay) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase assay) of Helichrysum dasyanthum, Helichrysum felinum, Helichrysum excisum and Helichrysum petiolare were investigated. The essential oil compositions of these species were determined. The acetone and methanol extracts as well as the essential oils exhibited activity against Gram-positive bacteria, while both the methanol and acetone extracts of all four species were active in the anti-oxidant assay. The essential oils, on the other hand, displayed activity in the 5-lipoxygenase assay, which was used as an indication of anti-inflammatory activity. Two extracts exhibited promising activity in the anti-microbial assay, the acetone extract of Helichrysum dasyanthum with a MIC value of 15.63 microg/ml and the methanol extract of Helichrysum excisum with a MIC value of 62.5 microg/ml. The acetone extract of Helichrysum dasyanthum was the most active free radical scavenger in the DPPH assay (IC(50) of 9.53 microg/ml) while values for the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils ranged between 25 and 32 microg/ml. The essential oil compositions of three species (Helichrysum dasyanthum, Helichrysum excisum and Helichrysum petiolare) were dominated by the presence of monoterpenes such as alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineole and p-cymene. In the oil of Helichrysum felinum, monoterpenes were largely absent. Its profile consisted of a variety of sesquiterpenes in low concentrations with beta-caryophyllene dominating. PMID:15507345

Lourens, A C U; Reddy, D; Ba?er, K H C; Viljoen, A M; Van Vuuren, S F

2004-12-01

274

Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

2000-10-15

275

Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

Furletti, V. F.; Teixeira, I. P.; Obando-Pereda, G.; Mardegan, R. C.; Sartoratto, A.; Figueira, G. M.; Duarte, R. M. T.; Rehder, V. L. G.; Duarte, M. C. T.; Hofling, J. F.

2011-01-01

276

Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as a valuable tool for isolating essential oil components from conifers.  

PubMed

Essential oils are one of nature's most precious gifts with surprisingly potent and outstanding properties. Coniferous oils, for instance, are nowadays being used extensively to treat or prevent many types of infections, modify immune responses, soothe inflammations, stabilize moods, and to help ease all forms of non-acute pain. Given the broad spectrum of usage of coniferous essential oils, a fast, safe, simple, and efficient sample-preparation method is needed in the estimation procedure of essential oil components in fresh plant material. Generally, the time- and energy-consuming steam distillation (SD) is applied for this purpose. This paper will compare SD, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), and the sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as isolation techniques to obtain aroma components from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). According to the obtained data, SSDM is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil composition of conifers. Moreover, SSDM requires small organic solvent amounts and a short extraction time, which makes it an advantageous alternative procedure for the routine analysis of coniferous oils. The superiority of SSDM over MSPD efficiency is ascertained, as there are no chemical interactions between the plant cell components and the sand. This fact confirms the reliability and efficacy of SSDM for the analysis of volatile oil components. PMID:22083917

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczy?ska, Natalia B

2011-11-01

277

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Seseli globiferum essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli globiferum Vis. obtained by hydrodistillation with Clevenger-type apparatus was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified, representing 99.4% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were sabinene (38.0%), alpha-pinene (21.2%) and beta-phellandrene (13.5%). The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the isolated essential oil were determined using the broth microdilution method against seven bacterial species: Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterobacter cloacae (clinical isolates), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Micrococcus flavus (ATCC 10240) and three fungal species: Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730), Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061) and Penicillium funiculosum (ATCC 36839). The essential oil showed activity against bacteria P. aeruginosa, followed by M flavus, L. monocytigenes and E. coli, and all investigated fungal species. PMID:21922927

Jana?kovi?, Peda; Sokovi?, Marina; Vujisi?, Ljubodrag; Vajs, Vlatka; Vuckovi?, Ivan; Krivosej, Zoran; Marin, Petar D

2011-08-01

278

Essential oils from fruits of three types of Thapsia villosa.  

PubMed

Thapsia villosa has been divided into five types and previous analyses of the essential oils from the fruits of two of these types showed that limonene and methyl eugenol were the major constituents. The composition of the essential oils from the fruits of the other three types of T. villosa, with the chromosome numbers 2n = 22 (2x), 2n = 22 (2x) and 2n = 44 (4x), is reported here. The oil from all three types shows a similar chemical profile, with geranyl acetate as the main constituent accounting for 78-92% of the total oil. The composition of the essential oils from these plants is clearly different from the first two types of T. villosa mentioned, and also from the other species within the genus Thapsia. PMID:8987581

Avato, P; Trabace, G; Smitt, U W

1996-10-01

279

Uruguayan Essential Oils. Part V. Composition of Bergamot Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of industrial and laboratory-prepared bergamot oils produced in Uruguay during the 1995 production season was carried out by GC and GC\\/MS. The composition of the Uruguayan bergamot oils were compared with those of Italian bergamot oils. They were found to be very similar; however, they could be differentiated from their psoralen and coumarin contents. The enantiomeric ratio of

Eduardo Dellacassa; Daniel Lorenzo; Patrick Moyna; Antonella Verzera; Antonella Cavazza

1997-01-01

280

Analysis of essential oil in Asternovi-belgii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constituents of essential oil of Asternovi-belgii were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. 18 peaks were separated by GC and 14\\u000a compounds were identified. The identified constituent’s accounts for 99.10% of GC peak areas of essential oil. The major chemical\\u000a constituents of Asternovi-belgii are ?-Pinene (38.33%), ?-pinene (31.23%), and thujene (16.71%).

Pan Xuefeng; Liu Xiaodong; Zhao Xiaohong; Yang Mingfei

1999-01-01

281

ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF THREE SPECIES OF Achillea FROM KAZAKHSTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils ofAchillea millefoliumL.,A. NobilisL. from Kazakhstan flora andA. GrandifloraBieb introduced in culture at the Karaganda Botanic garden were determined by GC\\/MS. The main component in the essential oil ofA. MillefoliumL. andA. NobilisL. was found to be camphor, while it was ß-pinene for A. grandiflora.

Ye. M. Suleimenov; G. A. Atazhanova; T. Ozek; B. Demirci; A. T. Kulyjasov; S. M. Adekenov; K. H. C. Baser

2001-01-01

282

Chemical variability in the essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens plants collected from 11 localities of the Brazilian Cerrado region were investigated by GC–MS. Sabinene, limonene, biclyclogermacrene, ?-phellandrene and 1,8-cineole were the principal constituents. The results were submitted to principal component and chemometric cluster analysis which allowed three groups of essential oils to be distinguished with respect to the content of p-mentha-2,4(8)-diene, limonene\\/?-phellandrene\\/?-terpinene and

Neuc??rio R Azevedo; Irani F. P Campos; Heleno D Ferreira; Tomás A Portes; Suzana C Santos; José C Seraphin; José R Paula; Pedro H Ferri

2001-01-01

283

In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. METHODS:: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the

Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan; Manickkam Jayakumar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

2006-01-01

284

Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds) were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%), carvacrol (7.6–52.3%), and ?-terpinene (3–11.4%). Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging and ?-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas has most antioxidant activity in ?-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1 ± 0.1??g/mL and 96.1 ± 0.8% inhibition rate, resp.).

Amiri, Hamzeh

2012-01-01

285

Microwave-assisted isolation of essential oils from Nepeta crispa and N. racemosa and comparisons with the conventional method.  

PubMed

In this study microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) has been compared with the conventional method of hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oils from two Iranian Lamiaceae species: Nepeta crispa Willd and N. racemosa Lam. The essential oils extracted by MAHD for 40 min were quantitatively and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 3.5 h. The MAHD method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs in terms of time, energy and plant material. PMID:23285819

Daryasari, Ameneh Porgham; Soleimani, Mojtaba; Ghorbani, Azam; Kheiri, Homayon; Daryasarie, Mohammad Porgham

2012-11-01

286

Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

1995-01-01

287

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Achillea millefolium L. Isolated by Different Distillation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea millefolium L. isolated by different distillation methods was studied. Samples were hydrodistilled with Clevenger-type (HD), simultaneous micro-distillation-extraction (SMDE), and microwave (MAHD) apparatus. The yields were 0.46% ± 0.03 for the HD and 0.48% ± 0.03 for the MAHD (v\\/w, volume\\/dry weight). The oils were analyzed by GC and

Carlo I. G. Tuberoso; Adam Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

288

Molluscicidal and leishmanicidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Syzygium cumini (L.) SKEELS from Brazil.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and biological potential of the essential oil extracted from Syzygium cumini leaves collected in Brazil were examined. GC/MS Analyses revealed a high abundance of monoterpenes (87.12%) in the oil. Eleven compounds were identified, with the major components being ?-pinene (31.85%), (Z)-?-ocimene (28.98%), and (E)-?-ocimene (11.71%). To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the oil, it was tested against Biomphalaria glabrata and the LC?? obtained was 90 mg/l. The essential oil also showed significant activity against Leishmania amazonensis, with an IC50 value equal to 60 mg/l. In addition, to evaluate its toxicity towards a non-target organism, the essential oil was tested against Artemia salina and showed a LC?? of 175 mg/l. Thus, the essential oil of S. cumini showed promising activity as a molluscicidal and leishmanicidal agent and might be valuable in combating neglected tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Further research is being conducted with regard to the purification and isolation of the most active essential-oil compounds. PMID:23776029

Dias, Clarice N; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Carvalho, Fernando A A; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Maia, Jose G S; Andrade, Eloisa H A; Moraes, Denise F C

2013-06-01

289

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens. PMID:23444311

Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patricia

2013-02-26

290

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak.  

PubMed

The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were ?-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 ?L/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B? (AFB?) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 ?L/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 ?L/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage. PMID:21320730

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Huang, Bo; Wang, Youwei

2011-01-26

291

Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jurgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

292

Biopreservation of hamburgers by essential oil of Zataria multiflora.  

PubMed

Hamburgers with high nutrient supply and a loosely-packed structure present favourable conditions for microbial growth. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora and its potential application as a natural preservative in reducing the indigenous microbial population of hamburgers were investigated. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool were found to be the most abundant constituents of the essential oil using GC-MS analysis. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Addition of Z. multiflora essential oil in concentrations higher than MIC values influenced the microbial population of hamburgers stored at 25°C, 4°C and -12°C. The significant results of this study are our observations that the use of Z. multiflora essential oil at 0.05% v/w increases the time needed for the natural microflora of hamburgers to reach concentrations able to produce a perceivable spoilage at refrigerator and room temperatures without any inverse effect on their sensory attributes. Freezing of essential oil-treated hamburgers may also reduce the risk of diseases associated with consumption of under-cooked hamburgers through significant microbial reduction by more than 3 log. PMID:21848371

Samadi, N; Sharifan, A; Emam-Djomeh, Z; Sormaghi, M H Salehi

2011-08-17

293

Screening the essential oil composition of wild Sicilian fennel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six samples of wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) have been collected in different localities of Sicily and analysed for their content in seed essential oils. The GC-FID-MS analyses allowed identifying 78 compounds, representing more than 98% of the oils. Phenylpropanoids are the most highly represented components – 55 samples show estragole as the main compound ranging between 34 and 89%,

Edoardo M. Napoli; Giusy Curcuruto; Giuseppe Ruberto

2010-01-01

294

Gas chromatographic technologies for the analysis of essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil analysis has basically had one technical goal: to achieve the best possible separation performance by using the most effective, available technology of the day. The result achieved from this may then be used to answer the research or industrial analysis questions which necessitated the analysis. This may be for comparative purposes, where one oil is contrasted with other(s)

Philip J Marriott; Robert Shellie; Charles Cornwell

2001-01-01

295

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

296

U.S. Essential Oil Trade, May 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils in 1989 rose to an alltime high of nearly $144 million, 17 percent greater than a year earlier, and well above 1987 exports of $114 million. Exports of orange and lemon oils doubled and sharp increases also were recorded for...

1990-01-01

297

Essential Oil of Pimpinella aromatica Bieb. from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water distilled essential oil of Pimpinella aromatica growing in Turkey was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Methyl chavicol (91.96%), (E)-anethol (7.22%) and ?-pinene (0.12%) were characterized representing 99.30% of the oil.

K. H. C. Baser; T. Özek; H. Duman; A. Güner

1996-01-01

298

Essential oils for the disinfection of grey water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the antimicrobial properties of many plant essential oils (EOs) are well known, their application for the disinfection of water has received little attention. In this study, their use as alternative ‘natural’ disinfectants for grey water reuse was assessed. Toxicity screening of eight EOs and their components highlighted origanum oil (Thymus capitatus) and carvacrol as exerting the most antimicrobial activity.

Gideon P. Winward; Lisa M. Avery; Tom Stephenson; Bruce Jefferson

2008-01-01

299

Essential Oil of Satureja viminea L. from Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of essential oil of Satureja viminea L. was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. More than 40 compounds were identified corresponding to ca. 94% of the oil. The major components were p-menth-3-en-8-ol (40.0%), pulegone (35.3%) and p-mentha-3,8-diene (5.2%).

Roser Vila; José Iglesias; Salvador Cañigueral; José F. Clcció

2000-01-01

300

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Cupressus atlantica Gaussen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the wood, leaves and cones of Cupressus atlantica Gaussen (Cupressaceae) was studied by GC and GC\\/MS. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes constituted the main chemical groups in the oil from wood, with cedrol (45.1%) as the major component. The oil from leaves contained higher amounts of sesquiterpenes with germacrene D (13.1%) and ?-muurolol

A. F. Barrero; M. M. Herrador; P. Arteaga; J. Quílez; M. Piedra; M. Akssira; M. Aitigri; A. Bennamara

2005-01-01

301

Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.  

PubMed

Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with < 30% mortality. In addition, the products Pest Out (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil), Bang (Pipereaceae), and Fruit & Vegetable Insect Spray (rosemary, cinnamon, clove oil, and garlic extract) had the highest flower (transvaal daisy, Gerberajamesonii [H. Bolus ex Hook.f]) phytotoxicity ratings (> or = 4.5 of 5) among all the products. None of the plant-derived essential oil products provided sufficient control of sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype or green peach aphid 7, 14, and 21 d after application. Furthermore, the products Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) and Sharpshooter (sodium lauryl sulfate and clove oil) were phytotoxic to the poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch, plants. This study is one of the first to quantitatively demonstrate that commercially available plant-derived essential oil products vary in their effectiveness against certain arthropod pests stated on the label and are phytotoxic. PMID:19736770

Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

2009-08-01

302

A new essential oil Chemotype of Allium roseum analysed by an apolar column  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the chemical characterization of a medicinal and an aromatic plant of the Tunisian flora: Allium roseum var. odoratissimum, and aimed to identify new bioactive natural compounds in its flower essential oil. These compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC\\/MS, using an apolar column. The most important compounds characterized were organo-sulphurous (46%), including

Sami Zouari; Hanen Najjaa; Mohamed Neffati; Emna Ammar

2011-01-01

303

Larvicidal activity of two Algerian Verbenaceae essential oils against Culex pipiens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of essential oils extracted from the leaves of Verbena officinalis and Lantana camara L. for the control of Culex pipiens. Triplicate bioassays were performed with fourth larval instars of C. pipiens (n=25 per replicate) with solutions at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500?L\\/L of V. officinalis and L. camara

Safia Zoubiri; Aoumeur Baaliouamer

2011-01-01

304

EFFECT OF DRYING AIR TEMPERATURE UPON THE ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT FROM GUACO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of drying air temperature on the content of essential oil extracted from guaco (Mikania glomerata Sprengel). The drying tests were performed in an experimental fixed-bed dryer, which contains 4 perforated trays with upward air flow. The treatments consisted of five temperatures for the drying air (environmental air and the air heated at 40,

RONICELY P. ROCHA; EVANDRO C. MELO; LAURI L. RADUNZ; LUIZ C. A. BARBOSA; JOSÉ A. T. MESSIAS

305

[Sensitivity assessment of thyme and lavender essential oils against clinical strains of Escherichia coli for their resistance].  

PubMed

Strong antiseptic activity of plant essential oils and extracts has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils were tested against 30 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the both oils, from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia were active against all of the clinical strains, but thyme oil demonstrated the highest activity. Thyme and lavender essential oils were active against multi drug resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli genera. The results of experiments justify a study related to activity other essential oils against different genus of bacteria. PMID:22184923

Sienkiewicz, Monika; Kalemba, Danuta; Wasiela, Ma?gorzata

2011-01-01

306

Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants.  

PubMed

This study examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq. The essential oils of myrtle and parsley seed contained ?-pinene (36.08% and 22.89%, respectively) as main constituents. Trans-Anethole was the major compound found in fennel and aniseed oils (66.98% and 93.51%, respectively). The dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene (76.63%). Diallyl disulphide was identified as the major component in garlic oil (36.51%). Antiradical activity was higher in garlic oil (76.63%) and lower in myrtle oil (39.23%). The results may suggest that some essential oils from Iraq possess compounds with antiradical activity, and these oils can be used as natural antioxidants in food applications. PMID:21827329

Kiralan, Mustafa; Bayrak, Ali; Abdulaziz, Omar Fawzi; Ozbucak, Tu?ba

2011-08-10

307

The essential oil of Bupleurum fruticosum L. from Corsica: a comprehensive study.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis of Bupleurum fruticosum oil was carried out by combination of GC (RI), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR analyses. After fractionation by column chromatography, 34 components accounting for 97.8% of the oils were identified. The main component was beta-phellandrene (67.7%), followed by sabinene (9.3%), and limonene (5.6%). The evolution of the chemical composition according to the stages of development of the plant was investigated as well as the composition of leaf, twig, and flower oils. A solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of aerial parts was carried out and the composition of the extract compared with that of the essential oil. Finally, 57 oil samples isolated from aerial parts of individual plants, collected all around Corsica, were analyzed, and the data were submitted to statistical analysis. Although the contents of the main components varied, only one group emerged, accompanied with some atypical compositions. PMID:20020456

Liu, Kai; Lota, Marie Laure; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

2009-12-01

308

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

309

The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.  

PubMed

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection. PMID:15555788

Edwards-Jones, V; Buck, R; Shawcross, S G; Dawson, M M; Dunn, K

2004-12-01

310

Essential oil composition and variability of Thymus lotocephalus and Thymusxmourae.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oils of four populations of Thymus lotocephalus G. López and R. Morales and one population of T.xmourae Paiva and Salgueiro, two endemic taxa from Portugal, was investigated mainly by GC and GC-MS. Txmourae is a natural hybrid between T. lotocephalus and T. mastichina (L.) L. subsp. donyanae R. Morales, which essential oil was analysed for the first time. In its oil, it was possible to find compounds of both parents, which could enable us to confirm its intermediate status between those two taxa. 1,8-Cineole and borneol were the main constituents in the essential oil of T.xmourae, whereas linalool, geranyl acetate and 1,8-cineol were the major ones in T. lotocephalus. Intermedeol was also an important constituent in the oils of both taxa. Nevertheless, the volatile oils of the four populations investigated of T. lotocephalus showed important differences among the main constituents. In order to study their infraspecific variability, the results obtained in the analysis of individual plants were submitted to a Principal Component and Chemometric Cluster Analyses. Five types of essential oils were found: linalool, 1,8-cineole, linalool/1,8-cineole, linalyl acetate/linalool and geranyl acetate. PMID:10725602

Salgueiro; Vila; Tomàs; Cañigueral; Paiva; Proença da Cunha A; Adzet

2000-06-01

311

Chemical composition of some traditional herbal drug preparations: essential oil and aromatic water of costmary (Balsamita suaveolens Pers.).  

PubMed

The compositions of the essential oil and the aromatic water of costmary (Balsamita suaveolens Pers.) cultivated in Tuscany were investigated. They represent the main ingredients of some traditional preparations sold commercially. The essential oil as such and the n-hexane extract of the aromatic water were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Both samples were found to be rich in monoterpenes. Eighty-five compounds were identified, accounting for 95.1 and 95.4% of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of aromatic water, respectively. Carvone was the main compound (43.5% in the essential oil and 74.9% in the n-hexane extract of aromatic water). In addition, solid phase microextraction was used to sample the volatile organic compounds emitted from the fresh plant and from the aromatic water, and carvone was again the main component, amounting to 46.2 and 41.3%, respectively. PMID:11743783

Gallori, S; Flamini, G; Bilia, A R; Morelli, I; Landini, A; Vincieri, F F

2001-12-01

312

Chemical composition and biological properties of Rhododendron anthopogon essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogon was investigated by GC-MS, and seventeen compounds (representing approximately 98% of the oil) were identified. The major components of the aerial parts of the oil were the monoterpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene and the sesquiterpene delta-cadinene. Biological studies revealed a weak topical anti-inflammatory activity; a significant killing effect against some Gram-positive reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcusfecalis, Bacillus subtilis was measured; Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain and a clinical isolate of Candida, C. pseudotropicalis were killed by as low as 0.04% (v/v) essential oil. Moreover, the oil was able to reduce cancer cell growth independently of the cell line and the treatment protocols used. PMID:20428045

Innocenti, Gabbriella; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Scialino, Giuditta; Banfi, Elena; Sosa, Silvio; Gurung, Khilendra; Barbera, Mariagnese; Carrara, Maria

2010-03-31

313

Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil of Curcuma zedoaria.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oil of Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and showed a high content of epicurzerenone and curdione representing 46.6% and 13.7% of the total oil, respectively. The essential oil was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasa aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus cereus. V. parahaemolyticus was sensitive to the presence of the essential oil, while the most resistant strain appeared to be E. coli. Based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction and cell morphology, the essential oil of C. zedoaria could inhibit the proliferation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the essential oil has the antimicrobial activity against some of Gram- positive and negative pathogenic microorganisms and the components of the extract lead to the apoptosis of human cancer cell line. PMID:15315265

Lai, Eric Y C; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Chen, Chien-Chou; Lai, Yi-Jui; Shih, Ching-Fang; Lin, Long-Liu

2004-01-01

314

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur Variety.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety grown in Pakistan was extracted by hydro-distillation. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 25 constituents, out of which nine chemical constituents were identified. The eucalyptol (10.27%) was the major component of the essential oil. ?-pinene (1.50%), ?-phellandrene (2.49%), ?-pinene (3.57%), limonene (2.73%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (1.76%), ascaridole epoxide (1.452%), 2-methylisoborneol (2.92%), 5-isopropyl-6-methyl-hepta-3, dien-2-ol (2.07%) were also present in considerable quantity. The antimicrobial properties of leaves of Curcuma longa were tested by disc diffusion method against various human pathogens, including eight fungal and five bacterial strains. Essential oil showed maximum resistance against Fusarium miniformes MAY 3629 followed by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 whereas; it exhibited least resistance against Fusarium oxysporium ATCC 48122. The results of the antimicrobial assay revealed that essential oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested organisms. PMID:23901173

Parveen, Z; Nawaz, S; Siddique, S; Shahzad, K

2013-01-01

315

Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.  

PubMed

The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates. PMID:23577212

Martins, Carla; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

2013-04-05

316

Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation  

PubMed Central

The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5–20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25–5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6–41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, Jose Paulo; Goncalves, Maria Jose; Salgueiro, Ligia; Canhoto, Cristina

2013-01-01

317

Essential Oils of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. from Northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiberaceae, were isolated from its rhizomes and leaves by hydrodistillation. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC\\/MS revealed that the rhizome oil contained terpinen-4-ol (50.5%), (E)-l-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene (19.1%), (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene (6.0%) and ?-sesquiphellandrene(5.9%)as major constituents out of 21 compounds identified. In the leaf oil 39 components were identified, and the main compounds were found to

Ajit K. Bordoloi; Jaroslava Sperkova; Piet A. Leclercq

1999-01-01

318

[Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].  

PubMed

Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil. PMID:17396950

Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

1982-10-01

319

COMPARISONS OF ADULT REPELLENCY AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST MOSQUITOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils including thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil and cinnamon oil were studied on three mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens. The repellency of the selected essential oils to female bl...

320

Composition of the Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium L. from Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) from air-dried aerial parts of plant species Achillea millefolium L. yarrow was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-six components were identified. The major constituents in the oil extracts were ?-pinene (14.9–29.2%), sabinene (2.9–17.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.9–18.3%), ?-caryophyllene (3.3–6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (0.5–6.4%), guaiol (0.3–11.8%) and chamazulene (0.1–13.3%). The monoterpene fraction represented

Anne Orav; Tiiu Kailas; Kaire Ivask

2001-01-01

321

Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g(-1). The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), ?-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588

Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

2010-12-01

322

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.  

PubMed

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

2009-12-29

323

A comparison between different techniques for the isolation of rosemary essential oil.  

PubMed

Traditional hydrodistillation (HD), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), organic solvent extraction (SE), and water microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques were compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in the isolation of rosemary essential oil. The microwave assisted hydrodistillation technique was optimized in terms of both delivered power and time duration. The extracts/distillates were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Microwave distillation, which exploits the physical action of microwaves on plants, showed a series of advantages over the other approaches: low cost, use of water in sample pre-treatment step, greatly reduced isolation time, and attainment of high quality essential oil distillate. Moreover, the absence of environmental impact of this innovative technique was also emphasized. PMID:15776930

Presti, Maria Lo; Ragusa, Salvatore; Trozzi, Alessandra; Dugo, Paola; Visinoni, Franco; Fazio, Alessia; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

2005-02-01

324

Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.  

PubMed

Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil). PMID:17511352

Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-03-01

325

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had\\u000a insecticidal activity,

Barbara Conti; Angelo Canale; Alessandra Bertoli; Francesca Gozzini; Luisa Pistelli

2010-01-01

326

Essential oils of Satureja, Origanum, and Thymus species: chemical composition and antibacterial activities against foodborne pathogens.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the species restricted to Greece and the eastern Mediterranean region, Satureja spinosa L. and Thymus longicaulis L.; species endemic to central and south Greece, Satureja parnassica ssp. parnassica Heldr. and Sart ex Boiss.; species endemic to the island of Crete, Origanum dictamnus L.; and species widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, Satureja thymbra L. and Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum, were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against a panel of five foodborne bacteria (Escherichia coli 0157:H7 NCTC 12900, Salmonella enteritidis PT4, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ScottA, and Bacillus cereus FSS 134). The analytical data indicated that various monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes constitute the major components of the oils, but their concentrations varied greatly among the oils examined. The antibacterial assay results showed that 5 muL doses of the essential oils extracted from the endemic Satureja species in Greece possess remarkable bactericidal properties, which are clearly superior as compared to those of Origanum and Thymus species essential oils. Therefore, they represent an inexpensive source of natural mixtures of antibacterial compounds that exhibit potentials for use in food systems to prevent the growth of foodborne bacteria and extend the shelf life of the processed food. PMID:15612827

Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kalpoutzakis, Eleftherios; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Mitaku, Sofia; Nychas, George-John; Haroutounian, Serkos A

2004-12-29

327

Essential Oil Composition of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-six components, which constituted 80.4% of the oil, were identified. The major components were ethyl hexadecanoate (24.4%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (11.4%), isocaryophyllene (8.1%), (E)-?-ionone (5.8%) and methyl linolenate (4.1%).

Adebola O. Oyedeji; Olusegun Ekundayo; Wilfried A. Koenig

2005-01-01

328

Essential Oil Composition of Zingiberaceae Species from Mauritius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of the rhizomes of the common ginger (Zingiber officinale) and three ginger-lilies (Hedychium coccineum, H. flavescens and H. coronarium) grown in Mauritius has been investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. Zingiber officinale oil was characterized by the presence of geranial (16.3%), neral (10.3%), zingiberene (9.5%), ?-sesquiphellandrene (6.3%) and ar-curcumene (5.1%).

Ameenah Gurib-Fakim; Naheeda Maudarbaccus; David N Leach; Luigino Doimo; Hans Wohlmuth

2002-01-01

329

Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai, its main constituents: 1,8-cineole and selin-11-en-4alpha-ol and monoterpene alcohols fraction were determined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Rhodotorula rubra and Aspergillus fumigatus. The oil exhibited a good inhibitory activity against bacteria and fungi. The monoterpene alcohols fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity. PMID:12164281

Kalemba, D; Kusewicz, D; Swiader, K

2002-05-01

330

Essential Oil of Chamomile Ligulate and Tubular Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of tubular flowers and ligulate flowers of two chamomile genotypes diploid (2n = 18) and tetraploid (2n = 36) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. The tubular flower oils of the diploid and tetraploid genotypes were found to contain ?-bisabolol oxide B (17.8% and 5.9%), ?-bisabolol (34.2% and 9–6%) and ?-bisabolol oxide A (24.4% and 54.3%) as

Branislav Pekic; Zoran Zekovic; Lidija Petrovic; Dusan Adamovic

1999-01-01

331

Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), ?-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and ?-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23?ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24?ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (?98.0%), ?-phellandrene (?95.0%), fenchone (?98.0%), (E)-anethole (?99.0%), myrcene (?99.0%), and ?-pinene (?99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (?98.0%) and (E)-anethole (?99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11?ppm and 102.41?ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21077804

Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

2010-11-16

332

Effects of seasonal variation on the central nervous system activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil.  

PubMed

Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) and other species of the same genus are used as medicines to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, commonly encountered in warm regions of the world. The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil varies according to their chemotypes: timol, eugenol or geraniol. In this study, the essential oil type eugenol was extracted by hydrodistillation in each of the four seasons of the year. Activity upon CNS was evaluated in the open-field and rota-rod tests; sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (PBS, 40 mg/kg, intra-peritoneally, i.p.) and anticonvulsant activity against seizures induced by both pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg, s.c.) and maximal electroshock (MES, 50 mA, 0.11 s) were determined. Essential oils obtained in each season were effective in increasing the sleeping duration and a preparation obtained in Spring was able to protect animals against tonic seizures induced by electroshock. In each season, eugenol and 1,8-cineole were the most abundant compounds, and in Spring the essential oil presented the greatest relative percentage of sesquiterpenes, suggesting that these compounds could explain the differences observed in the biological activity in essential oils obtained in different seasons of the year. PMID:16303272

Freire, Cristiana M Murbach; Marques, Márcia Ortiz M; Costa, Mirtes

2005-11-21

333

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cordiaverbenacea D.C.  

PubMed

Cordiaverbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae) is found along the coastal regions of Brazil, from the Amazon basin to the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aerial parts of this plant have been used in folk medicine since colonial times for their anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and healing properties. The objectives of this study were: the extraction of the essential oil of the aerial parts of this species and quantification of the yield thereof; the identification and quantification of the principal components of the essential oil; and the determination of its antimicrobial activity by plate diffusion method. The yield of essential oil was 0.19% (v/w) in relation to the fresh flowering aerial parts and 0.23% (v/w) of the leaves. The main constituents of the essential oil, identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were alpha-pinene (29.69%), trans-caryophyllene (25.27%) and aloaromadendrene (9.99%). The Gram-positive bacteria and yeast tested were sensitive to the essential oil of Cordiaverbenacea D.C., but most of the Gram-negative bacteria were resistant. PMID:15507352

de Carvalho, P M; Rodrigues, R F O; Sawaya, A C H F; Marques, M O M; Shimizu, M T

2004-12-01

334

Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2010-06-01

335

Essential oils from wild and micropropagated plants of Origanum bastetanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed water-distilled essential oil of Origanum bastetanum, an endemic species in Spain, by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Twenty-five components were characterized; cis-4-thujanol (30.9%), ?-terpinene (15.6%), thymol (12.0%), p-cymene (9.9%), 1-terpinen-4-ol (5.9%) and linalyl acetate (3.7%) were identified as major constituents. We also studied the essential oil of micropropagated O. bastetanum and the results were compared with those from wild plants.

Oswaldo Socorro; Inmaculada Tárrega; Francisco Rivas

1998-01-01

336

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by combination of ultrasonication and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment before aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction was found to be useful in the case of extraction of oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The use of ultrasonication for 10 min at pH 9.0 followed by aqueous oil extraction gave a yield of 67%. However, the maximum yield of 74%

Shweta Shah; Aparna Sharma; M. N. Gupta

2005-01-01

337

Extraction and characteristics of seed kernel oil from white pitaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuable oil in the seeds of white pitaya can be extracted by different methods. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared with microwave-assistant extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) and a combination of microwave and AEE (MAEE) for the yield and characteristics of the oil obtained. MAEE was proven to be the best method with the highest oil

Hanming Rui; Liyan Zhang; Zuowei Li; Yanli Pan

2009-01-01

338

Antifungal and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana from Spain.  

PubMed

The essential oils extracted from the young stems and leaves of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A.Murray) Parl. have been analysed by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. A total of 66 compounds were identified representing around the 99% of the total oil. The oil was richer in monoterpenes than in sesquiterpenes. The only main component was limonene with a percentage composition of 77.7%. The rest of compounds that contribute to the fragrance had percentage composition lower that the 3.0%: p-cymen-7-ol (3.0%), myrcene (2.4%), camphor (2.1%), delta-elemene (1.6%), oplopanonyl acetate (1.6%), methyl perillate (1.3%), terpinen-4-ol (1.0%) and beta-oplopenone 1.0%. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of this oil was also tested against different microorganisms. The only fungus tested, Candida albicans, was very sensitive to the treatment with an inhibition halos of 20mm. The oil was more effective with the Gram (+) than with Gram (-) bacteria. The inhibition halos were 12mm, 12-13mm and 12-13mm for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus respectively. We report new data of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of this species. The essential oil of C. lawsoniana could be considered as a good natural antibacterial and antifungal agent. PMID:23157017

Palá-Paúl, Jesús; Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Granda, Elena; Soria, Ana-Cristina

2012-10-01

339

Extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of the bitumen fraction of El-Lajjun oil shale was carried out using 17 different solvents, pure and combined. Out of all the solvents used, toluene and chlorform were found to be the most efficient for extraction of the bitumen to perform the major part of the experiments. This selectivity was based on the quality and quantity of the yield and on the quantity of solvent recovered. Extraction was carried out using a Soxhlet extractor. For complete recovery of solvent the extract phase was subjected to two stages of distillation, simple distillation followed by fractional distillation, where different cuts of oil were obtained. It was found that an optimum shale size of 1.0 mm offered better solvent recovery. One hour was the optimum time needed for complete extraction. The yield of oil was determined from the material balance gained from fractional distillation after testing for the existence of any traces of solvent trapped in the different cuts by using a gas chromotography technique. When chloroform was used, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.037 g/g of shale, which corresponds to 98% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming the bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 84.1% of solvent recovered. When toluene was used, it was found that the average amount of oil extracted was 0.0293 g/g/ of shale, which corresponds to 78% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 89.9% of solvent for extraction with toluene.

Anabtawi, M.Z. [Univ. of Bahrain, Isa Town (Bahrain); Uysal, B.Z. [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

1995-10-01

340

Constituents of the Essential Oil of Eugenia nitida Camb. (Myrtaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Eugenia nitida Camb. was obtained from the fresh leaves by hydrodistillation. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. A total of 30 compounds were identified. The major components found in the oil were germacrene D-4-ol (9.8%), ?-elemene (8.0%), ?-caryophyllene (7.6%),?-selinene (4.4%), ?-muurolene (4.1%), valencene (3-9%), epi-?-cadinol (2.9%), selin-ll-en-4?-ol (2.8%), ?-cadinene (2.8%), ?-cadinol (2.7%), selin-3,7(11)-diene (2.4%)

Roberto C. C. Martins; Leila V. Alegrio; Rosane X. Castro; Ronoel L. O. Godoy

1999-01-01

341

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Colquhounia coccinea Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and flowers of Colquhounia coccinea Wall. were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. flower A total of 96.8% and 93.7% of the constituents were identified in the leaf and oils, respectively. Both the oils were dominated by sesquiterpenoids. ?-Caryophyllene (44.1–53.2%), germacrene D (7.0–15.8%), cadina-1–4-diene (11.1–12.4%), germacrene D-4-ol (1.8–12.2%), ?-humulene (3.7–8.7%) and

Renu Bhatt; R. C. Padalia; Chitra Pande

2009-01-01

342

Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and ?-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

2012-07-01

343

Chemical Composition and Chemometric Analysis of Variation in Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis L . during Vegetation Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the content and composition of Calendula officinalis essential oils was studied using supercritical CO2 extraction followed by GC–MS. Samples of marigold were harvested at four different vegetation stages. A total of 43 different\\u000a compounds were identified in the essential oils. The identified components were represented mainly by monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes\\u000a and sesquiterpene alcohols. The qualitative and quantitative composition

Vilma Kaškonien?; Paulius Kaškonas; Modesta Jalinskait?; Audrius Maruška

2011-01-01

344

Characterization of Essential Oils from Helichrysum odoratissimum Using Different Drying Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helichrysum odoratissimum is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. The essential oil from the herb was extracted and characterized for the first time using different drying methods. The oils isolated from fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried aerial parts of the plant yielded 0.28, 0.46, 0.33 and 0.36%, respectively. The fresh leaf oil was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main constituents as p-menthone (35.4%), pulegone (34.2%) and 1, 8-cineole (13.0%). The dried plant oils had limonene (31.6-22.6%), µ-caryophyllene (13.0-12.0%) and µ-pinene (10.0-7.7%) as their major constituents. Generally, the yield and chemical profile of H. odoratissimum were affected by the drying methods utilized. There were noteworthy chemical alterations in the major components of the essential oils using different methods of drying. The compounds pulegone and menthone were reported as potentially harmful compounds, hence their substantial reduction in the dried oils as compared to the fresh leaf oil is noteworthy as it aids reduction of toxicity in the oils.

Asekun, O. T.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

345

Essential oils, kava pyrones and phenolic compounds from leaves and rhizomes of Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt. & R.M. Sm. and their antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During essential oil production from Alpinia zerumbet, large volumes of water and solid wastes are produced and subsequently discarded. An extraction protocol to obtain essential oil, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) and enriched antioxidant phenolic extracts from fresh leaves or rhizomes of A. zerumbet and their wastes was developed. The main components determined in leaf oil were 1,8-cineol, camphor and methyl cinnamate, whereas

Abdelnaser A. Elzaawely; Tran D. Xuan; Shinkichi Tawata

2007-01-01

346

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Increases in 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports and imports of essential oils were up sharply in 1983, reflecting a stronger global economy and a replenishing of depleted inventories. Despite a strong dollar, exports increased to $93.1 million, 7% greater than 1982 shipments. Orange and le...

1984-01-01

347

The Essential Oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L. in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Algeria was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. More than 90% of the components were identified with 1,8-cineole (52.4%) and camphor (12.6%) being the major components.

C. Boutekedjiret; F. Bentahar; R. Belabbes; J. M. Bessiere

1998-01-01

348

The Essential Oil of Kyllinga odorata Vahl (Cyperaceae) from Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential oil of fragrant kyllinga, Kyllinga odorata Vahl (Cyperaceae), collected in Mississippi, was examined by GC\\/MS\\/FID. Twenty-three different constituents were identified with dominant components of dihydrokaranone (53.1±16.6%) and aristolochene (11.3±2.4%).

Arthur O. Tucker; Michael J. Maciarello; Charles T. Bryson

2006-01-01

349

COMPOSITION AND PHYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF NEPETA PANNONICA L. ESSENTIAL OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial part of Nepeta pannonica L. from Kazakhstan was investigated by GC and GC-mass spectrometry. Sixty-two components were characterized from N. pannonica with 1,8-cineole (28.88%), and 4 alpha-alpha,7-beta,7 alpha-alpha-nepetalacton (28.31%) a...

350

Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The essential oil, eugenol, and a eugenol based herbicide (Matran EC) were applied to apple and peach trees during bloom to evaluate the thinning effect of these materials. Several additional bloom thinners including ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), liquid lime sulfur, and sulfcarbamide were included in...

351

Case History of Infected Eczema Treated with Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following case history details a treatment with essential oils of an infected eczematous lesion over the author's own right calf. The use of tea tree, lemon, bergamot, lavender and niaouli resulted in demonstrable healing after six days. Lavender and tea tree had an immediate effect on itchiness. Detailed and controlled studies are required to confirm the role of these

C. Blamey

352

The Essential Oil Secretory Structures of Prostanthera ovalifolia (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the essential oil secretory tissues of Prostanthera ovalifolia R.Br was investigated using bright- and dark-field optical microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. ovalifolia have glandular trichomes of the peltate type common to many Lamiaceae species. The trichomes consist of a basal cell embedded in the epidermis, a stalk cell with heavily cutinized

P. V. G ERSBACH

2002-01-01

353

Microencapsulation of Essential Oils Using ?-Cyclodextrin: Applications in Gastronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of microcapsules with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) can protect some lipophilic food components that are sensitive to oxygen and heat- or light-induced degradation. Microencapsulation of essential oil with this technique provides a variety of applications in gastronomy such as impregnation of food and drinks, customization of flavors, mixed flavors, and progressive solubilization of them into the mouth, and if using

P. García-Segovia; V. Barreto-Palacios; J. Bretón; J. Martínez-Monzó

2011-01-01

354

Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

355

Essential Oil of Chamomile Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of chamomile Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch. was studied by GC\\/MS. Eighty compounds were identified, of which ?-bisabolol oxide A (43.8%), ?-bisabolone oxide A (13.6%) and ?-bisabolene (19.6%) were the major ones.

Jorge A. Pino; Farhad Bayat; Rolando Marbot; Juan Aguero

2002-01-01

356

Biopreservation of hamburgers by essential oil of Zataria multiflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamburgers with high nutrient supply and a loosely-packed structure present favourable conditions for microbial growth. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora and its potential application as a natural preservative in reducing the indigenous microbial population of hamburgers were investigated. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool were found to be the most abundant

N. Samadi; A. Sharifan; Z. Emam-Djomeh; M. H. Salehi Sormaghi

2012-01-01

357

Biopreservation of hamburgers by essential oil of Zataria multiflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamburgers with high nutrient supply and a loosely-packed structure present favourable conditions for microbial growth. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora and its potential application as a natural preservative in reducing the indigenous microbial population of hamburgers were investigated. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool were found to be the most abundant

N. Samadi; A. Sharifan; Z. Emam-Djomeh; M. H. Salehi Sormaghi

2011-01-01

358

ESSENTIAL OILS FROM REGENERATED ARTEMISIA PETROSA SUBSP. ERIANTHA PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artemisia petrosa subsp. eriantha (alpine wormwood) of the Asteraceae family, is a Central Apennines' subendemic species which grows in rock crevices and on gravel slopes at altitudes between 2000 and 3100 m.(1). It is a protected species whose essential oil is of great interest mainly for liqueur industry; in fact, alpine wormwood possesses an hard aromatic scent and its aerial

359

Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Piper betle L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from the leaves of Piper betle L. Sagar Bangla cultivar has been found in vitro to be highly active against the growth of four keratinophilic fungi, Arthroderma benhamiae, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Ctenomyces serratus and five pathogenic Aspergilli. Bacterial organisms Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae were also found to be susceptible

S. C. Garg; Rajshree Jain

1992-01-01

360

Water soluble fractions of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family: Geraniaceae) obtained through steam or water plus steam distillation of shoot biomass is extensively used in the fragrance industry and in aromatherapy. During distillation, a part of the essential oil becomes dissolved in the distillation water (hydrosol) and is lost as this hydrosol is discarded. In this investigation, hydrosol was shaken for 30 min with hexane (10:1 proportion) and the hexane was distilled to yield 'secondary' or 'recovered' essential oil. The chemical composition of secondary oil was compared with that of 'primary' oil (obtained directly by distilling shoot biomass of the crop). Primary oil accounted for 93.0% and secondary oil 7.0% of the total oil yield (100.2 ml from 100 kg green shoot biomass). Fifty-two compounds making up 95.0-98.5% of the primary and the secondary oils were characterized through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC--MS). Primary oil was richer in hydrocarbons (8.5-9.4%), citronellyl formate (6.2-7.5%), geranyl formate (4.1-4.7%), citronellyl propionate (1.0-1.2%), alpha-selinene (1.8-2.2%), citronellyl butyrate (1.4-1.7%), 10-epi-gamma-eudesmol (4.9-5.5%) and geranyl tiglate (1.8-2.1%). Recovered oil was richer in organoleptically important oxygenated compounds (88.9-93.9%), commercial rhodinol fraction (74.3-81.2%), sabinene (0.4-6.2%), cis-linool oxide (furanoid) (0.7-1.2%), linalool (14.7-19.6%), alpha-terpineol (3.3-4.8%) and geraniol (21.3-38.4%). Blending of recovered oil with primary oil is recommended to enhance the olfactory value of the primary oil of rose-scented geranium. Distillation water stripped of essential oil through hexane extraction can be recycled for distilling the next batch of rose-scented geranium. PMID:12118700

Rao, B R Rajeswara; Kaul, P N; Syamasundar, K V; Ramesh, S

2002-09-01

361

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cedarwood oil: a study of extraction parameters and oil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-COZ) has been investigated with respect to the effects of extraction temperature and pressure, length of extraction, and age of cedarwood chips. Steam distilled and SC-CO2 derived CWOs were compared by gas chromatography and sensory evaluation. The extraction of CWO increased with extraction temperature, except at the lowest pressure utilised.

Fred J. Eller; Jerry W. King

2000-01-01

362

Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum.  

PubMed

Sesuvium portulacastrum has long been used as a remedy for fever and scurvy. Hydrodistillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum. The essential oil yield obtained was 0.15%. Using GC-MS analysis, alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, alpha-terpinene, O-cymene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpinene, bornyl acetate, tridecane, trans-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene were identified. The hole plate diffusion method was used for antibacterial testing. The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Acetobacter calcoacetica, Bacillus subtillis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The mycelium growth inhibition method was used for the antifungal testing. The oil exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium notatum. Using the beta-carotene, acetone and linoleic acid method for the antioxidant testing, the essential oil showed antioxidant activity threshold of 15.9 mm mean zone of color retention. PMID:16243465

Magwa, Michael L; Gundidza, Mazuru; Gweru, Nyasha; Humphrey, Godfred

2005-10-21

363

Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn  

PubMed Central

In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 ?g/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 ?g/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 ?g/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity.

Sousa, Erlanio O.; Silva, Natalya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, Jose Galberto M.

2010-01-01

364

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus  

PubMed Central

Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC100) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1–octen-3-ol (9%), n–nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and ?-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), ?-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time.

Barbosa, P.; Lima, A. S.; Vieira, P.; Dias, L. S.; Tinoco, M. T.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Figueiredo, A. C.

2010-01-01

365

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and ?-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), ?-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

2010-03-01

366

The metabolic responses to aerial diffusion of essential oils.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and affect a great number of people worldwide. Essential oils, take effects through inhalation or topical application, are believed to enhance physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of essential oils in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabonomics study that reveals the aromas-induced metabolic changes and the anxiolytic effect of aromas in elevated plus maze (EPM) induced anxiety model rats. The significant alteration of metabolites in the EPM group was attenuated by aromas treatment, concurrent with the behavioral improvement with significantly increased open arms time and open arms entries. Brain tissue and urinary metabonomic analysis identified a number of altered metabolites in response to aromas intervention. These metabolic changes included the increased carbohydrates and lowered levels of neurotransmitters (tryptophan, serine, glycine, aspartate, tyrosine, cysteine, phenylalanine, hypotaurine, histidine, and asparagine), amino acids, and fatty acids in the brain. Elevated aspartate, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose, fructose, and glucose), nucleosides and organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate were also observed in the urine. The EPM induced metabolic differences observed in urine or brain tissue was significantly reduced after 10 days of aroma inhalation, as noted with the loss of statistical significance on many of the metabolites in the aroma-EPM group. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the metabonomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils and provide the basis for pinpointing affected pathways in anxiety-related behavior, which will lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of anxiolytic effect of essential oils. PMID:22984571

Wu, Yani; Zhang, Yinan; Xie, Guoxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Pan, Xiaolan; Chen, Tianlu; Hu, Yixue; Liu, Yumin; Cheng, Yu; Chi, Yi; Yao, Lei; Jia, Wei

2012-09-12

367

The Metabolic Responses to Aerial Diffusion of Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and affect a great number of people worldwide. Essential oils, take effects through inhalation or topical application, are believed to enhance physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of essential oils in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabonomics study that reveals the aromas-induced metabolic changes and the anxiolytic effect of aromas in elevated plus maze (EPM) induced anxiety model rats. The significant alteration of metabolites in the EPM group was attenuated by aromas treatment, concurrent with the behavioral improvement with significantly increased open arms time and open arms entries. Brain tissue and urinary metabonomic analysis identified a number of altered metabolites in response to aromas intervention. These metabolic changes included the increased carbohydrates and lowered levels of neurotransmitters (tryptophan, serine, glycine, aspartate, tyrosine, cysteine, phenylalanine, hypotaurine, histidine, and asparagine), amino acids, and fatty acids in the brain. Elevated aspartate, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose, fructose, and glucose), nucleosides and organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate were also observed in the urine. The EPM induced metabolic differences observed in urine or brain tissue was significantly reduced after 10 days of aroma inhalation, as noted with the loss of statistical significance on many of the metabolites in the aroma-EPM group. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the metabonomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils and provide the basis for pinpointing affected pathways in anxiety-related behavior, which will lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of anxiolytic effect of essential oils.

Xie, Guoxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Pan, Xiaolan; Chen, Tianlu; Hu, Yixue; Liu, Yumin; Cheng, Yu; Chi, Yi; Yao, Lei; Jia, Wei

2012-01-01

368

Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 ?g/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 ?g/mL and 7.1 ?g/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 ?g/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 ?g/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 ?g/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 ?g/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (?g/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation. PMID:21151471

Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

2010-11-23

369

Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 ?g/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 ?g/mL and 7.1 ?g/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 ?g/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 ?g/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 ?g/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 ?g/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (?g/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

2010-01-01

370

Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.  

PubMed

In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that ?-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that ?-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. PMID:23265490

Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

2012-11-10

371

Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens.  

PubMed

The leaves of Apium graveolens were extracted and the essential oil composition, immunotoxicity effects, and antioxidant activity were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of A. graveolens leaves. Twenty-eight components, representing 73.72% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are 4-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1-imidazolyl)-valerophenone (19.90%), 1-dodecanol (16.55%), 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester (4.93%), ethyl 4,4-D2-N-hexyl ether (4.11%), 3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-phenyl-1-heptadecyn-3-ol (3.28%), 1,4-methano-1H-indene, octahydro-4-methyl-8-methylene-7-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1?,3??,4?,7?,7??)]- (2.99%), 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-(3?-t-butyl)benzodioxepine (2.56%), Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (2.53%), 9H-pyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrrolo[2,1-?]phthalazine-9, 11(10H)-dione, 10-ethyl-8-phenyl (2.07%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC(50) value of 59.32?ppm and an LC(90) value of 127.69?ppm. The essential oil from the A. graveolens leaves was investigated for scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity and the results demonstrate that the essential oil from the A. graveolens has potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation process. The above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils and also as natural antioxidant. PMID:21740094

Nagella, Praveen; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Chung, Ill-Min

2011-07-08

372

Essential oils from two Lantana species with antimycobacterial activity.  

PubMed

Lantana trifolia L. and L. fucata Lindl. are two Brazilian species used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory disorders. The composition of the essential oils from the leaves was investigated, as well as their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. L. trifolia yielded an oil (0.2%) rich in sesquiterpenes. The major substances found were germacrene D (45.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.8%), bicyclogermacrene (12.7%) and alpha-humulene (4.4%). Sesquiterpenes were also the main components of the oil of L. fucata (0.3% yield), the principal ones being beta-elemene (27.1%), germacrene D (11.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (7.7%), valencene (5.7%) and germacrene A (4.6%). Both oils exhibited in vitro antimycobacterial activity by the MABA assay with MICs of 80 microg/mL for L. trifolia and 100 microg/mL for L. fucata. PMID:20120116

Julião, Lisieux de Santana; Bizzo, Humberto R; Souza, Andressa M; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Silva, Pedro Eduardo A; Tavares, Eliana S; Rastrelli, Luca; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães

2009-12-01

373

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

2012-01-01

374

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-10

375

Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

376

Anti yeast activities of some essential oils in growth medium, fruit juices and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-yeast activities of four essential oils (EOs) from clary sage, juniper, lemon and marjoram against wild-type isolates of the food-related yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Pichia anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in malt extract (ME) medium, apple juice and milk were investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the EOs and their main components were determined and the checkerboard method was

Rentsenkhand Tserennadmid; Miklós Takó; László Galgóczy; Tamás Papp; Miklós Pesti; Csaba Vágvölgyi; Katalin Almássy; Judit Krisch

2011-01-01

377

Anti-listerial activity of plant essential oils from western region of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen due to the severity of infection with a high mortality rate. In the past few years, there\\u000a has been an increase in the use of naturally derived compounds such as plant extracts or essential oils as antimicrobials\\u000a in food. The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of theFlourensia

M. Laura Vaca Ruiz; Analía Laciar; Osvaldo J. Donadel; J. Roberto Saad; Roberto Carrizo Flores

2006-01-01

378

Serum biochemical profile and performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing essential oils and pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum biochemical parameters and performance data were evaluated in broilers fed diets supplemented with antibiotics or essential\\u000a oils from oregano, sage, rosemary, and pepper crude extract (OLES). Animals (n?=?910) were distributed into five treatment groups, with seven replicates of 26 birds in each group: the control group (diet\\u000a without additives); the group receiving an antibiotic growth promoter diet; and the

Carolina Kist Traesel; Patricia Wolkmer; Candice Schmidt; Cássia B. Silva; Francine C. Paim; Alexandre P. Rosa; Sydney H. Alves; Janio M. Santurio; Sonia T. A. Lopes

379

Alkylpyridinium Alkylsulfate Ionic Liquids as Solvents for the Deterpenation of Citrus Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic liquids 1-methylpyridinium methylsulfate and 1-ethylpyridinium ethylsulfate were tested as solvents for the deterpenation by liquid-liquid extraction of citrus essential oil, simulated as a mixture of limonene and linalool. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary systems limonene + linalool + 1-alkylpyridinium alkylsulfate (with the alkyl chain being methyl or ethyl) were determined at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, and suitably correlated with the UNIQUAC

Sara Lago; Héctor Rodríguez; Ana Soto; Alberto Arce

2012-01-01

380

Alkylpyridinium Alkylsulfate Ionic Liquids as Solvents for the Deterpenation of Citrus Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic liquids 1-methylpyridinium methylsulfate and 1-ethylpyridinium ethylsulfate were tested as solvents for the deterpenation by liquid-liquid extraction of citrus essential oil, simulated as a mixture of limonene and linalool. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary systems limonene + linalool + 1-alkylpyridinium alkylsulfate (with the alkyl chain being methyl or ethyl) were determined at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, and suitably correlated with the UNIQUAC

Sara Lago; Héctor Rodríguez; Ana Soto; Alberto Arce

2011-01-01

381

Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of edible films to release antimicrobial constituents in food packaging is a form of active packaging. Antimicrobial properties of spice extracts are well known, however their application to edible films is limited. In this study, antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films containing 1.0–4.0% (wt\\/vol) ratios of oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils were tested against Escherichia

A. C. Seydim; G. Sarikus

2006-01-01

382

Analysis of the essential oil composition from the different parts of Eryngiumglaciale Boiss. from Spain.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the different parts (inflorescences, stems + leaves and roots) of Eryngium glaciale Boiss. gathered in Sierra Nevada (Spain) has been extracted by steam distillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Quantitative but not qualitative differences have been found between the analysed parts. The principal compounds from the inflorescences oil were found to be phyllocladene isomer (43.5%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.2%) and valencene (11.5%), while the oil from stems and leaves only showed phyllocladene isomer (41.3%) as main one. The oil from the roots presented phyllocladene isomer (49.4%) and linalool (19.1%) as major constituents. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this species. PMID:16202420

Palá-Paúl, Jesús; Pérez-Alonso, Maria José; Velasco-Negueruela, Arturo; Varadé, Jezabel; Villa, Ana Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Brophy, Joseph J

2005-09-30

383

Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ATP was determined. The bacterial strains were treated with two irradiation doses: 1.2 kGy to induce cell damage and 3.5 kGy to cause cell death for L. monocytogenes. A dose of 0.4 kGy to induce cell damages, 1.1 kGy to obtain viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and 1.3 kGy to obtain a lethal dose was also applied on E. coli O157H7. Oregano essential oil was used at 0.020% and 0.025% (w/v), which is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for L. monocytogenes. For E. coli O157H7, a concentration of 0.006% and 0.025% (w/v) which is the minimum inhibitory concentration was applied. The use of essential oils in combination with irradiation has permitted an increase of the bacterial radiosensitization by more than 3.1 times. All treatments had also a significant effect (p?0.05) on the murein composition, although some muropeptides did not seem to be affected by the treatment. Each treatment influenced differently the relative percentage and number of muropeptides. There was a significant (p?0.05) correlation between the reduction of intracellular ATP and increase in extracellular ATP following treatment of the cells with oregano oil. The reduction of intracellular ATP was even more important when essential oil was combined with irradiation, but irradiation of L. monocytogenes alone induced a significant decrease (p?0.05) of the internal ATP without affecting the external ATP.

Lacroix, Monique; Caillet, Stéphane; Shareck, Francois

2009-07-01

384

Larvicidal effects of the major essential oil of Pittosporum tobira against Aedes aegypti (L.).  

PubMed

Essential oil obtained from the leaves of Pittosporum tobira was extracted and its chemical composition and larvicidal effects were studied. Analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) to determine the primary constituents of the essential oil of P. tobira. The yield of P. tobira essential oil (PTEO) was 0.1%, and GC-MS analysis identified its major constituents as undecane (31.11%), 4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene (11.34%), (1,3-dimethyl-2-butenyl)benzene (5.45%), and L-limonene (14.08%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), with an LC(50) value of 58.92 ppm and an LC(90) value of 111.31 ppm. Finally, the LC(50) and LC(90) values of L-limonene were 39.7 ppm and 78.11 ppm. These results could be useful for seeking newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against A. aegypti. PMID:19874194

Chung, Ill-Min; Seo, Su-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Young; Park, Won-Hwan; Moon, Hyung-In

2010-06-01

385

Oil recovery method using sulfonate surfactants derived from extracted aromatic feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil recovery method is disclosed which uses a particular class of alkylaryl sulfonate surfactants. The surfactants are derived from an extracted aromatic feedstock consisting essentially of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and lesser amounts of ethylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and tetramethylbenzenes. The aromatic feedstock is then alkylated with linear a-olefins to favor second-carbon attachment, and sulfonated to result in surfactants having high oil

H. S. Aldrich; Th. L. Ashcraft; M. C. Puerto; R. L. Reed

1984-01-01

386

Synergy between essential oil components and antibiotics: a review.  

PubMed

Abstract With the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the lack of new antibiotics being brought onto the market, alternative strategies need to be found to cope with infections resulting from drug-resistant bacteria. A possible solution may be to combine existing antibiotics with phytochemicals to enhance the efficacy of antibiotics. A group of phytochemicals that is said to have such effects, according to in vitro studies, is essential oils (EOs) and their components. Amongst others, EOs containing carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, eugenol and thymol can have a synergistic effect in combination with antibiotics. Several modes of action have been put forward by which antibiotics and the essential oil components may act synergistically, such as by affecting multiple targets; by physicochemical interactions and inhibiting antibacterial-resistance mechanisms. Many reported assays show additivity or moderate synergism, indicating that EOs may offer possibilities for reducing antibiotic use. PMID:23445470

Langeveld, Wendy T; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Burt, Sara A

2013-02-28

387

Use of some essential oils as natural preservatives for butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyme and cumin essential oils were used in the present study in an attempt to prevent butter deterioration during storage\\u000a at room temperature. Butter oxidation and lipolysis were followed by measuring the acid, peroxide and TBA values. Lipolytic\\u000a activity and total microbial and lipolytic bacterial counts were also measured. During butter storage, very little change\\u000a in the peroxide and TBA

R. S. Farag; M. N. Ali; S. H. Taha

1990-01-01

388

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil composition of Feronia elephantum Correa (family: Rutaceae) was examined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). The analysis revealed the presence of 24 constituents, of which 18 constituents were identified. Trans-anethole (57.73%) and methyl chavicol (37.48%) were the major compounds, while cis-anethole, p-anisaldehyde, (E)-jasmone, methyl eugenol, ?-caryophyllene, linalool and (E)-methyl isoeugenol were also present

Chitra Pande; Geeta Tewari; Charu Singh; Shalini Singh; R. C. Padalia

2010-01-01

389

The essential oil of allium sativum L., liliaceae (garlic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil ofAllium Sativum L., Liliaceae (Garlic) obtained by steam distillation from Egypt was analyzed and identified by Capillary Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Over 40 constituents were detected and more than 95% were identified as sulfur containing compounds. Diallyl trisulfide, diallyl disulfide, methyl allyl trisulfide, methyl allyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide were identified

Mohamed Osman; Mohamed Abd-El Aal

1995-01-01

390

Composition of the essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum from Tajikistan.  

PubMed

Origanum tyttanthum Gontsch. was collected from two different sites in south-central Tajikistan. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 52 compounds were identified representing 99.0-100% of total oil compositions. The major components of Origanum tyttanthum Gontsch. oil were carvacrol (34.3-59.2%), thymol (10.8-46.4%), p-cymene (0.7-7.3%), beta-thujone (1.9-4.1%), piperitenone oxide (0.1-3.8%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-3.5%), cis-piperitone epoxide (0.8-3.3%), carvacrol acetate (0.4-2.4%), menthone (0.6-2.1%) and borneol (1.0-2.3%). PMID:22224296

Sharopov, Farukh S; Kukaniev, Muhamadsho A; Setzer, William N

2011-11-01

391

Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ? rosemary > tea tree ? lemon ? lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-12-01

392

Chemical Composition of Lebanese Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Essential Oil as a Function of the Geographical Region and the Harvest Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) from three locations in Lebanon were extracted by steam distillation and their chemical composition was determined by GC\\/MS. The plants were collected during two years at either flowering stage or after. The oils obtained did not show appreciable differences in their composition in relation to geographical region. The three oil samples were

Youssef Diab; Lizette Auezova; Hanna Chebib; Jean-Claude Chalchat; Gilles Figueredo

2002-01-01

393

Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.  

PubMed

Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

2010-02-01

394

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

395

Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.  

PubMed

The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

2002-02-01

396

Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Callitris neocaledonica and C. sulcata Heartwood (Cupressaceae).  

PubMed

Mortality due to fungal infections has increased substantially, becoming a worldwide problem in public health. As a contribution to the discovery of new antifungal agents, the properties of the heartwood essential oils of two trees growing in New Caledonia, Callitris neocaledonica and C. sulcata (Cupressaceae) were investigated. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. From C. neocaledonica oil, 31 constituents were identified, representing 97.0% of the total oil composition, which was mainly constituted by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (88%). Among them, guaiol (1; 30.2%), bulnesol (2; 12.5%), ?-eudesmol (3; 10.5%), ?-eudesmol (4; 10.5%), ?-eudesmol (10.2%), and elemol (4.9%) predominated. The chemical composition of C. sulcata oil, from which 39 constituents were identified (96.8% of the total oil composition), showed some similarities with that of C. neocaledonica oil. The major constituents were also oxygenated sesquiterpenes, accounting for 78.5% of the oil, amongst them, mainly compounds 1 (16.1%), 3 and 4 (9.7% each), as well as 2 (7.4%). The antifungal activity of the oils against clinical isolates of four dermatophytic fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) and six yeasts (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii) was tested by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the microdilution method. The best antifungal activities of the C. neocaledonica and C. sulcata oils were obtained against C. krusei (MICs of 3.9 and 0.975??g/ml, resp.). These MIC values were similar to those of the reference drugs itraconazole and fluconazole (1.0 and 0.5?mg/ml, resp.). The oils were also subjected to a screening for their possible DPPH(.) (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity. C. neocaledonica essential oil was more active than C. sulcata oil (93.3 vs. 32.2% DPPH(.) scavenged at 250??g/ml). PMID:22422531

Waikedre, Jean; Vitturo, Carmen I; Molina, Ana; Theodoro, Phellipe Norato Estrela Terra; do Rosário Rodrigues Silva, Maria; Espindola, Laila Salmen; Maciuk, Alexandre; Fournet, Alain

2012-03-01

397

Antibacterial activity of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum leaf essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf essential oils of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum were tested for their antibacterial property. The activity of S. cumini essential oil was found to be good, while that of S. travancoricum was moderate.

P. M Shafi; M. K Rosamma; Kaiser Jamil; P. S Reddy

2002-01-01

398

EVALUATION OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AS NATURAL POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils with fungicidal activities were identified in vitro; these were oregano, thyme, lemongrass, and cilantro. Essential oil components in those plants with antimicrobial activity were carvacrol, thymol, citral, and trans-2-decenal, respectively. Vapors of thyme, oregano and lemongrass, ...

399

Essential oil yield and chemical composition changes during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia).  

PubMed

Changes in leaf biomass yield, essential oil yield, and chemical composition were investigated during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa {Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., family Poaceae}. Eleven leaves representing different developmental stages, serially numbered from the apex to the base of the plant were utilized for the study. Leaf biomass yield increased up to the eighth leaf. Essential oil recovery increased up to the third leaf; thereafter it decreased. Minimum essential oil recovery was observed in the eleventh leaf. Essential oil yield/leaf increased up to the sixth leaf. Essential oil yield and concentrations of linalool, alpha-terpineol, geranyl isobutyrate and geraniol were relatively higher in the essential oils of mature, older leaves. Essential oil recovery, and percentages of myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, (E,Z) farnesol and geranyl hexanoate were higher in the essential oils of young, expanding leaves. PMID:21299128

Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Purnanand, Somasi

2010-12-01

400

Parameters influencing the yield and composition of the essential oil from Cretan Vitex agnus-castus fruits.  

PubMed

Mature and immature fruits of a Cretan Vitex agnus-castus L. population were chosen to investigate different parameters such as comminution, maturity, distillation period and extraction method influencing the essential oil yield and composition. The effect of the comminution and the maturity of the plant material showed highly significant differences in yield and composition of the essential oils obtained, as well as the distillation duration from one to five hours and the method applied (hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction). The variation of 36 essential oil components due to the parameters applied was studied. The results showed that many different essential oil qualities can be obtained from the same plant material according to the parameters employed in its extraction. Entire fruits hydrodistilled for one hour yielded an oil much richer in monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds whereas the best combination to obtain an oil rich in less volatile compounds is by SDE of comminuted fruits for five hours. For mature fruits the main components varied as follows due to the parameters studied: sabinene 16.4-44.1%, 1,8-cineole 8.4-15.2%, beta-caryophyllene 2.1-5.0%, and trans-beta-farnesene 5.0-11.7%. PMID:10821051

Sørensen, J M; Katsiotis, S T

2000-04-01

401

Chemical composition, intraspecies variation and seasonal variation in essential oils of Calendula arvensis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil composition of Calendula arvensis was established for the first time using GC and GC\\/MS. Eighty-five essential oil components were identified, which accounted for 90.3g\\/100g of essential oil. The oil contained a high concentration of sesquiterpenes, of which ?-cadinene and ?-cadinol were the main components. The chemical composition of 25 Corsican C. arvensis oils was analyzed to determine

Julien Paolini; Toussaint Barboni; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Nassim Djabou; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

2010-01-01

402

Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.

Lee, Min Hee

2007-01-01

403

[Studies on the supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction and quality evaluation of ginger oils].  

PubMed

Essential oils from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale were extracted by supercritical-CO2 fluid(SFE-CO2) and traditional water still distillation (WSD) methods, and the SFE extraction technology and quality (GC-MS, etc.) of the oils were studied. The results showed that the SFE-CO2 contains 49 constituents, such as 6-paradol, etc, the ginger peppery component of them gets to 22.90%. PMID:12575096

Shi, Q; Li, J; Tong, X; Tan, X; Ge, F; Liang, J

1999-03-01

404

Evaluation of Microencapsulated Essential Oils and Organic Acids in Diets for Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of two products containing essential oils in diets for broiler chickens. These products were RepaXol™, a mixture of essential oils (including oregano, cinnamon, thyme, and capsicum), and Avigro™, a mixture of essential oils along with organic acids (fumaric, citric, and malic). In the first experiment, conducted in litter-floor pens, eight replicate pens

2005-01-01

405

Growing Conditions and the Essential Oil of Chamomile, Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of chamomile essential oil were determined for monocultures of a diploid variety under various soil and climatic cultivation conditions of East Slovakia. Both the quantity and the constituents of the essential oil were modified by the growing conditions, but no overall effect on the qualitative composition of the essential oil was noted.

Ivan Salamon

1994-01-01

406

Essential oils and opportunities to mitigate enteric methane emissions from ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well documented antimicrobial activity of essential oils has prompted interest in whether these bioactive compounds can be used to selectively inhibit rumen methanogenesis. A number of studies have recently evaluated the ability of essential oils to reduce enteric CH4 production. Most studies conducted have been in vitro and short term. Essential oils derived from thyme, oregano, cinnamon, garlic, horse

Chaouki Benchaar; Henry Greathead

2011-01-01

407

The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and

O. O. Okoh; A. A. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2007-01-01

408

Essential Oil Variation of Salvia officinalis Leaves during Vegetation after Treatment with Foliar Fertilizer and Thidiazuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil yield and chemical composition of Salvia officinalis L. (Dalmatica origin) have been analyzed. Leaf samples for essential oil analysis were harvested at different developmental stages after treatment with foliar fertilizer Agroleaf and foliar fertilizer + thidiazuron. In total, 10 constituents were identified and quantified. The main compounds in the essential oil that increased during the vegetative to

Ira Stancheva; Maria Geneva; Georgi Georgiev; Milka Todorova; Lyuba Evstatieva

2010-01-01

409

Diurnal and seasonal variation of the essential oil labdanes and clerodanes from Cistus monspeliensis L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae) shows seasonal and diurnal variation. The essential oils were investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Labdanes which were identified for the first time in the essential oil of C. monspeliensis, are predominant in autumn and in winter and they were found in great amount with clerodanes in spring.

D. Angelopoulou; C. Demetzos; D. Perdetzoglou

2002-01-01

410

ESANSYEL YALAR VE HAYVANLAR ÜZERNDEKETKLER? (DERLEME) (Essential oils and their effects on animals) (A Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Essential oils (also called volatile or ethereal oils) are aromatic oily liquids obtained from plant material (flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, wood, fruits and roots). These natural products have been widely used, including perfumes, cosmetics, aromatherapy and phytotherapy, spices, nutrition and agriculture. Essential oils have been known biological activity, including antibacterial, antivirucidal, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects. These oils

Tülin GÜNGÖR

411

Comparative larvicidal activity of essential oils from three medicinal plants against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

This work aimed at comparing larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from the dried leaves of Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis against Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae were observed for 4?h and at 24?h according to a completely randomized design with three replications and the following concentrations [?l/ml]: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and controls were distilled water, and commercial standard citral, camphor, eucalyptol, ?-pinene, and ?-myrcene. The essential oil of C. citratus had the lowest LC?? (0.28) and LC?? (0.56) values, followed by that of A. speciosa (0.94 and 1.2, resp.) and of R. officinalis (1.18 and 1.67, resp.), and only the commercial standards citral and ?-pinene were larvicidal. PMID:21072779

Freitas, Flávia P; Freitas, Silvério P; Lemos, Gloria C S; Vieira, Ivo J C; Gravina, Geraldo A; Lemos, Francisco J A

2010-11-01

412

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil.  

PubMed

Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as "alecrim pimenta," native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916

de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

2012-02-23

413

Relaxant Effect of Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. on Rodent Jejunum Contractions  

PubMed Central

Artemisia herba-alba Asso. is a shrub commonly encountered in Morocco. It is used in traditional medicine for treating intestinal disorders. The essential oil extracted from the plant’s aerial parts reversibly relaxed the spontaneous tonus of the rabbit jejunum in a reversible concentration dependent manner with an IC50 value of 97.33 ± 2.59 ng/ml and reversed the tonic contraction of rat jejunum induced by 75 mM KCl and 10?6 M carbachol with IC50 values of 115.5 ± 3.05 and 119.4 ± 20.86 ng/ml, respectively. The pre-treatment of the latter isolated intestine with this essential oil produced a dose-dependent shift of the Ca++ and CCh dose-response curve to the right, with suppression of the maximal effect, similar to the non-competitive antagonist effect on muscarinic receptors and calcium channel, respectively.

Aziz, Mohammed; Karim, Ahmed; El Ouariachi, El Mokhtar; Bouyanzer, Abdelhamid; Amrani, Souliman; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Melhaoui, Ahmed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq

2012-01-01

414

Volatile fraction composition and biological activity of lemon oil (Citrus limon L. Burm.): Comparative study of oils extracted from conventionally grown and biological fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, conventional and biological lemon cultivation techniques have been evaluated for their influence on the composition and biological activity of essential oils extracted from fresh lemon fruits. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed by gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The human Ishikawa cell line maintained in culture was used to

Federica Spadaro; Clara Circosta; Rosaria Costa; Francesco Pizzimenti; Dora Rita Palumbo; Francesco Occhiuto

2012-01-01

415

Antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils against cariogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of nine selected essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens was investigated in terms of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by using the broth microdilution method. Most of the EOs displayed weak activity or were inactive against the selected oral pathogens, with MIC values ranging from 500 to 4000 ?g/mL. However, the EO obtained from the leaves of Bidens sulphurea (Asteraceae) was found to display moderate activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 250 ?g/mL) and significant activity against Streptococcus mitis (MIC = 31.25 ?g/mL). Germacrene D (38.3%), trans-caryophyllene (18.0%), ?-elemene (13.9%) and bicyclogermacrene (13.1%) were identified as the main chemical components of this oil. 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, previously described as the major constituent in the EO from the flowers of B. sulphurea, was not detected in this study. PMID:23240584

Aguiar, G P; Carvalho, C E; Dias, H J; Reis, E B; Martins, M H G; Wakabayashi, K A L; Groppo, M; Martins, C H G; Cunha, W R; Crotti, A E M

2012-12-14

416

Antibacterial Activity of Thymus Syriacus Boiss Essential Oil and Its Components against Some Syrian Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolates.  

PubMed

Background: Despite the medical discoveries of different medicines and advanced ways of treatment, statistics have shown that the number of patients is increasing. This may be due to chemical drugs used in healthcare, agriculture, and diets. This soaring demand in medicines urges us to look for natural sources such as aromatic plants and essential oils, which are rich in efficient compounds. Methods: Extraction of essential oils was performed using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Identification was achieved using the GC-FID technique. Confirmation was made using the GC-MS technique, and isolation was done using a preparative HPLC, equipped with an aliquots collector. The microdilution broth susceptibility assay was utilized to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Our in vitro study demonstrated the antibacterial activity of the Thymus syriacus Boiss essential oil and its components against the tested isolates at levels between 0.375 and 50 µl/ml. The main components of the T. syriacus essential oil were carvacrol, ?-terpinene, and ß-caryophyllene. MIC90 values for the T. syriacus essential oil against the gram-negative organisms varied between 3.125 and 12.5 µl/ml. The most effective components against the gram-negative bacteria were thymol, carvacrol, dihydro-carvon, and linalool respectively. Conclusions: The T. syriacus essential oil and some of its components exhibited very good inhibitory effects against Syrian gram-negative isolates. PMID:24031109

Al-Mariri, Ayman; Swied, Ghayath; Oda, Adnan; Al Hallab, Laila

2013-06-01

417

Antibacterial Activity of Thymus Syriacus Boiss Essential Oil and Its Components against Some Syrian Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolates  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the medical discoveries of different medicines and advanced ways of treatment, statistics have shown that the number of patients is increasing. This may be due to chemical drugs used in healthcare, agriculture, and diets. This soaring demand in medicines urges us to look for natural sources such as aromatic plants and essential oils, which are rich in efficient compounds. Methods: Extraction of essential oils was performed using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Identification was achieved using the GC-FID technique. Confirmation was made using the GC-MS technique, and isolation was done using a preparative HPLC, equipped with an aliquots collector. The microdilution broth susceptibility assay was utilized to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Our in vitro study demonstrated the antibacterial activity of the Thymus syriacus Boiss essential oil and its components against the tested isolates at levels between 0.375 and 50 µl/ml. The main components of the T. syriacus essential oil were carvacrol, ?-terpinene, and ß–caryophyllene. MIC90 values for the T. syriacus essential oil against the gram-negative organisms varied between 3.125 and 12.5 µl/ml. The most effective components against the gram-negative bacteria were thymol, carvacrol, dihydro-carvon, and linalool respectively. Conclusions: The T. syriacus essential oil and some of its components exhibited very good inhibitory effects against Syrian gram-negative isolates.

Al-Mariri, Ayman; Swied, Ghayath; Oda, Adnan; Al Hallab, Laila

2013-01-01

418

Fractionation of citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase by batch vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess the performance of a vacuum fractionating column for the fractionation of citronella essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase during batch mode operation at different pressures, from 20 to 1mbar and reflux ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Fractions from column top and bottom were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC\\/FID) using authentic standards

Stephani C. Beneti; Eline Rosset; Marcos L. Corazza; Caren D. Frizzo; Marco Di Luccio; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2011-01-01

419

Comparison of conventional extraction under reflux conditions and microwave-assisted extraction of oil from popcorn.  

PubMed

Popcorn offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the commercial synthetic loose-fill packing materials. Popcorn could be used for cushioning purposes if the oil is extracted after the popping process. Conventional and microwave-assisted extraction methods were used for oil extraction from whole and ground, popped and unpopped kernels. The conventional extraction method achieved 68.5% oil recovery from whole popped kernels. However, whole unpopped kernels were not efficiently de-oiled with either of the methods. Extraction of oil from popped kernels is recommended; corn varieties with higher starch content and lower oil content should be used. PMID:18161415

Cheng, Hoi Po; Dai, Jianming; Nemes, Simona; Raghavan, G S Vijaya

2007-01-01

420

Luminescence and fluorescence of essential oils. Fluorescence imaging in vivo of wild chamomile oil.  

PubMed

Essential oils are currently of great importance to pharmaceutical companies, cosmetics producers and manufacturers of veterinary products. They are found in perfumes, creams, bath products, and household cleaning substances, and are used for flavouring food and drinks. It is well known that some of them act on the respiratory apparatus. The increasing interest in optical imaging techniques and the development of related technologies have made possible the investigation of the optical properties of several compounds. Luminescent properties of essential oils have not been extensively investigated. We evaluated the luminescent and fluorescent emissions of several essential oils, in order to detect them in living organisms by exploiting their optical properties. Some fluorescent emission data were high enough to be detected in dermal treatments. Consequently, we demonstrated how the fluorescent signal can be monitored for at least three hours on the skin of living mice treated with wild chamomile oil. The results encourage development of this technique to investigate the properties of drugs and cosmetics containing essential oils. PMID:22193298

Boschi, F; Fontanella, M; Calderan, L; Sbarbati, A

2011-06-16

421

Luminescence and fluorescence of essential oils. Fluorescence imaging in vivo of wild chamomile oil  

PubMed Central

Essential oils are currently of great importance to pharmaceutical companies, cosmetics producers and manufacturers of veterinary products. They are found in perfumes, creams, bath products, and household cleaning substances, and are used for flavouring food and drinks. It is well known that some of them act on the respiratory apparatus. The increasing interest in optical imaging techniques and the development of related technologies have made possible the investigation of the optical properties of several compounds. Luminescent properties of essential oils have not been extensively investigated. We evaluated the luminescent and fluorescent emissions of several essential oils, in order to detect them in living organisms by exploiting their optical properties. Some fluorescent emission data were high enough to be detected in dermal treatments. Consequently, we demonstrated how the fluorescent signal can be monitored for at least three hours on the skin of living mice treated with wild chamomile oil. The results encourage development of this technique to investigate the properties of drugs and cosmetics containing essential oils.

Boschi, F.; Fontanella, M.; Calderan, L.; Sbarbati, A.

2011-01-01

422

Eco-friendly and cleaner process for isolation of essential oil using microwave energy: experimental and theoretical study.  

PubMed

Microwave steam diffusion (MSD) was developed as a cleaner and new process design and operation for isolation of essentials oils and was compared to conventional steam diffusion (SD). The essential oils extracted by MSD for 3 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional steam diffusion for 20 min. In addition, an optimal operating steam flow rate of 25 g min(-1) and microwave power 200 W were found to ensure complete extraction yield with reduced extraction time. To confirm the efficiency of this process a mathematical model was proposed to describe the mass transfer of essential oil from lavender. Solid-steam mass transfer coefficients obtained by MSD were six times higher than obtained by SD. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the extraction mechanism of the essential oil present in the glandular trichomes of the flowers from lavender outer surface. MSD was better than SD in terms of energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:19464692

Farhat, Asma; Ginies, Christian; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chemat, Farid

2009-05-03

423

Cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selectors for direct gas chromatographic separation of enantiomers in the essential oil, aroma and flavour fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews papers published over the period 1995–1998 dealing with the application of cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral selector for direct enantiomer GC separation of volatile optically active components in the essential oil, extract, flavour and aroma fields. For each application, the racemate analysed, the CD employed as chiral selector and the matrix investigated are reported. The applications are

Carlo Bicchi; Angela D’Amato; Patrizia Rubiolo

1999-01-01

424

Water content of natural cyclodextrins and their essential oil complexes: A comparative study between Karl Fischer titration and thermal methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a comparative study regarding the water determination in natural cyclodextrins and in their essential oil complexes (Apiaceae, Liliaceae, and Cupressaceae families) by using Karl Fischer titration (KFT) and thermal methods. For the natural cyclodextrins the influence of the solvent hydrophobicity and the preheating temperature on the water extraction process were evaluated. The water contents, estimated by KFT

Nicoleta G. H?d?rug?; Daniel I. H?d?rug?; Heinz-Dieter Isengard

425

Development of a method to determine essential oil residues in cow milk.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, the use of essential oils in breeding has been gaining ground because of their wide range of application, especially in terms of antimicrobial activity, and the current emphasis on the use of natural compounds, particularly to replace antibiotics. Among the essential oils and their active components, 4 molecules are of great interest and are studied in this paper: carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde, and diallyl disulfide. In particular, we examined the transfer of essential oil components from animal feed to milk. Because these components could confer an undesirable odor or taste to milk and derived products or interfere with milk processing, it is necessary to quantify their residues in milk. Milk is a complex biological matrix containing large amounts of water, fat, and protein. As a consequence, the extraction of volatile compounds, which are mainly lipophilic, is often critical. In this work, a method based on solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and optimized. We evaluated the effect of several parameters on the sensitivity of the method: fiber type, fiber to sample contact, extraction temperature, extraction time, agitation, and salt addition. The best results were obtained using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (50/30 µm) fiber in headspace mode at 34.6°C for 32.6 min without agitation or salt addition. Standard calibration curves were constructed, and the limits of detection and quantification and ranges of linear response and repeatability were evaluated. Detection limits ranged from 25 to 50 µg/L, quantification limits from 50 to 75 µg/L, and variation coefficients from 23.5 to 36.6%. Therefore, the optimized methodology was able to evaluate whether significant transfer of essential oil components from feed to milk occurred, and the method is simple and solvent-free. We applied the method to milk samples from cows whose feed included thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, or diallyl disulfide as feed additives at the recommended dose and at twice the usual dose. None of the 4 essential oil components were found in milk samples, regardless of the dose administered. PMID:23313003

Hallier, A; Noirot, V; Medina, B; Leboeuf, L; Cavret, S

2013-01-09

426

Evaluation of Melaleuca cajuputi (Family: Myrtaceae) Essential Oil in Aerosol Spray Cans against Dengue Vectors in Low Cost Housing Flats  

PubMed Central

Background Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil in aerosol spray was evaluated against the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus at low cost housing flats in Section 10, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: Essential oil in aerosol viz: 5% and 10% of concentrations were sprayed for 5 seconds each towards hung mosquitoes in 5 cylindrical net cages. Aerosol weights were recorded before and after spraying to determine discharge rates. Knockdown and mortality number were observed and compared to MS standard aerosol which contain 0.07% prallethrin and 0.05% d-phenothrin as positive control and aerosol contain 40% kerosene and 60% LPG was used as negative control. Results: High knockdown and mortality was observed in both species of mosquitoes towards MS standard aerosol. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) of mortality and knockdown between 5% and 10% of essential oil aerosol and 5% and 10% essential oil between MS standard. For 5% essential oil, mean percentage (%) of knockdown and mortality of Ae. aegypti displayed slightly higher compared to Ae. albopictus. Spraying with 5% M. cajuputi essential oil aerosol indicated a knockdown of Ae. aegypti 5.60±1.18 and mortality of 22.90±4.22 while Ae. albopictus showed 4.60±0.89 knockdown and 20.00±2.85 mortality. The 10% essential oil concentration gave 23.60±1.68 knockdown and 48.05±0.37 mortality for Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus gave 23.00±3.16 knockdown and 44.20 ± 2.10 mortality respectively. Conclusions: Extracts of essential