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Sample records for essential oil extraction

  1. Essential oils: from extraction to encapsulation.

    PubMed

    El Asbahani, A; Miladi, K; Badri, W; Sala, M; Aït Addi, E H; Casabianca, H; El Mousadik, A; Hartmann, D; Jilale, A; Renaud, F N R; Elaissari, A

    2015-04-10

    Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. PMID:25683145

  2. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

  3. Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaves (needles) of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extra...

  4. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh

    2007-09-01

    The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of plant volatile components has increased during two last decades due to the expected advantages of the supercritical extraction process. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a rapid, selective and convenient method for sample preparation prior to the analysis of compounds in the volatile product of plant matrices. Also, SFE is a simple, inexpensive, fast, effective and virtually solvent-free sample pretreatment technique. This review provides a detailed and updated discussion of the developments, modes and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is usually performed with pure or modified carbon dioxide, which facilitates off-line collection of extracts and on-line coupling with other analytical methods such as gas, liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography. In this review, we showed that a number of factors influence extraction yields, these being solubility of the solute in the fluid, diffusion through the matrix and collection process. Finally, SFE has been compared with conventional extraction methods in terms of selectivity, rapidity, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:17624357

  6. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (< 2.5 min) and decreased with increasing DT; but the trend reversed for the high-boiling point constituents: geraniol and geranyl-acetate. The concentration of the major essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT. PMID:25132088

  7. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  8. PRESSURIZED FLUIDS FOR EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using liquid carbon dioxide (LC-CO2) was investigated, including the effects of extraction pressure and length of extraction. The chemical composition of the extracts were monitored over the course of the extraction as well. When 80 liters of carbon dioxide we...

  9. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts that are...

  10. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  11. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  12. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  13. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  14. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found. PMID:25842910

  15. [Inhibition of Linseed Oil Autooxidation by Essential Oils and Extracts from Spice Plants].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Kiseleva, V I; Medvedeva, I B; Semenova, M G

    2015-01-01

    Clove bud essential oil, extracts from ginger, pimento and black pepper, or ascorbyl palmytate were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in linseed oil. Different methods were used to estimate antioxidant efficiency. These methods are based on the following parameters: peroxide values; peroxide concentration; content of degradation products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxides, which acted with thiobarbituric acid; diene conjugate content; the content of volatile compounds that formed as products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxide degradation; and the composition of methyl esters of fatty acids in samples of oxidized linseed oil. PMID:26353407

  16. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 182.50 Section 182.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  17. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 182.50 Section 182.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  18. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 582.50 Section 582.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  19. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 582.50 Section 582.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different plant extracts of Psidium cattleianum Sabine.

    PubMed

    Scur, M C; Pinto, F G S; Pandini, J A; Costa, W F; Leite, C W; Temponi, L G

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the study were to determinethe antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and plant extracts aqueous and ethanolic of Psidium cattleianum Sabine; the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cattleianum; and the phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same plant. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the ethanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity with respect to bacteria K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis, whereas, regarding other microorganisms, it showed activity considered weak. The aqueous extract and the essential oil showed activity considered weak, although they inhibited the growth of microorganisms. About the antioxidant potential, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited a scavenging index exceeding 90%, while the essential oil didn´t show significant antioxidant activity. Regarding the phytochemical composition, the largest class of volatile compounds identified in the essential oil of P. cattleianum included the following terpenic hydrocarbons: α-copaene (22%); eucalyptol (15%), δ-cadinene (9.63%) and α-selinene (6.5%). The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The extracts and essential oils inhibit the growth of microrganisms and plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Also, the phytochemical characterization of the essential oil showed the presence of compounds interest commercial, as well as extracts showed the presence of important classes and compounds with biological activities. PMID:26871744

  1. Use of essential oils and extracts from spices in meat protection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ochoa, L; Aguirre-Prieto, Y B; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Gutierrez-Mendez, N; Salas-Muñoz, E

    2014-05-01

    The hydro distillation method was used in this study to get essential oils (EOs) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), clove (Eugenia caryohyllata) and Elecampane (Inula helenium L.) and the co-hydro distillation method (addition of fatty acid ethyl esters as extraction cosolvents) to get functional extracts (EFs). The MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and the MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) were determined on five pathogenic strains (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Toxoplasma Gondi). The results showed that essential oils of cumin and clove and their functional extracts are effective on concentrations from 500 mg/L to 750 mg/L. The essential oils with functional extracts were used on meat samples at three different concentrations: 750, 1,500 and 2,250 μL. The cumin essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 750 μL, the clove essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 2,250 μL and the cumin and clove functional extracts got a reduction of 3.6 log UFC/g. By chromatography, eugenol was identified in the clove oil, cuminaldehyde in the cumin oil and the isoalactolactones and alactolactones in the elecampane oil as main compounds on the chemical composition of the essential oils and functional extracts obtained. PMID:24803704

  2. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots.

    PubMed

    Thusoo, Sakshima; Gupta, Sahil; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, β-vatirenene, β-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, β-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, β-guaiene, and α-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity. PMID:24804225

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of Teucrium montanum

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic, Tanja; Sukdolak, Slobodan; Solujic, Slavica

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of essential oil and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Teucrium montanum. The inhibitory effects of essential oil and methanol extracts of T. montanum were tested against 13 bacterial and three fungal species by using disc-diffusion method. GC/MS analyses revealed that essential oil contains mainly δ-cadinene (17.19%), β-selinene (8.16%) α-calacorene (4.97%), 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-naphthalene (4.91%), caryophyllene (4.35%), copaene (4.23%), torreyol (3.91%), 4-terpineol (3.90%), cadina-1,4-diene (3.39%), β-sesquiphellandrene (3.34%), τ-cadinol (3.12%) and γ-curcumene (3.18%). The essential oil has antibacterial as well as antifungal effect. PMID:18227926

  4. Steam distillation extraction kinetics regression models to predict essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of chamomile oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most widely spread and used medicinal and essential oil crop in the world. Chamomile essential oil is extracted via steam distillation of the inflorescences (flowers). In this study, distillation time (DT) was found to be a crucial determinant of yi...

  5. Activity antifungal of the essential oils; aqueous and ethanol extracts from Citrus aurantium L.

    PubMed

    Metoui, N; Gargouri, S; Amri, I; Fezzani, T; Jamoussi, B; Hamrouni, L

    2015-01-01

    Our study is about the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. in Tunisia and its plant extract. The yield of this essential oil is 0, 56% but the yield of the extract of plant was 17.1% for the aqueous extract ant 18.3% for the ethanolic extract. The analysis of chemical composition by using GC and GC/MS showed the essential oil of C. aurantium L. species to be rich in monoterpenes such as α-terpineol, lianolyl acetate, linalool and limonene. The antifungal activity of this oil showed us an inhibition of the germination of mushrooms, in the same way we could note that the biologic activities are generally assigned to the chemotypes high content in oxygenated monoterpene. PMID:26207731

  6. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  8. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities. PMID:25686854

  9. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent. PMID:25902980

  10. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomotor activity meter. The chemical composition of the plant essential oil was also determined. The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of this plant were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice at various doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and 200 mg/kg of essential oil) 30 min before starting the experiment. The amount of hydroalcoholic extract was 18.6% w/w and the essential oil was 0.34% v/w. The major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol (42.8%), geranial (13.0%), neral (12.2%) and β-caryophyllene (7.2%). HE at 150 and 200 mg/kg and EO at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the time passed in open arms in comparison to control group. This finding was not significant for the dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. None of the dosages had significant effect on the number of entrance to the open arms. Moreover, both the hydroalcoholic extract and the essential oil decreased the locomotion of mice in comparison to the control group. This study shows the anxiolytic and sedative effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum. The anti-anxiety and sedative effect of essential oil was higher than the hydroalcoholic extract with the same doses. These effects could be due to the phenol components of O. basilicum. PMID:26779273

  11. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomotor activity meter. The chemical composition of the plant essential oil was also determined. The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of this plant were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice at various doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and 200 mg/kg of essential oil) 30 min before starting the experiment. The amount of hydroalcoholic extract was 18.6% w/w and the essential oil was 0.34% v/w. The major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol (42.8%), geranial (13.0%), neral (12.2%) and β-caryophyllene (7.2%). HE at 150 and 200 mg/kg and EO at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the time passed in open arms in comparison to control group. This finding was not significant for the dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. None of the dosages had significant effect on the number of entrance to the open arms. Moreover, both the hydroalcoholic extract and the essential oil decreased the locomotion of mice in comparison to the control group. This study shows the anxiolytic and sedative effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum. The anti-anxiety and sedative effect of essential oil was higher than the hydroalcoholic extract with the same doses. These effects could be due to the phenol components of O. basilicum. PMID:26779273

  12. In vitro efficacy of essential oils and extracts of Schinus molle L. against Ctenocephalides felis felis.

    PubMed

    Batista, Lilian C De S O; Cid, Yara P; De Almeida, Ana Paula; Prudêncio, Edlene R; Riger, Cristiano J; De Souza, Marco A A; Coumendouros, Katherine; Chaves, Douglas S A

    2016-04-01

    Extracts and essential oils from plants are important natural sources of pesticides. These compounds are considered an alternative to control ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Schinus molle, an endemic species of Brazil, produces a high level of essential oil and several other compounds. The aim of this work was to determinate the chemical composition of extracts and essential oils of S. molle and further to evaluate the activity against eggs and adults of Ctenocephalides felis felis, a predominant flea that infests dogs and cats in Brazil. In an in vitro assay, the non-polar (n-hexane) extract showed 100% efficacy (800 µg cm(-2); LD50 = 524·80 µg cm(-2)) at 24 and 48 h. Its major compound was lupenone (50·25%). Essential oils from fruits and leaves were evaluated, and had 100% efficacy against adult fleas at 800 µg cm(-2) (LD50 = 353·95 µg cm(-2)) and at 50 µg cm(-2) (LD50 = 12·02 µg cm(-2)), respectively. On the other hand, the essential oil from fruits and leaves was not active against flea eggs. This is the first study that reports the insecticidal effects of essential oils and extracts obtained from Schinus molle against Ctenocephalides felis felis. PMID:26887529

  13. Thymus Daenensis Extract and Essential Oils Effects on Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Taherzadeh, Esmaeil; Siahpoosh, Amir; Mansourzadeh, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thymus species are well known medicinal plants which the previous studies suggested the involvement of the opioid system in them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus daenensis (TD), an endemic aromatic medicinal plant of Iran, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed in two groups of five, each group treated with extracts or essential oils of TD. Dependency was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, the last dose of morphine was injected two hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone while the extract or essential oil of TD was administered 30 minutes before naloxone. A period of 20 minutes after naloxone injection was considered the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps, standing, leaning, and the weight of stools were recorded as withdrawal signs. Results: The 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of extract and all doses of essential oil decreased significantly the number of jumps, standing, leaning and the weight of stool. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract only decreased the weight of stool and had no effect on the other factors. Conclusions: Extract and essential oil of TD attenuates morphine withdrawal behaviors in mice and may be useful in alleviating the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome in human. PMID:25237649

  14. Antifungal activities of Hedychium essential oils and plant extracts against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fu...

  15. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

  16. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  17. Bifunctional ultrasound assisted extraction and determination of Elettaria cardamomum Maton essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sereshti, Hassan; Rohanifar, Ahmad; Bakhtiari, Sadjad; Samadi, Soheila

    2012-05-18

    A new hyphenated extraction method composed of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE)-optimized ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of the essential oil of Elettaria cardamomum Maton. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and optimization was performed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Ultrasound played two different roles in the extraction of the essential oil. First, as a source of sufficient energy to break the oil-containing glands in order to release the oil, and second as an emulsifier to disperse the organic phase within water. The effective parameters (factors) of USAEME including volume of extraction solvent (C(2)H(4)Cl(2)), extraction temperature and ultrasonic time were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD). The optimal conditions were 120 μL for extraction solvent volume, 32.5 °C for temperature and 10.5 min for ultrasonic time. The linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) were 0.01-50 mg L(-1) with the determination coefficients in the range of 0.9990-0.9999. The limits of detection (LODs) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.001-0.007 mg L(-1) and 3.6-6.3%, respectively. The enrichment factors were 93-98. The main components of the extracted essential oil were α-terpenyl acetate (46.0%), 1,8-cineole (27.7%), linalool (5.3%), α-terpineol (4.0%), linalyl acetate (3.5%). PMID:22483097

  18. Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.

    PubMed

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment. PMID:20813373

  19. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Polissiou, Moschos; Daferera, Dimitra; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol

    2003-11-01

    The essential oil, obtained by Clevenger distillation, and water-soluble and water-insoluble parts of the methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. were individually assayed for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria and two yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei. No activity was exhibited by the water-soluble subfraction, whereas both the water-insoluble subfraction of the methanol extracts and the essential oil were found to be active against some test microorganisms studied. Since the essential oil possessed stronger activity than the other extracts tested, it was further fractionated and the fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, followed by GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of 32 compounds which constituted 90.2% of the total oil. The GC-MS analysis of the oil and its fractions revealed that the main components of the oil, e.g. camphor and eucalyptol, possessed appreciable activity against C. albicans and Clostridium perfringens. The fi ndings presented here also suggest that the other constituents of the oil, e.g. borneol and piperitone can also be taken into account for the activity observed. PMID:14595577

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of Citharexylum spinosum flowers from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mar, Ae; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various solvent extracts of Citharexylum spinosum flowers are reported. The chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS with 151 volatile constituents identified. Methyl benzoate, piperitone, maltol, and maple furanone were the major constituents. All extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against eight microorganisms. The flower oil had the greatest antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains (MIC values of 31.2 microg/mL), while the other solvent extracts had MIC values ranging from 31.2 to 1000 microg/mL. The essential oil had the highest antioxidant activity and total phenol content with IC50 values of 62.7 and 107.3 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:25026728

  1. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-02-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 μg/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 μg/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 μg/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

  2. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 μg/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 μg/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 μg/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

  3. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    PubMed Central

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

  4. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  5. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 582.50 Section 582.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil and the methanolic extract of Ruta chalepensis.

    PubMed

    Aouadhi, Ch; Ghazghazi, H; Hamrouni, S; Hasnaoui, B; Maaroufi, A

    2013-01-01

    Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae), is an ancient aromatic medicinal plant still used in the traditional medicine of many countries as a laxative, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antiepileptic, emmenagogue and for dermatopathy treatment. Regarding increasing prevalence of mycotoxins and inefficiency of methods used to decrease them, it is possible to use plants metabolites to decrease mycotoxins. This study was carried out to evaluate chemical composition, antifungal and anticandidal activities of R. chalepensis extracts. The chemical composition of its essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GCMS). The major components of R. chalepensis essential oil were menthol (49.92%), linalool (31.1%) and 2-hexanal (5.2%). The antifungal and anticandidal effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of R. chalepensis leaves were studied by disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method. The obtained results showed that R. chalepensis extracts had a significant fungicidal effect against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The inhibition zones diameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration values for tested microorganisms were in the range of 11-17 mm and 3.25-6.25% (v/v), respectively. The methanolic extract showed much better antimicrobial activity than the essential oil against three tested micro-organisms PMID:26012209

  7. Headspace single drop microextraction coupled with microwave extraction of essential oil from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ziming; Zhang, Yupu; Liu, He; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2011-05-01

    Headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) coupled with microwave extraction (ME) was developed and applied to the extraction of the essential oil from dried Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry and Cuminum cyminum L. The operational parameters, such as microdrop volume, microwave absorption medium (MAM), extraction time, and microwave power were optimized. Ten microliters of decane was used as the microextraction solvent. Ionic liquid and carbonyl iron powder were used as MAM. The extraction time was less than 7 min at the microwave power of 440 W. The proposed method was compared with hydrodistillation (HD). There were no obvious differences in the constituents of essential oils obtained by the two methods. PMID:21416601

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Tzasna; Canales, Margarita; Teran, Barbara; Avila, Olivia; Duran, Angel; Garcia, Ana Maria; Hernandez, Hector; Angeles-Lopez, Omar; Fernandez-Araiza, Mario; Avila, Guillermo

    2007-04-20

    In traditional Mexican medicine Cordia curassavica (Jacq) Roemer & Schultes is used to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological disorders in Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, obtained by using Clevenger distillation apparatus, and hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cordia curassavica. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 13 bacteria and five fungal strains. The oil and extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and five fungal strains. Sarcina lutea and Vibrio cholerae were the strains more sensitive to the essential oil effect (MIC=62 microg/mL) and Vibrio cholerae for the hexane extract (MIC=125 microg/mL). Rhyzoctonia solani was the strain more sensitive to the essential oil effect (IC(50)=180 microg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes for the hexane extract (IC(50)=230 microg/mL). The essential oil was examined by GC and GC-MS. A total 11 constituents representing 96.28% of the essential oil were identified: 4-methyl,4-ethenyl-3-(1-methyl ethenyl)-1-(1-methyl methanol)cyclohexane (37.34%), beta-eudesmol (19.21%), spathulenol (11.25%) and cadina 4(5), 10(14) diene (7.93%) were found to be the major components. The present study tends to confirm the use in the folk medicine of Cordia curassavica in gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological diseases. PMID:17140754

  9. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  10. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk. PMID:26460561

  11. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  12. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and Extract of Hypericum elongatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Younes; Khalaj, Amir; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Khosravi, Ahmad Reza; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein

    HOFARIGHUN, RAEE flower, thousand eyes wort are popular names for Hypericum sp in Persian language mostly called H. perforatum. It has been used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antimigraine, antiepileptic and cholagouge. Tisane of these plants in red wine was used as snake bite and burning remedy. The volatile constituents, obtained from air-dried aerial parts of fruiting Hypericum elongatum were analyzed by GC/MS method. Thirty four components of about 96.50% of total oil were identified. Pinene <α> (80.43%), Terpinene <γ> (4.23%) and Pinene <ß>(2.59%) were the principal components (87.16%). The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and anti-yeast activities by using disc diffusion method. Screening of the antimicrobials was investigated on Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112, Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1114, Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 8043), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli PTCC 1338, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1047, Salmonella typhi PTCC 1609), yeasts (Candida albicans ATCC 14053, Candida kefyr ATCC 3826) and fungi (Aspergillus niger PLM 1140, Aspergillus fumigatus PLM 712). The MIC of essential oil also was identified. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil against all of the microorganisms was observed, except Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. In spite of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract against bacteria, there was no antimicrobial activity against fungi and yeasts. A survey of the literature revealed no reports dealing with chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activity of Hypericum elongatum.

  13. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements. PMID:27570283

  14. Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances. PMID:24770478

  15. Influence of the Processes Extraction on Essential Oil of Origanum glandulosum Desf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendahou, M.; Benyoucef, M.; Benkada, D.; Soussa Elisa, M. B. D.; Galvao, E. L.; Marques, M. M. O.; Muselli, A.; Desjobert, J. M.; Bernardini, A. F.; Costa, J.

    Essential oils obtained from Origanum glandulosum Desf. using supercritical carbon dioxide, micro wavedistillation, hydrodistillation and solvent ethanol were analyzed with GC/MS. The extraction with pressurized CO2 was performed at 15°C and 67 bar. The major valuable component extracted was thymol (63.8, 75.3, 55.6 and 82.4%), respectively, wile The p-cymene and γ-tepinene were revealed only in CO2 extract, microwavedistillation and hydrodistillation (13.7, 6.0 and 12.5%) and (6.8, 8.4 and 11.2%), respectively.

  16. Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO₂ extraction and hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO₂ extraction in optimum conditions were β-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), β-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and α-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were β-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), β-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and α-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO₂ and hydro-distillation showed an EC₅₀ of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively. PMID:24607131

  17. A comparison of essential oils obtained from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation, steam and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Ginies, Christian; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-08-30

    A total of eight extraction techniques ranging from conventional methods (hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbohydrodistillation (THD)), through innovative techniques (ultrasound assisted extraction (US-SD) and finishing with microwave assisted extraction techniques such as In situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (ISMH), microwave steam distillation (MSD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), and microwave steam diffusion (MSDf)) were used to extract essential oil from lavandin flowers and their results were compared. Extraction time, yield, essential oil composition and sensorial analysis were considered as the principal terms of comparison. The essential oils extracted using the more innovative processes were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained from the conventional techniques. The method which gave the best results was the microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) method which gave reduced extraction time (30min against 220min for SD) and gave no differences in essential oil yield and sensorial perception. PMID:23890545

  18. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health. PMID:25403494

  19. Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius.

    PubMed

    Knio, K M; Usta, J; Dagher, S; Zournajian, H; Kreydiyyeh, S

    2008-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC-MS, and the major components of these oils were found to be thymol, sabinene, carvacrol, anethole, and linalool, respectively. Mosquito larvicidal assays were conducted to evaluate the LC(50) and LC(90) after 24 and 48h of the essential oils and their major constituents. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (LC(50): 15-156ppm) against Oc. caspius fourth instars, with the most potent oil being thyme inflorescence extract, followed by parsley seed oil, aniseed oil, and then coriander fruit oil. Toxicity of each oil major constituent was also estimated and compared to a reported larvicidal compound, eugenol. PMID:17368893

  20. Wild Sicilian rosemary: phytochemical and morphological screening and antioxidant activity evaluation of extracts and essential oils.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Speciale, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Leto, Claudio; Rubino, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    To identify the best biotypes, an extensive survey of Sicilian wild rosemary was carried out by collecting 57 samples from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. All the biotypes collected were classified as Rosmarinus officinalis L. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characteristics of the plants allowed the division of the biotypes into seven main groups, although the characteristics examined were found to be highly similar and not area-dependent. Moreover, all samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying an extraction protocol to obtain the nonvolatile components and hydrodistillation to collect the essential oils for the volatile components. The extracts were characterized by LC-UV-DAD/ESI-MS, and the essential oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the nonvolatile fractions, 18 components were identified, namely, 13 flavones, two organic acids, and three diterpenes. In the volatile fractions, a total of 82 components were found, with as predominant components α-pinene and camphene among the monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone among the oxygenated monoterpenes. Cluster analyses were carried out on both phytochemical profiles, allowing the separation of the rosemary samples into different chemical groups. Finally, the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) colorimetric assay, the UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and the scavenging activity of the superoxide radical (O$\\rm{{_{2}^{{^\\cdot} -}}}$). The present study confirmed that the essential oils and organic extracts of the Sicilian rosemary samples analyzed showed a considerable antioxidant/free radical-scavenging activity. PMID:26172328

  1. [Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation methods for the extraction of essential oils from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qin; Ling, Jianya; Ding, Yuping; Chang, Hongwen; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Tingli

    2005-11-01

    Essential oil was extracted from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). The components extracted were determined by gas chromatography with area normalization method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimal chromatographic conditions were: capillary column, SE-54 (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 microm); column temperature, 50 degrees C (3 min) --> (5 degrees c/min) 180 degrees C (2 min --> (10 degrees C/ min) 260 degrees C 50 min); split injection, split ratio 1: 50; injector temperature, 280 degrees C. Fifty-four components were identified for the essential oils extracted by SFE, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, linoleic acid chloride etc. Thirty-nine components were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, limonene etc. The SFE method is better than the SD method in reliability stability and reproducibility, and is thus well suitable for similar applications involving for extraction of other traditional Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:16498998

  2. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

  3. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract. PMID:26050168

  4. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

  5. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the essential oils and crude extracts of Euphorbia macrorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianbo; Dou, Jun; Xu, Jiangling; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils extracted from Euphorbia macrorrhiza collected from Northwest China. The major constituents of the essential oils of aerial parts and roots of E. macrorrhiza are acorenone B (16.72% and 25.80%), (+)-cycloisosativene (14.94% and 12.40%), 3a-hydroxy-5b-androstane (10.62% and 5.52%), copaene (7.37% and 6.29%), l-calamenene (4.13% and 4.65%) and β-cedrene (8.40% and 7.98%), respectively. The minor components of them are thymene, γ-terpinene, thymecamphor, α-cedrene, zingiberene, trans-caryophyllene, β-chamigrene, curcumene, pentadecane, (-)-α-muurolene, cuparene, γ-cadinene, (Z)-3-heptadecene, 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-2-oxabicyclo(4.4.0)dec-5-en-4-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, γ-elixene and palmitinic acid. The antimicrobial and antitumor activitiy of the E. macrorrhiza essential oil against Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli, Canidia Albicans and Caco-2 cells were evaluated. Among all the tested microorganisms and Caco-2 cells, the essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect on Staphyloccocus aureus (MIC = 2.8 μg/mL) and Caco-2 cell (IC₅₀ = 11.86 μg/mL), whereas no effect on Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The data of this study suggested that the E. macrorrhiza essential oils have great potential as a natural medicine for microbial infections and cancers. PMID:22555293

  6. Essential oils of Daucus carota subsp. carota of Tunisia obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Marzouki, Hanen; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Marongiu, Bruno; Molicotti, Paola; Zanetti, Stefania

    2010-12-01

    The essential oils and supercritical CO2 extracts of wild Daucus carota L. subsp. carota from two different sites in Tunisia were investigated. The main components of the essential oil of the flowering and mature umbels with seeds from Sejnane were eudesm-7(11)-en-4-ol (8.2 - 8.5%), carotol (3.5 - 5.2%), sabinene (12.0 -14.5%), a-selinene (7.4 - 8.6) and 11-alpha-(H)-himachal-4-en-1-beta-ol (12.7 - 17.4%), whereas the oils from Tunis were predominantly composed of elemicin (31.5 - 35.3%) and carotol (48.0 - 55.7%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils were assayed by using the broth dilution method on Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, and clinical strains of Candida albicans and C. tropicalis 1011 RM. The MIC values obtained were all > 2.5% (v/v). PMID:21299130

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. extracts and essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sakee, Uthai; Maneerat, Sujira; Cushnie, T P Tim; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2011-11-01

    Leaves of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. are used in traditional Thai and Chinese medicine for the treatment of septic wounds and other infections. In this study, the essential oil, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of these leaves were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities using the disc diffusion assay and agar microdilution method. The essential oil was the most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 150 µg mL⁻¹ against Bacillus cereus and an MIC of 1.2 mg mL⁻¹ against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Activity was also detected from the hexane extract against Enterobacter cloacae and S. aureus. Minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations were typically equal to or two-fold higher than the MICs for both extracts, indicating microbicidal activity. The present data show that B. balsamifera extracts have activity against various infectious and toxin-producing microorganisms. This plant's active constituents could potentially be developed for use in the treatment and/or prevention of microbial disease. PMID:21500092

  8. An integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus for the extraction of essential oils from herb materials and its application in Flos Magnoliae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhui; Li, Boxia; Duan, Haogang; Wu, Xin'an; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    A large number of herb materials contain essential oils with extensive bioactivities. In this work, an integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction (ISDE) apparatus was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, the performance of ISDE was evaluated for the extraction of essential oil from Flos Magnoliae and compared with conventional techniques including steam distillation (SD) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). According to the product yield, the time consumed and the composition of oil, the essential oils isolated by ISDE were better than that obtained by SD and similar to those obtained by SDE. ISDE was also better than SDE due to its simple operation and lower consumption of energy and organic solvent. PMID:19634121

  9. Multidisciplinary Approach to Determine the Optimal Time and Period for Extracting the Essential Oil from Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Garzoli, Stefania; Pirolli, Adele; Vavala, Elisabetta; Di Sotto, Antonella; Sartorelli, Gianni; Božović, Mijat; Angiolella, Letizia; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Pepi, Federico; Ragno, Rino

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study on essential oils (EOs) extracted from some Mentha suaveolens L. samples, collected in the countryside of Tarquinia, is reported. In this study, the procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of harvesting and extraction time, was analyzed in detail for the first time. The GC/MS analysis, carried out on 18 samples, revealed that piperitenone oxide (PO), the main essential oils' chemical constituent, is primarily responsible for the related antifungal activity. Nevertheless, EOs with lower PO content indicate that other chemicals, such as para-cymenene, may participate in exerting the EOs' antifungal effect. Furthermore, the bacterial reverse mutation assay highlighted lack of mutagenic effect in all tested samples. Analysis of the results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with 3 h maximum hydrodistillation, regardless of the harvesting time. Differently, the maximum essential oil yield can be obtained in August and the highest piperitenone oxide percentage is obtainable in July. PMID:26016551

  10. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-01

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22018714

  11. Model study of the enzymatic modification of natural extracts: peroxidase-based removal of eugenol from rose essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Charfeddine; Dolhem, Gwenn'Ann; Fernandez, Xavier; Antoniotti, Sylvain

    2012-02-01

    A protocol based on the use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is proposed for the removal of allergenic eugenol from rose essential oil without loss of the organoleptic quality and with a good conservation of the chemical composition. For the first time, an enzyme-based strategy is proposed for essential oils treatment and opens new opportunities in the detoxification of natural extracts used in perfumery and cosmetics. Our results on eugenol in rose essential oil constitute a first step toward the development of efficient and mild processes for the removal of more toxic compounds of natural extracts. PMID:22224510

  12. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

    2010-09-01

    Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Fruits of Greater Cardamom

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as “Bari ilaichi” is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

  14. In vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of cochlospermum tinctorium and C. planchonii leaf extracts and essential oils.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Vical, F; Valentin, A; Mallié, M; Bastide, J M; Bessière, J M

    1999-05-01

    The antimalarial and toxicological properties of Cochlospermum tinctorium and C. planchonii extracts and essential oils prepared from their leaves were studied. The oil components were extracted by hydrodistillation of the plant leaves and characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Crude extracts and oils were tested for in vitro antimalarial activity on Plasmodium falciparum. The IC50 were evaluated after 24 and 72 h contact between the oils and the parasite culture, and ranged from 22 to 500 micrograms/ml. C. planchonii leaf oil yielded the best antimalarial effect (IC50: 22-35 micrograms/ml), while the most potent effect from crude leaf extracts was induced by C. tinctorium. The cytotoxicity of the leaf crude extracts and oils was assessed on the K562 cell line and showed IC50 values ranging between 33 and 2000 micrograms/ml. PMID:10364849

  15. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  16. Antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Murraya koenigii by solvent-free microwave extraction and hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Tao, Zhou; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Uysal, Burcu; Oksal, Birsen S

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) for the isolation of essential oil from leaves of Murraya koenigii L. (Rutaceae) has been compared with the conventional hydro-distilled oil (HD) in terms of yield, composition, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity against Listeria innocua. The yield of essential oil obtained from 30 min of SFME was similar to that of HD for 180 min. By GC-MS analysis, the major compounds of the essential oil extracted by SFME, which were obtained in somewhat lower amounts than in the essential oil obtained by HD, were alpha-copaene (44.3%), beta-gurjunene (25.5%), isocaryophyllene (12.1%), beta-caryophyllene (8.7%) and germacrene D (2.9%). The content of oxygenated terpenes, slightly higher for the SFME-essential oil (2.3%) than the HD-essential oil (1.4%), were much lower than that of nonoxygenated terpenes in both oils. DPPH radical scavenging activities of both essential oils were relatively low (10%-24%). Complete inhibition of growth of L. innocua was observed with both SFME and HD essential oils, at 400 and 600 microg/mL (minimum inhibitory concentration), respectively. The SFME-essential oil at 300 microg/mL provided 92% inhibition, indicating its potential as a natural antimicrobial agent. PMID:22428264

  17. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract and essential oil of Iranian Teucrium polium against some of phytobacteria.

    PubMed

    Purnavab, S; Ketabchi, S; Rowshan, V

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium polium was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea agglomerans, Brenneria nigrifluens, Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium vitis, Streptomyces scabies, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris and Pectobacterium cartovorum by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by using the serial dilution method. Chemical composition of essential oil and methanolic extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC. α-Pinene (25.769%) and myrcene (12.507) were of the highest percentage in T. polium essential oil, and sinapic acid (15.553 mg/g) and eugenol (6.805 mg/g) were the major compounds in the methanolic extract. Our results indicate that both methanolic extract and essential oil did not show antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Also the essential oil did not show antibacterial activity against P. cartovorum. In general, both methanolic extract and essential oil showed the same antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum, P. agglomerans, B. nigrifluens and S. scabies. PMID:25583240

  18. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond.

    PubMed

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide. PMID:27589723

  19. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:25459951

  20. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2014-05-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications. PMID:24360439

  1. Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT. PMID:20506431

  2. Determination of Essential Oil Composition of Prangos acaulis (DC) Bornm Obtained by Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadavand Mirzaei, Hossein; Hadi Meshkatalsadat, Mohammad; Soheilivand, Saeed

    Chemical composition of the essential oil of the Prangos acaulis was extracted by Hydrodistillation (HD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) methods from aerial parts at full flowering stage. Their compositions were identified using GC/MS as the method of analysis. The analyses reveal that samples differ quantitatively and qualitatively. A total of 21 compounds constituting 89.1% of aerial parts oil were in SFE method. The oil obtained by SFE was under condition: pressure 120 bar, temperature 45°C and extraction time 45 min. On the other hand, 26 compounds constituting 98.74% of oil were in HD method. In according to our results, in both extracts, the two compounds present in the biggest quantity were: Α-pinene (13.7 versus 22.87% in the SFE and HD oil, respectively) and 3-ethylidene-2-methyl-1-hexen-4-yne (14.3 versus 21.36%).

  3. In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oil of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Owing to the complexity of the antioxidant materials and their mechanism of actions, it is obvious that no single testing method is capable of providing a comprehensive picture of the antioxidant profile. The essential oil of the Thymus specie may still possess other important activities in traditional medicine, it can be used in the treatment of fever and cough. This essential oil may also have an anticancer activity. Methods The essential oils aerial parts hydrodistilled from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were characterised by GC/MS analysis and the methanolic extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC method. The essence of thyme was evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Result The Terpinen-4-ol are the principal class of metabolites (33.34%) among which 1.8-cineole (19.96%) and camphor (19.20%) predominate. In this study, quantitative values of antioxidant activity of crude methanolic extracts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis were investigated. The essential oils was screened for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteridis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes) by well diffusion method and agar dilution method (MIC). All the essences were found to inhibit the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria organisms tested. These activities were correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds in active fractions. HPLC confirmed presence of phenolic compounds in methanol extracts. Conclusion Methanol extracts and essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The technique for measuring antioxidant activity, which was developed using DPPH, ABTS and β-carotene bleaching, produced results as found in established literatures. The present results indicate clearly that methanol extracts and essential oils from Thymus hirtus sp

  4. Repellency of essential oils extracted from Thai native plants against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Phukerd, Ubol; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Repellent activity of essential oils derived from 10 Thai native plants, belonging to three families were evaluated against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and to compare them with a commercial chemical repellents (DEET; N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield). Each test repellent was applied at 1, 5, and 10% concentrations for testing by arm in cage method. The results showed significant differences in repellency among the repellents by mosquito species. The protection time of the essential oils against Ae. aegypti ranged from 3 to 30 min. According to the Culex mosquito, it showed the protection time ranged from 3 to 260 min. 10 % Boesenbergia rotunda essential oil provided the best efficiency, in which protection time was 4.3 h as equal as DEET. The essential oils which exhibited protection time more than 2 h were those of 10% Zingiber zerumbet, Litsea petiolata, Curcuma zedoaria, and Zingiber cassumunar essential oils (3.1, 2.8, 2.6, and 2.3 h, respectively). The biting percentage ranged from 0.9 to 18.0% and 0.8 to 3.6% against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results revealed that the potential of essential oil extracted from B. rotunda, Z. zerumbet, L. petiolata, C. zedoaria, and Z. cassumunar had attributes of good repellent and deterred biting. We recommend the five essential oils for further study to develop as commercial repellents. PMID:25088471

  5. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jarosław; Zieba, Krzysztof; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

  6. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25050312

  7. Influence of extraction methods on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Thymua danesis subsp. Lancifolius.

    PubMed

    Tavakolpour, Yousef; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Haghighi-Manesh, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    The essential oil (EO) from dried ground powder leaves and stems of Thymua danesis was extracted using hydrodistillation (HD), ohmic extraction (OE), ultrasound-assisted HD and ultrasound-assisted OE methods. Then, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and sensory properties of the EO were investigated both in vitro and in food systems. Thyme EO extracted by ultrasound-assisted HD method had promising antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and had the best antioxidant properties when tested in vitro. In food systems, higher concentrations of the EO were needed to exert similar antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Furthermore, thyme EO added yogurt and drink yogurt revealed better sensory properties than the control and fresh samples. Essential oil from Thymua danesis has a good potential to be used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and flavoring agent in food systems and the extraction method effects on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the thyme extract. PMID:27004106

  8. Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Charles L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Carvalho, Camila R.; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Rosa, Luiz H.

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (−)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (−)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

  9. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis).

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Carvalho, Camila R; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (-)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (-)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

  10. Chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of essential oil and methanolic extract of Eremostachys azerbaijanica Rech.f. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Asnaashari, Solmaz; Afshar, Fariba Heshmati; Ebrahimi, Atefeh; Moghadam, Sedigheh Bamdad; Delazar, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil and methanol (MeOH) extract of aerials of E. azerbaijanica were identified. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging properties of the volatile oil as well as the MeOH extract of the plant were assessed. The essential oil of the air-dried aerial parts was obtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The oil was then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Soxhlet extraction was performed on the aerial parts using n-hexane, dichloromethane and MeOH. The MeOH extract was then subjected to solid-phase extraction using a C18 Sep-Pak cartridge. Isolation and structural elucidation of the pure components was accomplished by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectroscopic methods (UV, (1)H-NMR). The free radical scavenging properties were determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. A total of 59 components representing 95.9% of the oil constituents were identified which were primarily characterized as terpenoids or aliphatic skeletons. The major components of the oil were hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (27.1%), 2-methyl-6-propyl-dodecane (16.4%) and tricosane (9.3%). One flavonoid (luteolin-7-O-rutinoside) and one phenylethanoid (verbascoside) were also isolated and identified from the MeOH extract. The results of DPPH assays showed that the essential oil of E. azerbaijanica possessed weak free radical scavenging activity whereas the MeOH extract and its pure constituents showed significant scavenging activities in comparison with positive controls. PMID:27168750

  11. Chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of essential oil and methanolic extract of Eremostachys azerbaijanica Rech.f. from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Asnaashari, Solmaz; Afshar, Fariba Heshmati; Ebrahimi, Atefeh; Moghadam, Sedigheh Bamdad; Delazar, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil and methanol (MeOH) extract of aerials of E. azerbaijanica were identified. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging properties of the volatile oil as well as the MeOH extract of the plant were assessed. The essential oil of the air-dried aerial parts was obtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The oil was then analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Soxhlet extraction was performed on the aerial parts using n-hexane, dichloromethane and MeOH. The MeOH extract was then subjected to solid-phase extraction using a C18 Sep-Pak cartridge. Isolation and structural elucidation of the pure components was accomplished by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectroscopic methods (UV, 1H-NMR). The free radical scavenging properties were determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. A total of 59 components representing 95.9% of the oil constituents were identified which were primarily characterized as terpenoids or aliphatic skeletons. The major components of the oil were hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (27.1%), 2-methyl-6-propyl-dodecane (16.4%) and tricosane (9.3%). One flavonoid (luteolin-7-O-rutinoside) and one phenylethanoid (verbascoside) were also isolated and identified from the MeOH extract. The results of DPPH assays showed that the essential oil of E. azerbaijanica possessed weak free radical scavenging activity whereas the MeOH extract and its pure constituents showed significant scavenging activities in comparison with positive controls. PMID:27168750

  12. Ruta montana L. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Inés; Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Hamdi, Naceur; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of R. montana against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium solani. The oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective MIC values ranging from 100 to 1100 µg/mL and 250 to 3000 µg/mL. The oil had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with the concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. Also, the oil exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants. Experiments carried out in plant revealed that the essential oil was slightly effective in suppression of gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on bitter almond. The results of this study indicate that the oil and extracts of R. montana leaves could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases. The GC-MS analysis determined that 28 compounds, which represented 89.03 % of total oil, were present in the oil containing mainly 1-butene, methylcyclopropane, 2-butene and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26417353

  13. Ruta montana L. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Inés; Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Hamdi, Naceur; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of R. montana against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium solani. The oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective MIC values ranging from 100 to 1100 µg/mL and 250 to 3000 µg/mL. The oil had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with the concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. Also, the oil exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants. Experiments carried out in plant revealed that the essential oil was slightly effective in suppression of gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on bitter almond. The results of this study indicate that the oil and extracts of R. montana leaves could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases. The GC-MS analysis determined that 28 compounds, which represented 89.03 % of total oil, were present in the oil containing mainly 1-butene, methylcyclopropane, 2-butene and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26417353

  14. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-08-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  15. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  16. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H Aşkin

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

  17. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  18. Combining essential oils and olive extract for control of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with the pathogen and then dip-treated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control, 3.0% hydrogen peroxide, a 0.1% ...

  19. Combining essential oils and olive extract for control of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with S. Newport and dip-t...

  20. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected. PMID:16624501

  1. Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be β-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium. PMID:23027699

  2. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rosa damascena Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Essential Oil in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hajiloo, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Extracts obtained from the petals of Rosa damascena (Rosaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases. In this study the hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of the plant were investigated for its possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The extract was administered at the doses (p.o.) of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg and the doses of essential oil were 100, 200 and 400 μL/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing response, formalin-induced paw licking time in the early and late phases and light tail flick test were used in mice to assess analgesic activity. For evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect carrageenan-induced paw edema served as a valid animal model in rats. The extract significantly attenuated the writhing responses induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and also showed potent analgesic effect in both phases of formalin test but not in light tail flick test. In addition, the higher dose of the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. Essential oil of the plant at all administered doses failed to show any analgesic or anti-inflammatory effect in above mentioned tests. These results provide support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena in relieving inflammatory pain, and insight into the development of new agents for treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:24363723

  3. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified. PMID:26522747

  4. Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

    2014-08-01

    A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources. PMID:24755113

  5. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

  6. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils....

  7. Efficacy of carbazole alkaloids, essential oil and extract of Murraya koenigii in enhancing subcutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagappan, Thilahgavani; Segaran, Thirukanthan Chandra; Wahid, Mohd Effendy Abdul; Ramasamy, Perumal; Vairappan, Charles S

    2012-01-01

    The traditional use of Murraya koenigii as Asian folk medicine prompted us to investigate its wound healing ability. Three carbazole alkaloids (mahanine (1), mahanimbicine (2), mahanimbine (3)), essential oil and ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii were investigated for their efficacy in healing subcutaneous wounds. Topical application of the three alkaloids, essential oil and crude extract on 8 mm wounds created on the dorsal skin of rats was monitored for 18 days. Wound contraction rate and epithelialization duration were calculated, while wound granulation and collagen deposition were evaluated via histological method. Wound contraction rates were obvious by day 4 for the group treated with extract (19.25%) and the group treated with mahanimbicine (2) (12.60%), while complete epithelialization was achieved on day 18 for all treatment groups. Wounds treated with mahanimbicine (2) (88.54%) and extract of M. koenigii (91.78%) showed the highest rate of collagen deposition with well-organized collagen bands, formation of fibroblasts, hair follicle buds and with reduced inflammatory cells compared to wounds treated with mahanine (1), mahanimbine (3) and essential oil. The study revealed the potential of mahanimbicine (2) and crude extract of M. koenigii in facilitation and acceleration of wound healing. PMID:23519245

  8. Characterization of Terpenoids in the Essential Oil Extracted from the Aerial Parts of Scrophularia Subaphylla Growing in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, Parina; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Bamdad Moghaddam, Sedigheh; Ebrahimi, Atefeh; Delazar, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate the volatiles released from aerial parts of Scrophularia subaphylla (Scrophulariaceae) which is a perennial herb growing in Azarbaijan province in Iran. Methods: A combination of GC-MS and GC-FID were applied for analyzing the chemical compositions of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of Scrophularia subaphylla (S. subaphylla). Results: Thirty six compounds, representing 97.32% of total oil were identified. High content of terpenoids (60.02%) were identified in the essential oil with Linalool (22.35%), phytol (15.74%) and geraniol (7.27%) as the most dominant compounds, while other main components were representatives of fatty acids (24.31%), indicated mainly by palmitinic acid (17.29%). DPPH assay was used for assessing the antioxidant properties of compounds. However, no remarkable free radical scavenging activity was observed. Furthermore, Disc diffusion method was applied for evaluating the antimicrobial activity of essential oil vs. gram positive and gram negative bacteria strains. The examined oil showed weak antibacterial effect. Conclusion: Main constituents of S. subaphylla were terpenoids. In comparison with other genesis of Scrophularia, antioxidant and anti bacterial properties of S. subaphylla essential oil were not noticeable. PMID:26819929

  9. Optimization of conditions of solvent-free microwave extraction and study on antioxidant capacity of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Liu, Ting-ting

    2012-10-15

    In this article, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill was studied. A multivariate study based on central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of SFME. The optimum parameters were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 385 W and moisture content of the fruits was 68%. The extraction yield of essential oil was 11 ml/kg under the optimum conditions. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were determined, and compared with traditional antioxidants. GC-MS showed the different composition of essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation (HD), steam-distillation (SD) and SFME. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Micrographs and thermo gravimetric loss provided more evidences to prove SFME of essential oil is more completed than HD and SD. PMID:23442721

  10. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of Hypericum aegypticum subsp. webbii (Spach) N. Robson.

    PubMed

    Marčetić, Mirjana D; Milenković, Marina T; Lakušić, Dmitar V; Lakušić, Branislava S

    2016-04-01

    Hypericum aegypticum subsp. webbii is an evergreen shrub spread in Mediterranean part of central and southeastern Europe. The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and MeOH extract of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii were investigated. The monoterpenes α-pinene (63.4 - 68.5%) and β-pinene (16.9 - 17.0%) were main compounds in the volatile oil from aerial parts. In the cluster analysis, the essential oil of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii was separated and chemically different from the oil of other subspecies of H. aegypticum as well as other Hypericum species from Greece. SIMPER analysis revealed that α-pinene (24.79%) was the component that contributed the most to differences between all oils. Also, there was extremely high overall dissimilarity between three subspecies of H. aegypticum. MeOH extract of aerial parts of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii contained flavonoids rutin (56.4 ± 0.9 mg/g), hyperoside and quercetin, and phenolic acids chlorogenic and caffeic acid, while naphthodianthrones were not detected. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was moderate (MIC from 100 to >200 μg/ml), while MeOH extract inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Micrococcus luteus (MIC 50 - 100 μg/ml), more pronounced than the extract of H. perforatum (MIC 200 - >200 μg/ml). PMID:26923468

  11. Comparison of essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Sourmaghi, Mohammad Hossein Salehi; Kiaee, Gita; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2015-04-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), is an annual herb in the Apiaceae family which disperses in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The Coriander essential oil has been used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its flavor and odor. In Iran, fruits of Coriander used in pickle, curry powders, sausages, cakes, pastries, biscuits and buns. The aim of this study was to investigate microwave radiation effects on quality, quantity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Coriander fruits. The essential oils were obtained from the Coriander fruits by hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) then, the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by microdilution method. The results indicated that the HD and MAHD essential oils (EO) were dominated by monoterpenoids such as linalool, geranyl acetate and γ-terpinene. The major compound in both EO was linalool which its amount in HD and MAHD was 63 % and 66 %, respectively. The total amount of monoterpenes hydrocarbons in HD EO differ significantly with the amount in MAHD EO (12.56 % compare to 1.82 %). HD EO showed greater activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans than MAHD EO. Moreover, their activities against Ecoli and P. aeruginosa were the same with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 0.781 and 6.25 μL mL(-1), respectively. By using MAHD method, it was superior in terms of saving energy and extraction time, although the oil yield and total composition decrease by using this method. PMID:25829632

  12. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of different extracts of Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Meyer and Nepeta saccharata Bunge.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Khaligh, Pooneh; Mirzajani, Fateme

    2012-01-01

    Aerial parts essential oil of Nepeta betonicifolia and N. saccharata were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three and eighteen components represented 97.9% and 98.2% of the total oils identified, respectively. Main compounds of the oil of N. betonicifolia were 4aα,7β,7aα-nepetalactone (42.0%), germacrene D (6.0%), triplal (5.2%), 1-nor-bourbonanone (4.0%) and 1,8-cineole (3.2%). The principal constituents of the essential oil of N. saccharata were found to be 4aβ,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (66.9%), germacrene D (12.9%), sabinene (6.5%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.3%). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of methanol extracts and chloroform, butanol and water subfractions of aerial parts of N. betonicifolia and N. saccharata were evaluated by using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS assays. TPC of each extract was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau. The antioxidant activity of the butanolic subfractions of both plants was higher than other extracts examined. PMID:21995833

  13. Comparison of models for supercritical fluid extraction of seed and essential oils in relation to the mass-transfer rate

    SciTech Connect

    Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E.

    1996-10-01

    A general dimensionless model was developed for a sensitivity analysis of the supercritical extraction process of vegetable oils and essential oils. Two dimensionless parameters, {Gamma}, a dimensionless partition coefficient, and {Theta}, a dimensionless characteristic time, appeared as the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of the extraction process. Some limiting values of these two parameters within the general model yielded simpler models which are often used in the literature. The numerical solutions of both the complete model and the simpler cases were compared to assess the range of relevance of the simpler models in terms of {Gamma} and {Theta} values. These results were compared with the experimental data found in the literature to assess the correctness of the assumption used to model supercritical fluid extraction in single cases. The implications of this analysis on the development of scale-up procedures were also discussed.

  14. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel.

    PubMed

    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction. PMID:26788292

  15. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml. PMID:24881771

  16. Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts

    PubMed Central

    Naemi, Forough; Asghari, Gholamreza; Yousofi, Hossein; Yousefi, Hossein Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L. flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety. PMID:25050317

  17. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Teucrium orientale (L.) subsp. taylori (Boiss.) Rech. f.

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium orientale subsp. taylori. The GC and GC–MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in determination of 40 components representing 96.4% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were linalool (28.6%), caryophyllene oxide (15.6%), 1,8-cineol (4.5%), β-pinene (8.7%), 3-octanol (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (7.3%), and germacrene-D (4.1%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different tests, namely DPPH and β-carotene- linoleic acid assay. In DPPH system, the weakest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the non-polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (237.40 ± 2.1 μg/mL). Antioxidant activity of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract was superior to all samples tested, showing an EC50 value of 61.45 ± 0.5 μg/ mL. The inhibition capacity (%) of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (95.21% ± 1.3) was found to be the strongest and almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (94.9% ± 1.1). The amount of the total phenolics was the highest in the polar subfraction, i.e. 370 μg/mg of the dry extract (37%). A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics of the extracts. PMID:24381607

  18. Essential oil composition of Citrus medica L. Cv. Diamante (Diamante citron) determined after using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Fazio, Alessia; Dugo, Paola; Costa, Rosaria; Mondello, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile and the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction of citron (Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante (Diamante citron)). The fruits selected for the extraction were of three types: green citron of little size, green citron of big size, and yellow citron after 1 month from the harvest. The essential oils were extracted using three different methods. The nine samples of oil thus obtained were analyzed by high resolution GC (HRGC)-flame ionization detection (FID), HRGC-MS, and RP-HPLC. They differ only in the quantitative composition, while the qualitative profile was the same. The volatile fraction of every sample of oil is characterized by a high content of limonene, gamma-terpinene, and monoterpene aldehydes and a lower content of alpha- and beta-pinene and myrcene, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes. Enantioselective (Es)-GC analysis of the extracts allowed the determination of the enantiomeric distribution of five terpenoid compounds; a prevalence of four dextrorotatory isomers was observed. Oxypeucedanin was the main component of the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction in the extracts of green fruits, while citropten was the major oxygenated compound in the oil obtained from yellow citron. PMID:19051190

  19. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    PubMed

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD). PMID:25115624

  20. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil and ethanol extract from the stem of Aglaia odorata Lour.

    PubMed

    Joycharat, Nantiya; Thammavong, Sonesay; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Plodpai, Patimaporn; Mitsuwan, Watcharapong; Limsuwan, Surasak; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

    2014-01-01

    The stem-derived essential oil of Aglaia odorata Lour. was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type system. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the oil revealed the identification of 39 compounds, representing 76.4% of the oil; germacrene D (20.3%), α-humulene (17.1%), α-himachalene (12.7%) and β-caryophyllene (10.2%) were the major components. Ar-turmerone (1) and eichlerialactone (2) were isolated from the stem oil and ethanolic stem extract of this plant species, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the oil and ethanol extract were tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as well as three rice fungal pathogens Bipolaris oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani using broth microdilution method. The oil and 1 exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three rice pathogens tested, whereas 2 exhibited good antibacterial activity against both the Gram-positive pathogens tested. PMID:24934340

  1. Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract, essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Gkinis, G; Michaelakis, A; Koliopoulos, G; Ioannou, E; Tzakou, O; Roussis, V

    2014-03-01

    The dichloromethane-methanol extract, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Nepeta parnassica, and the isolated 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone were evaluated for their repellent effect against the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards and Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskål. The chemical analysis of N. parnassica essential oil, dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (87 %), revealed 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (36.8%), 1,8-cineole (25.5%), and 4aα,7β,7aβ-nepetalactone (11.1%) as the major constituents. The results of the insect bioassays showed that the essential oil and the dichloromethane-methanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Culex pipiens for up to 2 h post application. The isolated 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone showed very high mosquito repellency for periods of at least 2 h against both species. PMID:24449446

  2. Antioxidant and relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala jacquem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current work is an attempt to know about additional chemical profile of Artemisia macrocephala. Antioxidant activity is performed as the plant is reported to contain flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity in general. Relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract is performed to know in which fraction(s) the relaxant constituents concentrate as we have already reported that its crude methanol has relaxant activity. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil is also performed as the plant is rich with essential oil. Methods Phytochemical profile of the plant is performed. Free radical scavenging activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Relaxation activity tests of fractions and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala were performed on sections of rabbits’ jejunum. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of plant extracts and its essential oil. Results We detected carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins in A. macrocephala. At concentration 0.005 mg/ml, free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 121.5 ± 2.02% of ascorbic acid. n- hexane fraction relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Essential oil relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.8 ± 0.034 mg/ml. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions relaxed both spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions suggesting its possible mode through calcium channels. Constructing calcium chloride curves, the test fractions showed a right shift in the EC50. Essential oil at concentration 0.1 mg/ml produced right shift with EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.08 ± 0.08 vs. control with EC50 -2.47 ± 0.07. The curve resembled the curves of verapamil, which caused a right shift at 0.1 μM, with EC50 -1.7 ±0.07 vs. control EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.45 ± 0.06. Conclusions Crude methanol and its fractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol) are rich sources of antioxidant constituents. The relaxing constituents following

  3. Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

  4. Constituents, biological activities and quality control parameters of the crude extract and essential oil from Arracacia tolucensis var. multifida.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Mario; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, Blanca; Bye, Robert; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel

    2007-08-15

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Arracacia tolucensis var. multifida (Umbelliferae) led to the isolation of isoimperatorin (1), osthol (2), suberosin (3), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) (4), herniarin (5), scoparone (6), umbelliferone (7), dihydroxypeucedanin (8), 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) (9), isoscopoletin (10) and scopoletin (11). The isolates were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and only 1-4 showed significant activity with MIC values of 64, 32, 16 and 128 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil showed moderate in vitro antibacterial activity against representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The volatile oil of Arracacia tolucensis var. multifida was analyzed by GC-MS and found to be composed mainly by 2 and 3. The essential oil (IC(50)=116.4+/-23.2 microg/mL) and the extract (IC(50)=1153.1+/-53.2 microg/mL) of the plant provoked concentration dependent inhibition of the tone and amplitude of the guinea-pig ileum spontaneous contractions; the latter activity was related with the high coumarin content of this species. A suitable (novel and rapid) HPLC method to quantify the major active coumarins of the plant was developed. The method provides also a reproducible fingerprint useful for identity tests of this plant. PMID:17582715

  5. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Bahareh; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander) has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg) of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg) compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil. Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27222834

  6. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cupressus sempervirens is a medicinal plant traditional, its dried leaves are used in treatment of stomach pain, diabetes, inflammation, toothache, laryngitis and as contraceptive. Methods The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and determination chemical contents of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from Mediterranean C. sempervirens L. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. sempervirens was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. Results A total of 20 constituents representing 98.1% of the oil were identified: α-pinene (48.6%), δ-3-carene (22.1%), limonene (4.6%) and α-terpinolene (4.5%) were the main components comprising 79.8% of the oil. The antimicrobial test results showed that the methanol extract of C. sempervirens strongly inhibited the growth of the test bacteria studied, except for yeast species while the Eo had moderate antibacterial, but no anti-candida activity. Klebsiella pneumoniae was proven to be the most susceptible against methanol extract. The exposure time of Eo and methanol extract for complete inhibition of cell viability of K. pneumoniae was found to be 250 μg at 30 min and 500 μg at 120 min, respectively. The antibiofilm potential of the samples was evaluated using methods of PVC microtiter and eradication on biomaterial. Visual results showed visible biofilm eradication from the surface of intravenous infusion tube at 500 μg of Eo and methanol extract. Conclusions The results presented here may suggest that the Eo and extracts of C. sempervirens possess antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals. PMID:24890383

  7. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

  8. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. PMID:25605550

  9. Comparative study of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and Achillea santolina L. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, A M; Hafez, S S; Wink, M

    2004-03-01

    Essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and the flower, leaf and stem of A. santolina L. as well as their lipophilic constituents obtained by solvent extraction were analysed using GLC and GLC-mass spectrometry. Nineteen constituents in the essential oil of A. fragrantissima were identified, in addition to 41 compounds from its n-hexane-ether extract. The hydrodistilled oil and the solvent extract contain santolina alcohol, artemisia alcohol, artemisia ketone, cis-thujone and trans-thujone as major constituents. In A. santolina altogether 54 volatile components were detected. The major components were 1,8-cineole, fragranol, fragranyl acetate and terpin-4-ol. Furthermore, the essential oils and the n-hexane-ether extracts of the two plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity. PMID:15074599

  10. Antioxidant activity of Ziziphora tenuoir methanolic extracts and comparison of the essential oil in two stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Piryaei, Marzieh; Maassoumi, Seyed Mohamad

    2014-07-01

    Flavonoids, anthocyanins, antioxidant capability, total phenolic, ascorbic acid contents, and essential oils compounds of Ziziphora tenuoir (Lamiaceae) for polar and non-polar subfraction in different stages of growth (pre-flowering and flowering) were evaluated in this work. Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by three testing systems namely DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid, and reducing power assay. In the DPPH system, the highest radical scavenging activity was seen by the nonpolar subfraction of the methanol extract in the flowering stage (IC50 43.17 ± 3.68 μg·mL(-1)). Large differences in the amount of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, and flavonoids of Z. tenuoir in two stages of growth were detected. The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Z. tenuoir was analyzed by GC/MS and compared in the two stages of growth. The main constituents of the 28 identified compounds in the oil were found to be pulegone (67.34% vs 59.61%), β-humulene (3.24% vs 3.25%), and limonene (5.06% vs 2.57%) at the flowering and pre-flowering stages, respectively. PMID:25053549

  11. Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Saija, Antonella; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2006-01-11

    Bergamot peel is an underutilized byproduct of the essential oil and juice-processing industry. As with other Citrus peels, it still contains exploitable components, such as pectins and flavonoids. Commercial glycoside hydrolases, specifically a combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, solubilized a high percentage of the material (81.94%). The flavonoid profile of the peel consisted of characteristic Citrus species flavanone rutinosides and neohesperosides derived from naringenin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin. In addition, a number of minor flavanone and flavone glycosides, not found in orange and lemon peels, were identified. The majority of flavonoids were extracted in the two 70% v/v EtOH extractions. Processing this material clearly has economic potential leading to low environmental impact. PMID:16390199

  12. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, S; Meier, A; Guggenheim, B

    1994-08-01

    A method for reproducibly determining minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of plant extracts towards fastidiously and facultatively anaerobic oral bacteria, predicated upon measurements of optical densities in microtitre plate wells, was devised. The antimicrobial properties of some botanical oils were surveyed; of these, Australian tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and sage oil proved to be the most potent essential oils, whereas thymol and eugenol were potent essential oil components. PMID:7478759

  13. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    PubMed Central

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-β-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

  14. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β -caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)- β -farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β -carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β -carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98  μ g gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μ g quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

  15. Anticonvulsant Effect of the Aqueous Extract and Essential Oil of Carum Carvi L. Seeds in a Pentylenetetrazol Model of Seizure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Oftadegan, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carum carvi L. (caraway), known as black zeera in Iran, has been indicated for the treatment of epilepsy in Iranian folk medicine. This study evaluated whether the aqueous extract and essential oil of caraway seeds have anticonvulsant effects in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant effects of the aqueous extract (200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200 mg/kg, i.p.) and essential oil (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) of caraway were assessed using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 95 mg/kg i.p.) induced convulsions. Diazepam (3 mg/kg) was used as positive control. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic convulsions and the percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of caraway on neuromuscular coordination was evaluated using the rotarod performance test. Results: The extract and essential oil dose-dependently increased the latency time to the onset of myoclonic (ED50, 1257 and 62.2 mg/kg, respectively) and clonic (ED50, 929 and 42.3 mg/kg, respectively) seizures. The extract and essential oil of caraway prevented the animals from tonic seizure with ED50s of 2142.4 and 97.6 mg/kg, respectively. The extract and essential oil of caraway protected 28.6 and 71.4% of the animals from PTZ-induced death, respectively, and had no significant effect on neuromuscular coordination. Conclusion: This study showed that the aqueous extract and essential oil of caraway had anticonvulsant properties. However, the essential oil was more potent and effective than was the aqueous extract as an anticonvulsant. Additionally, the anticonvulsant effect of caraway was not due to a muscle relaxant activity. These findings support the acclaimed antiepileptic effect of caraway in folk medicine and propose its potential use in petit mal seizure in humans. PMID:27217604

  16. Evaluation of the effect of Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Perovskia abrotanoides essential oil extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains

    PubMed Central

    Hozoorbakhsh, Fereshte; Esfahani, Bahram Nasr; Moghim, Sharareh; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), which remains one of the major public health problems in the world. The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) worldwide highlights the urgent need to search for alternative antimycobacterial agents. More and more people in developing countries utilize traditional medicine for their major primary health care needs. It has been determined that the medicinal plants Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Perovskia abrotanoides possess strong antibacterial effect. Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimycobacterial effects of P. gnaphalodes and P. abrotanoides essential oil on MTB were examined. Essential oil was prepared from P. gnaphalodes aerial parts and P. abrotanoides flower. The effects of six different concentrations (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, 160 μg/ml, 320 μg/ml, and 640 μg/ml) were examined against sensitive isolates of MTB and MTB H37Rv (ATCC 27294). Results: The results showed that P. gnaphalodes and P. abrotanoides essential oil extracts have strong inhibitory effects on MTB. This activity for P. gnaphalodes was observed from very low (4%) to good (70.9%) effect; meanwhile, this activity for P. abrotanoides was observed from very low (4%) to strong (86%) effect. Conclusion: The mean of inhibition percentage for P. gnaphalodes and P. abrotanoides in 640 μg/ml was 58.1% and 76.2%, respectively. So, P. abrotanoides plant is more effective against MTB than P. gnaphalodes. Identification of the effective fraction against MTB is a further step to be studied. PMID:27195252

  17. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 μl). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 μg/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

  18. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

    2009-02-01

    The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods. PMID:19298216

  19. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts from herbal parts and callus cultures of Origanum acutidens.

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Münevver; Serkedjieva, Julia; Daferera, Dimitra; Gulluce, Medine; Polissiou, Moschos; Tepe, Bektas; Akpulat, H Askin; Sahin, Fikrettin; Sokmen, Atalay

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and various extracts obtained from Origanum acutidens and methanol extracts (MeOH) from callus cultures have been evaluated for their antioxidative, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties. The essential oil exhibited strong antimicrobial activity with a significant inhibitory effect against 27 (77%) of the 35 bacteria, 12 (67%) of the 18 fungi, and a yeast tested and moderate antioxidative capacity in DPPH and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. GC and GC-MS analyses of the oil resulted in the identification of 38 constituents, carvacrol being the main component. The MeOH extracts obtained from herbal parts showed better antioxidative effect than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), whereas callus cultures also exhibited interesting antioxidative patterns. Concerning antiviral activity, none of the extracts inhibited the reproduction of influenza A/Aichi virus in MDCK cells. The MeOH extracts from herbal parts inhibited the reproduction of HSV-1, and also callus cultures exerted slight antiherpetic effect. PMID:15161188

  20. Seasonal variations of antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from three Citrus limon L. Burm. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Settanni, L; Randazzo, W; Palazzolo, E; Moschetti, M; Aleo, A; Guarrasi, V; Mammina, C; San Biagio, P L; Marra, F P; Moschetti, G; Germanà, M A

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the seasonal variations of antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of essential oils (EOs), three different cultivars of Citrus limon L. Burm. spp. (Femminello Santa Teresa, Monachello and Femminello Continella) were collected at 6-week intervals, from December 2012 to April 2013, for a total of four harvests. The EOs were extracted from lemon peel by hydro-distillation. The antimicrobial activity, tested by paper disc diffusion method, was evaluated against common food-related pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Enterobacter spp.). EOs were more effective against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria at each collection time, but a strong strain dependence was evidenced. Monachello EOs showed the highest inhibition power. The chemical characterisation of the EOs performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified from 36 to 42 molecules. The chemical difference registered among samples and seasons may explain the different antimicrobial efficacies recorded. PMID:24443967

  1. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.

    PubMed

    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation. PMID:26797599

  2. [Quality evaluation of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2002-03-01

    Essential oils on the market were analyzed using GC-MS and the main ingredients of each essential oil were quantified. Analysis of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis (lavender oil) showed that each sample had a different ratio of the contents of main ingredients, such as linalool, linalyl acetate, and camphor. In addition, some commercial lavender oils were analyzed by GC-MS for comparison with the Lavandula flagrans (lavandin oil) and the reference standard. As a result of this analysis, although the components of almost all commercial lavender oils were approximately the same as those of the reference standard, there were a few products that contained more than 0.5% of the amount of camphor in lavandin oil. This suggests that some lavender oil samples are mixed with lavandin oil to lower the price. Commercial essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (teatree oil) and Mentha piperita (peppermint oil) were also analyzed by GC-MS. Each of the peppermint oil samples had a different ratio in the content of its main ingredient. With respect to teatree oils, the amount of terpinens in each sample differed. These results led to concern about the efficacy of essential oils. For achieve the expected efficacy of essential oils, correct information on their ingredients should be available and quality control using instrumental analysis should be introduced. PMID:11905050

  3. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

  4. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum. PMID:27051430

  5. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum. PMID:27051430

  6. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

  7. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  8. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Seed and Shell Essential Oils Extracted from Abrus precatorius (L)

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, Sunday O.; Asekun, Olayinka T.; Familoni, Oluwole B.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils from plants have been proven safe as natural antioxidants, and few are already marketed as digestive enhancers as well as in prevention of several degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of seed and shell essential oils of Abrus precatorius (L), a herb used for ethno-medicinal practices in Nigeria. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The ability of the oils to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging; lipid peroxide and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. The IC50 of the seed and shell oils (2.10 mg/mL and 1.20 mg/mL respectively) showed that antioxidant activity is higher than that for the standard drugs (3.20 mg/mL and 3.40 mg/mL) for the nitric oxide scavenging assay. The lipid peroxidation radical activity of the oils were similar to vitamin C, weak DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were discovered in comparison to vitamin C and rutin. Generally, in the four antioxidant assays, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the oils and percentage inhibition of free radicals and lipid peroxidation. The composition of A. precatorius essential oils reported earlier may account for their antioxidant capacity. PMID:26784871

  9. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Soares, I H; Loreto, É S; Rossato, L; Mario, D N; Venturini, T P; Baldissera, F; Santurio, J M; Alves, S H

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates. PMID:26281965

  10. Supercritical CO₂ extract and essential oil of aerial part of Ledum palustre L.--Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Baananou, Sameh; Bagdonaite, Edita; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Boughattas, Naceur A

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of two extracts from the aerial parts of Ledum palustre has been reported. The volatile oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and the essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD). The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor their composition. Both extracts shared as main compound (41.0-43.4%) ledol (23.3-26.7%) and ascaridole (15.1-4.5%). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the subcutaneous carrageenan injection-induced hind paw oedema. The treated animals received essential oil (SFE and HD), the reference group received ketoprofen or piroxicam and the control group received NaCl 0.9%. A statistical analysis was performed by the Student t-test. The results show that L. palustre essential oil enhanced a significant inhibition of oedema (50-73%) for HD oil and (52-80%) for SFE oil. These results were similar to those obtained with piroxicam (70%) and ketoprofen (55%). PMID:25427723

  11. Anticonvulsant activity and toxicity of essential oil and methanolic extract of Zhumeria majdae Rech, a unique Iranian plant in mice.

    PubMed

    Mandegary, Ali; Sharififar, Fariba; Abdar, Maryam; Arab-Nozari, Milad

    2012-12-01

    Drug-resistance and adverse effects of current drugs are the most obstacles in the treatment of epilepsy. In a plan for finding new natural anticonvulsant agents, we studied the anticonvulsant effects of essential oil (ZMEO) and methanolic extract (ZMME) of Zhumeria majdae in pentylene tetrazol (PTZ) and maximal electro-shock (MES) models in mice. Mice received different doses of ZMEO and ZMME, 30 min before induction of chemical and electrical convulsions. Neurotoxicity (movement toxicity and sedation) was evaluated using rota-rod test. The mortality was determined after 24 h following injection of different doses of the ZMEO and ZMME. The obtained results show that ZMEO dose-dependently protected mice from tonic convulsions induced by PTZ and MES with effective doses (ED(50)) of 0.26 (0.13-0.39) and 0.27 (0.17-0.37) ml/kg respectively. Toxic doses (TD(50)) in rota-rod test for ZMEO was 0.55 (0.42-0.70) ml/kg. ZMME at dose of 2 g/kg decreased tonic convulsions as much as 40 %. For ZMEO, TD(50) of 0.55 (0.45-0.69) ml/kg was obtained. ZMME significantly decreased the walking time in rota-rod test at dose of 2 g/kg. Lethal dose (LD(50)) of ZMEO was determined as 2.35 (1.98-2.65) ml/kg. ZMME showed about 34 % death of the animals at dose 5 g/kg. The essential oil of Z. majdae could be a good candidate for further anticonvulsive studies. PMID:22890979

  12. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO) was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%), hexadecanoic acid (16.57%), (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%), and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%). Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone) and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone), but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (80.45%), superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%), and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26147582

  13. Essential Oils, Part I: Introduction.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are widely used in the flavor, food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries in many applications. Contact allergy to them is well known and has been described for 80 essential oils. The relevance of positive patch test reactions often remains unknown. Knowledge of the chemical composition of essential oils among dermatologists is suspected to be limited, as such data are published in journals not read by the dermatological community. Therefore, the authors have fully reviewed and published the literature on contact allergy to and chemical composition of essential oils. Selected topics from this publication will be presented in abbreviated form in Dermatitis starting with this issue, including I. Introduction; II. General aspects; III. Chemistry; IV. General aspects of contact allergy; V. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and lemongrass oil; VI: Sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute. PMID:26983089

  14. In-vitro pediculicidal activity of Hedychium spicatum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Varsha; Kore, Anagha; Kadam, V J

    2007-12-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum was evaluated for in-vitro pediculicidal activity. At 5%, 2% and 1% concentration the essential oil showed more significant activity than 1% permethrin based product. PMID:17618065

  15. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction of Essential Oils and Extracts of Nepeta cataria L. on Human Prostatic and Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Hossein Nia, Shima; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Sahranavard, Mehrdad; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Nepeta cataria L. has been used in traditional medicine of some countries. Here the cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity of methanol extracts, n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and acqueous extracts and the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the plant were evaluated with PC3, DU-145 and MCF-7 cell lines. Cell viability, histograms of PI stained fragmented DNA in apoptotic cells and Western blot analysis of proteins involved in the cascade of apoptosis were compared in all samples. Thirty components were identified as volatile, representing 99.7% of essential oil composition after GC-MS analysis of the oil obtained from aerial parts of the N. cataria by hydro-distillation. The major oil components of the essential oil were nepetalactone stereoisomers. Comparing IC50 values showed estrogen receptor positive PC3 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of N. cataria in comparison with low hormone-receptor presenting DU-145 cells. Among multiple extracts and essential oils of the plant, only the ethyl acetate extract could significantly decrease cell viability in PC3 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. Ethyl acetate extract of N. cataria treated cells showed a sub-G1 peak in PC3 cells in a concentration dependent manner that indicates the involvement of an apoptotic process in ethyl acetate extract-induced cell death. Western blotting analysis showed that in PC3 cells treated with ethyl acetate (48 h) caspase 3 and PARP were cleaved to active forms. Overall, the results suggest that further analytical elucidation of N. cataria in respect to finding new cytotoxic chemicals with anti-tumor activity is warranted. PMID:27165249

  16. Chemical composition and inhibitory parameters of essential oil and extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Rahman, Atiqur; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the floral parts of Nandina domestica Thunb. by hydrodistillation, and to test the efficacy of essential oil and various organic extracts against a panel of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19166, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1916, S. aureus ATCC6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC2004, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC2515, Salmonella enteridis KCCM12021, Escherichia coli 0157-Human, E. coli ATCC8739, E. coli 057:H7 ATCC43888 and Enterobacter aerognes KCTC2190. The chemical composition of essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. It was determined that 79 compounds, which represented 87.06% of total oil, were present in the oil. The oil contained mainly 1-indolizino carbazole (19.65%), 2-pentanone (16.4%), mono phenol (12.1%), aziridine (9.01%), methylcarbinol (4.6%), ethanone (3.3%), furfural (2.96%), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (1.29%) and 2(5H)-furanone (1.32%). The oil (1000 ppm/disc), and various organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol (1500 ppm/disc) exhibited promising antibacterial effect as a diameter of zones of inhibition (9-18 and 7-13 mm) and MIC values (62.5 to 1000 and 250 to 2000 microg/ml), respectively against the tested bacteria. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable count of the tested bacteria. These results indicate the potential efficacy of plant-based natural products such as essential oil and organic extracts of N. domestica to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. PMID:18541324

  17. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  18. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  19. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of essential oil and organic extract from the peel and kernel parts of Citrus japonica Thunb. (kumquat) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Amrah; Shafaghatlonbar, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The constituents of essential oils and organic extracts from peel and kernels of Citrus japonica were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The content of essential oil in peel and kernel was 1.1 and 0.8% based on dry weight. The essential oil of C. japonica peel and kernel was characterised by a higher amount of limonene (51.0 and 47.1%) and germacrene D (12.1 and 6.3%), and the hexane extracts of its peel and kernel were characterised by a higher amount of dodecanol-1(12.9 and 20.8%) and linolenic acid (13.1 and 16.3%), respectively. The antioxidant activities of oils were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results indicate that both oils from different parts of C. japonica possess considerable antioxidant activity. The fruit peel and kernel essential oil could thus be useful in the industries, chiefly in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26500054

  20. Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; de Cindio, Bruno; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menabeni, Roberta; Bettini, Ruggero; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC₅₀ value of 154.6 µg mL⁻¹) and AChE (IC₅₀ value of 171.3 µg mL⁻¹. Interestingly, the oil obtained by cold-pressing exhibited a selective inhibitory activity against AChE. The essential oils have also been evaluated for the inhibition of NO production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted a significant inhibition of NO production with an IC₅₀ value of 17 µg mL⁻¹ (IC₅₀ of positive control 53 µg mL⁻¹). PMID:21337254

  1. Salvia somalensis essential oil as a potential cosmetic ingredient: solvent-free microwave extraction, hydrodistillation, GC-MS analysis, odour evaluation and in vitro cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Villa, C; Trucchi, B; Bertoli, A; Pistelli, L; Parodi, A; Bassi, A M; Ruffoni, B

    2009-02-01

    Salvia somalensis Vatke, a wild sage native of Somalia, has been studied with the aim of assessing the potential cosmetic application of its essential oil, recovered from fresh aerial parts by solvent-free microwave extraction - SFME. To evaluate the efficiency and reliability of this eco-friendly procedure, the recovery of the essential oil was also processed by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and the results compared. The essential oils obtained by both SFME and HD were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using apolar and polar capillary columns. The essential oil recovered by SFME was submitted to an odour evaluation that revealed peculiar olfactive characteristics interesting in alcoholic male perfumery and body detergents.In vitro cytotoxicity assays were carried out using NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes as target cells. The oil displayed slight cytotoxic effects, which were three orders of magnitude lower than those found for sodium dodecyl sulphate positive control. The promising results in terms of chemical composition, scent and safety seem to indicate this essential oil as an interesting potential functional ingredient useful in a cosmetic context. PMID:19134128

  2. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jana; Schellenberg, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Different extraction methods for the subsequent gas chromatographic determination of the composition of essential oils and related compounds from marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) have been compared. The comparison was also discussed with regard to transformation processes of genuine compounds, particularly in terms of expenditure of time. Hydrodistillation is the method of choice for the determination of the essential oil content of plants. For investigating the composition of genuine essential oils and related, aroma-active compounds, hydrodistillation is not very useful, because of discrimination and transformation processes due to high temperatures and acidic conditions. With cold solvent extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, discrimination of high and non-volatile aroma-active components as well as transformation processes can be diminished, but non-aroma-active fats, waxes, or pigments are often extracted, too. As solid-phase microextraction is a solvent-free fully automizable sample preparation technique, this was the most sparing to sensitive components and the most time-saving method for the rapid determination of the aroma compounds composition in marjoram, caraway, sage, and thyme. Finally, solid-phase microextraction could be successfully optimized for the extraction of the aroma components from the plants for their subsequent gas chromatographic determination. PMID:17221240

  3. Seasonal changes in the composition of the essential oil extract of East Mediterranean sage (Salvia libanotica) and its toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Farhat, G N; Affara, N I; Gali-Muhtasib, H U

    2001-10-01

    Sage (Salvia libanotica) is an East Mediterranean plant, the extract of which is used for the treatment of colds, coughs, and stomach ache. Experimental studies on the toxicity of its oil are scarce despite its wide use in traditional medicine. This study aims to provide data on its acute toxicity and to investigate the relationship between seasonal changes in oil composition and toxicity. The composition of the oil extract from the leaves of this plant was determined at four different times of the year; August (summer), October (fall), January (winter) and April (spring). The toxicity of each fraction was investigated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection into mice. Distillations of oils from plants and GC analyses revealed that the main constituent of sage oil is 1,8-cineole. Other components included ketones such as camphor and alpha,beta-thujone, terpenes such as limonene and alpha,beta-pinene, and alcohols such as borneol and linalool. Major seasonal changes were found in the composition of the oil. Essential oil extracted from plants collected in the winter season (January) contained higher levels of camphor (12.3%), alpha,beta-thujone (1.9%), and camphene (4.8%). The winter extract was found to be the most toxic, (LD(50): 839 mg/kg body weight) and exhibited powerful convulsant properties. This indicates a strong correlation between the contents of camphor, thujones and camphene and the oils' toxicity. The spring extract was the least toxic (LD(50): 1200 mg/kg body weight) and contained lower levels of camphor (7.7%), alpha,beta-thujone (1.3%) and camphene (3.1%). Thus, we recommend that oil extracts of sage marketed for use in certain unconventional medicines be prepared from spring plants. PMID:11478969

  4. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer-headspace single drop microextraction of essential oil from pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shigang; Zhang, Huihui; Wang, Yeqiang; Wang, Lu; Li, Xueyuan; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Hanqi; Xu, Xu; Shi, Yuhua

    2011-07-22

    The ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HGFT-HS-SDME) was developed for the extraction of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of the constituents in the essential oil. The contents of the constituents from essential oil obtained by the proposed method were found to be more similar to those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) than those obtained by ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME). The heating gas flow was firstly used in the analysis of the essential oil to transfer the analytes from the headspace to the solvent microdrop. The relative standard deviations for determining the five major constituents were in the range from 1.5 to 6.7%. The proposed method is a fast, sensitive, low cost and small sample consumption method for the determination of the volatile and semivolatile constituents in the plant materials. PMID:21652044

  5. Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood.

    PubMed

    González, M J; Marioli, J M

    2010-07-01

    Vegetal water extracts, namely the water remaining after hydro-distillation and decoctions, and essential oils of 10 plant species were tested as inhibitors for the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood. Achyrocline satureioides, Chenopodium ambrosioide, Eucalyptus cinerea, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum, Lippia turbinata, Marrubium vulgare,Minthostachys verticillata, Origanum vulgare, Tagetes minuta and Thymus vulgaris were included in the study. The water remaining after hydro-distillation showed the highest antibacterial activities, the growth of almost all the P. larvae strains tested was inhibited by these extracts. Regarding the plants tested, E. cinerea and M. verticillata were the plant species with the highest biological activity with 100% efficacy (all its extracts inhibited the growth of all P. larvae strains). Essential oils were less active for the inhibition of P. larvae growth. PMID:20398671

  6. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents. PMID:25825639

  7. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  8. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides. PMID:20865426

  9. The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC50 = 1.57 mg/mL) and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 1.01 mg/mL), decreased the melanin content (EC50 = 1.04 mg/mL), and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (EC50 = 1.87 mg/mL). The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 = 0.121 mg/mL) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS+ radicals (EC50 = 0.122 mg/mL). It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC50 = 0.021 mg/mL) and metal-ion chelating activity (EC50 = 0.029 mg/mL). The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%), ketones (19.57%), monoterpenes (7.82%), alcohols (3.85%), esters (3.77%), sesquiterpenes (3.72%), and aromatic compounds (2.85%). The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis. PMID:23304214

  10. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabacı & Budak.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Agar, Osman Tuncay; Akaydin, Galip; Hayran, Mutlu; Demirci, Betul

    2015-01-01

    According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, α-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, α-bisabolon oxide A, β-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract. PMID:26111175

  11. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry. PMID:22526656

  12. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Diethyl Ether Extract of Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) and the Chemotaxonomic Significance of 5-O-Methylvisamminol.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Đorđević, Miljana R; Dekić, Milan S; Blagojević, Polina D

    2016-04-01

    Analyses by GC, GC/MS, and NMR spectroscopy (1D- and 2D-experiments) of the essential oil and Et2 O extract of Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) aerial parts allowed a successful identification of 220 constituents, in total. The major identified compounds of the essential oil were (Z)-falcarinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (8.0%), germacrene D (7.4%), δ-cadinene (4.3%), and β-caryophyllene (3.2%), whereas (Z)-falcarinol (47.2%), nonacosane (7.4%), and 5-O-methylvisamminol (4.0%) were the dominant constituents of the extract of T. glauca. One significant difference between the compositions of the herein and the previously analyzed T. glauca essential oils (only two reports) was noted. (Z)-Falcarinol was the major constituent in our case, whereas germacrene D (14.4 and 19.6%) was the major component of the previously studied oils. Possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. 5-O-Methylvisamminol, a (furo)chromone identified in the extract of T. glauca, has a limited occurrence in the plant kingdom and is a possible excellent chemotaxonomic marker (family and/or subfamily level) for Apiaceae. PMID:26919331

  13. Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals. PMID:22085616

  14. Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, A; Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Mahzouni, P

    2013-01-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 μl/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 μl/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration. PMID:24459470

  15. Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, A.; Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Mahzouni, P.

    2013-01-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 μl/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 μl/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration. PMID:24459470

  16. Essential Oil from Origanum dictamnus.

    PubMed

    Harvala, C; Menounos, P; Argyriadou, N

    1987-02-01

    The essential oil of ORIGANUM DICTAMNUS L. was obtained by steam distillation with a yield of 0.8% of dry material. The oil was investigated after fractionation on a silica gel column and separation of phenols, by combination of GLC-mass spectrometry. In the analysis, 30 components were found accounting for 98.28% of the oil, the predominating compounds being carvacrol; gamma-terpinene, P-cymene, caryophyllene, borneol, terpin-1-en-4-ol, and carvacrol methyl ether. PMID:17268981

  17. Screening of new antileukemic agents from essential oils of algae extracts and computational modeling of their interactions with intracellular signaling nodes.

    PubMed

    Atasever-Arslan, Belkis; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Kalkan, Zeynep; Timucin, Ahmet Can; Gür, Hazal; Isik, Fatma Busra; Deniz, Emre; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim

    2016-02-15

    Microalgae are very rich in bioactive compounds, minerals, polysaccharides, poly-unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, and these rich constituents make microalgae an important resource for the discovery of new bioactive compounds with applications in biotechnology. In this study, we studied the antileukemic activity of several chosen microalgae species at the molecular level and assessed their potential for drug development. Here we identified Stichococcus bacillaris, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Microcystis aeruginosa and Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae extracts with possible antileukemic agent potentials. Specifically we studied the effects of these extracts on intracellular signal nodes and apoptotic pathways. We characterized the composition of essential oils of these fifteen different algae extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Finally, to identify potential molecular targets causing the phenotypic changes in leukemic cell lines, we docked a selected group of these essential oils to several key intracellular proteins. According to results of rank score algorithm, five of these essential oils analyzed might be considered as in silico plausible candidates to be used as antileukemic agents. PMID:26709080

  18. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

  19. Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of Oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. PMID:25438081

  20. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils

  1. Optimized ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for determination of essential oil of Oliveria decumbens Vent.

    PubMed

    Sereshti, Hassan; Izadmanesh, Yahya; Samadi, Soheila

    2011-07-22

    Ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UAE-DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) was applied for extraction and determination of essential oil constituents of the plant Oliveria decumbens Vent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to see the effect of ultrasonic radiation on the extraction efficiency. By comparison with hydrodistillation, UAE-DLLME is fast, low cost, simple, efficient and consuming small amount of plant materials (∼1.0 g). The effects of various parameters such as temperature, ultrasonication time, volume of disperser and extraction solvents were investigated by a full factorial design to identify significant variables and their interactions. The results demonstrated that temperature and ultrasonication time had no considerable effect on the results. In the next step, a central composite design (CCD) was performed to obtain the optimum levels of significant parameters. The obtained optimal conditions were: 0.45 mL for disperser solvent (acetonitrile) and 94.84 μL for extraction solvent (chlorobenzene). The limits of detection (LODs), linear dynamic range and determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.2-29 ng mL(-1), 1-2100 ng mL(-1) and 0.995-0.998, respectively. The main components of the essential oil were: thymol (47.06%), carvacrol (23.31%), gamma-terpinene (18.94%), p-cymene (8.71%), limonene (0.76%) and myristicin (0.63%). PMID:21679955

  2. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption. PMID:26894818

  3. The loss of essential oil components induced by the Purge Time in the Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) procedure of Cupressus sempervirens.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2012-05-30

    The influence of different Purge Times on the effectiveness of Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) of volatile oil components from cypress plant matrix (Cupressus sempervirens) was investigated, applying solvents of diverse extraction efficiencies. The obtained results show the decrease of the mass yields of essential oil components as a result of increased Purge Time. The loss of extracted components depends on the extrahent type - the greatest mass yield loss occurred in the case of non-polar solvents, whereas the smallest was found in polar extracts. Comparisons of the PLE method with Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method (MSPD) and Steam Distillation (SD) were performed to assess the method's accuracy. Independent of the solvent and Purge Time applied in the PLE process, the total mass yield was lower than the one obtained for simple, short and relatively cheap low-temperature matrix disruption procedures - MSPD and SSDM. Thus, in the case of volatile oils analysis, the application of these methods is advisable. PMID:22608426

  4. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils and fatty acids from flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Jowkarderis, Mina; Raofie, Farhad

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils and fatty acids of Descurainia sophia L. seed were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and steam distillation methods. The effect of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, dynamic and static extraction timeon the extraction yield were optimized using a central composite design after a 2 (n-1) fractional factorial design. The results showed that under the pressure of 355 bar, temperature of 65 °C, methanol volume of 150 μL, dynamic and static extraction times of 35 and 10 min, respectively, the major components were methyl linoleate (18.2 %), camphor (12.32 %), cis-thujone (11.3 %) and trans-caryophyllene (9.17 %). The results indicated that by using the proper conditions, the supercritical fluid extraction is more selective than the steam distillation method. Extraction yields based on supercritical fluid extraction varied in the range of 0.68 to 17.1 % (w/w), and the extraction yield based on the steam distillation was 0.25 % (v/w). PMID:26139911

  5. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR. PMID:22907873

  6. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic exposures to these oils -- such as tea tree oil -- doubled, the center said. Even more alarming, ... oils include camphor, clove, lavender, eucalyptus, thyme, tea tree, and wintergreen oils, the researchers noted. Many essential ...

  7. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-04-11

    Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

  8. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

    2005-03-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638

  9. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor. PMID:26434138

  10. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  11. Repellent activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active. PMID:16890387

  12. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  13. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, "GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods" (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table. PMID:27419197

  14. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts and Essential Oils from Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. cv. Femminello Comune.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Sanzo, Giuseppe Di; Verardi, Alessandra; Lopresto, Catia Giovanna; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Balducchi, Roberto; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2016-05-01

    Citrus × limon cv. Femminello Comune (Rutaceae) from Rocca Imperiale (Italy), one of the six Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Italian lemon crops, has been recently received renewed interest. In this work, fresh and dried peels and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet apparatus. Chemical profile was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Except for leaves extracts obtained by Soxhlet apparatus, the monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction dominated. Limonene, γ-terpinene, and β-pinene were the main identified compounds. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different in vitro assays namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching test. In DPPH test, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of fresh peel exhibited the highest activity (IC50 of 1.17 mg/ml). Leaves extracted by SFE showed a good activity in both DPPH and β-carotene bleaching test with IC50 values of 2.20 and 6.66 mg/ml, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction exhibited a positive Pearson's correlation coefficient with all antioxidant assays. Leaves, often considered waste material, should be considered from a different point because they represent a matrix of indisputable interest. PMID:27112122

  15. Cytological Aspects on the Effects of a Nasal Spray Consisting of Standardized Extract of Citrus Lemon and Essential Oils in Allergic Rhinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy. PMID:23304560

  16. Cytological aspects on the effects of a nasal spray consisting of standardized extract of citrus lemon and essential oils in allergic rhinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy. PMID:23304560

  17. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Pozzatti, Patrícia; Scheid, Liliane Alves; Spader, Tatiana Borba; Atayde, Margareth Linde; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (P<0.05). In contrast, fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and Candida non-albicans were less susceptible to cinnamon essential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (P<0.05). A relationship between the yeasts' susceptibilities and the chemical composition of the essential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations. PMID:18997851

  18. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions.

    PubMed

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  19. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  20. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Yameen, Muhammad; Kiran, Shumaila; Kamal, Shagufta; Jalal, Fatima; Munir, Bushra; Saleem, Sadaf; Rafiq, Naila; Ahmad, Aftab; Saba, Iram; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (31.4%), citrinyl acetate (13.3%), eugenol (11.8%) and terpenene-4-ol (10.2%) were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively) followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively). The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications. PMID:26593893

  1. Fungitoxicity of essential oils against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Kishore, N; Mishra, A K; Chansouria, J P

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen essential oils were screened in vitro for their fungitoxicity against the two dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. Five oils (from Artemisia nelagrica, Caesulia axillaris, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha arvensis) showed strong activity and were assessed for their fungitoxicity against eight other dermatophytes as well as against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium trichoides. These five essential oils by formulation of ointments were able to cure experimental ringworm in guinea pigs within 7 to 12 days. Artemisia oil was found to be the most effective essential oil. PMID:8264720

  2. Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: a new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.

    PubMed

    Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

    2015-05-01

    In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mgGA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:25435398

  3. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

    2011-04-01

    1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed. PMID:21491246

  4. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.

    PubMed

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-10-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

  5. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

  6. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  7. Essential Oils, Part III: Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Data on the chemistry of essential oils which have caused contact allergy are provided. The largest group of chemicals found in essential oils consists of terpenes. The number of identified components usually ranges from 100 to 250, but in some oils (lavender, geranium, rosemary) 450 to 500 chemicals have been found. Many chemicals are present in a large number of oils, up to 98% for β-caryophyllene and 97% for limonene. Chemicals that are important constituents of >20 oils are limonene, linalool, and α-pinene. In many essential oils, there are 2 to 5 components which together constitute over 50% to 60% of the oil. In some oils, however, there is one dominant ingredient, making up more than 50% of the oil, including (E)-anethole in aniseed and star anise oil, carvone in spearmint oil, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) in Eucalyptus globulus oil, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde in cassia oil. The most important chemicals in 93 individual oils are specified. PMID:27427817

  8. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil.

    PubMed

    Basim, E; Basim, H

    2003-06-01

    The essential oil of Rosa damascena petals was evaluated for its antibacterial effects against three strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis spp. vesicatoria. The essential oil may be a potential control agent in the management of the disease caused by X.a. vesicatoria in tomato and pepper plants. PMID:12781814

  9. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. PMID:23646297

  10. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

  11. β-Bisabolene, a Sesquiterpene from the Essential Oil Extract of Opoponax (Commiphora guidottii), Exhibits Cytotoxicity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Syn Kok; Ali, Ahmed Y; Hayward, Olivia A; Turnham, Daniel; Jackson, Troy; Bowen, Ifor D; Clarkson, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The essential oils from Commiphora species have for centuries been recognized to possess medicinal properties. Here, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on the essential oil from opoponax (Commiphora guidotti) and identified bisabolene isomers as the main constituents of this essential oil. Opoponax essential oil, a chemical component; β-bisabolene and an alcoholic analogue, α-bisabolol, were tested for their ability to selectively kill breast cancer cells. Only β-bisabolene, a sesquiterpene constituting 5% of the essential oil, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity for mouse cells (IC50 in normal Eph4: >200 µg/ml, MG1361: 65.49 µg/ml, 4T1: 48.99 µg/ml) and human breast cancer cells (IC50 in normal MCF-10A: 114.3 µg/ml, MCF-7: 66.91 µg/ml, MDA-MB-231: 98.39 µg/ml, SKBR3: 70.62 µg/ml and BT474: 74.3 µg/ml). This loss of viability was because of the induction of apoptosis as shown by Annexin V-propidium iodide and caspase-3/7 activity assay. β-bisabolene was also effective in reducing the growth of transplanted 4T1 mammary tumours in vivo (37.5% reduction in volume by endpoint). In summary, we have identified an anti-cancer agent from the essential oil of opoponax that exhibits specific cytotoxicity to both human and murine mammary tumour cells in vitro and in vivo, and this warrants further investigation into the use of β-bisabolene in the treatment of breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26666387

  12. Examination of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Xenobiotic-Inducing Potential of Broccoli Extract and Various Essential Oils during a Mild DSS-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole Michaela; Mueller, Andreas Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed to evaluate possible protective and curative effects of broccoli extract (BE) and of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), thyme (To), and rosemary (Ro) in a rat model with a mild dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Therefore Wistar rats were fed a diet without an additive (Con) or diets with the addition of BE, Cuo, To, and Ro during the whole experiment. Pretreatment with Ro, Cuo, and To increased the expression of the tight junction protein Cldn3. All additives reduced mRNA of VCAM-1 which plays a crucial role in the first state of inflammatory response. Only Ro pretreatment affected the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO1, GPx2, and of glutathione-S-transferases. All additives counteracted the DSS-induced rise in COX2 and VCAM-1 expression. Colonic IL-10 was increased by Cuo, To, and Ro. During the recovery phase DSS pretreatment increased NF κ B, VCAM-1, and MCP-1: This response was counter-regulated by all additives. We conclude that the phytogenic additives tested have a promising anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and a particular role in the prevention of IBD. PMID:23533793

  13. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  14. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  15. Examination of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Xenobiotic-Inducing Potential of Broccoli Extract and Various Essential Oils during a Mild DSS-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Nicole Michaela; Mueller, Andreas Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed to evaluate possible protective and curative effects of broccoli extract (BE) and of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), thyme (To), and rosemary (Ro) in a rat model with a mild dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Therefore Wistar rats were fed a diet without an additive (Con) or diets with the addition of BE, Cuo, To, and Ro during the whole experiment. Pretreatment with Ro, Cuo, and To increased the expression of the tight junction protein Cldn3. All additives reduced mRNA of VCAM-1 which plays a crucial role in the first state of inflammatory response. Only Ro pretreatment affected the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO1, GPx2, and of glutathione-S-transferases. All additives counteracted the DSS-induced rise in COX2 and VCAM-1 expression. Colonic IL-10 was increased by Cuo, To, and Ro. During the recovery phase DSS pretreatment increased NFκB, VCAM-1, and MCP-1: This response was counter-regulated by all additives. We conclude that the phytogenic additives tested have a promising anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and a particular role in the prevention of IBD. PMID:23533793

  16. Effect of Essential Oils on Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24287491

  17. [Contact allergy to essential oils].

    PubMed

    Selvåg, E; Holm, J O; Thune, P

    1995-11-10

    Ethereal oils are widely used, in food, toothpaste, as flavouring agents in perfumes and cosmetics, and in dermatological treatment, as antiseptics, adstringenta, antipruritic tinctures, lotions and pomades. The use of ethereal oils seems to have increased in recent years, probably due to a growing interest in alternative medicine, and especially aromatherapy. By describing the cases of three patients with allergic contact dermatitis, we wish to point out possible unwanted side effects of using ethereal oils. PMID:7491578

  18. Essential Oils, Part IV: Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested. PMID:27427818

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa on murine models of inflammation and RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Yujin; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Wan-Uk; Cho, Chul-Soo; Woo, Jong-Min; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) have previously been reported. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of EOCO were investigated in two murine models of inflammation: Carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed by ELISA, the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by western blotting, and nitrite concentration was measured using Griess reagent. In mice with carrageenan-induced edema, paw thickness and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL-6 in paw homogenates were significantly decreased in the EOCO (5 and 10 mg/kg) group, as compared with the control group. In mice with thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, treatment with EOCO (5 and 10 mg/kg) reduced the number of total cells and suppressed tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), IL‑1β and IL‑6 levels in peritoneal fluid. In addition, EOCO reduced nitric oxide, TNF‑α and IL‑6 production, and suppressed iNOS and COX‑2 expression in LPS‑stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that EOCO may exert anti‑inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, and that these effects may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, EOCO may be considered an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26936418

  20. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  1. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination. PMID:24563645

  2. Optimization of an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the separation and determination of essential oil from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Qiushi; Hu, Zhiyan; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was established and employed for the extraction, concentration and analysis of essential oil constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Response surface methodology was performed to optimize the key parameters in accelerated solvent extraction on the extraction efficiency, and key parameters in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were discussed as well. Two representative constituents in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, (Z)-ligustilide and n-butylphthalide, were quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that the qualitative result of the accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approach was in good agreement with that of hydro-distillation, whereas the proposed approach took far less extraction time (30 min), consumed less plant material (usually <1 g, 0.01 g for this study) and solvent (<20 mL) than the conventional system. To sum up, the proposed method could be recommended as a new approach in the extraction and analysis of essential oil. PMID:26304788

  3. The induction of apoptosis in human melanoma, breast and ovarian cancer cell lines using an essential oil extract from the conifer Tetraclinis articulata.

    PubMed

    Buhagiar, J A; Podesta, M T; Wilson, A P; Micallef, M J; Ali, S

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of conifer Tetraclinis articulata essential oil (TAEO) on a number of human cancer cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at various concentrations and time exposures. The cytotoxic effect showed the hallmarks of apoptosis confirmed by a variety of techniques including flow cytometry, an apoptosis- specific marker combined to fluorescent staining and DNA laddering. All cell lines tested were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion and within a contact time of less than eight hours for the higher concentrations. Melanoma, breast and ovarian cancer cells gave IC50s of around 80 micrograms/ml whilst the IC50s on peripheral blood lymphocytes was almost double this value. We conclude that the essential oil contains components that are effective at inducing apoptosis. The advantages of using a mixture of monoterpenes (C10) as present in an EO over a single component, are discussed. PMID:10697574

  4. Repellent activity of selected essential oils against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Choochote, W; Chaithong, U; Kamsuk, K; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Tuetun, B; Champakaew, D; Pitasawat, B

    2007-07-01

    Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin (2.5 h, range=1-2.5 h). Mixtures from pairs of the effective oils possessed slight repellency that ranged from 0-0.5 h. None of the oil combinations repelled A. aegypti for longer than their constituent oil alone. With vanillin added, however, each oil mixture provided improved protection, which was approximately equal to oil on its own. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main component of Z. piperitum fruit oil was limonene (37.99%), with minor amounts of sabinene (13.30%) and beta-myrcene (7.17%). Repellent testing of stored samples of Z. piperitum fruit oil against A. aegypti demonstrated that repellent activity of those kept at -20 degrees C or 4 degrees C was present for a period of at least 3 months. Therefore, the essential oil of Z. piperitum fruit may prove useful in the development of mosquito repellents as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites. PMID:17512681

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Palmarosa, Evening Primrose, Lavender and Tuberose

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, M. H.; Bhatt, K. R.; Thaker, V. S.

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

  6. Compositional Analysis of Lavandula pinnata Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Argentieri, Maria Pia; De Lucia, Barbara; Cristiano, Giuseppe; Avatoa Pinarosa

    2016-03-01

    The genus Lavandula includes about thirty species plus a number of intraspecific taxa and hybrids, which are distributed in the Mediterranean area. The traditional use of lavender both as perfume or medicinal plant is known since antiquity. Nowadays several species are extensively cultivated for the extraction of their essential oils (EOs) which are used in manufactured products like cosmetics and perfumes or in phytotherapy. Lavandula pinnata L. f. (syn L. pinnata Lundmark) is a rare species native to the Canary Islands used in folk medicine as relaxant and also a valuable remedy against bites. To the best of our knowledge, EOs from L. pinnata have been very little studied. The present paper reports on the quali- and quantitative compositional profile of the EOs distilled (by a Spring type apparatus) from the aerial parts (flowers and leaves) of this species cultivated in soilless conditions. Chemical analyses by means of GC and GC-MS techniques have indicated that oxygenated monoterpenes are the main constituents of both the flowers (68.30%) and the leaves (83.65%). Carvacrol is the main compound which characterizes the EOs of this species. In addition, discrete amounts of spathulenol (12.22%) and caryophyllene oxide (14.62%) have been detected in flowers EOs, while leaves EOs contained small amounts of carvacrol methyl ether (2.52%). PMID:27169176

  7. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877

  8. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877

  9. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were α-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and δ-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

  10. Antitumor Phenylpropanoids Found in Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Sousa, Élida Batista Vieira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2015-01-01

    The search for new bioactive substances with anticancer activity and the understanding of their mechanisms of action are high-priorities in the research effort toward more effective treatments for cancer. The phenylpropanoids are natural products found in many aromatic and medicinal plants, food, and essential oils. They exhibit various pharmacological activities and have applications in the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, the anticancer potential of 17 phenylpropanoids and derivatives from essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental report, and mechanisms of action of bioactive substances are presented. PMID:25949996

  11. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Betül; Paper, Dietrich H; Demirci, Fatih; Can Başer, K Hüsnü; Franz, Gerhard

    2004-12-01

    The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were alpha-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and delta-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

  12. Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

  13. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration. PMID:12410554

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  16. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

    2000-09-01

    proof that adding essential oils is more beneficial than massage alone. Further studies on the essential oil massage group showed a deterioration in the eczematous condition after two further 8 week periods of therapy, following a period of rest after the initial period of contact. This may have been due to a decline in the novelty of the treatment, or, it strongly suggests possible allergic contact dermatitis provoked by the essential oils themselves. The results of this study indicate the necessity of prolonged studies with novel plant extracts as short-term beneficial results could be overturned by adverse effects after repeated usage. PMID:10960901

  17. Antibacterial activity of essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Moleyar, V; Narasimham, P

    1992-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of fifteen essential oil components towards food borne Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. was studied by an agar plate technique. Cinnamic aldehyde was the most active compound followed by citral, geraniol, eugenol and menthol. At 500 micrograms/ml, cinnamic aldehyde completely inhibited the bacterial growth for more than 30 days at 30 degrees C that was comparable to 200 micrograms/ml of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA). At lower temperatures, 25 and 20 degrees C, antibacterial activity of the five essential oil components increased. Addition of sodium chloride at 4% level (w/v) in the medium had no effect on the inhibitory activity of cinnamic aldehyde. In mixtures of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol or BHA an additive effect was observed. PMID:1457292

  18. Additional properties and uses of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Seymour, R

    2003-01-01

    Much evidence has been published supporting the use of mouthwashes in a number of crucial areas of oral health. These areas include antibacterial activity, home irrigation, maintenance of implant health, postsurgery uses, reduction of bacteria in dental aerosols and bacteraemia reduction. Although other commonly used mouthwashes (e.g. chlorhexidine) have been reviewed in other articles in this Supplement, this article concentrates solely on data supporting essential-oil mouthwash use in these oral health areas. PMID:12787199

  19. [Nursing care and essential oils in geriatrics].

    PubMed

    Lobstein, Annelise; Marinier, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Aromatherapy is a valuable complementary therapeutic tool which is increasingly being used in hospitals. Essential oils help to improve patients' quality of life. They can be used for well-being purposes as well in specific nursing procedures. Some services offer aromatherapy through diffusion, inhalation, massages or aromatic baths. The benefits for healthcare teams as well as for patients are undeniable. There is also a significant reduction in the consumption of certain drugs. PMID:25137964

  20. Feeding Essential Oils and 2-Heptanone in Sugar Syrup and Protein Diets to Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) as Potential Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor) Controls and Traced by SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils and oil components were fed to honey bees in a sugar syrup and liquid protein diet in order to determine if the oils were being incorporated into the bee larvae and could be traced by means of SPME. The compounds used were origanum, 2-heptanone, thymol and connamon oil. The main com...

  1. The artemisia L. Genus: a review of bioactive essential oils.

    PubMed

    Abad, María José; Bedoya, Luis Miguel; Apaza, Luis; Bermejo, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000-2011). PMID:22388966

  2. Antimutagenic and antioxidant potentials of Teucrium ramosissimum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Boubaker, Jihed; Neffati, Aicha; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Kilani, Soumaya; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel

    2010-07-01

    The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Teucrium ramosissimum were evaluated by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1535, with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 fraction). The T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no mutagenic effect. In contrast, our results established that it possessed antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD). The antioxidant capacity of the tested essential oil was evaluated using enzymatic, i.e., the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay, and nonenzymatic systems, i.e., the nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT)/riboflavin and the DPPH assays. A moderate free radical-scavenging activity was observed towards DPPH(.) and O2(.-). In contrast, T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no effect for all the tested concentrations in the X/XOD assay. PMID:20658663

  3. Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

    2013-01-01

    White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:24006802

  4. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) smith

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The aim was designed to study the biological activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith. The essential oil extracted from the rhizome of the plant was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and its major components amounting t...

  5. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

  6. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate. PMID:26454793

  7. Antimicrobial activity of a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate (Olbas(®) Tropfen) in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients.

    PubMed

    Hamoud, Razan; Sporer, Frank; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Plant extracts and essential oils have been widely studied and used as antimicrobial agents in the last decades. In our study we investigated the antimicrobial activities of Olbas(®) Tropfen (in the following named Olbas), a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate, in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients. Olbas (10 g) consists of three major components such as peppermint oil (5.3 g), eucalyptus oil (2.1 g), and cajuput oil (2.1 g) and of two minor constituents like juniper berry oil (0.3 g) and wintergreen oil (0.2 g). The composition of Olbas and the five individual essential oils were characterized by GLC-MS. According to GLC-MS analysis 1,8-cineol is the main component of the complex essential oil distillate followed by menthol and menthone. The minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations of Olbas and each of the single essential oils were evaluated in 17 species/strains of bacteria and fungi. Time-kill assay was performed to compare the microbicidal activity of Olbas and peppermint oil during several time intervals. Olbas displayed a high antimicrobial activity against all test strains used in this study, among them antibiotic resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and VRE (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus). Its antimicrobial activity was comparable to that of peppermint oil which was the most potent one of all individual essential oils tested. In the time kill assay Olbas as well as peppermint oil demonstrated similar microbicidal activities. Based on its wide antimicrobial properties Olbas can be a useful agent for the treatment of uncomplicated infections of skin and respiratory tract. PMID:22739414

  8. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aridoğan, Buket Cicioğlu; Baydar, Hasan; Kaya, Selçuk; Demirci, Mustafa; Ozbaşar, Demir; Mumcu, Ethem

    2002-12-01

    In this study the composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils obtained from Origanum onites, Mentha piperita, Juniperus exalsa, Chrysanthemum indicum, Lavandula hybrida, Rosa damascena, Echinophora tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare were examined. To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of these eight aromatic extracts; their in vitro antimicrobial activities were determined by disk diffusion testing, according to the NCCLS criteria. Escherichia coli (ATTC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC 27853 were used as standard test bacterial strains. Origanum onites recorded antimicrobial activity against all test bacteria, and was strongest against Staphylococcus aureus. For Rosa damascena, Mentha piperita and Lavandula hybrida antimicrobial activity was recorded only to Staphylococcus aureus. Juniperus exalsa, and Chrysanthemum indicum exhibited antibacterial activities against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We also examined the in vitro antimicrobial activities of some components of the essential oils and found some components with antimicrobial activity. PMID:12510839

  9. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda. PMID:21941921

  10. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  11. Repellent effect of plant essential oils against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin; Ma, Yajun

    2005-12-01

    Six essential oils: asteraceae oil, rutaceae oil, mentha piperta oil, carvacryl oil, citronella oil, and eucalyptus oil were tested for evaluation of their repellent effects against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. Only citronella oil and eucalyptus oil were tested with human beings. There was considerable protection for mice. Carvacryl oil (7%) provided 100% protection for mice after 7 h. Eucalyptus oil (15%) gave protection to humans for least 3 h; the protection time was prolonged to 5 h after adding 5% vanillin. The mixture could be developed into a practical product after the field evaluation. PMID:16599157

  12. Anti-Oxidative Abilities of Essential Oils from Atractylodes ovata Rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun-Teng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chou, Duen-Suey; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2011-01-01

    The rhizome of Atractylodes ovata De Candolle is rich in essential oils, which are usually removed by processing. In this study, anti-oxidative abilities of essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata rhizome were explored, and the influence of processing on the anti-oxidative abilities was examined. Essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata were extracted by boiling water and steam distillation, respectively. Quality of these two A. ovata samples was controlled by HPLC and GC-MS system, and anti-oxidative abilities were then evaluated. Results showed that surface color of A. ovata turned to brown and chemical components were changed by processing. Contents of both atractylon and atractylenolide II decreased in the essential oils, but only the contents of atractylon decreased by processing. Atractylenolide III increased in both A. ovata samples. However, A. ovata essential oils displayed stronger anti-oxidative abilities than aqueous extracts in DPPH-scavenging, TBH-induced lipid peroxidation and catalase activity assays. Moreover, the bioactivity of essential oils from raw A. ovata was stronger than oils from processed A. ovata. On the other hand, cytotoxicity of A. ovata essential oils was stronger than that of aqueous extracts, and was more sensitive on H9C2 cell than NIH-3T3 and WI-38 cells. In contrast, stir-frying processing method increased cytotoxicity of essential oils, but the cytotoxicity was ameliorated when processed with assistant substances. The results suggested that phytochemical components and bioactivity of A. ovata were changed after processing and the essential oils from raw A. ovata showed better anti-oxidative and fewer cytotoxicity effects. PMID:21799672

  13. Encapsulation of essential oils in zein nanosperical particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils, oregano, red thyme, and cassia (100% pure oil), were encapsulated by phase separation into zein particles. Typical yields were between 65% and 75% of product. Encapsulation efficiency of all oils was 87% except for cassia oil which was 49%. Loading efficiency of all oils was 22% exce...

  14. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae. PMID:27081460

  15. Synergistic antibacterial activity of the essential oil of aguaribay (Schinus molle L.).

    PubMed

    de Mendonça Rocha, Pedro M; Rodilla, Jesus M; Díez, David; Elder, Heriberto; Guala, Maria Silvia; Silva, Lúcia A; Pombo, Eunice Baltazar

    2012-01-01

    Schinus molle L. (aguaribay, aroeira-falsa, "molle", family Anacardiaceae), a native of South America, produces an active antibacterial essential oil extracted from the leaves and fruits. This work reports a complete study of its chemical composition and determines the antibacterial activity of Schinus molle L. essential oil and its main components. The results showed that the crude extract essential oil has a potent antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a strong/moderate effect on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and moderate/weak one on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. PMID:23085653

  16. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

    2015-02-01

    The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. PMID:24702542

  17. Direct enantiomeric analysis of Mentha essential oils.

    PubMed

    Barba, Carmen; Santa-María, Guillermo; Herraiz, Marta; Martínez, Rosa M

    2013-11-01

    A rapid and fully automated screening of chiral compounds in essential oils, aimed to the selection of natural sources of pure enantiomers of limonene and carvone, is performed by using on-line coupled reversed phase liquid chromatography with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (RPLC-GC-MS). Essential oils obtained from Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita were analysed by direct injection into RPLC. The reported procedure includes fractionation and clean-up in RPLC, selection of the fraction to be transferred from RPLC to GC, trapping and concentration of the target compounds in the interface, thermal desorption and, finally, enantiomeric resolution and identification of chiral compounds by GC-MS. The presence of (S)-limonene and (R)-carvone as the unique enantiomeric forms existing for both compounds could be unambiguously established by transferring different volume fractions from RPLC to GC. Data obtained demonstrate high separation efficiency and well tunable selectivity in the on-line coupled RPLC-GC-MS analysis of chiral compounds. PMID:23768391

  18. [Solid adsorption and stability of essential oil from pericarp of Gaultheria yunnaensis (Franch.) Rehd].

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ma, J; Yang, L; Wu, J; Chen, H

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been made on the solid adsorption and stability of the essential oil extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis. The results show that among the chemical constituents of the oil, methyl salicylate accounts for 99.66%. Grain adsorbents of aluminum hydroxide gel have been proved useful in obtaining higher release rates of the oil at required temperatures as well as keeping the oil stable at room temperature. PMID:11243152

  19. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the number of viable biofilm cells, but none of them could remove biofilms completely. Thyme and patchouli oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. PMID:25280938

  20. The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

  1. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. PMID:22771867

  2. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717

  3. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  4. Anxiolytic effect of essential oils of Salvia miltiorrhiza in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-Dong; Cai, Guo-Hong; Wei, Yan-Yan; Yu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Jing; Yang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Che, Yin-Wei; Chen, Jian-Zong; Wu, Sheng-Xi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the anxiolytic effects of essential oil from S. miltiorrhiza in rats. The elevated plus maze test and the social interaction test were performed to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of essential oil. The levels of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in cerebral cortex of rats as well as the plasma corticosterone (CORT) level were examined in the rats with the treatment of essential oil. The rota-rod test was carried out to exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures related to anxiety disorders. The catalepsy test was carried out to investigate whether essential oil induces the catalepsy. Our results showed that oral administration of essential oil increased the percentage of time spent in the open arms and increased the number of entries to the open arms in the elevated plus maze test. Oral administration of essential oil also increased the time for social interaction in rats. No apparent extrapyramidal symptom (EPS) was observed in the animals with essential oil treatment. The effect of essential oil in the intracellular chloride (Cl-) concentration in the cultured human neuroblastoma cells was assessed. Treatment with essential oil (50-100 mg/kg) increased intracellular Cl- concentration in the cell culture in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of GABAA receptor-Cl- ion channel. Together, our data indicate an anxiolytic effect induced by the essential oil from S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26550189

  5. Essential Oil Composition of Three Globularia Species.

    PubMed

    Crkvenčić, Maja; Dudaš, Slavica; Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Poljuha, Danijela; Pilepić, Kroata Hazler

    2016-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Globularia cordifolia L., G. meridionalis (Podp.) O.Schwarz, and G. punctata Lapeyr. was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 33 identified compounds, the most abundant present in all investigated samples were oct-1-en-3-ol (2.9-47.0%), 6-(1,5-dimethylhex-4-enyl)-3-methylcyclohex-2-enone (8.2-40.9%), and fukinanolid (7.4-31.6%). Multivariate statistical analyses (PCA and HCA) of the hitherto studied Globularia volatile compounds confirmed to some extent the assumed phylogenetic relationships of the Globularia species studied, including the close relationship between the morphologically similar species G. cordifolia and G. meridionalis, but also evidenced several discrepancies in the current classification of Globularia species. PMID:26880434

  6. Application of PLE for the determination of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota; Mardarowicz, Marek; Gawdzik, Jan

    2008-08-15

    Essential plants, due to their long presence in human history, their status in culinary arts, their use in medicine and perfume manufacture, belong to frequently examined stock materials in scientific and industrial laboratories. Because of a large number of freshly cut, dried or frozen plant samples requiring the determination of essential oil amount and composition, a fast, safe, simple, efficient and highly automatic sample preparation method is needed. Five sample preparation methods (steam distillation, extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus, supercritical fluid extraction, solid phase microextraction and pressurized liquid extraction) used for the isolation of aroma-active components from Thymus vulgaris L. are compared in the paper. The methods are mainly discussed with regard to the recovery of components which typically exist in essential oil isolated by steam distillation. According to the obtained data, PLE is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil from the thyme herb. Although co-extraction of non-volatile ingredients is the main drawback of this method, it is characterized by the highest yield of essential oil components and the shortest extraction time required. Moreover, the relative peak amounts of essential components revealed by PLE are comparable with those obtained by steam distillation, which is recognized as standard sample preparation method for the analysis of essential oils in aromatic plants. PMID:18656673

  7. Antimicrobial properties of essential oils against Salmonella in organic soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is one of the important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of essential...

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Soković, Marina; Mihajlović, Biserka; Matavulj, Milan

    2003-05-01

    The present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L. The chemical profile of each essential oil was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M. piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10,240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity [expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values, respectively], that were considerably higher than those of the commercial fungicide bifonazole. The essential oils of M. piperita and M. longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M. aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M. piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M. piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 % (IC50 = 2.53 microg/mL). The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica. PMID:12802721

  9. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent. PMID:26072990

  10. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils....

  11. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils....

  12. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory... essential oils....

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rich fresh leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifen; He, Daohang; Deng, Jingdan; Zhu, Jiaying; Mao, Qiuping

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of fresh leaves from Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rich was extracted using hydro-distillation, and GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyse the essential oil. Nineteen compounds were identified, among which the major components were limonene (36.81%), β-bisabolene (33.43%) and β-myrcene (25.48%). In the antibacterial test, disc diffusion method and micro-well dilution assay proved that the essential oil had significant antibacterial activities. The inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 23.7 and 23 mm, respectively, which demonstrated that the inhibition effects were greater than positive control (10 μg/disc streptomycin). And the lowest MIC value of the essential oil was found against S. aureus (1.25 mg/mL) and Bacillus subtilis (1.25 mg/mL). This is the first report on the antibacterial activities of A. dammara essential oil. PMID:25782597

  14. Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Yu, Jane-Jane; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from two eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla) against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, was investigated. In addition, the chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from the larvicidal tests revealed that essential oil from the leaves of E. camaldulensis had an excellent inhibitory effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. The 12 pure constituents extracted from the two eucalyptus leaf essential oils were also tested individually against two mosquito larvae. Among the six effective constituents, alpha-terpinene exhibits the best larvicidal effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. Results of this study show that the leaf essential oil of E. camaldulensis and its effective constituents might be considered as a potent source for the production of fine natural larvicides. PMID:18396398

  15. In vitro cytotoxic activity guided essential oil composition of flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tavleen S; Agnihotri, Vijai K; Kumar, Dharmesh; Pal, Probir K; Koundal, Rajkesh; Kumar, Ashish; Padwad, Yogendra S

    2014-05-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) was fractioned by chromatography. Forty-three constituents were characterized with the help of GC, GC-MS and other spectroscopic techniques. The essential oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono- and sesqui-terpenes. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil and its fractions was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) based assay against two cancer cell types viz. C-6 (rat glioma cells) and CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells). The essential oil and its fractions showed promising cytotoxicity against both cell lines. The highest activity (95.6+/-0.6%) was show by the essential oil on the C-6 cell line at a concentration of 400 microg/mL, which was comparable with that of the standard drug vinblastin. PMID:25026731

  16. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  17. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  18. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  19. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  20. In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hoseini, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent. PMID:23569981

  1. Essential oils analysis. I. Evaluation of essential oils composition using both GC and MS fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Oprean, R; Tamas, M; Sandulescu, R; Roman, L

    1998-12-01

    The chemical nature of essential oils makes them suitable for analysis using a gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Mass spectra (MS) libraries can not be used as unique and absolute criteria for the identification of chromatogram peaks. The wide variety of MS of the libraries, recorded in different conditions, can lead us to erroneous results. In order to increase the reliability of the analytical results, we used as identity criteria, both GC fingerprints resulted from the relative retention indices (RRI) and the recorded MS of the separated compounds. The two criteria have been quantified by their correlation with the standards. A new parameter called global composition evaluation index (I(GCMS)), which resulted from a well-balanced average of the two criteria, has been defined. Because the comparison of the results of the MS with databases is more accurate than the RRI, we considered that the ratio of the two criteria must be at least GC:MS 1:2. A database containing RRI of about 600 components, widely found in essential oils composition and separated on HP-5 column, was created. Two macros based on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet were also created. The program offers the best 20 matches of each compound with the combined MS and RRI library. The composition of Romanian Acorus calamus L. essential oil was established and the results were compared with those obtained by 'classical' methods. PMID:9919966

  2. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

  3. Composition of essential oils from seeds of Abies koreana.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnik, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczak, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    The essential oils from seeds of nine Abies koreana specimens have been studied using GC-MS-FID and NMR methods, leading to the determination of 96 volatiles, which constituted over 99% of the oils. The hydrodistilled oils of fresh, resinous scent were isolated with yields in the range of 3.8-8.5%. The results showed that the essential oil of Korean fir seeds contained 70-95% monoterpenes and 1-20% oxygenated monoterpenes as the dominant groups. The numerous sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives constituted only 2-8% of the oil. The major component of the seed essential oil was limonene (41-72 g/100g); the laevorotary form of this terpene predominated. A. koreana seeds seem to be a rich source of both essential oil and (-)-limonene, whose average enantiomeric excess was above 95%. PMID:23513736

  4. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes. PMID:20433090

  5. Essential Oil Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Asplenium Ferns.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Saoussen; Snène, Ali; El Mokni, Ridha; Faidi, Khaled; Falconieri, Danilo; Dhaouadi, Hatem; Piras, Alessandra; Mighri, Zine; Porcedda, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    Two fern species Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. and Asplenium trichomanes L. collected from the Kroumiria region (Northwest of Tunisia) were individually submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Volatile organic compounds were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Thus, 35 compounds were identified in A. adiantum-nigrum essential oil accounting for 77.5% of the whole constituents dominated by palmitic acid (34.5%); however, only 29 volatiles were identified in A. trichomanes showing a high amount of phytol, an odorous diterpene alcohol, representing 14.4% of the total oil contents. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant effects of crude extracts from both pteridophytes were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging assays, respectively. A. adiantum-nigrum ethyl acetate extract is shown to be lower in total phenolic contents (49.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) than similar extract from A. trichomanes (55.4 mg GAE/g). PMID:27165574

  6. [Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    PubMed

    Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito

    2010-12-01

    Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors. PMID:21250485

  7. Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.

    PubMed

    Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Amantea, Diana; Russo, Rossella; Berliocchi, Laura; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2010-09-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) is a fruit most knowledgeable for its essential oil (BEO) used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders and cancer pain though the rational basis for such applications awaits to be discovered. The behavioural and EEG spectrum power effects of BEO correlate well with its exocytotic and carrier-mediated release of discrete amino acids endowed with neurotransmitter function in the mammalian hippocampus supporting the deduction that BEO is able to interfere with normal and pathological synaptic plasticity. The observed neuroprotection in the course of experimental brain ischemia and pain does support this view. In conclusion, the data yielded so far contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this phytocomplex on nerve tissue under normal and pathological experimental conditions and provide a rational basis for the practical use of BEO in complementary medicine. The opening of a wide venue for future research and translation into clinical settings is also envisaged. PMID:20093169

  8. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil).

    PubMed

    Ammar, A Haj; Bouajila, J; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Romdhane, M; Zagrouba, F

    2012-11-01

    Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree. It is one of the most widely used floral oils in perfumery. In this study chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of neroli oil are investigated. The essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. Flowers (Neroli oil) cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. About 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by (E)-nerolidol (17.5%), alpha-terpineol (14%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and (E, E)-farnesol (8%). Antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar-well-diffusion method against 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. Neroli oil exhibited a marked antibacterial activity especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Neroli oil exhibited a very strong antifungal activity compared with the standard antibiotic (Nystatin) as evidenced by their inhibition zones. Antioxidant activity determined by ABTS assay showed IC50 values of 672 mg L(-1). Finally, this study may be considered as the first report on the biological properties of this essential oil. The results of this study have provided a starting point for the investigations to exploit new natural substances present in the essential oil of C. aurantium L. flowers. PMID:24163946

  9. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2008-10-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins. PMID:18706468

  10. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil From the Seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Mohamad; Sadoughi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia aerial parts are well known for antimicrobial activities including anti malaria. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil from the seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss (Asteraceae). Materials and Methods Essential oil was extracted from the powdered seeds of Artemisia aucheri by hydrodistillation. Antimicrobial activity against five bacterial species was tested using the disc diffusion method, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The essential oil of Artemisia aucheri seed showed activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The essential oil constituents identified by GC-MS were as follows: decane, ρ-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, ρ-mentha-8-ol, triene, borneol, lavandulol, bornyl acetate, chrysanthenyl acetate, dehydro aromadenderene, and caryophyllene oxide. Most of these compounds are also found in the aerial parts of Artemisia aucheri. Conclusions Variation in the compositions of essential oils from Artemisia aucheri, and thus variation in the antimicrobial activity of these oils, may be due to the plant parts used for essential oil prepration. PMID:24624145

  11. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.

    PubMed

    Lejonklev, J; Løkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ρ-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure

  12. 2-undecanone rich leaf essential oil from Zanthoxylum armatum.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepa; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2011-01-01

    The leaf essential oils of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) from Kumaon, India, extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major classes of compounds found in the leaf oils were acyclic and menthane monoterpenoids as well as simple alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. The high proportion of non-terpenic acyclic ketones, notably 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, and the low abundance of undec-10-en-1-al and p-phellandren-8-ol make the composition entirely new. Other constituents present in significant amounts were oxygenated monoterpenes, which include 1,8-cineole, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented mainly by trans-caryophyllene, a-humulene and germacrene D. On the contrary, the oil distilled from the leaves on the second day of distillation was characterized by a high content of 2-tridecanone (27.1%) and trans-caryophyllene (7.4%), as compared with 3.5% and 4.6%, respectively, for the fresh leaves; a slight decrease in pH of the distillate was also significant. Moreover, the presence of a high 2-undecanone content followed by 2-tridecanone is being reported for the first time for Z. armatum from this region. In terms of molecular diversity, the simple acyclic ketones dominate the essential oils as compared with linalool that was reported in several previous studies on Z. armatum. Therefore, the two acyclic ketones may be utilized to establish the origin and authenticity of the material. PMID:21366058

  13. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae. PMID:20184044

  14. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). PMID:26348780

  15. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  16. Biocontrol of Salmonella in organic soil using essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is one of the most important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of esse...

  17. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, L.; Aquino, M. D’

    2012-01-01

    Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950

  18. Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.

    SciTech Connect

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

  19. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Pituranthos chloranthus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Neffati, A; Bouhlel, I; Ben Sghaier, M; Boubaker, J; Limem, I; Kilani, S; Skandrani, I; Bhouri, W; Le Dauphin, J; Barillier, D; Mosrati, R; Chekir-Ghedira, L; Ghedira, K

    2009-03-01

    The SOS-chromotest in Escherichia coli is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work is to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Pituranthos chloranthus. The tested essential oils were not genotoxic towards both E. coli PQ37 and PQ35 strains. These essential oils reduced significantly Nifuroxazide and H(2)O(2)-induced genotoxicity. Essential oils showed a protective effect against damages induced by radicals, obtained from the photolysis of H(2)O(2), on DNA plasmid through free radical scavenging mechanisms. The scavenging capacity of these essential oils was also estimated by evaluating the inhibition of ABTS(+.) radical. PMID:21783938

  20. Potential allelochemicals from the essential oil of Ruta graveolens.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Vincenzo; De Simone, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2002-11-01

    The essential oil of aerial parts of Ruta graveolens was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 0.74% yield on a dry weight basis. Thirty-eight components were identified by GC and GC-MS analyses. 2-Ketones predominated in the essential oil, with undecan-2-one (46.8%) and nonan-2-one (18.8%) as the main constituents. The essential oil and some of its constituents were tested for their allelopathic activity in vitro on radish germination and radicle growth in light and darkness. The essential oil and some of its minor constituents were effective and dose-dependent inhibitors of both the germination and radicle growth; 2-ketones are not active. The possible allelopathic activity of rue essential oil and some its isolated constituents is reported. PMID:12409025

  1. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    PubMed

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. PMID:23897978

  2. Shelf life of meat from lambs given essential oil-free rosemary extract containing carnosic acid plus carnosol at 200 or 400 mg kg⁻¹.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Jordán, María José; Bañón, Sancho

    2014-04-01

    The use of dietary rosemary extract (DRE) at low doses is proposed as a nutritional strategy to improve meat preservation. Lamb diet was supplemented with 0, 200 or 400mg DRE (containing carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w) per kg feed during the fattening stage. Meat quality was evaluated in lamb fillets packed under protective atmosphere and kept in retail conditions for up to 14 days. The effects of diet and storage time were determined on different physical-chemical (L*a*b* color, pH, TBARS, protein oxidation and volatiles from lipid oxidation), microbial (total viable and psychrophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeasts) and sensory (appearance and odor) characteristics of the meat. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of DRE on meat were demonstrated. DRE delayed lean and fat discoloration, lipid oxidation, odor deterioration and microbial spoilage, extending the shelf life time of fillets from around 9 to 13 days. Both DRE doses provided similar shelf life extension. PMID:24412737

  3. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia annua essential oil.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Masotti, Veronique; Bessière, Jean Marie; Dherbomez, Michel; Viano, Josette

    2002-10-01

    The essential oil of Artemisia annua aerial parts, consisting of camphor (44%), germacrene D (16%), trans-pinocarveol (11%), beta-selinene (9%), beta-caryophyllene (9%) and artemisia ketone (3%), was screened for its antimicrobial activity. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of tested Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus hirae and both tested fungi. This oil has shown an antioxidant activity equivalent to 18% of the reference compound (alpha-tocopherol). PMID:12385883

  4. Antidiarrhoeic effect of Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae) leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Galheigo, Maria Raquel Unterkircher; Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Mundin, Angélica Martins Moreira; Gomes, Dayane Olímpia; Chang, Roberto; Lima, Anna Monteiro Correia; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2016-05-01

    Essential oil from Eugenia dysenterica leaves was able to inhibit both the diarrhoea and enteropooling induced by castor oil; however, the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the intestine was not change. These data suggest that the antidiarrhoeic effect of the essential oil from E. dysenterica leaves is related to its ability to inhibit intestinal secretion and/or to increase intestinal absorption. PMID:26150261

  5. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products. PMID:26553262

  6. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wei-Lung; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Sen-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves and different tissues of Cryptomeria japonica against pathogenic Legionella pneumophila at 42 degrees C. Ten kinds of EOs were extracted by water distillation and their chemical constituents were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that cinnamon leaf EO possessed stronger anti-L. pneumophila activity than C. japonica EO. In particular, the highest bactericidal effect was noted in contact with C. osmophloeum leaf EO of cinnamaldehyde type (characterized by its major constituent of cinnamaldehyde accounting for 91.3% of EO), regardless of contacted cell concentration (2 and 4 log CFU ml(-1)) or exposure time (10 and 60 min). Cinnamaldehyde is responsible for anti-L. pneumophila activity based on the results of antimicrobial testing and statistical analysis. Stepwise regression analyses show that EO concentration is the most significant factor affecting the bioactivity of EO. It is concluded that C. osmophloeum leaf oil of cinnamaldehyde type and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, possess strong anti-L. pneumophila activities, and have the great potential to be used as an antibacterial agent to control legionellosis associated with hot tubs and spa facilities widely used in homes and resorts. PMID:17659763

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

  8. Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Nance, Marcelina R; García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Setzer, William N

    2011-02-01

    In countries where leishmaniasis is endemic, there are not very many treatment alternatives and most options have problems associated with their use. Plants and their natural products constitute good sources of interesting lead compounds that could be potentially active against Leishmania. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a plant that is widely used in popular medicine and its antiparasitic effects have been documented, including the antileishmanial potentialities of Chenopodium oil. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, in-vitro cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of essential oils extracted from C. ambrosioides, which received different treatments prior to extraction. The chemical characterization by GC-MS of the three essential oil samples showed similar composition and the major components were alpha-terpinene (17.0-20.7%), p-cymene (20.2-21.1%) and ascaridole (30.5-47.1%). The essential oils exhibited similar antileishmanial activities against intracellular amastigote form, with IC50 values between 4.7 and 12.4 microg/mL. However, a lower cytotoxicity was displayed by the essential oil extracted from fresh green vegetable material, which was statistically different (P < 0.05) from the other samples. This study demonstrated that the prior treatment of plant material did not interfere with the antiparasitic activity of essential oils from C. ambrosioides but did change their cytotoxicity, which should be taken into account in further studies. PMID:21425695

  9. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  10. Lippia origanoides chemotype differentiation based on essential oil GC-MS and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Ruíz, Carlos A; Arias, Ginna; Durán, Camilo; Salgar, William; Cala, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    Chromatographic (GC/flame ionization detection, GC/MS) and statistical analyses were applied to the study of essential oils and extracts obtained from flowers, leaves, and stems of Lippia origanoides plants, growing wild in different Colombian regions. Retention indices, mass spectra, and standard substances were used in the identification of 139 substances detected in these essential oils and extracts. Principal component analysis allowed L. origanoides classification into three chemotypes, characterized according to their essential oil major components. Alpha- and beta-phellandrenes, p-cymene, and limonene distinguished chemotype A; carvacrol and thymol were the distinctive major components of chemotypes B and C, respectively. Pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) was found in L. origanoides chemotype A supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extract at a concentration of 0.83+/-0.03 mg/g of dry plant material, which makes this plant an interesting source of an important bioactive flavanone with diverse potential applications in cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:19950347

  11. Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements of Mexican Citrus Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Methodology in the Transmission Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, G. A. López; González, R. F. López; López, J. A. Balderas; Martínez-Pérez, L.

    2011-05-01

    Photoacoustic methodology in the transmission configuration (PMTC) was used to study the thermophysical properties and their relation with the composition in Mexican citrus essential oils providing the viability of using photothermal techniques for quality control and for authentication of oils and their adulteration. Linear relations for the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample's thickness, for the PMTC was obtained through a theoretical model fit to the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in Mexican orange, pink grapefruit, mandarin, lime type A, centrifuged essential oils, and Mexican distilled lime essential oil. Gas chromatography for distilled lime essential oil and centrifuged lime essential oil type A is reported to complement the study. Experimental results showed close thermal-diffusivity values between Mexican citrus essential oils obtained by centrifugation, but a significant difference of this physical property for distilled lime oil and the corresponding value obtained by centrifugation, which is due to their different chemical compositions involved with the extraction processes.

  12. Effect of salt, drought and metal stress on essential oil yield and quality in plants.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shreyasee; Koul, Monika; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Essential oil extracted from plants is of high commercial value in medicine, cosmetics and perfumery. Enhancing yield and maintaining the quality of oil is of significant commercial importance. Production of oil in plants is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors to which the plants are subjected during their growth. Plants are exposed to various degrees of stress on account of natural and human-induced factors. Salinization, drought and presence of heavy metals in the substratum cause substantial effect on the yield and quality of bioactive constituents in the oil. In many plants, the level and kind of stress have detrimental effects on the growth and development. This review provides an account of the studies on some common abiotic stresses to which essential oil plants are exposed during their growth period and their influence on quality and quantity of oil. The yield and quality vary in different plants and so is the response. Enhancing essential oil productivity is an important challenge, and understanding the role played by stress may offer significant advantages to the essential oil farmers and processing industry. Scientific evaluation of the data on many important but unexplored essential oil plants will also help in mitigating, ameliorating and minimizing the harmful effects caused by stress. PMID:22164806

  13. Synergistic repellent and irritant effect of combined essential oils on Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Noosidum, Atirach; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to a single essential oil and to a mixture of two or three essential oils using an excito-repellency test chamber. Mixtures were prepared from essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba (LC), Litsea salicifolia (LS), and Melaleuca leucadendron (ML). In general, the mixture of essential oils produced a much stronger escape response by Ae. aegypti, regardless of the test conditions. No significant difference in escape responses was seen when the mixture of oils was compared with a standard commercial product containing DEET. Greater contact irritancy was seen from mixed oils of LC and LS than with other mixed oils. Mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% showed the highest synergistic action (65.5% escaped) compared to that with unmixed oil alone at the same concentration (LC/20% and LS=32.2%). In addition, mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% demonstrated the highest non-contact repellency (62.7%) and showed a greater effect than the use of LC (20%) or LS (20.3%) alone. We conclude that mixtures of two essential oils show potential as active ingredients for mosquito repellents. PMID:25424258

  14. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  15. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils. PMID:27190677

  16. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (−) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils. PMID:27190677

  17. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  18. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.

    PubMed

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-10-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  19. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  20. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Schmidt, Erich

    2006-08-23

    The antioxidant activity of a commercial rectified clove leaf essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and its main constituent eugenol was tested. This essential oil comprises in total 23 identified constituents, among them eugenol (76.8%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (17.4%), alpha-humulene (2.1%), and eugenyl acetate (1.2%) as the main components. The essential oil from clove demonstrated scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydracyl (DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This essential oil also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and acted as an iron chelator. With respect to the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil determined using a linoleic acid emulsion system indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard BHT. PMID:16910723

  2. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control. PMID:14650521

  3. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

    2005-07-01

    To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products. PMID:16161028

  4. Chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimocrobial activity of essential oil of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.).

    PubMed

    Manoj, Godbole; Manohar, Shiragambi Hanumantagouda; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen compounds constituting 85.36% of the total oil were identified in the oil. Patchouli alcohol (30.65%), α-guaiene (10.67%), β-guaiene (9.09%), caryophyllene (8.64%), eicosene (5.27%) were the major constituents present. The essential oil was analysed for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibition concentration against six bacteria and three fungi. Results showed inhibitory activity against some of the tested microorganisms. The essential oil was also tested for the DPPH free-radical scavenging activity and had an inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 18.5 µg mL(-1). PMID:22132692

  5. [Essential oils for the nutrition of poultry, swine and ruminants].

    PubMed

    Westendarp, H

    2005-10-01

    Essential oils are very complex mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Due to their lipophility they posses a good intestinale and percutane absorption. Under external application essential oils demonstrate antiphlogistic or rubefacient to pro-inflammatority activities. Orally intake they stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes and increase gastric and intestinal motility. Moreover they show spasmolytic, expectorative and diuretic activities. Besides antimicrobial properties on bacteria and fungi have been observed in vitro and in vivo. Due to their various effects essential oils increasingly gain attention in animal nutrition and are discussed to be alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. In some studies essential oils have been reported to reduce intestinal pathogens in broilers and piglets. When administered to ruminants essential oils decrease ruminal ammonia production by suppression the growth of deaminative microorganisms. However, the observed effects on growth performance are inconsistent among studies. In conclusion, there are still some unanswered questions concerning the mode of action, metabolic pathway and optimal dosage of essential oils in different animal species. Further scientific research is therefore needed to use essential oils effectivly in livestock feeding. PMID:16320571

  6. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-01-01

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent. PMID:27525894

  7. Immunotoxicity activity of the major essential oils of Valeriana fauriei Briq against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-03-01

    The rhizomes and roots of Valeriana fauriei were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of V. fauriei. The V. fauriei essential oil (VFEO) yield was 1.93%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were bornyl acetate (32.83%), terpinyl acetate (3.82%), bornyl isovalerate (2.11%), β-sesquiphellandrene (2.21%), sesquiterpene alcohol (7.32%), and cedrol (2.45%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 30.44 ppm and an LC(90) value of 82.64 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against Aedes aegypti L. PMID:20462349

  8. Immunotoxicity activity of the major essential oil of Filipendula glaberrima against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Moon, Hyung-In

    2010-12-01

    The aerial parts of Filipendula glaberrima were extracted and the composition and immunotoxicity effects of major essential oils were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. glaberrima. The F. glaberrima essential oil (FGEO) yield was 0.046%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were β-farnesol (2.96%), l-α-terpineol (2.43%), benzenemethanol (2.87%), (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (5.23%), and 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol (1.91%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 28.43 ppm and an LC(90) value of 76.21 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against A. aegypti. PMID:20175741

  9. Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from Lindera obtusiloba Blume against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-03-01

    The leaves of Lindera obtusiloba Blume var. obtusiloba were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of L. obtusiloba. The L. obtusiloba essential oil yield was 4.23%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were α-copaene (31.42%), β-caryophyllene (32.11%), α-humulene (4.12%), β-farnesene (4.15%), α- cadinene (3.21%) and Nerolidol (6.84%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 24.32 ppm and an LC(90) value of 36.42 ppm. PMID:20477554

  10. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. barks.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Orlando V; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Alves, Maria S; Araújo, Aílson A L; Pinto, Míriam A O; Amaral, Maria P H; Rodarte, Mírian P; Kaplan, Maria A C

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata. PMID:22976469

  11. Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Nagai, Alice; Duarte, Ligia M L; Santos, Déborah Y A C

    2011-08-01

    Ocimum basilicum L., popularly known as sweet basil, is a Lamiaceae species whose essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids. The contents of these compounds can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors such as infections caused by viruses. The main goal of this research was an investigation of the effects of viral infection on the essential oil profile of common basil. Seeds of O. basilicum L. cv. Genovese were sowed and kept in a greenhouse. Plants presenting two pairs of leaves above the cotyledons were inoculated with an unidentified virus isolated from a field plant showing chlorotic yellow spots and foliar deformation. Essential oils of healthy and infected plants were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS. Changes in essential oil composition due to viral infection were observed. Methyleugenol and p-cresol,2,6-di-tert-butyl were the main constituents. However, methyleugenol contents were significantly decreased in infected plants. PMID:21922932

  12. Antiherpetic activity of the traditionally used complex essential oil Olbas.

    PubMed

    Heidary Navid, M; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. The antiviral effect of Olbas, a traditionally used complex essential oil, and of cajuput oil, a major constitutent of Olbas, against HSV type 1 was examined. The antiviral activity of these essential oils was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Olbas and cajuput oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 1.8 microg/ml and 7.5 microg/ml, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of these oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99% for Olbas and 66% for cajuput oil. The selectivity index of 150 for Olbas against herpes simplex virus was superior to a rather low selectivity index for cajuput oil. The mode of antiviral action of these essential oils was assessed by time-on-addition assays. Herpesvirus was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with Olbas essential oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Olbas affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus Olbas exerted a direct antiviral effect on HSV. A clearly time-dependent antiviral activity for Olbas and cajuput oil could be demonstrated. Considering the lipophilic nature of the Olbas complex essential oil mixture, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Olbas might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:24020128

  13. Essential Oil Compositions and Antimicrobial Activities of Various Parts of Litsea cubeba from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Chang; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2016-04-01

    The essential oils of leaves, fruits, flowers, stems and twigs of Litsea cubeba were extracted by hydrodistillation. A total of 53, 50, 76, 94 and 90 compounds were identified from the leaf, fruit, flower, stem and twig oils, respectively, and their yields were 13.9 ± 0.09, 4.0 ± 0.03, 10.4 ± 0.05, 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.4 ± 0.02 mL/100 g of the oven-dried (o.d.) materials, respectively. The main component in the leaf, flower and twig oils was 1,8-cineole, whereas in the fruit oil it was citral, and in the stem oil limonene, citronellal, and citronellol. When tested for their antibacterial activities using the paper disc diffusion method, oils from all parts showed excellent activities, particularly the fruit oil. When the oils were infused onto filter paper and tested for their antimicrobial paper capability according to the JIS L 1902 method, the fruit oil exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities. Citral was deemed the main cause of the antimicrobial activity. With the multiplicity of contagious diseases and their prevalence in hospitals, these essential oils present a potentially good choice as antibacterial agents. We think that the essential oils of this species are capable of multipurpose applications. PMID:27396208

  14. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers. PMID:26197558

  15. Essential oils--their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and effect on intestinal cell viability.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dusan; Dusan, Fabian; Sabol, Marián; Marián, Sabol; Domaracká, Katarína; Katarína, Domaracká; Bujnáková, Dobroslava; Dobroslava, Bujnáková

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate possible harmful effects of four commonly used essential oils and their major components on intestinal cells. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts against enteroinvasive Escherichia coli was dose dependent. However, doses of essential oils with the ability to completely inhibit bacterial growth (0.05%) showed also relatively high cytotoxicity to intestinal-like cells cultured in vitro. Lower doses of essential oils (0.01%) had only partial antimicrobial activity and their damaging effect on Caco-2 cells was only modest. Cell death assessment based on morphological and viability staining followed by fluorescence microscopy showed that essential oils of cinnamon and clove and their major component eugenol had almost no cytotoxic effect at lower doses. Although essential oil of oregano and its component carvacrol slightly increased the incidence of apoptotic cell death, they showed extensive antimicrobial activity even at lower concentrations. Relatively high cytotoxicity was demonstrated by thyme oil, which increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death incidence. In contrast, its component thymol showed no cytotoxic effect as well as greatly-reduced ability to inhibit visible growth of the chosen pathogen in the doses used. On the other hand, the addition of all essential oils and their components at lower doses, with the exception of thyme oil, to bacterial suspension significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect of E. coli on Caco-2 cells after 1h culture. In conclusion, it is possible to find appropriate doses of essential oils showing both antimicrobial activity and very low detrimental effect on intestinal cells. PMID:16919909

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bleasel, Narelle; Tate, Bruce; Rademaker, Marius

    2002-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from the topical use of essential oils is not widely recognized as an occupational hazard. Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis to essential oils occurring in three aromatherapists and one chemist with a particular interest in aromatherapy are described. All presented with predominantly hand dermatitis and demonstrated sensitization to multiple essential oils. One patient developed a recurrence of cutaneous symptoms following ingestion of lemongrass tea. Workers within this industry should be aware of the sensitization potential of these products and the risk of limiting their ability to continue employment. PMID:12121401

  17. In vitro activity of an essential oil against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Monzote, L; García, M; Montalvo, A M; Scull, R; Miranda, M; Abreu, J

    2007-11-01

    The in vitro antileishmanial effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against Leishmania donovani was investigated. The product showed significant activity against promastigotes and amastigotes, with a 50% effective concentration of 4.45 and 5.1 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil caused an irreversible inhibition of the growth of promastigotes after a treatment with 100 or 10 microg/mL for 1 or 24 h, respectively. The phagocytic activity of the macrophages was preserved at a concentration toxic to the parasite. The essential oil from C. ambrosioides may be a potential candidate drug to development a new agent to combat this parasitic disease. PMID:17724767

  18. Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

  19. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Atalantia guillauminii against Three Species Stored Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Lei, Ning; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Ma, Ping; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The toxic and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Atalantia guillauminii Swingle were evaluated against three stored product insects, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-thujene (27.18%), elemicin (15.03%), eudesma-3, 7(11)-diene (9.64%), followed by (-)-4-terpeniol (6.70%) and spathulenol (5.25%). The crude oil showed remarkable contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila with LD50 values of 17.11, 24.07 µg/adult and 55.83 µg/cm(2) respectively and it also displayed strong fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults with LC50 values of 17.60 and 12.06 mg/L respectively, while weak fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with a LC50 value of 16.75 mg/L. Moreover, the essential oil also exhibited the same level repellency against the three stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne. Thus, the essential oil of A. guillauminii may be potential to be developed as a new natural fumigant/repellent in the control of stored product insects. PMID:26369599

  20. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

  1. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis. PMID:26227503

  2. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  3. Essential Oil from the Resin of Protium heptaphyllum: Chemical Composition, Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antimutagenicity

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Cazelli, Didley Sâmia Paiva; Pinto, Fernanda Endringer; Mazuco, Renata Alves; Kalil, Ieda Carneiro; Lenz, Dominik; Scherer, Rodrigo; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Endringer, Denise Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March is popularly used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllum essential oil, its cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), antimicrobial activity, and its antimutagenicity in vivo. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil collected in three 3 years was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, caspase-3, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) assays were performed to evaluate apoptosis and inflammatory events. The antimutagenic activity at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg was determined using a micronucleus test in murine bone marrow. Results: The essential oil showed a predominance of monoterpene compounds, being the terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and p-cymene, present in the essential oil extracted in the 3 years. The essential oil showed a protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity, and the cytotoxicity index polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes ratio in animals treated with oil at all doses (1.34 ± 0.33; 1.15 ± 0.1; 1.11 ± 0.13) did not differ from the negative control animal (1.31 ± 0.33), but from the cyclophosphamide group (0.61 ± 0.12). Cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 40.0 μg/mL, and antimicrobial activity were not observed for the essential oil (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥0.5 mg/mL). The essential oil did not change the levels of caspase-3 in the TNF-α level. Conclusion: The essential oil showed antimutagenic activity due to its chemical composition. SUMMARY Terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and p-cymene are the main constituents of the essential oil of P. heptaphyllum collected within 3-yearsThe essential oil of P. heptaphyllum did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC >0.5 mg

  4. Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

    2000-10-15

    Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

  5. Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as a valuable tool for isolating essential oil components from conifers.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B

    2011-11-01

    Essential oils are one of nature's most precious gifts with surprisingly potent and outstanding properties. Coniferous oils, for instance, are nowadays being used extensively to treat or prevent many types of infections, modify immune responses, soothe inflammations, stabilize moods, and to help ease all forms of non-acute pain. Given the broad spectrum of usage of coniferous essential oils, a fast, safe, simple, and efficient sample-preparation method is needed in the estimation procedure of essential oil components in fresh plant material. Generally, the time- and energy-consuming steam distillation (SD) is applied for this purpose. This paper will compare SD, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), and the sea sand disruption method (SSDM) as isolation techniques to obtain aroma components from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). According to the obtained data, SSDM is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil composition of conifers. Moreover, SSDM requires small organic solvent amounts and a short extraction time, which makes it an advantageous alternative procedure for the routine analysis of coniferous oils. The superiority of SSDM over MSPD efficiency is ascertained, as there are no chemical interactions between the plant cell components and the sand. This fact confirms the reliability and efficacy of SSDM for the analysis of volatile oil components. PMID:22083917

  6. Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.

    PubMed

    Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

    2013-12-01

    The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

  7. Essential oils from Mediterranean lamiaceae as weed germination inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Luciana G; Carpanese, Giovanna; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano; Macchia, Mario; Flamini, Guido

    2003-10-01

    The essential oils obtained from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja montana L.) and the four monoterpenes that are their major constituents have been analyzed by GC and GC-MS and tested for their allelopathic properties on the seeds of three different annual weeds (Chenopodium album, Portulaca oleracea, and Echinochloa crus-galli) and three crops (Raphanus sativus, Capsicum annuum, and Lactuca sativa), with the aim to evaluate in vitro their potential as germination inhibitors. The essential oil composition varied with the species, thymol being the main constituent (44%) of thyme and carvacrol (57%) that of savory oil. Differences in essential oil composition were observed within two different rosemary ecotypes, type A, with alpha-pinene (37%) and 1,8-cineole (23%), and type B, characterized by a 2-fold content of 1,8-cineole (47%). This latest essential oil inhibited completely the germination of weeds while concurrently displaying little effect on pepper. The other two oils showed less selective action. S. montana essential oil, with 57% carvacrol, is the most active compound, completely inhibiting germination both of crops and weeds. Borneol, one of the main constituents of the oil of rosemary type B, showed an activity comparable to that of the whole oil. Crop and weed seeds treated with 1,8-cineole showed germination values that were not significantly different from controls, even if a slowing of the germination process expressed in terms of a significant increase in mean germination time was observed. Monoterpene compounds also present in the essential oils mainly represented the volatile fraction released from the crops and their residues into the soil. PMID:14518938

  8. Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

  9. Essential oil compositions of Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, R; Mohamadi, S; Abkar, A; Fazlollahi, A

    2007-10-01

    Aerial parts of aromatic grass, Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF, were collected at flowering stage from Kerman province of Iran. The essential oil of air dried samples obtained by hydro-distillation method. The compositions of the essential oil were determined by the use of GC and GC-MS. Nineteen (98.7%) constituents were identified. The main constituents were piperitone (80.8%), germacrene-D (5.1%), santolinyl acetate (2.1%) and alpha-eudesmol (2.1%). PMID:19090178

  10. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  11. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species.

    PubMed

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-02-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  12. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  13. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  14. Comparative chemical study and cytotoxic activity of Uvariodendron angustifolium essential oils from Benin.

    PubMed

    Noudogbessi, Jean-Pierre; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Adomou, Aristide; Adjalian, Elvis; Alitonou, Guy Alain; Avlessi, Félicien; Garcia, Marcel; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K; Menut, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the chemical composition of volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, bark and roots of Uvariodendron angustifolium (Engl. & Diels) R. E. Fries. The essential oils, obtained with yields between 0.12 and 0.66%, were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. A great variability in the chemical composition was observed depending on the plant part treated. The essential oils obtained from leaves and stems contained mainly neral (29.7-30.5%) and geranial (42.9-47.3%), while methyl eugenol was the major component of the volatile extracts from bark (68.3%) and roots (85.3%). Interesting cytotoxic properties of these essential oils on human breast cancer cells MCF-7 were demonstrated. PMID:24689305

  15. Constituent composition and biological activity of Nepeta manchuriensis essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil present in the aerial parts of the plant Nepeta manchuriensis was prepared by steam distillation using clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was studied by GCMS. Sabinene, elemol, selinene, 4-terpineol, menthatriene and neoisothujol are the major components and r...

  16. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

  17. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL. PMID:11858553

  18. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

  19. Extraction of oil from oil sands using thermoresponsive polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingqing; Duhamel, Jean

    2015-03-18

    Several thermoresponsive block copolymers constituted of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate) (PMEO2MA) block were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and their ability to extract oil from oil sands was evaluated. The chemical composition of the PEG113-b-PMEO2MAX block copolymers was determined by (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with X-values ranging between 48 and 80. Aqueous solutions of block copolymers showed a cloud point of 34 ± 1 °C as determined by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. DLS experiments indicated that these polymers formed stable block copolymer micelles due to association of the PMEO2MA blocks at temperatures greater than 45 °C with a unimodal distribution of hydrodynamic diameters. Since characterization of the block copolymer solutions as a function of temperature indicated the formation of hydrophobic domains in water for T > 45 °C, extractions of oil from oil sands with the block copolymers were conducted at T = 45 and 50 °C. At these temperatures, 15 mL of a 1 mg/mL PEG113-b-PMEO2MA77 aqueous solution extracted 100% of the oil trapped in 1 g of oil sand if 60 mg of toluene was added to the mixture. When the extraction was conducted under the same experimental conditions without block copolymer, a poor oil recovery of less than 30% was achieved. Starting with a 1 mg/mL block copolymer concentration, the block copolymer aqueous solution could be recycled up to five successive extractions while maintaining satisfying oil recovery. Each extraction cycle led to a 22% mass loss of block copolymer, certainly due to association with the toluene, oil, and sand particles. Together these experiments demonstrate that thermoresponsive block copolymers can be powerful aids to enhance the oil recovery of oil sands. PMID:25719623

  20. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    PubMed

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors. PMID:26460560

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens. PMID:23444311

  2. Molluscicidal and leishmanicidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Syzygium cumini (L.) SKEELS from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice N; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Carvalho, Fernando A A; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Maia, Jose G S; Andrade, Eloisa H A; Moraes, Denise F C

    2013-06-01

    The chemical composition and biological potential of the essential oil extracted from Syzygium cumini leaves collected in Brazil were examined. GC/MS Analyses revealed a high abundance of monoterpenes (87.12%) in the oil. Eleven compounds were identified, with the major components being α-pinene (31.85%), (Z)-β-ocimene (28.98%), and (E)-β-ocimene (11.71%). To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the oil, it was tested against Biomphalaria glabrata and the LC₅₀ obtained was 90 mg/l. The essential oil also showed significant activity against Leishmania amazonensis, with an IC50 value equal to 60 mg/l. In addition, to evaluate its toxicity towards a non-target organism, the essential oil was tested against Artemia salina and showed a LC₅₀ of 175 mg/l. Thus, the essential oil of S. cumini showed promising activity as a molluscicidal and leishmanicidal agent and might be valuable in combating neglected tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Further research is being conducted with regard to the purification and isolation of the most active essential-oil compounds. PMID:23776029

  3. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with < 30

  4. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

  5. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a ‘human-friendly’ alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  6. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells. PMID:20428679

  7. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Do, Hyung-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a 'human-friendly' alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  8. Effects of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in experimental anxiety models in mice.

    PubMed

    Pultrini, Aline de Moraes; Galindo, Luciane Almeida; Costa, Mirtes

    2006-03-01

    Citrus aurantium L. is popularly used to treat anxiety, among other indications suggesting central nervous system action. Previous studies showed anxiolytic effect in the essential oil from peel in mice evaluated on the elevated plus maze [Carvalho-Freitas, M.I.R., Costa, M., 2002. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 25, 1629-1633.]. In order to better characterize the activity of the essential oil, it was evaluated in two other experimental models: the light-dark box and the marble-burying test, respectively related to generalized anxiety disorder and to obsessive compulsive disorder. Mice were treated acutely by oral route 30 min (single dose) or once a day for 15 days (repeated doses) before experimental procedures. In light-dark box test, single treatment with essential oil augmented the time spent by mice in the light chamber and the number of transitions between the two compartments. There were no observed alterations in the parameters evaluated in light-dark box after repeated treatment. Otherwise, single and repeated treatments with essential oil were able to suppress marble-burying behavior. At effective doses in the behavioral tests, mice showed no impairment on rotarod procedure after both single and repeated treatments with essential oil, denoting absence of motor deficit. Results observed in marble-burying test, related to obsessive compulsive disorder, appear more consistent than those observed in light-dark box. PMID:16253279

  9. Microwave-assisted isolation of essential oils from Nepeta crispa and N. racemosa and comparisons with the conventional method.

    PubMed

    Daryasari, Ameneh Porgham; Soleimani, Mojtaba; Ghorbani, Azam; Kheiri, Homayon; Daryasarie, Mohammad Porgham

    2012-11-01

    In this study microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) has been compared with the conventional method of hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oils from two Iranian Lamiaceae species: Nepeta crispa Willd and N. racemosa Lam. The essential oils extracted by MAHD for 40 min were quantitatively and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 3.5 h. The MAHD method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs in terms of time, energy and plant material. PMID:23285819

  10. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2011-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

  11. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

  12. Classification of Amazonian rosewood essential oil by Raman spectroscopy and PLS-DA with reliability estimation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mariana R; Fidelis, Carlos H V; Barata, Lauro E S; Poppi, Ronei J

    2013-12-15

    The Amazon tree Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (rosewood) provides an essential oil valuable for the perfume industry, but after decades of predatory extraction it is at risk of extinction. The extraction of the essential oil from wood implies the cutting of the tree, and then the study of oil extracted from the leaves is important as a sustainable alternative. The goal of this study was to test the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) as means to classify the essential oil extracted from different parties (wood, leaves and branches) of the Brazilian tree A. rosaeodora. For the development of classification models, the Raman spectra were split into two sets: training and test. The value of the limit that separates the classes was calculated based on the distribution of samples of training. This value was calculated in a manner that the classes are divided with a lower probability of incorrect classification for future estimates. The best model presented sensitivity and specificity of 100%, predictive accuracy and efficiency of 100%. These results give an overall vision of the behavior of the model, but do not give information about individual samples; in this case, the confidence interval for each sample of classification was also calculated using the resampling bootstrap technique. The methodology developed have the potential to be an alternative for standard procedures used for oil analysis and it can be employed as screening method, since it is fast, non-destructive and robust. PMID:24209345

  13. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  14. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  15. An improved microwave Clevenger apparatus for distillation of essential oils from orange peel.

    PubMed

    Ferhat, Mohamed A; Meklati, Brahim Y; Smadja, Jacqueline; Chemat, Farid

    2006-04-21

    Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation. PMID:16384566

  16. Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcão-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Júnior, JP

    2010-01-01

    This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and to inhibitory activity of efflux pump by gaseous contact. The main component of the essential oil of C. zehntneri was estragole (76,8%). The gaseous components of the oil enhanced the inhibition zone of norfloxacin in 39,5%. This result shows that this oil influences the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin, possibly affecting the bacterial NorA efflux system, and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:21264094

  17. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Łysakowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

  18. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g). PMID:27529211

  19. Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Salvatore, G; Mazzanti, G

    1999-12-01

    In this work we studied the local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil obtained from Lavandula angustifolia Mill., a medicinal plant traditionally used as an antispasmodic. We compared its activity to the essential oils obtained from two citrus fruits, Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f., which have no medical uses. Biological tests were also performed on the major pure components of L. angustifolia Mill. essential oil: linalol and linalyl acetate as determined by GC and confirmed by GC-MS. Anaesthetic activity was evaluated in vivo in the rabbit conjunctival reflex test, and in vitro in a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. The essential oil of L. angustifolia, linalyl acetate and linanol (0.01-10 micrograms/ml) but not the oils of Citrus reticulata and Citrus limon were able to drastically reduce, in a dose-dependent manner, the electrically evoked contractions of rat phrenic-hemidiaphragm. In the rabbit conjunctival reflex test treatment with a solution of essential oil of L. angustifolia, as well as linalyl acetate and linalol (30-2500 micrograms/ml administered in the conjunctival sac) allow a dose-dependent increase in the number of stimuli necessary to provoke the reflex, thus confirming in vivo the local anaesthetic activity observed in vitro. PMID:10630108

  20. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  1. The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Jones, V; Buck, R; Shawcross, S G; Dawson, M M; Dunn, K

    2004-12-01

    Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection. PMID:15555788

  2. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p = 0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid. PMID:24885682

  3. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  4. Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. PMID:22416707

  5. Oil extraction linked to Oklahoma earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Pumping waste water into the ground - a by-product of new oil and gas extraction processes - was the likely cause of a recent surge of earthquakes in the US state of Oklahoma, according to researchers in the US.

  6. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activity of an essential oil recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of white pepper, long pepper, cinnamon, saffron and myrrh in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanbin; Wang, Xinfang; Ma, Ling; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Chen, Jing; Fu, Xueyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil recipe (OR) in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes and hot plate test methods in mice. Additionally, the chemical composition of OR has been also analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds, representing 74.42% of the total oil content, were identified. β-Selinene (7.38%), aromadendrene (5.30%), β-elemene (5.22%), cis-piperitol (5.21%), cis-β-guaiene (4.67%), ylangene (3.70%), 3-heptadecene (3.55%), δ-cadinene (3%) and β-cadinene (2.87%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with OR (62.5-1000 mg/kg) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. OR significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection. All test samples showed no significant analgesic activity on the hot plate pain threshold in mice. These data demonstrated that the OR inhibits inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain. These results may support the fact that the essential oil of traditional Hui prescription played a role in the inflammation of stroke. PMID:25263165

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  8. Chemotype of Litsea cubeba Essential Oil and Its Bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Abdul Hammid, Syaliza; Ahmad, Fasihuddin

    2015-07-01

    The essential oils from different parts of Litsea cubeba, collected from the highlands of Sarawak, were isolated and their chemical compositions analyzed. This study demonstrated significant variations in the chemical compositions and the chemical profiles of the volatiles and could provide valuable supplementary information on the geographical variations of the species. The fruit essential oil was dominated by citronellal, d-limonene and citronellol, while the leaf oil was high in eucalyptol and a-terpineol. High concentrations of citronellal and citronellol in both the root and bark oils were identified. In the stem, the oil was dominated by eucalyptol, d-limonene and α-terpineol. The activity of the oils against brine shrimp larvae, bacteria, yeast and fungi was determined. The oils were toxic against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 25.1 - 30.9 μL/mL. The oils also demonstrated a wide spectrum of inhibition against microorganisms with inhibition zones between 19.5 - 46.7 mm against Gram-positive bacteria and 10.5 - 90.0 mm against yeast and fungi. However, the oils were not active against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26411035

  9. Analysis of the essential oil components from different Carum copticum L. samples from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Petramfar, Peyman; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The family Apiaceae is defined with the diversity of essential oil. Fruits of Ajwain (Carum copticum), a famous herb of Apiaceae, accumulate up to 5% essential oil which is remarked as important natural product for food and flavoring industry, as well as pharmacological approaches. It is believed that differences in essential oil profile in a certain plant are resulted from various cultivation situations and locations, time of cultivation and also different extracting method. Objective: Present study aimed to evaluate major components of ten different collected Ajwain samples from random cultivation locations of Iran. Materials and Methods: Samples were individually subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus for the extraction of essential oil. GC/MS analysis for samples was carried out using Agilent technologies model 7890A gas chromatograph with a mass detector. Results: The yield of extracted essential oil was calculated as 2.2 to 4.8% (v/w) for ten samples. Major oil components were thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene. Five of ten samples have thymol as the main component with amount of 35.04 to 63.31%. On the other hand, for four samples, para-cymene was major with amount of 40.20 to 57.31% and one sample had gamma-terpinene as main constituent containing 37.43% of total oil. Accordingly, three different chemotypes, thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene can be speculated from collected samples. Conclusion: While these components possess pharmacological effect, screening of different chemotypes not only represent the effect of cultivation situations and locations but also can be beneficial in further investigation. PMID:24497745

  10. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and lower (P < 0.05) total tract digestibility of DM and fiber. Digestibility of all nutrients was also lowered (P < 0.05) by feeding essential oil, but there were no effects on ruminal fermentation or methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID

  11. Combined Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculation for essential oil of Lemongrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Rozilaine A. P. G.; Picanço, Nágela F. M.; Campo, Gladís S. D. L.; Faria, Jorge L. B.; Instituto de Física/UFMT Collaboration; Instituto Federal de Mato Grosso/IFMT Team

    2014-03-01

    The essential oils have increased food's industry interest by the presence of antioxidant and antimicrobial. Many of them have antimicrobial and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. But, due to the concentrations required to be added in the food matrix, the sensory quality of the food is changed. The production and composition of essential oil extracted from plants depend on the plant-environment interactions, the harvest season, phenophase and physiological state of the vegetal. Cymbopogom citratus (Lemongrass) has a good yield in essential oil with neral (citral A), geranial (citral B) and myrcene, reaching 90% of the oil composition. In our experimental work, the essential oil of lemongrass was obtained by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus for 4 hours. The compound was further analyzed by Raman scattering in a spectrometer HR 800, with excitation at 633nm, in the range 80-3400 cm-1. The spectrum obtained was compared with DFT calculations of molecules of the oil components. Our results show the vibrational signatures of the main functional groups and suggest a simple, but very useful, methodology to quantify the proportions of these components in the oil composition, showing good agreement with Raman data. CNPq/Capes/Fapemat.

  12. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Mini Priya; Pallaiyan, Blessed Beautlin; Selvaraj, Nija

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), α-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-β-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range. PMID:25050318

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Elgayyar, M; Draughon, F A; Golden, D A; Mount, J R

    2001-07-01

    The beneficial health effects of extracts from many types of plants that are used as seasoning agents in foods and beverages have been claimed for centuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected herb and spice essential oils for control of growth and survival of microorganisms. Inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility discs were used as control. Minimum lethal concentration (MLC) was determined by the tube dilution method. Essential oils from anise, angelica, basil, carrot, celery, cardamom, coriander, dill weed, fennel, oregano, parsley, and rosemary were evaluated. Inhibition ranged from complete with oregano to no inhibition with carrot oil for each of the test strains that included: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O:157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula. Oregano essential oil showed the greatest inhibition (zone, > or = 70 to 80 mm) (MLC, approximately 8 ppm). Coriander and basil were also highly inhibitory (MLC, approximately 25 to 50 ppm) to E. coli O:157:H7 and to the other bacteria and fungi tested. Anise oil was not particularly inhibitory to bacteria (inhibition zone, approximately 25 mm); however, anise oil was highly inhibitory to molds. Because some of the herbal and spice essential oils are highly inhibitory to selected pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, they may provide alternatives and supplements to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. PMID:11456186

  14. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties. PMID:22808418

  15. Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters.

    PubMed

    Faria, Jorge M S; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2013-10-01

    The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct contact assays. Some successful EOs were fractionated and the fractions containing hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing molecules tested separately. Twenty EOs showed corrected mortalities ⩾96% at 2 μL/mL. These were further tested at lower concentrations. Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs showed lethal concentrations (LC100)<0.4μL/mL. Oxygen-containing molecules fractions showing corrected mortality ⩾96% did not always show LC100 values similar to the corresponding EOs, suggesting additive and/or synergistic relationships among fractions. Nine decoction waters (remaining hydrodistillation waters) revealed 100% mortality at a minimum concentration of 12.5μL/mL. R. graveolens, S. montana and T. capitata EOs are potential environmentally friendly alternatives for B. xylophilus control given their high nematotoxic properties. Nematotoxic activity of an EO should be taken in its entirety, as its different components may contribute, in distinct ways, to the overall EO activity. PMID:23829930

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of Perovskia artemisioides Boiss. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hafez Ghoran, Salar; Azadi, Boshra; Hussain, Hidayat

    2016-09-01

    The Perovskia artemisioides Boiss. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation method of flowers growing wild in the north of Iran. The study led to the identification of 29 compositions by a combination of HP-5 GC-FID and GC-MS analytical techniques. The constituents were identified in P. artemisioides essential oil with 1,8-cineole (29.9%), camphor (29.5%) and α-pinene (7.8%) as main constituents as well as δ-3-carene (5.1%), camphene (3.3%) and β-pinene (2.7%). The oil was identified by a much larger amount of monoterpenes (87.7%) and sesquiterpenes (6.3%). The results of antimicrobial activity exhibit that the extracted essential oil has presented a high inhibiting activity against five microbial strains up to 18 mm. Also, the MIC and MBC results displayed that Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were inhibited by P. artemisioides essential oil. Therefore, determination of essential oils in this research showed a relatively similar pattern to those published for the other species of Perovskia. PMID:26506460

  17. Evaluation of climatic factors on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Myrocarpus frondosus.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, D C; Gomes, G L S; Flach, A; da Costa, L A M A; Rosa, G R; de Moura, N F

    2015-01-01

    The species Myrocarpus frondosus is native to southern Brazil, and it is known as cabreúva. It is a large tree, and its wood is used as a reservoir for distilled spirits, especially Cachaça. In this pioneering work, the essential oil was extracted monthly from the leaves of M. frondosus, for a period of 1 year. The essential oil was extracted by using hydrodistillation and the determination of the chemical composition of essential oil was performed by using the chromatographic techniques GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil and bicyclogermacrene was the major compound. Through multivariate analysis, it was determined that β-caryophyllene, limonene and terpinen-4-ol were directly proportional to climatic factors. The yield of the oil was directly proportional to temperature and radiation. PMID:25421822

  18. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito. PMID:16041723

  19. Seasonal variation in the essential oil of Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Francisca S N; Andrade, Eloisa H A; Lima, Waterloo N; Maia, José G S

    2003-03-01

    The essential oils of the leaves and fine stems of Pilocarpus microphyllus, collected on iron mineralized soil of the Serra de Caraj s, Southeast of Par State, Brazil, during the rainy and dry seasons, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main identified compounds were 2-tridecanone, beta-caryophyllene, 2-pentadecanone, caryophyllene oxide and germacrene D. Their percentage contents varied with the season, the greater values having been detected mainly in the rainy season. For 2-tridecanone and beta-caryophyllene the higher values were observed in the fine stem oils for the former, and in the leaf oils for the latter. For 2-pentadecanone, caryophyllene oxide and germacrene D they were also in the leaf oils. In general, the leaf oils were very distinguishable from those of fine stem oils, even in the same specimen. PMID:12715047

  20. Essential Oils for Treatment for Onychomycosis: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernanda C; Beck, Ruy C R; da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2016-02-01

    Onychomycosis are fungal infections affecting finger and toenails mainly caused by dermatophyte fungi and some Candida species. Low cure rates and frequent recurrence, development of a fungal resistance front to various antimicrobial agents topical and systemic, and an ineffective topical treatment make onychomycosis difficult to treat. Essential oils are excellent candidates for the topical treatment for onychomycosis because the development of resistance by fungi is rare, and the presence of side effects is low. They are composed of a complex variety of compounds, mainly terpenes, with low molecular weight, which may easily penetrate into the nail plate, finding the fungi elements. The complex mixture confers a broad antifungal spectrum of action, through interaction with biological membranes, interference in radical and enzymatic reaction of fungi cells. Essential oils may become the source of new therapeutic molecules, and the use of an essential oil incorporated into a topical formulation is an interesting, safe, and effective alternative for the treatment for onychomycosis. However, studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils in the treatment for onychomycosis in vivo. This mini-review aims to present the potential use of essential oils for the treatment for onychomycosis, focusing on the last decade. PMID:26481920

  1. Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry. PMID:24915323

  2. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 < 50.0 μg/mL). The oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile. PMID:27214068

  3. [Effect of prolonged administration of low doses of essential oils on the immune response and sensitivity of mice to the action of ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Isaeva, V G; Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D; Dukhova, N N; Surinov, B P; Burlakova, E B

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation (1 Gy) on the immunological characteristics of spleen in the mice that consumed essential oils of oregano, clove bud and the mixture of lemon oil with ginger extract at low doses with drinking water for 6 months was studied. It was found that the essential oils increased the content of antibody forming lymphocyte cells in the spleen. The maximal effect in comparison with control was found for essential oil of clove bud. PMID:25764843

  4. Citrus Essential Oils: Current and Prospective Uses in the Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Nazik E M

    2015-01-01

    Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are gaining popularity in the food industry. This review summarises the chemical compositions of citrus essential oils (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated derivatives) and explores their antimicrobial activities for use as preservatives in addition to highlight their uses as flavouring and antioxidant agents. The myriad uses of these compounds reflect a global trend towards the increased consumption of natural products. However, challenges such as production technologies, oxidation, chemical contamination by pesticides and consumption induced allergic effects still need to be addressed. Patents identified with CEO uses in food processing and those describe techniques of extraction are presented. PMID:26321174

  5. Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).

    PubMed

    Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

    2001-05-01

    Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling. PMID:11368586

  6. Tocopherol, carotene, phenolic contents and antibacterial properties of rose essential oil, hydrosol and absolute.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Seyhan; Boşgelmez-Tinaz, Gülgün; Seçilmiş-Canbay, Hale

    2009-11-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and total phenolic contents of Rosa damascena Mill. flower extracts (absolute, essential oil and hydrosol) were investigated. The chemical compositions of these extracts were analysed by GC-MS. Phenylethyl alcohol (78.38%) was found to be the main constituent of rose absolute, while citrenellol and geraniol were the major compounds (>55%) of rose essential oil and hydrosol. Tocopherol and carotene levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The levels of beta carotene (422.3+/-35.6 ppm), alpha tocopherol (2397.1+/-72.5 ppm) and gamma tocopherol (343.1+/-28.4 ppm) of rose absolute were found to be higher than that of essential oil and hydrosol. Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 5.2 to 2134.3 GAE/mg L(-1). Rose absolute and essential oil contained high levels of phenolics and demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472) and Erwinia carotovora (ATCC 39048) strains. PMID:19688375

  7. Composition and antioxidant activities of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in Soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Shamse-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Misagi, Ali; Akhonzade, Afshin; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein

    2014-07-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes was studied in soybean oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activitiey of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in soybean oil during the storage period. The essential oil obtained from Pulicaria gnaphalodes by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/Mass. Fifty-eight compounds representing 90.7% of total was identified. Main ingredient in the oil were involved α -Pinene (30.2%), 1,8-Cineole (12.1%), Beta-Citronellol (9.6%), Mertenol (6.6%), α-Terpineol (6.1%), 4-Terpineol (5.9%) and Chrysanthenone (2.9%). Different concentrations (0.200, 400 and 800 ppm) of essential oil and β hydroxyl toluene (BHT; 100 and 200 ppm) was added to soybean oil and incubated for 35 days at 65°C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbitoric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels were measured every week during the time period of the study. Moreover, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was determined using 1,1 diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time using ANOVA test. Results revealed that DPPH β-carotene-linolic acid assay findings on the P. gnaphalodes essential oil were lower than these of synthetic antioxidant, BHT. Moreover, during the incubation time, P. gnaphalodes essential oil lowered PVs and TBARs levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). According to our results essential oil was less effective than synthetic antioxidant. Therefore it may be used as a food flavor, natural antioxidant and a preventive agent for many diseases caused by free radicals. PMID:25015444

  8. Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Yiap, Beow Chin; Ping, Hu Cai; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the battle between humans and the multitudes of infection and disease causing pathogens continues. Emerging at the battlefield as some of the most significant challenges to human health are bacterial resistance and its rapid rise. These have become a major concern in global public health invigorating the need for new antimicrobial compounds. A rational approach to deal with antibiotic resistance problems requires detailed knowledge of the different biological and non-biological factors that affect the rate and extent of resistance development. Combination therapy combining conventional antibiotics and essential oils is currently blooming and represents a potential area for future investigations. This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals may shed light on the development of new pharmacological regimes in combating antibiotic resistance. This review consolidated and described the observed synergistic outcome between essential oils and antibiotics, and highlighted the possibilities of essential oils as the potential resistance modifying agent. PMID:24627729

  9. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. PMID:25704683

  10. Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil). PMID:17511352

  11. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25870697

  12. Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2010-11-01

    Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

  13. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    PubMed

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and γ-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin

  14. Antiatherogenic activity of Dendropanax morbifera essential oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Min Young; Park, Won-Hwan; Moon, Hyung-In

    2009-08-01

    In Korea, Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (Araliaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicines for various diseases. We evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of D. morbifera essential oil (DMEO) in male Wistar rats (weight, 160 +/- 15 g) maintained on a high-cholesterol diet. DMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The DMEO yield was 3.5%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were gamma-elemene (18.59%), tetramethyltricyclo hydrocarbons (10.82%), beta-zingiberene (10.52%), and beta-selinene (10.41%). Rats were orally administered DMEO at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 2 weeks. DMEO significantly and dose-dependently reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. We conclude that D. morbifera has significant lipid-lowering effects and is a promising agent that should be considered in studies seeking new, safe, and effective natural cardioprotective agents. PMID:19746846

  15. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening. PMID:16390196

  16. Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO. PMID:20838809

  17. The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

  18. Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung In; Al-Reza, Sharif M; Kang, Sun Chul

    2010-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of essential oil from seeds of Zizyphus jujuba for its potential role on hair growth by in vivo method. Essential oil was applied at different concentrations (0.1%, 1% and 10%) over the shaved skin onto the backs of BALB/c mice and monitored for 21 days. After 21 days, mice treated with 1% and 10% of oil produced a greater effect on the length of hair which were measured to be 9.96 and 10.02 mm, respectively, as compared to the control (8.94 mm). We measured the weight of hair/cm(2) area of dorsal skin and also evaluated hair thickness and hair follicles microscopically after plucking the hair immediately from the shaved area of mice and found the best results for 1% of essential oil-treated mice. From this study, it is concluded that Z. jujuba essential oil possesses hair growth promoting activity. PMID:20206225

  19. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  20. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  1. Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  2. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Chekem, Marie Stéphanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  3. Chemoinformatics Approach to Antibacterial Studies of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Kocić, Branislava D

    2015-06-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Nepeta nuda (Lamiaceae) essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and standard antibiotics: tetracycline and streptomycin. The antibacterial activities of 1,8-cineole, the main constituent of N. nuda oil, individually and in combination with standard antibiotics were also determined. The interactions of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole with antibiotics toward five selected strains were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay in combination with chemoinformatics methods. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant compound class in the oil (57.8%), with 1,8-cineole (46.0%) as the major compound. The essential oil exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains, but the activities were lower than those of the standard antibiotics. The combinations N. nuda oil-antibiotic and 1,8-cineole-antibiotic produced a predominantly antagonistic interactions. Chemoinformatics survey confirms the antagonistic interactions as a consequence of membrane potential/proton motive force dissipation. These data indicate cytochrome c oxidase as a target for 1.8-cineole toxicity action mechanisms. PMID:26197552

  4. Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Talbert, R; Wall, R

    2012-10-01

    The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

  5. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Veena; Tripathi, A K; Aggarwal, K K; Khanuja, S P S

    2005-11-01

    Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with equivalent LD95 values of 115.7 microg/ml, whereas it was 149.7 microg/ml against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Essential oils of Zingiber officinale and Rosmarinus officinalis were found to be ovicidal and repellent, respectively towards the three mosquito species. The essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum resulted into highest repellent (RD95) values of 49.6, 53.9 and 44.2 mg/mat against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively apart from oviposition-deterrent potential. PMID:16051081

  6. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in northern hilly areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Walia, Suresh; Sati, O P

    2013-01-01

    Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Forty-three constituents amounting to 98.16% of the total essential oil contents were identified. The essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. α-Thujone (36.35%), β-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), β-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED(50), 85.75 mg L(-1)), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED(50), 87.63 mg L(-1)) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED(50), 93.23 mg L(-1)). This study indicated that A. nilagirica essential oil can be used to control phytopathogenic fungi infesting agricultural crops and commodities. PMID:22348279

  7. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  8. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

    2010-05-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

  9. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production. PMID:27275253

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.

    PubMed

    Gundidza, M

    1993-11-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. Results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Leuconostoc cremoris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium sporogenes, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Escherichia coli, Beneckea natriegens, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis and Brochothrix thermosphacata. The fungal species Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata exhibited significant sensitivity to the volatile oil. PMID:8055554

  11. Essential Oil Composition and Antigermination Activity of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon).

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of an Italian oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) was analyzed by GC/EIMS. The major compound of the oil was estragole (73.3%), followed by limonene (5.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (5.3%), β-pinene (3.4%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (3.0%). The essential oil was tested "in vitro" for its antigermination activity against Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L, Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena fatua L. seeds and demonstrating a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. PMID:26434144

  12. Cytotoxic essential oil from Annona sengalensis Pers. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A L; Bassem, S E M; Mohamed, Y H; Gamila, M W

    2010-07-01

    The cytotoxicity against brine shrimp of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) was studied. The confirmation of this toxicity has been done by using selected tumor cell lines (A549, HT29, MCF 7, RPMI, and U251). The results showed that the total oil and its fractions have showed mild to moderate cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 = 27.3 μg/ml, and against some human tumor cell lines. The total oil and its fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Seventy three compounds were identified. PMID:21808569

  13. Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, M.; Kazempour, N.

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and β-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

  14. Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2012-07-01

    Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and β-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

  15. Characteristic odor components of essential oils from Eurya japonica.

    PubMed

    Motooka, Ryota; Usami, Atsushi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Koutari, Satoshi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Ryoyu; Tsuji, Kaoru; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils from the flower and aerial parts (i.e., leaf and branch) of Eurya japonica were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 87 and 50 compounds were detected in the oils from the flower and aerial parts, respectively. The main compounds of the flower oil were linalool (14.0%), (9Z)-tricosene (12.0%), and nonanal (7.4%). In the oil from the aerial parts, linalool (37.7%), α-terpineol (13.5%), and geraniol (9.6%) were detected. In the oils from the flower and aerial parts, 13 and 8 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, respectively. The key aroma-active compounds of the flower oil were heptanal [fatty, green, flavor dilution (FD) = 128, odor activity value (OAV) = 346], nonanal (sweet, citrus, FD = 128, OAV = 491), and eugenol (sweet, spicy, FD = 64, OAV = 62): in the oil from the aerial parts, the key aroma-active compounds were linalool (sweet, citrus, FD = 64, OAV = 95), (E)-β-damascenone (sweet, FD = 256, OAV = 4000), and (E)-β-ionone (floral, violet, FD = 128, OAV = 120). This study revealed that nonanal and eugenol impart the sweet, citrus, and spicy odor of the flower oil, while (E)-β-damascenone and (E)-β-ionone contribute the floral and sweet odor of the oil from the aerial parts. PMID:25843279

  16. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms. PMID:19969046

  17. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils....

  18. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils....

  19. Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC, 85.0 pg/ml) and which presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. PMID:12760864

  20. Chemical Characterization and Trypanocidal, Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxicity Potential of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Luiz Marivando; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Vega, Celeste; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance in the treatment of neglected parasitic diseases, such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, has led to the search and development of alternative drugs from plant origins. In this context, the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation from Lantana camara leaves was tested against Leishmania braziliensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. The results demonstrated that L. camara essential oil inhibited T. cruzi and L. braziliensis with IC50 of 201.94 μg/mL and 72.31 μg/mL, respectively. L. camara essential oil was found to be toxic to NCTC929 fibroblasts at 500 μg/mL (IC50 = 301.42 μg/mL). The composition of L. camara essential oil analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed large amounts of (E)-caryophyllene (23.75%), biciclogermacrene (15.80%), germacrene D (11.73%), terpinolene (6.1%), and sabinene (5.92%), which might be, at least in part, responsible for its activity. Taken together, our results suggest that L. camara essential oil may be an important source of therapeutic agents for the development of alternative drugs against parasitic diseases. PMID:26875978

  1. Immunotoxicity activity from various essential oils of Angelica genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-02-01

    The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) value of 43.12 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 65.23 ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21506693

  2. Larvicidal activity of major essential oils from stems of Allium monanthum Maxim. against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-12-01

    The stems of Allium monanthum were extracted, and the major essential oil composition and larvicidal effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed that the essential oils of A. monanthum stems. The A. monanthum essential oil yield was 4.25%, and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that its major constituents were dimethyl trisulfide (23.21%), dimethyl tetrasulfide (11.24%) and methlyl propyl trisulfide (8.21%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 23.14 ppm and an LC(90) value of 36.31 ppm. Also, dimethyl trisulfide (≥95.0%), dimethyl tetrasulfide (≥95.0%) and methlyl propyl trisulfide (≥95.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Methlyl propyl trisulfide (≥95.0%) has good activity with an LC(50) value of 19.38 ppm. Also, the above indicates that other major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21417962

  3. Repellent activity of selected plant essential oils against the malarial fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S; Jebanesan, A

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. In this study, essential oils extracted by steam distillation from leaves of five plant species Centella asiatica L., Ipomoea cairica L., Momordica charantia L., Psidium guajava L. and Tridax procumbens L. were evaluated for their topical repellency effects against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi in mosquito cages. All essential oils were tested at three different concentrations (2, 4 and 6%). Of these, the essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens exhibited relatively high repellency effect (>300 minutes at 6% concentration), followed by C. asiatica and P. guajava which showed less effective (< 150 minutes at 6 % concentration). However, the ethanol applied arm served as control provided maximum 8.0 minutes repellency in this study. In general, clear dose-response relationships were established in all essential oils, with the highest concentration of 6% provided high repellency effect. The results obtained from this study suggest that essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens are promising as repellents at 6% concentration against An. stephensi and could be useful in the search for new natural repellent compounds. PMID:18209711

  4. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  5. Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

    2011-09-01

    The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), α-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and α-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23 ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24 ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (≥98.0%), α-phellandrene (≥95.0%), fenchone (≥98.0%), (E)-anethole (≥99.0%), myrcene (≥99.0%), and α-pinene (≥99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (≥98.0%) and (E)-anethole (≥99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11 ppm and 102.41 ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21077804

  6. The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

    Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ρ-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

  7. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    PubMed

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step. PMID:27283648

  8. Essential Oil from Flowers and Leaves of Elaeagnus Angustifolia (Elaeagnaceae): Composition, Radical Scavenging and General Toxicity Activities

    PubMed Central

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to identify the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowers and leaves of Elaeagnus angostifolia (Elaeagnaceae) along with evaluate the radical scavenging and general toxicity activities. Methods: A combination of GC-MS and GC-FID were utilized for analyzing the chemical profile of the essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation from the leaves and flowers of E. angustifolia. The essential oils were subjected to general toxicity and radical scavenging assays using brine shrimp lethality test and DPPH method, respectively. Results: In total, 53 and 25 components were identified and quantified in the essential oils of flowers and leaves, accounting for 96.59% and 98.97% of the oil, respectively. The both oils were observed to be rich in ester compounds. The most abundant components of the oil from flowers were E-ethyl cinnamate (60.00%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (9.99%), palmitic acid (5.20%) and phytol (3.29%). The major constituents of the oil from leaves were E-ethyl cinnamate (37.27%), phytol (12.08%), nonanal (10.74%) and Z-3-hexenyl benzoate (7.65%). Both oils showed moderate activity in DPPH assay; however, they exhibited potent tocixity in brine shrimp lethality test. Conclusion: The remarkable toxicity effects of the oils are worthy to further investigation to find the probable mechanisms of action accountable for the noticeable toxic effect of these essential oils. PMID:27478777

  9. Characterization of Essential Oils from Helichrysum odoratissimum Using Different Drying Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asekun, O. T.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

    Helichrysum odoratissimum is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. The essential oil from the herb was extracted and characterized for the first time using different drying methods. The oils isolated from fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried aerial parts of the plant yielded 0.28, 0.46, 0.33 and 0.36%, respectively. The fresh leaf oil was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main constituents as p-menthone (35.4%), pulegone (34.2%) and 1, 8-cineole (13.0%). The dried plant oils had limonene (31.6-22.6%), µ-caryophyllene (13.0-12.0%) and µ-pinene (10.0-7.7%) as their major constituents. Generally, the yield and chemical profile of H. odoratissimum were affected by the drying methods utilized. There were noteworthy chemical alterations in the major components of the essential oils using different methods of drying. The compounds pulegone and menthone were reported as potentially harmful compounds, hence their substantial reduction in the dried oils as compared to the fresh leaf oil is noteworthy as it aids reduction of toxicity in the oils.

  10. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

  11. Essential oils: Toxicity and antimicrobial properties. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic properties of essential oils, and the use of essential oils in preventing development of microbes. These essential oils are derived from plants and other living organisms. Citations included cover the toxicological testing of essential oils, and the identification and testing of essential oils and their components for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. (Contains a minimum of 81 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Attraction of the fruit-eating bat Carollia perspicillata to Piper gaudichaudianum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mikich, Sandra Bos; Bianconi, Gledson Vigiano; Maia, Beatriz Helena L Noronha Sales; Teixeira, Sirlei Dias

    2003-10-01

    We performed field tests using mimetic Piper fruits with and without essential oil extracted through hydrodistillation from Piper gaudichaudianum ripe fruits in order to evaluate the role of odor in Carollia perspicillata attraction and capture in mist-nets. During the field tests, 26 C. perspicillata were captured, 21 (80.7%) in nets with the essential oil of P. gaudichaudianum and five (19.3%) in nets without oil. Other bat species, Artibeus spp. (67), which is specialized on fruits of Moraceae, and Sturnira lilium (10), specialized on those of Solanaceae, were also captured, but they exhibited no significant preference for nets with or without oil. We conclude that odor is pre-eminent over visual cues in food location by C. perspicillata in a field situation. Based on the result, we propose the extraction and use of essential oils of chiropterochoric fruits as a useful approach to improve autoecological studies on fruit-eating bats and to promote tropical forest restoration through the attraction of frugivorous bats to degraded areas. PMID:14682519

  13. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil, eugenol, and a eugenol based herbicide (Matran EC) were applied to apple and peach trees during bloom to evaluate the thinning effect of these materials. Several additional bloom thinners including ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), liquid lime sulfur, and sulfcarbamide were included in...

  14. The influence of essential oils on human attention. I: alertness.

    PubMed

    Ilmberger, J; Heuberger, E; Mahrhofer, C; Dessovic, H; Kowarik, D; Buchbauer, G

    2001-03-01

    Scientific research on the effects of essential oils on human behavior lags behind the promises made by popular aromatherapy. Nearly all aspects of human behavior are closely linked to processes of attention, the basic level being that of alertness, which ranges from sleep to wakefulness. In our study we measured the influence of essential oils and components of essential oils [peppermint, jasmine, ylang-ylang, 1,8-cineole (in two different dosages) and menthol] on this core attentional function, which can be experimentally defined as speed of information processing. Substances were administered by inhalation; levels of alertness were assessed by measuring motor and reaction times in a reaction time paradigm. The performances of the six experimental groups receiving substances (n = 20 in four groups, n = 30 in two groups) were compared with those of corresponding control groups receiving water. Between-group analysis, i.e. comparisons between experimental groups and their respective control groups, mainly did not reach statistical significance. However, within-group analysis showed complex correlations between subjective evaluations of substances and objective performance, indicating that effects of essentials oils or their components on basic forms of attentional behavior are mainly psychological. PMID:11287383

  15. Essential oils increase weight gain in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Biomin® P.E.P. MGE) on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival of channel catfish. Five hundred catfish (32.4 ± 1.7 g/fish) were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicate tanks/tre...

  16. Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive update of experimental use of antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible film applications. It reviews the most recent advancement in edible film technology to promote food safety. A brief description of how these antimicrobial edible films are produ...

  17. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  18. Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity from Two Juniperus Essential Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils of two Tibetan Junipers Juniperus saltuaria and J. squamata var. fargesii (Cupressaceae) were obtained by distilling dried leaves and branches using a Clevenger apparatus. Sixty-seven compounds from J. saltuaria and 58 compounds from J. squamata var. fargesii were identified by gas c...

  19. Comparative effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil and piperitone on Callosobruchus maculatus development.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds. PMID:16938411

  20. Repellent Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Simulium Species in India

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, S; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, RK; Singh, Lokendera

    2012-01-01

    Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) on the human volunteers against Simulium (blackflies) in three locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blackflies preferred biting legs (> 79%) as compared to hand and face with profound biting activity during 1000–1100 h (> 23%) and 1500 – 1600 h (> 28%). The essential oil extracted from Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides provided > 2 h protection at 5% concentration and > 5 h protection at 10% concentration in all the three testing locations. The repellency of Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides essential oils after 6 h application was > 50% at 5% concentration and > 90% at 10% concentration. The study provides evidence for the potential of these essential oils in developing new repellents against blackflies. PMID:22943569

  1. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26827919

  2. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  3. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rath, C C; Mohapatra, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour) and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal). PMID:25657164

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Allium hookeri consumed in Xishuangbanna, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren; Wang, Yuan-Fei; Sun, Qian; Hu, Hua-Bin

    2014-06-01

    The essential oil from the rhizomes of Allium hookeri Thwaites, obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction, was analyzed by GC-MS. Di-2-propenyl trisulfide (31.8%), diallyl disulfide (28.4%), and dipropyl trisulfide (8.4%) were the main constituents among the thirteen identified components. The essential oil showed strong activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans with MIC (the minimal inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) values ranging from 32-64 microg/mL. These results suggest that the essential oil from the rhizomes of A. hookeri could be used as a potential antimicrobial ingredient in the food industry. PMID:25115101

  5. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents. PMID:26693411

  6. Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Phirdaous, Abbas; Azura, Amid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC50 value of 900 μg/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer. PMID:25002797

  7. The Metabolic Responses to Aerial Diffusion of Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Pan, Xiaolan; Chen, Tianlu; Hu, Yixue; Liu, Yumin; Cheng, Yu; Chi, Yi; Yao, Lei; Jia, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and affect a great number of people worldwide. Essential oils, take effects through inhalation or topical application, are believed to enhance physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of essential oils in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabonomics study that reveals the aromas-induced metabolic changes and the anxiolytic effect of aromas in elevated plus maze (EPM) induced anxiety model rats. The significant alteration of metabolites in the EPM group was attenuated by aromas treatment, concurrent with the behavioral improvement with significantly increased open arms time and open arms entries. Brain tissue and urinary metabonomic analysis identified a number of altered metabolites in response to aromas intervention. These metabolic changes included the increased carbohydrates and lowered levels of neurotransmitters (tryptophan, serine, glycine, aspartate, tyrosine, cysteine, phenylalanine, hypotaurine, histidine, and asparagine), amino acids, and fatty acids in the brain. Elevated aspartate, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose, fructose, and glucose), nucleosides and organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate were also observed in the urine. The EPM induced metabolic differences observed in urine or brain tissue was significantly reduced after 10 days of aroma inhalation, as noted with the loss of statistical significance on many of the metabolites in the aroma-EPM group. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the metabonomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils and provide the

  8. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  9. Anticandidal activity of the essential oil of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh.

    PubMed

    Işcan, Gökalp; Köse, Y Bülent; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü Can

    2011-11-01

    Hydrodistallation of the aerial parts of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh. (Lamiaceae), collected in Ağrı, Doğubayazıt Province, afforded an essential oil that was characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. Twenty-seven compounds, representing 97.69% of the total oil composition, were identified, and 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (1; 39%), 4aα,7α,7aα-nepetalactone (2; 28%), and germacrene D (3; 15%) constituted the major components. The anticandidal effects of the oil were evaluated against seven Candida strains by using the broth microdilution method. The oil showed good inhibitory effects against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.09 and 0.375 mg/ml, respectively. PMID:22083927

  10. Essential-oil diversity of three Calamintha species from Greece.

    PubMed

    Karousou, Regina; Hanlidou, Effie; Lazari, Diamando

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the essential-oil composition of the Calamintha officinalis-nepeta complex in Greece and to clarify the main patterns of its variation. The oils obtained from 22 wild-growing populations of C. glandulosa, C. nepeta, and C. menthifolia were studied. They could be classified into two different chemotypes, which correspond to the main biosynthetic routes of the C(3)-oxygenated p-menthane compounds. Chemotype I includes oils rich in trans-piperitone oxide, cis-piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide, while Chemotype II comprises oils rich in pulegone and menthone or menthone and isomenthone. Within both chemotypes, quantitative fluctuations of the main components were observed. Comparison with published data showed that the presence of Chemotype II has not been observed before in C. menthifolia, while Chemotype I has been reported in C. nepeta plants from Greece for the first time. PMID:22782882

  11. Comparative study of the chemical composition and biological activities of Magnolia grandiflora and Magnolia virginiana flower essential oils.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A

    2013-01-01

    The biological activities and the determined major volatile components in the Magnolia grandiflora and M. virginiana flowers extracts were compared. Volatile components were detected in the essential oil by dynamic headspace sampling (HS). 2-Phenylethanol (40% and 61%) was found as the main constituent in the essential oil and HS samples of M. virginiana, respectively. In the M. grandiflora oil sample, (E,E)-farnesol (18%) and 2-phenylethanol (10%) were found as main constituents, whereas germacrene D (17%) and β-bisabolene (17%) were the main components of the HS sample. The essential oil in M. virginiana displayed a moderate antioxidant activity relative to vitamin E, whereas both essential oils were active against human lung carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines, even at concentrations higher than 200 µg mL(-1). PMID:22690913

  12. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 μg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 μg/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  13. The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

  14. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), β-pinene (0.63–31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

  15. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  16. Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

  17. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

    2010-03-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and β-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), γ-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

  18. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, P.; Lima, A. S.; Vieira, P.; Dias, L. S.; Tinoco, M. T.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Figueiredo, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC100) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1–octen-3-ol (9%), n–nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and β-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), γ-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

  19. Composition of the essential oil of Cynanchum mongolicum (Asclepiadaceae) and insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphidiae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wang; Zhao, An; Congai, Zhen; Qizhi, Liu; Wangpeng, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Farmers have applied Cynanchum mongolicum (Maxim) to control crop pests. The aim of this study was to analyze composition of essential oil from C. mongolicum, evaluate insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines, and lethal doses. Materials and Methods: Essential oil from C. mongolicum was efficiently extracted by steam distillation. The main components of the oil were analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system, and the insecticidal activity of the essential oil on soybean aphids Aphis glycines was tested using a variety of methods. Results: The components of the essential oil from C. mongolicum mainly included terpenes and ester compounds, of which (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol acetate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, α-farnesene, and β-caryophyllene accounted for 15.8, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.5%, respectively. With 1- and 2-day exposure, the essential oil showed pronounced contact toxicity (median lethal concentration (LC50) =37.8 and 38.4 μL/mL, respectively), weak fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 139.7 and 139.9 μL/L, respectively). The essential oil showed strong deterrent activity on soybean aphids in 2 and 4 h. Conclusion: The essential oil of C. mongolicum contained insecticidal components and possessed contact toxicity and deterrent activity to A. glycines. PMID:24914292

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, Soňa; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovič, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stričík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

  1. Vasorelaxant effect of essential oil isolated from Nigella sativa L. seeds in rat aorta: Proposed mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cherkaoui-Tangi, Khadija; Israili, Zafar Hasan; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds (Nigella oil) was investigated for its vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta. Nigella oil at concentrations of 10-100 μg/mL elicited a dose-dependent relaxation of the aorta, which was pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 10(-6) M) or KCl (100mM). In the presence of Nigella oil (75 μg/mL, the dose response curves to increasing concentrations of NA (10(-9) M to 10(-4)M) or KCl (10mM-100mM) were displaced downwards, indicating inhibition of the vasoconstrictive effect. This relaxation effect was independent of the presence of endothelium. In addition, the vasodilatory activity of the Nigella oil was not affected by pre-treatment of the rings with N(G)-nitro-L-Arginine (an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase; 0.1mM), suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect is not mediated by nitric oxide. Furthermore, pre-treatment of the rings with Nigella oil (75 μg/mL suppressed the tension increment produced by increasing external calcium concentration (0.25 mM to 1.5mM). Tin conclusion, the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds produces smooth muscle relaxation, which is independent of endothelium and is not mediated by nitric oxide. The results also suggest that the vasorelaxing effect of the oil results from the blockade of both voltage-sensitive and receptor-operated calcium channels, and this may have therapeutic significance, in that Nigella oil may be useful as an antihypertensive agent in humans. PMID:26826822

  2. [Effects of low doses of essential oil on the antioxidant state of the erythrocytes, liver, and the brains of mice].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D; Alinkina, E S; Kozachenko, A I; Nagler, L G; Medvedeva, I B; Goloshchapov, A N; Burlakova, E B

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effects of essential oil from oregano and clove and a mixture of lemon essential oil and a ginger extract on the antioxidant state of organs in intact and three experimental groups of Bulb mice. We found that the essential oil was an efficient in vivo bioantioxidant when mice were treated with it for 6 months even at very low doses, such as 300 ng/day. All essential oil studied inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the membranes of erythrocytes that resulted in increased membrane resistance to spontaneous hemolysis, decreased membrane microviscosity, maintenance of their structural integrity, and functional activity. The essential oil substantially decreased the LPO intensity in the liver and the brains of mice and increased the resistance of liver and brain lipids to oxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The most expressed bioantioxidant effect on erythrocytes was observed after clove oil treatment, whereas on the liver and brain, after treatment with a mixture of lemon essential oil and a ginger extract. PMID:25272759

  3. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  4. Larvicidal activity of two Algerian Verbenaceae essential oils against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Zoubiri, Safia; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2011-09-27

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of essential oils extracted from the leaves of Verbena officinalis and Lantana camara L. for the control of Culex pipiens. Triplicate bioassays were performed with fourth larval instars of C. pipiens (n=25 per replicate) with solutions at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 μL/L of V. officinalis and L. camara L. extracts. Cumulative mortalities were determined 3, 6, 12 and 24h after treatment. Results showed cumulative mortalities, at three (3) hours to be 30.0 ± 2.9% and 14.8 ± 1.5% and achieve 43.3 ± 1.9% and 44.4 ± 3.1% after 24h exposure time, at 100mg/L of essential oil from L. camara and V. officinalis, respectively. PMID:21592668

  5. Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Yusei; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active compounds of the essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides, which is a well-known edible and medicinal plant. The volatile compounds in the oils were identified by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in combination with GC, GC/MS, GC/O (=olfactometry), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and relative flavor activities (RFA values). The most abundant compound in the HD oil was cis-α-necrodol (12.62%), an irregular monoterpene with a cyclopentane skeleton, which is very unusual in the plant kingdom. In the SAFE oil, the main components included 2-butoxyethanol (9.01%), benzyl alcohol (8.01%), and γ-butyrolactone (7.37%). Through sensory analysis, 21 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC/O. The most intense aroma-active compounds in the HD oil were hexan-1-ol and γ-nonalactone, both of which showed high RFA values. α-Methyl-γ-butyrolactone and dimethyl sulfone contributed more strongly to the aroma of the SAFE oil. These results imply that the essential oils of E. alsinoides deserve further investigation in the food industry. PMID:24634069

  6. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas