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1

Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa.  

PubMed

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and hydrodistillation (HD) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the trunks and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa. The optimal extraction conditions for the oil yield within the experimental range of variables examined were temperature 50 degrees C, pressure 12 MPa, carbon dioxide flow rate 40 mL/min and extraction time 90 min. The maximum measured extraction yield was 2.9%. Entrainer solvents, such as methanol in water, had no additional effect on the extraction of essential oils. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were alpha-terpinyl acetate (>10.9%), 1-muurolol (>13.2%) and elemol (>8.1%). Sesquiterpenoids formed the major class of compounds present. PMID:20420328

Jin, Yinzhe; Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung-Ho

2010-03-01

2

Extraction of lemongrass essential oil with dense carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was extracted with dense carbon dioxide at 23–50°C and 85–120 bar. The composition of samples collected during the first and the last hours of the extraction experiments was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and coextraction of cuticular waxes was observed. Liquid carbon dioxide extracts had a larger quantity of coextracted waxes than the supercritical extracts.

Luiz Henrique Castelan Carlson; Ricardo Antonio Francisco Machado; Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo; Lia Krücken Pereira; Ariovaldo Bolzan

2001-01-01

3

Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.  

PubMed

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: ?-pinene, camphene, ?-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and ?-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (< 2.5 min) and decreased with increasing DT; but the trend reversed for the high-boiling point constituents: geraniol and geranyl-acetate. The concentration of the major essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT. PMID:25132088

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

2014-01-01

4

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

5

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Objective: Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Materials and methods: Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Results: Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. Discussion: Results suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene. PMID:25332067

Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

2014-10-21

6

Use of essential oils and extracts from spices in meat protection.  

PubMed

The hydro distillation method was used in this study to get essential oils (EOs) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), clove (Eugenia caryohyllata) and Elecampane (Inula helenium L.) and the co-hydro distillation method (addition of fatty acid ethyl esters as extraction cosolvents) to get functional extracts (EFs). The MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and the MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) were determined on five pathogenic strains (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Toxoplasma Gondi). The results showed that essential oils of cumin and clove and their functional extracts are effective on concentrations from 500 mg/L to 750 mg/L. The essential oils with functional extracts were used on meat samples at three different concentrations: 750, 1,500 and 2,250 ?L. The cumin essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 750 ?L, the clove essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 2,250 ?L and the cumin and clove functional extracts got a reduction of 3.6 log UFC/g. By chromatography, eugenol was identified in the clove oil, cuminaldehyde in the cumin oil and the isoalactolactones and alactolactones in the elecampane oil as main compounds on the chemical composition of the essential oils and functional extracts obtained. PMID:24803704

Hernández-Ochoa, L; Aguirre-Prieto, Y B; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Gutierrez-Mendez, N; Salas-Muñoz, E

2014-05-01

7

Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils is one of the most widely discussed applications in the supercritical fluid literature. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of the analytical, processing and modeling aspects has never been attempted. This is partly due to the difficulties involved in isolating essential oils from the other products which supercritical CO2 can dissolve. Moreover, only a limited number

Ernesto Reverchon

1997-01-01

8

EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING OF THE CYMBOPOGON WINTERIANUS ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTION BY STEAM DISTILLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is classified as one of the main world producers of essential oils and citronella essential oil, used as natural repellent, representing a significant parcel of the national production. To increase the Brazilian participation in the international market it is necessary an improvement in the extraction technology to obtain the products with international standard of quality. Therefore, this work has

R. M. F. VARGAS; E. CASSEL; C. C. DE SOUZA

2006-01-01

9

SedativeHypnotic Activity of Extracts and Essential Oil of Coriander Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Coriandrum sativum L. has been recom- mended for relief of insomnia in Iranian traditional medi- cine. However, no pharmacological studies have yet evalu- ated its sedative effects. The aim of this study was to de- termine if extracts and essential oil of coriander seeds have sedative-hypnotic activity. Methods: The aqueous or hydro-alcohol ic extracts or essen- tial oil of

M. Emamghoreishi; G. Heidari-Hamedani

2006-01-01

10

Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia L. ssp. longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia ssp. longifolia. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all 30 microorganisms tested whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive. In contrast, the extract showed much better activity than the essential oil in antioxidant activity assays employed, e.g. in

M. Gulluce; F. Sahin; M. Sokmen; H. Ozer; D. Daferera; A. Sokmen; M. Polissiou; A. Adiguzel; H. Ozkan

2007-01-01

11

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18226481

Al-Bayati, Firas A

2008-03-28

12

Steam distillation extraction kinetics regression models to predict essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of chamomile oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most widely spread and used medicinal and essential oil crop in the world. Chamomile essential oil is extracted via steam distillation of the inflorescences (flowers). In this study, distillation time (DT) was found to be a crucial determinant of yi...

13

Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils.  

PubMed

A new process design and operation for the extraction of essential oils was developed. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is a combination of microwaves for hydrodiffusion of essential oils from the inside to the exterior of biological material and earth gravity to collect and separate. MHG is performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. MHG has been compared with a conventional technique, hydrodistillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from two aromatic herbs: spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) belonging to the Labiatae family. The essential oils extracted by MHG for 15 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 90 min. MHG also prevents pollution through potential 90% of energy saved which can lead to greenhouse gas emission benefits. PMID:18343393

Vian, Maryline Abert; Fernandez, Xavier; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

2008-05-01

14

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.  

PubMed

This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: ?-pinene (32.32%), ?-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), ?-caryophyllene (4.36%), and ?-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

2013-01-01

15

Thymus Daenensis Extract and Essential Oils Effects on Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Thymus species are well known medicinal plants which the previous studies suggested the involvement of the opioid system in them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus daenensis (TD), an endemic aromatic medicinal plant of Iran, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed in two groups of five, each group treated with extracts or essential oils of TD. Dependency was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, the last dose of morphine was injected two hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone while the extract or essential oil of TD was administered 30 minutes before naloxone. A period of 20 minutes after naloxone injection was considered the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps, standing, leaning, and the weight of stools were recorded as withdrawal signs. Results: The 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of extract and all doses of essential oil decreased significantly the number of jumps, standing, leaning and the weight of stool. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract only decreased the weight of stool and had no effect on the other factors. Conclusions: Extract and essential oil of TD attenuates morphine withdrawal behaviors in mice and may be useful in alleviating the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome in human. PMID:25237649

Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Taherzadeh, Esmaeil; Siahpoosh, Amir; Mansourzadeh, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Amir Hossein

2014-01-01

16

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

17

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

18

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

19

Contact and fumigant activities of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils against Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol extracts from 30 aromatic medicinal plant species and five plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against Lasioderma serricorne (F.) adults using direct contact application and fumigation methods. Responses varied with plant material and exposure time. Good insecticidal activity against L. serricorne adults was achieved with extracts of Agastache rugosa whole plant, Cinnamomum cassia bark, Illicium verum

Soon-Il Kim; Chan Park; Myung-Hee Ohh; Hyung-Chan Cho; Young-Joon Ahn

2003-01-01

20

Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.  

PubMed

The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej

2013-06-01

21

The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: ? and ?-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

2009-08-01

22

Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519

Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-08-10

23

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Melissa officinalis: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and ultrasound extraction.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been applied to the extraction of essential oils from Melissa officinalis L. and Laurus nobilis L. The results of SFME were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) of essential oils from dried plant materials. The compositions of the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The essential oil obtained with SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than the oils obtained by conventional methods. The three different extraction methods used showed differences in the compositions and contents of the essential oils. PMID:20184034

Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Buyuktas, Birsen S

2010-01-01

24

Comparison of chemical composition of Aerva javanica seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. seed essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and dry steam distillation (SD) extracting methods and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty and eighteen components representing 90.5% and 95.6% of the seed essential oil were identified, using hydrodistillation and dry steam distillation, respectively. The major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by HD were heptacosane (25.4%), 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (14.1%), pentacosane (12.1%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentade-canone (7.9%), nonacosane (7.1%), tricosane (3.6%), ?-farnesene (3.5%), dodecanal (2.7%) and octacosane (2.1%). Whereas the major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by SD were heptacosane (41.4%), pentacosane (21.2%), nonacosane (14.8%), tricosane (6.3%), octacosane (4.2%) and tetracosane (3.0%). PMID:23811454

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-07-01

25

Antioxidant and antilisterial effect of seed essential oil and organic extracts from Zizyphus jujuba.  

PubMed

Hydrodistilled volatile oil from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty three compounds representing 91.59% of the total oil was identified. The oil and organic extracts revealed a great potential of antilisterial effect against all five strains of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable count of the tested bacteria. The samples were also subjected to screening for the antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals scavenging activities assay. In the first case, the IC(50) value of the Z. jujuba essential oil was determined to be 5.21+/-0.01 microg/ml. Among the extracts, the strongest activity was exhibited by the methanol extract with an IC(50) value of 20.44+/-0.18 microg/ml. In the superoxide radicals scavenging activities assay, methanol extract was superior to all other extracts (IC(50)=18.60+/-0.3 microg/ml). Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined. The results indicate that the essential oil and extracts of Z. jujuba could serve as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents for the food industry. PMID:19563858

Al-Reza, Sharif M; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

2009-09-01

26

Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.  

PubMed

In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment. PMID:20813373

Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

2010-10-01

27

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The essential oil, obtained by Clevenger distillation, and water-soluble and water-insoluble parts of the methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. were individually assayed for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria and two yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei. No activity was exhibited by the water-soluble subfraction, whereas both the water-insoluble subfraction of the methanol extracts and the essential oil were found to be active against some test microorganisms studied. Since the essential oil possessed stronger activity than the other extracts tested, it was further fractionated and the fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, followed by GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of 32 compounds which constituted 90.2% of the total oil. The GC-MS analysis of the oil and its fractions revealed that the main components of the oil, e.g. camphor and eucalyptol, possessed appreciable activity against C. albicans and Clostridium perfringens. The fi ndings presented here also suggest that the other constituents of the oil, e.g. borneol and piperitone can also be taken into account for the activity observed. PMID:14595577

Sökmen, Atalay; Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Polissiou, Moschos; Daferera, Dimitra; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol

2003-11-01

28

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of Citharexylum spinosum flowers from Thailand.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various solvent extracts of Citharexylum spinosum flowers are reported. The chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS with 151 volatile constituents identified. Methyl benzoate, piperitone, maltol, and maple furanone were the major constituents. All extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against eight microorganisms. The flower oil had the greatest antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains (MIC values of 31.2 microg/mL), while the other solvent extracts had MIC values ranging from 31.2 to 1000 microg/mL. The essential oil had the highest antioxidant activity and total phenol content with IC50 values of 62.7 and 107.3 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:25026728

Mar, Ae; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

2014-05-01

29

Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation  

PubMed Central

Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by ?-pinene as against ?-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

2012-01-01

30

Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation.  

PubMed

TWO DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS WERE USED FOR A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGERIAN MYRTLE LEAF ESSENTIAL OILS: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by ?-pinene as against ?-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S

2012-01-01

31

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

32

Short Communication Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medi- cines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagro- phytes, Epidermophyton Xoccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

33

The analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings ? A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. Where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. Particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory

Thomas E. Furia

1977-01-01

34

Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

2007-01-01

35

Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.  

PubMed

Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts. PMID:23292852

Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

2013-01-01

36

Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil composition of the leaves of Viola odorata L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, was extracted by hydro distillation–solvent extraction method and analysed using GC–MS technique. The analysis revealed the presence of 25 identified compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil with butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%) being the two main components. Several components were identified for the first

Maryam Akhbari; Hossein Batooli; Fereshteh Jookar Kashi

2012-01-01

37

Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil composition of the leaves of Viola odorata L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, was extracted by hydro distillation–solvent extraction method and analysed using GC–MS technique. The analysis revealed the presence of 25 identified compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil with butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%) being the two main components. Several components were identified for the first

Maryam Akhbari; Hossein Batooli; Fereshteh Jookar Kashi

2011-01-01

38

Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics like antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography (one and two dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils have been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents which are particularly important for public health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25403494

Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

2014-11-18

39

Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC-MS, and the major components of these oils were found to be thymol, sabinene, carvacrol, anethole, and linalool, respectively. Mosquito larvicidal assays were conducted to evaluate the LC(50) and LC(90) after 24 and 48h of the essential oils and their major constituents. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (LC(50): 15-156ppm) against Oc. caspius fourth instars, with the most potent oil being thyme inflorescence extract, followed by parsley seed oil, aniseed oil, and then coriander fruit oil. Toxicity of each oil major constituent was also estimated and compared to a reported larvicidal compound, eugenol. PMID:17368893

Knio, K M; Usta, J; Dagher, S; Zournajian, H; Kreydiyyeh, S

2008-03-01

40

Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts and essential oils of Myrtus communis L.  

PubMed

Since synthetic antimicrobial agents and food additives can cause a number of adverse effects, there is a growing interest from consumers in ingredients from natural sources. Medicinal plants, such as Myrtus communis L. are a source of new compounds which can be used in both the food industry and for medical purposes, primarily as antimicrobial agents. In this review, the characteristics of myrtle essential oils and extracts are summarized, with particular attention to their chemical composition, biological activities and potential applications. PMID:24291016

Aleksic, Verica; Knezevic, Petar

2014-04-01

41

Extraction of essential oils from garlic ( Allium sativum ) using ligarine as solvent and its immunity activity in gastric cancer rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent extraction (SE) of garlic essential oil (Allium sativum) was studied. A multivariate study based on a four-factor, three-level Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to evaluate the\\u000a influence of four major variables affecting the performance of the SE of garlic essential oil. The yield and the composition\\u000a of the essential oils from garlic obtained by SE were determined, and

Rui LiWei-chang; Wei-chang Chen; Wei-peng Wang; Wen-yan Tian; Xue-guang Zhang

2010-01-01

42

Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle ( Myrtus communis var. italica L.) leaf, stem and flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Myrtus communis var. italica L. leaf, stem and flower. Myrtle leaf and flower were the valuable organs for the essential oil production representing a yield of 0.61% and 0.30% (w\\/w), respectively. The essential oil composition of myrtle leaf and flower

Wissem Aidi Wannes; Baya Mhamdi; Jazia Sriti; Mariem Ben Jemia; Olfa Ouchikh; Ghaith Hamdaoui; Mohamed Elyes Kchouk; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

43

Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (?-esterase and ?-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are ?-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-?-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

2012-01-01

44

Antibacterial properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum occurring in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The antibacterial potential of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) was evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves and stems were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-seven compounds representing 94.9 and 96.1% of the total leaf and stem oils, respectively, were identified, of which methyl chavicol (36.7 and 29.9%), gitoxigenin (9.3 and 10.2%), trimethoquinol (10.3 and 8.4%), beta-guaiene (3.7 and 4.1%), aciphyllene (3.4 and 3.0%), alizarin (3.2 and 4.4%), naphthaline (2.2 and 3.8%), (-)-caryophyllene (2.0 and 1.9%), and mequinol (1.6 and 1.8%) were the major compounds. The essential oils (10 microL/disc of 1:5, v/v dilution with methanol) and methanol extracts (300 microg/disc) of O. basilicum displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Bacillius cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, and Salmonella typhi with their respective zones of inhibition of 11.2-21.1 mm and MIC values of 62.5-500 microg/mL. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from O. basilicum may have potential use in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries as antimicrobial agents. PMID:20645791

Hossain, M Amzad; Kabir, M J; Salehuddin, S M; Rahman, S M Mizanur; Das, A K; Singha, Sandip Kumar; Alam, Md Khorshed; Rahman, Atiqur

2010-05-01

45

Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.  

PubMed

Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22018714

Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

2011-12-01

46

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of Tragopogon graminifolius, a medicinal herb from Iran.  

PubMed

Tragopogon graminifolius DC., family Compositae, is widely consumed as a green vegetable in the west of Iran and for the treatment of gastrointestinal and hepatic ailments. In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oil from T. graminifolius aerial parts was evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Moreover, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and various extracts of T. graminifolius were determined. Fifty-eight compounds representing 87.2% of the essential oil were identified. The main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (22.0%), beta-caryophyllene (7.5%), heneicosane (6.6%), and nonanal (5.2%). The essential oil demonstrated the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.6 +/- 8.8 ug/mL) and the 80% ethanolic extract the highest ferric reducing antioxidant activity (908.2 +/- 79.5 mmol Fe2+ ion/g extract). The total phenolic content of the 80% ethanolic extract from the aerial parts was the highest (560.7 +/- 18.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent). In the antimicrobial test, Shigella dysenteriae was the most vulnerable microorganism, followed by Proteus vulgaris, and the essential oil exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among the samples. The results indicated that the essential oil and extracts of T. graminifolius could be consumed as a natural herbal preservative or complementary supplement in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24660479

Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Rahimi, Roja; Attar, Farideh; Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Khanavi, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

47

Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

2012-11-01

48

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications. PMID:24360439

Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

2014-05-01

49

Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.  

PubMed

In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:25459951

Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

2014-11-19

50

Determination of Essential Oil Composition of Prangos acaulis (DC) Bornm Obtained by Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition of the essential oil of the Prangos acaulis was extracted by Hydrodistillation (HD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) methods from aerial parts at full flowering stage. Their compositions were identified using GC/MS as the method of analysis. The analyses reveal that samples differ quantitatively and qualitatively. A total of 21 compounds constituting 89.1% of aerial parts oil were in SFE method. The oil obtained by SFE was under condition: pressure 120 bar, temperature 45°C and extraction time 45 min. On the other hand, 26 compounds constituting 98.74% of oil were in HD method. In according to our results, in both extracts, the two compounds present in the biggest quantity were: ?-pinene (13.7 versus 22.87% in the SFE and HD oil, respectively) and 3-ethylidene-2-methyl-1-hexen-4-yne (14.3 versus 21.36%).

Hadavand Mirzaei, Hossein; Hadi Meshkatalsadat, Mohammad; Soheilivand, Saeed

51

In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oil of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to the complexity of the antioxidant materials and their mechanism of actions, it is obvious that no single testing method is capable of providing a comprehensive picture of the antioxidant profile. The essential oil of the Thymus specie may still possess other important activities in traditional medicine, it can be used in the treatment of fever and cough. This essential oil may also have an anticancer activity. Methods The essential oils aerial parts hydrodistilled from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were characterised by GC/MS analysis and the methanolic extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC method. The essence of thyme was evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Result The Terpinen-4-ol are the principal class of metabolites (33.34%) among which 1.8-cineole (19.96%) and camphor (19.20%) predominate. In this study, quantitative values of antioxidant activity of crude methanolic extracts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis were investigated. The essential oils was screened for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteridis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes) by well diffusion method and agar dilution method (MIC). All the essences were found to inhibit the growth of both gram (+) and gram (?) bacteria organisms tested. These activities were correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds in active fractions. HPLC confirmed presence of phenolic compounds in methanol extracts. Conclusion Methanol extracts and essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The technique for measuring antioxidant activity, which was developed using DPPH, ABTS and ?-carotene bleaching, produced results as found in established literatures. The present results indicate clearly that methanol extracts and essential oils from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants, also their essential oil have an antibacterial effect. PMID:25022197

2014-01-01

52

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2013-01-01

53

Acaricidal properties of Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) essential oils obtained by three methods of extraction.  

PubMed

Essential oils of Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. were extracted by three methods, a microwave assisted process (MAP), distillation in water (DW) and direct steam distillation (DSD), and tested for their relative toxicity as contact acaricides to the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. All three extracts of A. absinthium and of T. vulgare were lethal to the spider mite but to variable degrees. The LC50 obtained from the DSD oil of A. absinthium was significantly lower (0.04 mg/cm2) than that of the MAP (0.13 mg/cm2) and DW (0.13 mg/cm2) oil of this plant species. DSD and DW extracts of T. vulgare were more toxic (75.6 and 60.4% mite mortality, respectively, at 4% concentration) to the spider mite than the MAP extract (16.7% mite mortality at 4% concentration). Chromatographic analysis indicated differences in composition between the more toxic DSD oil of A. absinthium and the other two extracts of this plant, indicating that a sesquiterpene (C15H24) compound present in the DSD oil and absent in the other two may enhance the toxicity of the DSD oil. Chemical analysis of the T. vulgare extracts indicated that beta-thujone is by far the major compound of the oil (>87.6%) and probably contributes significantly to the acaricidal activity of the oil. PMID:11233109

Chiasson, H; Bélanger, A; Bostanian, N; Vincent, C; Poliquin, A

2001-02-01

54

The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25050312

Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

2014-01-01

55

Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)  

PubMed Central

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (?)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (?)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

Cantrell, Charles L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Carvalho, Camila R.; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Rosa, Luiz H.

2014-01-01

56

Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 µg/disk) and rifampin (5 µg/disk) were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and nystatin (100 µg/disk) for antifungal studies. The results of MIC study revealed that the essential oil has a stronger activity and broader spectrum than those of methanol extracts. It is interesting to point out that the oils had even greater potential of antimicrobial activities than those of 1,8-cineole as their main component. PMID:20931074

Safaei-Ghomi, Javad; Ahd, Atefeh Abbasi

2010-01-01

57

The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H A?kin

2004-06-01

58

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of tow cultivated mint species ( Mentha longifolia and Mentha pulegium ) used in the Tunisian folkloric medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of two cultivated mint species (M. longifolia and M. pulegium), as well as the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of Mentha longifolia and Mentha pulegium were compared. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil identified 41 compounds constituting 96.66 and 96.13% of the total

Hafedh Hajlaoui; Najla Trabelsi; Emira Noumi; Mejdi Snoussi; Hanen Fallah; Riadh Ksouri; Amina Bakhrouf

2009-01-01

59

Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.  

PubMed

A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources. PMID:24755113

Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

2014-08-01

60

Chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Carapa guianensis collected from Venezuelan Guayana and the antimicrobial activity of the oil and crude extracts.  

PubMed

The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae) leaves was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, which made up 93.7% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bicyclogermacrene (28.5%), alpha-humulene (17.2%), germacrene B (11.9%), and trans-beta-caryophyllene (9.9%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, as well as the crude extracts of the leaves obtained by refluxing the dried leaves with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol, was determined using the disc diffusion assay. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was only found for the essential oil and the methanolic extract, at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 400 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL. PMID:24427961

Meccia, Gina; Quintero, Patricia; Rojas, Luis B; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Velasco, Judith; Diaz, Tulia; Diaz, Clara; Velásquez, Jesús; Toro, Maria

2013-11-01

61

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

Herman, Anna

2014-09-01

62

Optimization of conditions of solvent-free microwave extraction and study on antioxidant capacity of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.  

PubMed

In this article, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill was studied. A multivariate study based on central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of SFME. The optimum parameters were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 385 W and moisture content of the fruits was 68%. The extraction yield of essential oil was 11 ml/kg under the optimum conditions. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were determined, and compared with traditional antioxidants. GC-MS showed the different composition of essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation (HD), steam-distillation (SD) and SFME. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Micrographs and thermo gravimetric loss provided more evidences to prove SFME of essential oil is more completed than HD and SD. PMID:23442721

Ma, Chun-hui; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Liu, Ting-ting

2012-10-15

63

Acaricidal activity of 31 essential oils extracted from plants collected in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a worldwide pest, feeding on a large variety of plant families. As its resistance to acaricides spreads rapidly, it is crucial to develop new biological control tactics to manage its populations. In this respect, essential oils may be a good alternative, as they are currently considered minimum-risk pesticides. In this paper, we

Sabrine Attia; Kaouthar L. Grissa; Zeineb G. Ghrabi; Anne C. Mailleux; Georges Lognay; Thierry Hance

2012-01-01

64

Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils....

65

Biomolecular characterization of wild sicilian oregano: phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of wild Sicilian oregano was made. A total of 57 samples were collected from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. Based on morphological and production characteristics obtained from the 57 samples, cluster analysis was used to divide the samples into homogeneous groups, to identify the best biotypes. All samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying a cascade-extraction protocol and hydrodistillation, to obtain the non volatile components and the essential oils, respectively. The extracts contained thirteen polyphenol derivatives, i.e., four flavanones, seven flavones, and two organic acids. Their qualitative and quantitative characterization was carried out by LC/MS analyses. The essential oils were characterized using a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS analyses; a total of 81 components were identified. The major components of the oils were thymol, p-cymene, and ?-terpinene. Cluster analysis was carried out on both phytochemical profiles and resulted in the division of the oregano samples into different chemical groups. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts was investigated by the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) colorimetric assay, by UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and by determining the O(2)(?-)-scavenging activity. PMID:23495158

Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio; Speciale, Antonio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Pasquale, Andrea; Curcuruto, Giusy; Ruberto, Giuseppe

2013-03-01

66

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species.  

PubMed

A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-?-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), ?-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of L. multifida oil are carvacrol (65.1%) and ?-bisabolene (24.7%). Lavandula stoechas oil is rich in fenchone (34.3%) and comphor (27.4%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also significantly varied among species. Lavandula coronopifolia exhibits the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.3?mg GAE?g(-1) and 16.3?mg RE?g(-1), respectively), followed by L. multifida (30.8?mg GAE?g(-1) and 12.3?mg RE?g(-1)). Methanolic extracts and essential oils displayed significant antioxidant activities. The level of antioxidant capacity varied according to extracts and species. PMID:22117129

Messaoud, C; Chograni, H; Boussaid, M

2012-11-01

67

Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Essential oils and Related Compounds from Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).  

PubMed

The volatile oil of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) obtained from the fruits by soxhlet-dynamic headspace (S-DHS), solvent extraction (SE), steam distillation (SD), hydrodistillation (HYD) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The SC-CO2 offered a higher yield (4.5%, w/w) than the other used techniques. Among the identified constituents, linalool was the main compound whatever the employed extraction procedure in contrast to the remaining components which varied according to the isolation technique showing a strong effect of the method used on the composition of these minor compounds. SC-CO2 as compared to the other extraction techniques revealed its high efficiency in addition to the integrity saving of coriander fruit volatiles. Statistical analysis showed that all the detected and identified compounds were highly (P > 0.001) affected by the extraction technique used except the a-terpineol which appear stable. On the other hand, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed on the determination of one group represented by SC-CO2, S-DHS and HYD suggesting a similar essential oil composition. Obtained results show that, in Tunisian coriander essential oil, linalool was the main compound. PMID:24061362

Msaada, Kamel; Taârit, Mouna Ben; Hosni, Karim; Nidhal, Salem; Tammar, Sonia; Bettaieb, Iness; Hammami, Mohamed; Limam, Férid; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-12-01

68

Metabolic profile and biological activities of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco: studies on the essential oil and polar extracts.  

PubMed

We investigated the metabolic profile and biological activities of the essential oil and polar extracts of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco collected in south Portugal. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that oxygen-containing monoterpenes was the principal group of compounds identified in the essential oil. Camphor (40.6%) and fenchone (38.0%) were found as the major constituents. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis allowed the identification of hydroxycinnamic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids) and flavones (luteolin and apigenin) in the polar extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the main compound in most of them. The bioactive compounds from L. pedunculata polar extracts were the most efficient free-radical scavengers, Fe(2+) chelators and inhibitors of malondialdehyde production, while the essential oil was the most active against acetylcholinesterase. Our results reveal that the subspecies of L. pedunculata studied is a potential source of active metabolites with a positive effect on human health. PMID:23870987

Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Almeida, Carlos; Nogueira, José M F; Romano, Anabela

2013-12-01

69

Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle (Myrtus communis var. italica L.) leaf, stem and flower.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Myrtus communis var. italica L. leaf, stem and flower. Myrtle leaf and flower were the valuable organs for the essential oil production representing a yield of 0.61% and 0.30% (w/w), respectively. The essential oil composition of myrtle leaf and flower was characterized by high proportions of alpha-pinene, the main compound of monoterpene hydrocarbon class, with 58.05% for leaf and 17.53% for flower. Stem was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes, largely due to 1,8-cineole with 32.84%. The total phenol contents varied between different myrtle parts; leaf extract had higher total phenol content (33.67 mg GAE/g) than flower (15.70 mg GAE/g) and stem (11.11 mg GAE/g) extracts. Significant differences were also found in total tannin contents among different myrtle parts, representing 26.55 mg GAE/g in leaf, 11.95 mg GAE/g in flower, 3.33 mg GAE/g in stem. The highest contents of total flavonoids and condensed tannins were observed in stem (5.17 and 1.99 mg CE/g, respectively) and leaf (3 and 1.22 mg CE/g, respectively) extracts. The HPLC analysis indicated that the main phenolic class was hydrolysable tannins (gallotannins) in leaf (79.39%, 8.90 mg/g) and flower (60.00%, 3.50mg/g) while the stem was characterized by the predominance of flavonoid class (61.38%, 1.86 mg/g) due to the high presence of catechin (36.91%, 1.12 mg/g). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the methanolic extract from different myrtle parts were evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In all tests, methanolic extracts of different myrtle parts showed better antioxidant activity than essential oils. PMID:20211674

Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Mhamdi, Baya; Sriti, Jazia; Ben Jemia, Mariem; Ouchikh, Olfa; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Marzouk, Brahim

2010-05-01

70

Comparison of models for supercritical fluid extraction of seed and essential oils in relation to the mass-transfer rate  

SciTech Connect

A general dimensionless model was developed for a sensitivity analysis of the supercritical extraction process of vegetable oils and essential oils. Two dimensionless parameters, {Gamma}, a dimensionless partition coefficient, and {Theta}, a dimensionless characteristic time, appeared as the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of the extraction process. Some limiting values of these two parameters within the general model yielded simpler models which are often used in the literature. The numerical solutions of both the complete model and the simpler cases were compared to assess the range of relevance of the simpler models in terms of {Gamma} and {Theta} values. These results were compared with the experimental data found in the literature to assess the correctness of the assumption used to model supercritical fluid extraction in single cases. The implications of this analysis on the development of scale-up procedures were also discussed.

Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E. [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

1996-10-01

71

Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), ?-terpinene (19.68%), ?-pinene (9.7%) and ?-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and ?-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were ?-calacorene (25.98%), ?-cedrene (16.55%), ?-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml. PMID:24881771

Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

2014-01-01

72

Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L. flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety. PMID:25050317

Naemi, Forough; Asghari, Gholamreza; Yousofi, Hossein; Yousefi, Hossein Ali

2014-01-01

73

Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.  

PubMed

Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, ?-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 ?g/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD). PMID:25115624

Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

2014-01-01

74

Comparative analysis of essential oil components and antioxidant activity of extracts of Nelumbo nucifera from various areas of China.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the composition of extracts and essential oil components from Nelumbo nucifera leaves from the principal habitats in China. The amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the lotus leaf extracts varied widely, ranging from 354 to 487 mg/g gallic acid equivalents, from 172 to 236 mg/g rutin equivalents, and from 124 to 179 mg/g catechin equivalents, respectively. All of the extracts had strong antioxidant activity in comparison to the standard compounds butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin C. Wild lotus samples from Baiyangdian Lake and Weishan Lake exhibited a stronger free radical scavenging effect and greater reducing power than the cultural samples, but no such differences were observed in the inhibition of lipid oxidation. Chemical variation in the essential oils from the various samples was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents were l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (0-33.5%), trans-phytol (5.1-24.1%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5.6-15.3%), pentadecyl acrylate (2.2-12.4%), geranyl acetone (1.9-8.0%), and beta-ionone (0-8.0%). The rhizome lotus and seed lotus samples were clustered into separate groups by hierarchical cluster analysis according to the composition of the corresponding essential oils. No significant relationship was found between essential oil composition and geographical distribution of the 11 populations. However, the results indicated that region of origin and growing conditions could significantly affect both the bioactivities of the lotus leaf and the content of bioactive compounds in the leaves. Thus, the existence of chemical polymorphism in the N. nucifera leaf in China was demonstrated. PMID:19919095

Huang, Bo; Ban, Xiaoquan; He, Jingsheng; Tong, Jing; Tian, Jun; Wang, Youwei

2010-01-13

75

Antioxidant and relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala jacquem  

PubMed Central

Background The current work is an attempt to know about additional chemical profile of Artemisia macrocephala. Antioxidant activity is performed as the plant is reported to contain flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity in general. Relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract is performed to know in which fraction(s) the relaxant constituents concentrate as we have already reported that its crude methanol has relaxant activity. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil is also performed as the plant is rich with essential oil. Methods Phytochemical profile of the plant is performed. Free radical scavenging activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Relaxation activity tests of fractions and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala were performed on sections of rabbits’ jejunum. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of plant extracts and its essential oil. Results We detected carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins in A. macrocephala. At concentration 0.005 mg/ml, free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 121.5 ± 2.02% of ascorbic acid. n- hexane fraction relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Essential oil relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.8 ± 0.034 mg/ml. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions relaxed both spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions suggesting its possible mode through calcium channels. Constructing calcium chloride curves, the test fractions showed a right shift in the EC50. Essential oil at concentration 0.1 mg/ml produced right shift with EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.08 ± 0.08 vs. control with EC50 -2.47 ± 0.07. The curve resembled the curves of verapamil, which caused a right shift at 0.1 ?M, with EC50 -1.7 ±0.07 vs. control EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.45 ± 0.06. Conclusions Crude methanol and its fractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol) are rich sources of antioxidant constituents. The relaxing constituents following calcium channel blocking mechanisms are more concentrated in n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions that warrant isolation. PMID:23642022

2013-01-01

76

Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

77

Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6?g/100?g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50?g/100?g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07?g/100?g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and ? -caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching ? -carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts. PMID:24224115

Iqbal, Tahseen; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain

2013-01-01

78

Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction of essential oils from flower of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for extracting the essential oils from Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Carbonyl iron powders were mixed with the sample to extract essential oils from the dried plant materials and single-drop solvent was used to simultaneously extract essential oils from the headspace. The single-drop of decane was suspended from the tip of a microsyringe and exposed to the headspace above the sample. After the extraction was finished, the single-drop was injected into gas chromatographic system and analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of the experimental parameters, including microwave power, microwave irradiation time, the ratio of carbonyl iron powder to sample, extraction solvent, single-drop volume and extraction time, were investigated. Sixteen compounds in the essential oils of E. caryophyllata T. were obtained and identified. The constituents of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation and solvent-free microwave extraction-headspace single-drop microextraction were not obviously different. Compared with hydro-distillation, the proposed method required shorter extraction time and less amount of the sample. PMID:20730827

Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Xiaonan; Gao, Yan; Wang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wu, Liwei; Song, Daqian

2010-09-01

79

Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

80

Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

2013-01-01

81

Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

2013-01-01

82

Thermodynamic and kinetic models for the extraction of essential oil from savory and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil with hot (subcritical) water and supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms that control the extraction rates of essential oil from savory (Satureja hortensis) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from historically-contaminated soil with hot water and supercritical carbon dioxide were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow-rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent

Alena Kubátová; Boris Jansen; Jean-François Vaudoisot; Steven B Hawthorne

2002-01-01

83

Application of response surface methodology and central composite design for the optimisation of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils from Myrtus communis L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of Myrtus communis L. leaves were obtained using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and hydrodistillation methods. The experimental parameters of SFE such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, static and dynamic extraction time were optimised using a central composite design after a 2n?1 fractional factorial design. The chemical compositions of the SFE extract were identified by GC–MS and determined by

Ensieh Ghasemi; Farhad Raofie; Nahid Mashkouri Najafi

2011-01-01

84

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cupressus sempervirens is a medicinal plant traditional, its dried leaves are used in treatment of stomach pain, diabetes, inflammation, toothache, laryngitis and as contraceptive. Methods The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and determination chemical contents of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from Mediterranean C. sempervirens L. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. sempervirens was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. Results A total of 20 constituents representing 98.1% of the oil were identified: ?-pinene (48.6%), ?-3-carene (22.1%), limonene (4.6%) and ?-terpinolene (4.5%) were the main components comprising 79.8% of the oil. The antimicrobial test results showed that the methanol extract of C. sempervirens strongly inhibited the growth of the test bacteria studied, except for yeast species while the Eo had moderate antibacterial, but no anti-candida activity. Klebsiella pneumoniae was proven to be the most susceptible against methanol extract. The exposure time of Eo and methanol extract for complete inhibition of cell viability of K. pneumoniae was found to be 250 ?g at 30 min and 500 ?g at 120 min, respectively. The antibiofilm potential of the samples was evaluated using methods of PVC microtiter and eradication on biomaterial. Visual results showed visible biofilm eradication from the surface of intravenous infusion tube at 500 ?g of Eo and methanol extract. Conclusions The results presented here may suggest that the Eo and extracts of C. sempervirens possess antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals. PMID:24890383

2014-01-01

85

Essential oil composition of Pistacia lentiscus L. and Myrtus communis L.: Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal variation of the essential oil composition, the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP assays) and the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) of two aromatic wild plants, Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) and Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae), grown in Zakynthos, a Greek island, was investigated. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and subsequently analysed by GC–MS.The essential oil composition of P.

Chryssavgi Gardeli; Papageorgiou Vassiliki; Mallouchos Athanasios; Theodosis Kibouris; Michael Komaitis

2008-01-01

86

GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.  

PubMed Central

This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be ?-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-?-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including ?-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700?nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0?mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98??g gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 ?g quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

2013-01-01

87

Essential oils: SPE fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Essential oil analysis is often characterised by mixtures that are difficult to separate. The components belong to different\\u000a classes of compounds that range widely in concentration. Hence, a pre-separation technique is often required, at least to\\u000a evaluate the minor components. This paper reports an SPE method to overcome this problem. The method was developed with a\\u000a standard solution that yielded

A. Antonelli; C. Fabbri

1999-01-01

88

Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum , Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down\\u000a to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100%

Moises Martinez-Velazquez; Gustavo Adolfo Castillo-Herrera; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Jose Miguel Flores-Fernandez; Julisa Lopez-Ramirez; Rodolfo Hernandez-Gutierrez; Eugenia del Carmen Lugo-Cervantes

2011-01-01

89

Seasonal variations of antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from three Citrus limon L. Burm. cultivars.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the seasonal variations of antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of essential oils (EOs), three different cultivars of Citrus limon L. Burm. spp. (Femminello Santa Teresa, Monachello and Femminello Continella) were collected at 6-week intervals, from December 2012 to April 2013, for a total of four harvests. The EOs were extracted from lemon peel by hydro-distillation. The antimicrobial activity, tested by paper disc diffusion method, was evaluated against common food-related pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Enterobacter spp.). EOs were more effective against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria at each collection time, but a strong strain dependence was evidenced. Monachello EOs showed the highest inhibition power. The chemical characterisation of the EOs performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified from 36 to 42 molecules. The chemical difference registered among samples and seasons may explain the different antimicrobial efficacies recorded. PMID:24443967

Settanni, L; Randazzo, W; Palazzolo, E; Moschetti, M; Aleo, A; Guarrasi, V; Mammina, C; San Biagio, P L; Marra, F P; Moschetti, G; Germanà, M A

2014-01-01

90

[Quality evaluation of essential oils].  

PubMed

Essential oils on the market were analyzed using GC-MS and the main ingredients of each essential oil were quantified. Analysis of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis (lavender oil) showed that each sample had a different ratio of the contents of main ingredients, such as linalool, linalyl acetate, and camphor. In addition, some commercial lavender oils were analyzed by GC-MS for comparison with the Lavandula flagrans (lavandin oil) and the reference standard. As a result of this analysis, although the components of almost all commercial lavender oils were approximately the same as those of the reference standard, there were a few products that contained more than 0.5% of the amount of camphor in lavandin oil. This suggests that some lavender oil samples are mixed with lavandin oil to lower the price. Commercial essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (teatree oil) and Mentha piperita (peppermint oil) were also analyzed by GC-MS. Each of the peppermint oil samples had a different ratio in the content of its main ingredient. With respect to teatree oils, the amount of terpinens in each sample differed. These results led to concern about the efficacy of essential oils. For achieve the expected efficacy of essential oils, correct information on their ingredients should be available and quality control using instrumental analysis should be introduced. PMID:11905050

Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

2002-03-01

91

Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) showed that ocimene (26.51%), 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa-1,3-diene (9.87%), alpha-pinene (7.69%) and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66%) were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o-Cymene (28.66%), methanol (8.50%), alpha-pinene (7.42%) and gamma-decalactone (5.20%). The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono-cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended.

Hashemi, Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Mahmoudi, Razzaqh

2013-01-01

92

The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

2015-01-01

93

Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of aerial part of Ledum palustre L. - Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of two extracts from the aerial parts of Ledum palustre has been reported. The volatile oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and the essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD). The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor their composition. Both extracts shared as main compound (41.0-43.4%) ledol (23.3-26.7%) and ascaridole (15.1-4.5%). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the subcutaneous carrageenan injection-induced hind paw oedema. The treated animals received essential oil (SFE and HD), the reference group received ketoprofen or piroxicam and the control group received NaCl 0.9%. A statistical analysis was performed by the Student t-test. The results show that L. palustre essential oil enhanced a significant inhibition of oedema (50-73%) for HD oil and (52-80%) for SFE oil. These results were similar to those obtained with piroxicam (70%) and ketoprofen (55%). PMID:25427723

Baananou, Sameh; Bagdonaite, Edita; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Boughattas, Naceur A

2014-11-27

94

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum Grown in North-Western Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ?-fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ?-phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ?-pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ?-fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH•, reducing power and chelating ability on Fe2+ ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

Tiku, A. K.; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V. K.

2013-01-01

95

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil and extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum grown in north-western Himalaya.  

PubMed

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ? -fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ? -phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ? -pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ? -fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH(•), reducing power and chelating ability on Fe(2+) ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

Guleria, Sanjay; Tiku, A K; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V K

2013-01-01

96

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?–pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

Mojarrab, M.; Delazar, A.; Esnaashari, S.; Afshar, F. Heshmati

2013-01-01

97

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?-pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

Mojarrab, M; Delazar, A; Esnaashari, S; Afshar, F Heshmati

2013-01-01

98

Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... of essential oils from plants (flowers, herbs , or trees) as therapy to improve physical, emotional, and spiritual ... very few bad side effects . Lavender and tea tree oils have been found to have some hormone - ...

99

Effects of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi essential oils and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberis integerrima and Crocus sativus on rat isolated uterus contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous abortion can be a problem in pregnancy. Consumption of some plant material might be a cause, while other plant materials are being used in folk medicine for treatment of this condition. The aim of this study was to look for effects of essential oils of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberies integerrima and

Hassan Sadraei; Alireza Ghannadi; Maryam Takei-bavani

2003-01-01

100

Antibacterial effect of five Zingiberaceae essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, turmeric, galangal, bastard cardamom and kaempferia were zingiberene, turmerone, methyl chavicol, and gamma-terpinene, respectively. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 mg/mL. PMID:17960105

Norajit, Krittika; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

2007-01-01

101

Chemical investigation of different extracts and essential oil from the tubers of (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus . Correlation with their antiradical and antimutagenic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic potential of aqueous, Total Oligomers Flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts as well as essential\\u000a oil (EO) obtained from tubers ofCyperus rotundus L. was assessed by “Ames assay”, usingSalmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100, and “SOS chromotest” usingEscherichia coli PQ37 strain with and without an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9). None of the different extracts showed a

Soumaya Kilani; Ines Bouhlel; Ribai Ben Ammar; Mohamed BEN SGHAIR; Ines Skandrani; Jihed Boubaker; Amor Mahmoud; Marie-Geneviève Dijoux-Franca; Kamel Ghedira; Leila Chekir-Ghedira

2007-01-01

102

Salvia somalensis essential oil as a potential cosmetic ingredient: solvent-free microwave extraction, hydrodistillation, GC-MS analysis, odour evaluation and in vitro cytotoxicity assays.  

PubMed

Salvia somalensis Vatke, a wild sage native of Somalia, has been studied with the aim of assessing the potential cosmetic application of its essential oil, recovered from fresh aerial parts by solvent-free microwave extraction - SFME. To evaluate the efficiency and reliability of this eco-friendly procedure, the recovery of the essential oil was also processed by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and the results compared. The essential oils obtained by both SFME and HD were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using apolar and polar capillary columns. The essential oil recovered by SFME was submitted to an odour evaluation that revealed peculiar olfactive characteristics interesting in alcoholic male perfumery and body detergents.In vitro cytotoxicity assays were carried out using NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes as target cells. The oil displayed slight cytotoxic effects, which were three orders of magnitude lower than those found for sodium dodecyl sulphate positive control. The promising results in terms of chemical composition, scent and safety seem to indicate this essential oil as an interesting potential functional ingredient useful in a cosmetic context. PMID:19134128

Villa, C; Trucchi, B; Bertoli, A; Pistelli, L; Parodi, A; Bassi, A M; Ruffoni, B

2009-02-01

103

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of supercritical extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare growing wild in Lithuania.  

PubMed

This article reports the results concerning the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile oil obtained from the aerial parts of Tanacetum vulgare, collected in Lithuania, by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 at 90 bar and 40 °C and by hydrodistillation (HD). GC-MS and GC-FID analysis revealed that the oils mainly consisted of 1,8-cineole, trans-thujone, cis-chrysanthenol, borneol and myrtenol. Oils obtained by HD displayed, with respect to the SFE volatile oil, a higher amount of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. The hydrodistilled oil was particularly active against dermatophyte strains and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.16-0.64 ?L/mL. The oil revealed a significant inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in Candida albicans at sub-inhibitory concentrations. At the concentration of 1/16 MIC, the inhibition of filamentation was more than 80% in comparison to untreated control cells. PMID:25055158

Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Bagdonaite, Edita; Maxia, Andrea; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Porcedda, Silvia

2014-01-01

104

Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Different extraction methods for the subsequent gas chromatographic determination of the composition of essential oils and related compounds from marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) have been compared. The comparison was also discussed with regard to transformation processes of genuine compounds, particularly in terms of expenditure of time. Hydrodistillation is the method of choice for the determination of the essential oil content of plants. For investigating the composition of genuine essential oils and related, aroma-active compounds, hydrodistillation is not very useful, because of discrimination and transformation processes due to high temperatures and acidic conditions. With cold solvent extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, discrimination of high and non-volatile aroma-active components as well as transformation processes can be diminished, but non-aroma-active fats, waxes, or pigments are often extracted, too. As solid-phase microextraction is a solvent-free fully automizable sample preparation technique, this was the most sparing to sensitive components and the most time-saving method for the rapid determination of the aroma compounds composition in marjoram, caraway, sage, and thyme. Finally, solid-phase microextraction could be successfully optimized for the extraction of the aroma components from the plants for their subsequent gas chromatographic determination. PMID:17221240

Richter, Jana; Schellenberg, Ingo

2007-03-01

105

Anthelmintic activity of crude extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of ?-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 ?g/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 ?g/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 ?g/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 ?g/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

2014-01-01

106

Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood.  

PubMed

Vegetal water extracts, namely the water remaining after hydro-distillation and decoctions, and essential oils of 10 plant species were tested as inhibitors for the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood. Achyrocline satureioides, Chenopodium ambrosioide, Eucalyptus cinerea, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum, Lippia turbinata, Marrubium vulgare,Minthostachys verticillata, Origanum vulgare, Tagetes minuta and Thymus vulgaris were included in the study. The water remaining after hydro-distillation showed the highest antibacterial activities, the growth of almost all the P. larvae strains tested was inhibited by these extracts. Regarding the plants tested, E. cinerea and M. verticillata were the plant species with the highest biological activity with 100% efficacy (all its extracts inhibited the growth of all P. larvae strains). Essential oils were less active for the inhibition of P. larvae growth. PMID:20398671

González, M J; Marioli, J M

2010-07-01

107

"In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.  

PubMed

One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), ?-pinene (8.4%), and ?-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry. PMID:22526656

Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

2012-08-01

108

Determination of essential oil content in caraway (Carum carvi L.) species by means of supercritical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependently on planting conditions caraway fruits contain 1-9% of essential oils consisting of about 30 compounds. Carvone and limonene account for the main portion, about 95%. To evaluate the quality of various registered caraway (Carum carvi L.) cultivars (Kepron, Prochan and Rekord) planted during 1998-2000, regarding the effect of sample grinding and preparation, plant treatment and time of harvest, the

J. Sedláková; B. Kocourková; L. Lojková

109

Characterization of Aromatherapy Massage Oils Prepared from Virgin Coconut Oil and Some Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize aromatherapy massage oils prepared from virgin coconut oil (VCO) and some essential\\u000a oils. VCO extracted from fresh coconut endosperm by a centrifugation method, which was the most effective method to prepare\\u000a VCO, was composed mainly of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic acid. Three essential oils (lemon, eucalyptus and\\u000a lavender oils) at

Sarunyoo Songkro; Anusak Sirikatitham; Supreedee Sungkarak; Khemmarat Buaking; Juraithip Wungsintaweekul; Duangkhae Maneenuan; Kwunchit Oungbho

2010-01-01

110

Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.  

PubMed

Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 ?l/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration. PMID:24459470

Keshavarz, A; Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Mahzouni, P

2013-01-01

111

Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well-defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg/kg and 100, 400 ?l/kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg/kg)/ethanol 50% v/v. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that RHE and REO are both effective to possess anti-colitic activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as a remedy for inflammatory bowel diseases in traditional medicine. PMID:22049274

Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A. R.; Afsharipour, M.; Mahzouni, P.

2011-01-01

112

Essential Oils of Achillea ptarmica.  

PubMed

Using GC and GC/MS, 40 compounds were identified in the essential oils of various organs of ACHILLEA PTARMICA. Three ponticaepoxides and (+)-(4 S,6' R)-beta-sesquiphellandrene could be isolated from the root. PMID:17226187

Kuropka, G; Neugebauer, M; Glombitza, K W

1991-10-01

113

Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction\\/gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different extraction methods for the subsequent gas chromatographic determination of the composition of essential oils and\\u000a related compounds from marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) have been compared. The comparison was also discussed with regard to transformation processes of genuine compounds, particularly\\u000a in terms of expenditure of time. Hydrodistillation

Jana Richter; Ingo Schellenberg

2007-01-01

114

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

2009-01-01

115

Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils had antibacterial activity in the three assays, suggesting that they would be good candidates for testing in clinical trials. The observed antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves suggests a mechanistic explanation for the efficacy of a mixture of coriander, lemon balm and mint extracts against IBS in a published clinical trial. PMID:24283351

2013-01-01

116

Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

2009-01-01

117

Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), ?-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), ?-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. PMID:25438081

Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

118

Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.  

PubMed

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action. PMID:24571090

Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

2014-01-01

119

Chemical profile by LC-MS/MS, GC/MS and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and crude extracts of two Euphorbia species.  

PubMed

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of two Euphorbia species. The major component of the fatty acid compositions obtained from the petroleum ether extracts was identified as palmitic acid for Euphorbia gaillardotii and Euphorbia macroclada. The main constituents of the essential oils were identified as arachidic acid for E. gaillardotii and tetratetracontane for E. macroclada. Among the 27 studied compounds, hesperidin, rutin, hyperoside and quinic, malic, gallic and tannic acids were found to be the most abundant compounds in the two Euphorbia species. The methanol extracts of E. gaillardotii and E. macroclada showed strong antioxidant activity in all tested methods. Particularly, IC50 values of E. macroclada methanol extract that was the richest in terms of total phenolic-flavonoid contents were found to be lower than ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene in ?-carotene bleaching, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free and ABTS cation radical scavenging methods. PMID:25184782

Ertas, Abdulselam; Yilmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Firat, Mehmet

2015-03-01

120

Antifungal and herbicidal properties of essential oils and n-hexane extracts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor., Achillea biebersteinii Afan. and n-hexane extracts obtained from the flowers of A. gypsicola and A. biebersteinii Afan. was analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Camphor (40.17–23.56%, respectively), 1,8-cineole (22.01–38.09%, respectively), piperitone (11.29–0.37%, respectively), borneol (9.50–5.88%, respectively) and ?-terpineol (1.56–5.15%, respectively) were found to be

Saban Kordali; Ahmet Cakir; Tulay Aytas Akcin; Ebru Mete; Adnan Akcin; Tuba Aydin; Hamdullah Kilic

2009-01-01

121

Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.  

PubMed

By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638

Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

2005-03-01

122

Variability of antioxidant and antibacterial effects of essential oils and acetonic extracts of two edible halophytes: Crithmum maritimum L. and Inula crithmo?des L.  

PubMed

This work aimed to assess the richness of the food halophytes Crithmum maritimum and Inula crithmo?des on phenolics and essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of these metabolites. Results displayed that extract of I. crithmo?des possesses considerable contents of phenolic compounds (14.1mg GAE.g?¹ DW) related to important antioxidant activities (IC?? = 13 ?g ml?¹ for the DPPH test) as compared to C. maritimum. C. maritimum EOs composition is dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes, while I. crithmo?des one is mainly consisted by monoterpene hydrocarbons. EOs have low antioxidant activity as compared to acetone extracts; nevertheless, they show best antimicrobial activity. A significant variability is also depicted between the provenances of each species and depended on the chemical nature of antioxidant and antibacterial molecules as well as the used tests. PMID:24128580

Jallali, Ines; Zaouali, Yosr; Missaoui, Ibtissem; Smeoui, Abderrazek; Abdelly, Chedly; Ksouri, Riadh

2014-02-15

123

Comparative Evaluation of SFE and Steam Distillation Methods on the Yield and Composition of Essential Oil Extracted from Spearmint (Mentha spicata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was optimized to obtain high quality mint oil. The effect of oven and freeze drying techniques on the quality of mint oil was investigated. The flavor principles in the SFE extract were compared with those obtained by a conventional steam distillation method. Then highest extraction yield was obtained at SFE conditions (50°C and 350

Madduri V. Rao; Baboucarr Jobe

2007-01-01

124

Essential oils encapsulated in liposomes: a review.  

PubMed

In the recent years there has been an increased interest toward the biological activities of essential oils. However, essential oils are unstable and susceptible to degradation in the presence of oxygen, light and temperature. So, attempts have been made to preserve them through encapsulation in various colloidal systems such as microcapsules, microspheres, nanoemulsions and liposomes. This review focuses specifically on encapsulation of essential oils into liposomes. First, we present the techniques used to prepare liposomes encapsulating essential oils. The effects of essential oils and other factors on liposome characteristics such as size, encapsulation efficiency and thermal behavior of lipid bilayers are then discussed. The composition of lipid vesicles membrane, especially the type of phospholipids, cholesterol content, the molar ratio of essential oils to lipids, the preparation method and the kind of essential oil may affect the liposome size and the encapsulation efficiency. Several essential oils can decrease the size of liposomes, homogenize the liposomal dispersions, increase the fluidity and reduce the oxidation of the lipid bilayer. Moreover, liposomes can protect the fluidity of essential oils and are stable at 4-5?°C for 6 months at least. The applications of liposomes incorporating essential oils are also summarized in this review. Liposomes encapsulating essential oils are promising agents that can be used to increase the anti-microbial activity of the essential oils, to study the effect of essential oils on cell membranes, and to provide alternative therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. PMID:23879218

Sherry, Mirna; Charcosset, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

2013-12-01

125

Evaluation of leaf-derived extracts as an environmentally sustainable source of essential oils by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and enantioselective gas chromatography-olfactometry.  

PubMed

In consideration of the world's present environmental situation and the threat of species extinction, investigations concerning alternative sustainable sources of natural substances represent an extremely important issue. In this respect, the present research is focused on the analytical evaluation of Brazilian rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) leaves, as an alternative source (with respect to wood) of rosewood essential oil and, as such, of natural linalool, which is extensively used in perfumery. Enantioselective-gas chromatography-olfactometry (Es-GC-O) was used as a tool for the simultaneous stereodifferentiation and olfactive evaluation of the volatile optically active components present in the analyzed samples. In addition to Es-GC-O analyses, direct olfactive analyses were also performed, enabling the evaluation of the global aroma exerted by each sample and the influence of each linalool antipode, as also other minor compounds. The samples were also submitted to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, thus establishing their chemical profiles. The assessment of enantiopure chiral compounds through Es-GC-O, along with direct olfactive analyses, confirmed that the leaves are a potential substituent for wood in the extraction of Brazilian rosewood essential oil, representing a sustainable nonwood source of natural linalool. PMID:16448064

d'Acampora Zellner, Barbara; Lo Presti, Maria; Barata, Lauro Euclides Soares; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

2006-02-01

126

Cytological Aspects on the Effects of a Nasal Spray Consisting of Standardized Extract of Citrus Lemon and Essential Oils in Allergic Rhinopathy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy. PMID:23304560

Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

2012-01-01

127

[Phytochemical evaluation of essential oils, medicinal plants and their preparations].  

PubMed

A surway is presented on the authors' work in the field of volatile oil research. The gas chromatographic method previously used for analysis of essential oils was transformed to capillary gas chromatographic conditions. The method is also suitable for separation of compound-pairs frequently occurring in essential oils (peppermint, rosemary, lavender, sage, clary sage, thyme oils). Beside the gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils, which was necessary for their standardization and qualification, the influence of different extraction methods and some biological facts e.g. the ontogenesis on the change of essential oil composition are also discussed. It has been established that the water steam distillation from acidic medium can be more advantageous than the traditional one, if the volatile terpene derivatives were bound in form of glycosides or dimeric quajazolide lactons were present in plant (oregano, Sideritis, wormwood oils). Comparing the composition of essential oil obtained by water steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) it was found that the SFE fractions are richer in ester constituents because the possibility of hydrolysis is reduced, and the oils are more valuable than the classic oils. On the other hand, when the transformation processes are important (chamomile), the distillation is the better method. The change of essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Anthriscus cerefolium L. was also studied during the vegetation period. It has been established that in budding and early flowering stages the basil oil was rich in monoterpenes; the quantity of sesquiterpenes and phenylpropane derivatives increased only in later stadiums. Finally the extraction and analytical processes are discussed which are used for standardization of complex plant preparations which contained essential oil as active agent and represented various medicinal forms. PMID:9703700

Lemberkovics, E; Kéry, A; Marczal, G; Simándi, B; Szöke, E

1998-05-01

128

Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.  

PubMed

Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. PMID:15187434

Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2004-06-01

129

Fungitoxicity of essential oils against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Sixteen essential oils were screened in vitro for their fungitoxicity against the two dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. Five oils (from Artemisia nelagrica, Caesulia axillaris, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha arvensis) showed strong activity and were assessed for their fungitoxicity against eight other dermatophytes as well as against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium trichoides. These five essential oils by formulation of ointments were able to cure experimental ringworm in guinea pigs within 7 to 12 days. Artemisia oil was found to be the most effective essential oil. PMID:8264720

Kishore, N; Mishra, A K; Chansouria, J P

1993-01-01

130

Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: A new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.  

PubMed

In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22±0.03% and 4.16±0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02mgGA/100gdm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500W in only 3min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:25435398

Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

2015-05-01

131

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex

Muhammad Qasim Samejo; Shahabuddin Memon; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Khalid Mohammed Khan

2012-01-01

132

Essential Oil Composition of Three Grindelia Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Grindelia humilis Hook et Arn (G.H.), G. robusta Nutt (G.R.) and G. squarrosa Dun F. (G.S.), were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Sixty-nine components were identified in the oil of G, humilis, representing 89.9% of the oil, while 56 components in the oil of G. robusta, and 68 components in the oil of G. squarrosa were identified representing

A. M. El-Shamy; S. S. El-Hawary; A. O. El-Shabrawy; H. M. El-Hefnawy; H. Glasl

2000-01-01

133

Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as ?-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), ?-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), ?-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including ?-pinene, ?-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. PMID:23646297

Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

2013-01-01

134

Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

2010-06-01

135

Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial activities of two blended essential oil preparations comprising lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine oil were evaluated against various pathogenic microorganisms. Both preparations showed antimicrobial activity in the agar disc diffusion assay against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and S. epidermidis isolated strain, the fungus, Candida albicans ATCC10231, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, but showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these preparations was evaluated. By the broth microdilution assay, preparation 1, comprising lavender oil, clary sage oil, and ylang ylang oil (volume ratio 3:4:3), exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than preparation 2, which was composed of petigrain oil, clary sage oil, and jasmine oil (volume ratio 3:4:3). Moreover, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (Sigma fic) of preparation 1 expressed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms (Sigma ficessential oil preparations, characterized for their components by GC/MS, contained linalyl acetate, and linalool as major components. Our experiments showed that the differential antimicrobial effect of either blended oil preparations or single/pure essential oils may be influenced by the amount of linalool and linalyl acetate, and the number of active components in either the blended preparations or single/pure essential oils. In addition, blended oil preparations expressed synergistic antimicrobial effect by the accumulation of active components such as linalool and linalyl acetate and combining active constituents of more than one oil. PMID:23157022

Tadtong, Sarin; Suppawat, Supatcha; Tintawee, Anchalee; Saramas, Phanida; Jareonvong, Suchada; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

2012-10-01

136

Effect of Essential Oils on Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24287491

Nazzaro, Filomena; Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

137

Antilisterial Properties of Cilantro Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude essential oil of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) and four fractions recovered by fractional distillation of the crude oil were determined against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi, Listeria innocua and Listeria seeligeri. Crude oil inhibited all the test strains at concentrations ? 0.01% (v\\/v) and the remaining fractions were effective at concentrations <

Pascal J. Delaquis; Kareen Stanich

2004-01-01

138

Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.  

PubMed

Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

2014-01-01

139

Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat  

PubMed Central

Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

2014-01-01

140

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

141

Antimicrobial activity of two essential oils.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro for possible application to reduce the content of microorganisms in the air of animal houses. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. were screened against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the active essential oils was tested using broth dilution assay. The essential oils concentrations ranged from 0.1-50.0%. The combined effects of essential oils were tested for Malaleuca alternifolia L. and Cymbopogon citrarus L. concentrations ranged from 0.005-50.0%. The oils showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0.1-0.5% of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. reduced total microorganisms count of Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was also revealed for Cymbopogon citrarus L. with bactericidal concentrations of 0.8% for Escherichia coli, 5.0% for Enterococcus faecium, 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal concentrations of Malaleuca alternifolia L. were 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus and Malaleuca alternifolia may be a promising alternative of air disinfection in animal houses. PMID:21739934

Mickien?, R?ta; Bakutis, Bronius; Baliukonien?, Violeta

2011-06-01

142

Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.  

PubMed

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition. PMID:23535305

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

2013-01-01

143

Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.  

PubMed

Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 ?g mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 ?g mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination. PMID:24563645

Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

2014-01-01

144

Effect of essential oils in control of plant diseases.  

PubMed

In this study, antifungal activity of some essential oils, extracted from Syzygium aromoticum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cuminum cyminum and Mentha piperita were investigated against grey mould of apple. The essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare showed considerable antifungal activities on PDA medium against Botrytis cinerea. Results indicated that the increasing of dosage of the essential oils caused to the more antifungal activity against B. cinerea in vitro condition. After 10 days, results showed that the essential oil of F. vulgare in both of the concentrations (750 and 1000 microL/L) was more effective than the essential oil of S. aromaticum against grey mould of apple and decrease the disease up to 15.5% in comparison with the check treatment (100%). After 20 days, biocontrol potential of the essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare at 1000 microL/L were more effective than the other treatments and the percentage of disease was evaluated 41.6% and 50.8%, respectively, in comparison with the check treatment (100%). PMID:20222570

Peighami-Ashnaei, S; Farzaneh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Behboudi, K

2009-01-01

145

Antibacterial effect of essential oils and interaction with food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effect of essential oils (EOs) derived from Citrus lemon, Juniperus communis, Origanum majorana, and Salvia sclarea, was investigated either alone or in combination, on 2 food related bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli). The influence of food ingredients — hydrolyzed proteins originating from animal and plant (meat extract and soy peptone)\\u000a and sucrose — on the antibacterial effect

Rentsenkhand Tserennadmid; Miklós Takó; László Galgóczy; Tamás Papp; Csaba Vágvölgyi; László Ger?; Judit Krisch

2010-01-01

146

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and chemical composition of commercial essential oils.  

PubMed

Commercially available essential oils extracted from Artemisia dracunculus L., Inula graveolens L., Lavandula officinalis Chaix, and Ocimum sanctum L. and the components of these oils were screened by the microplate assay method for determining their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The composition profiles of the oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and the relationships between the oil components and the AChE inhibitory activity of the oils were outlined. The results showed that all of the oils, except that of A. dracunculus from Hungary, exhibited AChE inhibitory activity, and the A. dracunculus oil from France showed the most potent inhibitory activity [50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) = 0.058 mg/mL]. The AChE inhibitory activity of I. graveolens oil has not been reported to date, and this study is the first to reveal this activity in the oil. Among the essential oil components, five components, namely, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, eugenol, ?-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol, showed AChE inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.015, 0.022, 0.48, 1.3, and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Eugenol, in particular, was found to be a potent AChE inhibitor along with determination of the IC(50) value, a finding that has been reported for the first time in this study. However, the ratio of the contribution of the active components, including a novel AChE inhibitor, to the observed AChE inhibitory activity of the essential oils was not very high. The results of this study raise concerns about the AChE inhibitory activity of widely produced and readily accessible commercial essential oils. PMID:19358605

Dohi, Satomi; Terasaki, Masanori; Makino, Masakazu

2009-05-27

147

Comparison between the conventional method of extraction of essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. and a novel method which uses microwaves applied in situ, without resorting to an oven.  

PubMed

A novel microwave method has been applied to the hydrothermal extraction of essential oil from plants. An insulated microwave coaxial antenna was introduced inside a 1000 ml glass flask containing dry Laurus nobilis L. leaves and tap water. Microwave power up to 800 W at 2450 MHz was emitted in continuous wave regime (CW) or in pulsed regime (PR) at 8 kW peak power. Stirring with a magnetic bar and a Clevenger refrigerator connected to the flask enabled to complete the extraction in 1 h. The results of the in situ microwave extraction were compared with those obtained by heating the same reactor with a conventional electric mantle by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Differences were observed both in the composition of the essential oil and from the energetic point of view. The essential oil obtained with microwave (MW) methods contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than conventional method. The in situ microwave heating is safe and versatile; it presents time and energy saving advantages, and therefore it can be considered useful also for industrial applications. PMID:17239898

Flamini, Guido; Tebano, Marianna; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Ceccarini, Lucia; Ricci, Andrea Simone; Longo, Iginio

2007-03-01

148

Plant essential oils as active antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Essential oils derived from plants have been recognized for decades to exhibit biological activities, including antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial attributes. Antimicrobial activities of these natural plant materials have been intensively explored in recent years, mainly in response to the overwhelming concern of consumers over the safety of synthetic food additives. Gram-negative organisms are believed to be slightly less sensitive to essential oils than Gram-positive bacteria. Generally, a higher concentration is required to obtain the same efficacy in foods than in synthetic media. The combinations of different types of essential oils or with other food additives have been found to potentially exhibit synergistic if not additive effects. This suggests a cost-efficient and wholesome alternative to both food industry and consumers, at the same time adhering to the hurdle technology in inhibiting proliferation of foodborne pathogens. This review aims to examine the conventional methods commonly used for assessment of antimicrobial activities of essential oils and phytochemicals, the use of these substances as antimicrobials in food products, factors that affect their efficacy, synergism between components or with available food preservatives as well as the challenges and future directions of using essential oils and phytochemicals as natural food preservatives. PMID:24261536

Seow, Yi Xin; Yeo, Chia Rou; Chung, Hui Ling; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

2014-01-01

149

Biochemical activities of Iranian Mentha piperita L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

GC–MS analysis of essential oils of Iranian Mentha piperita and Myrtus communis extracted by hydrodistillation lead to identification of 26 and 32 compounds, respectively. The oils had good to excellent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with the oil of M. piperita being more active. The findings suggest feasibility of application of M. piperita oil in

Davod Yadegarinia; Latif Gachkar; Mohammad Bagher Rezaei; Massoud Taghizadeh; Shakiba Alipoor Astaneh; Iraj Rasooli

2006-01-01

150

Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto

2012-01-01

151

Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

2012-11-01

152

Essential oils with microbicidal and antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. Phytochemistry studies on the plants extracts in general, and on essential oils (EOs) in particular are focused on the isolation and identification of the components of complex mixtures, in order to determine structure - activity correlations (i.e., physiological and/ or ecological roles, bases for the pharmacognosy studies). Problems as microbial resistance to existing antibiotics and the decline in the formulation of new antibiotics generated an increased interest in anti-infective herbal medicines. Some plants are known to be EOs producing, especialy superior plants, angiosperms and gymnosperms, belonging to approximately 50 families, most frequently Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Zingiberaceae, etc. The antimicrobial activity of EOs and of their components has been demonstrated on a variety of microorganisms. Our aim was to review relevant literature for identifying current research directions regarding EOs, in terms of antimicrobial effects, analysismethods and mechanisms of action. A plethora of methods have been used to test EOs antimicrobial properties concerning the microbial growth inhibition and/ or their anti-pathogenic effect. The reported methods contributed also to the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. Future research is needed for developing EOs related strategies in overlapping the multi-drug resistance and for reducing the required concentrations to achieve a particular antimicrobial and/ or antibiofilm effect to the human health benefit and/or for food safety purposes. PMID:25594290

Saviuc, Crina-Maria; Drumea, Veronica; Olariu, Laura; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazar, Veronica

2015-01-01

153

Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were ?-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and ?-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

2004-01-01

154

Tick repellent substances in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare.  

PubMed

The repellent effect of the essential oils of flower heads of the aromatic plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae), originating from Sweden, was tested against host-seeking nymphs of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation (SD) and by using an online solvent extraction separation setup. Further fractionations of the SD oils were obtained by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel. The volatiles of the essential oils and the fractions that exhibited strong tick repellency (90-100%) were collected by solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses of the oils show that the populations of T. vulgare from Uppsala and Stockholm may represent different chemotypes, but that they exhibited similar tick repellency. Main volatiles detected from oils of T. vulgare collected at Uppsala were alpha-pinene (27%), beta-pinene (11%), pinocamphone (11%), 1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-4-carboxaldehyde (11%), and 1,8-cineole (10%). In the sample collected in Stockholm, the main components were beta-thujone (39%) and camphor (23%) followed by alpha-thujone (11%) and 1,8-cineole (8%). When constituents in the oils, e.g., alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, alpha+beta-thujone, 1,8-cineol, verbenol, and verbenone, were tested separately (each diluted 0.5%, vol:vol), 64-72% tick repellency was obtained. PMID:18283947

Pålsson, Katinka; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Baeckström, Peter; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2008-01-01

155

Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.  

PubMed

The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration. PMID:12410554

Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

2002-11-01

156

Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Pelargonium roseum Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The antiseptic qualities of aromatic and medicinal plants and their extracts have been recognized since antiquity, while attempts to characterize these properties in the laboratory date back the beginning of the XXth century. In the current study essential oils obtained from Pelargonium roseum (Geraniacea) were analyzed for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the Pelargonium essential oil was tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and fungi (Candida albicans). Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. Results: Inhibition zones showed that the studied essential oils were active against all of the studied bacteria. In the case of Candida albicans, the complete inhibition of the fungus’s development was observed. In the cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus we observed an inhibition comparable to that obtained by the use of an appropriate antimicrobial substance. Conclusion: The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test, in some cases comparable with those of the reference antibiotics. There were no considerable differences between the antimicrobial activities of the oil obtained by distillation and commercially available Pelargonium oils. PMID:25671182

Carmen, Gâlea; Hancu, Gabriel

2014-01-01

157

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils: autoxidation of essential oils from laurel and fennel and effects of mixing with essential oil from coriander].  

PubMed

Changes in the composition of essential oils from the seeds of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling) and their mixture with essential oil from coriander were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography during storage in the dark and in light. Under these conditions, essential oil of laurel retained its composition for 12 months. Essential oil of fennel was rapidly oxidized in light. However, the rate of its oxidation in the dark was lower. The major component of essential oil of fennel, transanethol, had a lower antioxidant activity than essential oil of coriander. The mixture of essential oils from laurel and coriander possessed antioxidant properties and strongly inhibited the oxidation of components of the fennel oil. PMID:16358762

Misharina, T A; Polshkov, A N

2005-01-01

158

Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component. PMID:15839484

Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

2005-01-01

159

Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.  

PubMed

The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean live weight: 42.9kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests. PMID:25454470

Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

2014-10-22

160

Optimisation of steam extraction of oil from maritime pine needles S.A. REZZOUG  

E-print Network

15; fax: 33(5) 46 45 86 16; e-mail : sarezzou@univ-lr.fr Abstract Essential oil from pine maritime. INTRODUCTION Essential oil is any class of volatile oil of complex hydrocarbons, mainly terpenes and some other. Essential oils extracted from plants such as pines are used as fragrances in cosmetics, flavouring additives

Boyer, Edmond

161

Essential Oil of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) of Canadian Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils and microwave extracts obtained from 25 individual plants of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) occurring in the Chicoutimi area (Quebec) were examined by a combination of GC and GC\\/MS. Several chemotypes were observed, two of them probably for the first time. Half of the plants belong to a camphor-1,8-cineole-borneol (concentration >52%) mixed chemotype. The ?-thujone chemotype (>60%) was

Guy J. Collin; Hélène Deslauriers; Nathalie Pageau; Michel Gagnon

1993-01-01

162

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L.  

PubMed

The need for a reduction in drug resistance led to the investigation of Argemone Mexicana L. as an agent against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea and Candida torulopsis, using well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations methods. The sensitivity of Bacillus Subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oils of both the aerial and root parts were determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to the essential oil from both the aerial and root part of the plant. C. torulopsis, C. stellatoidea and C. albicans were susceptible to the essential oils from the aerial and root part of the plant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 3.75 mg/ml and 4.0 mg/ml were recorded for Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae by the aerial and the root extracts, but P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were not susceptible to the aerial and root extracts. The observed inhibition of selected bacteria and fungi by oils of Physalis angulata makes it a promising antimicrobial agent. This study justifies its uses for treatment of sores, cuts, intestinal and digestive problems and some skin-diseases often reported in folkloric medicine. PMID:21731161

Osho, A; Adetunji, T; Fayemi, S O; Moronkola, D O

2010-01-01

163

Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

164

Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Thai Spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and the antioxidant power of the essential oils from spice plants commonly used in Thai food. Fresh samples of eleven different plant species were extracted and the essential oil of each was obtained by hydrodistillation. The tyrosinase inhibitory test was performed by using mushroom tyrosinase. The inhibitory power

Kiattisak Saeio; Songwut Yotsawimonwat; Siriporn Okonogi

165

Compositions and antifungal activities of essential oils of some Algerian aromatic plants.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from ten Algerian plants were analyzed for their potential activity against Candida albicans. The highest efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus numidicus which showed antifungal effect 1357 fold stronger than that measured with amphotericin B. PMID:18164558

Giordani, Roger; Hadef, Youcef; Kaloustian, Jacques

2008-04-01

166

Feeding Essential Oils and 2-Heptanone in Sugar Syrup and Protein Diets to Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) as Potential Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor) Controls and Traced by SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) Fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils and oil components were fed to honey bees in a sugar syrup and liquid protein diet in order to determine if the oils were being incorporated into the bee larvae and could be traced by means of SPME. The compounds used were origanum, 2-heptanone, thymol and connamon oil. The main com...

167

Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Pituranthos chloranthus essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOS-chromotest in Escherichia coli is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work is to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Pituranthos chloranthus. The tested essential oils were not genotoxic towards both E. coli PQ37 and PQ35 strains. These essential oils reduced significantly Nifuroxazide

A. Neffati; I. Bouhlel; M. Ben Sghaier; J. Boubaker; I. Limem; S. Kilani; I. Skandrani; W. Bhouri; J. Le Dauphin; D. Barillier; R. Mosrati; L. Chekir-Ghedira; K. Ghedira

2009-01-01

168

Impact of lemongrass oil, an essential oil, on serum cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that non-sterol mevalonate pathway end products lower serum cholesterol levels, we asked 22 hypercholesterolemic\\u000a subjects (315±9 mg cholesterol\\/dl) to take a daily capsule containing 140 mg of lemongrass oil, an essential oil rich in geraniol\\u000a and citral. The paired difference in serum cholesterol levels of subjects completing the 90-day study approached significance\\u000a (P<0.06, 2-tailed t-test). The

C. E. Elsona; G. L. Underbakkel; P. Hanson; E. Shrago; R. H. Wainberg; A. A. Qureshi

1989-01-01

169

In vitro effects of Artemisia dracunculus essential oil on ruminal and abomasal smooth muscle in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, essential oils have been substituted for synthetic antibiotics in improving rumen fermentation and animal performance.\\u000a When ingested, along with their positive properties, some adverse effects may also be observed in animals. This study was\\u000a primarily aimed at investigating the effects of the essential oils extracted from Artemisia dracunculus (EOAD) on ruminal and abomasal smooth muscle. EOAD was extracted using

Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin; Massoud Maham; Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh; Farshad Kheiri

170

[Effect of conditions and duration of storage on composition of essential oil from coriander seeds].  

PubMed

The composition of volatile components of the essential oil extracted from seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) grown in different years in either Russia or Georgia was studied by capillary gas chromatography. Climatic conditions had a weaker effect on the essential oil composition than the region of growth. After one-year storage in the dark, minor changes were observed in the oil composition, and its organoleptic properties were virtually unchanged. However, the essential oil underwent significant chemical transformation of monoterpenes when stored in the light. PMID:11771329

Misharina, T A

2001-01-01

171

The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

2014-01-01

172

Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.  

PubMed

The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. PMID:24702542

Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

2015-02-01

173

Direct enantiomeric analysis of Mentha essential oils.  

PubMed

A rapid and fully automated screening of chiral compounds in essential oils, aimed to the selection of natural sources of pure enantiomers of limonene and carvone, is performed by using on-line coupled reversed phase liquid chromatography with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (RPLC-GC-MS). Essential oils obtained from Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita were analysed by direct injection into RPLC. The reported procedure includes fractionation and clean-up in RPLC, selection of the fraction to be transferred from RPLC to GC, trapping and concentration of the target compounds in the interface, thermal desorption and, finally, enantiomeric resolution and identification of chiral compounds by GC-MS. The presence of (S)-limonene and (R)-carvone as the unique enantiomeric forms existing for both compounds could be unambiguously established by transferring different volume fractions from RPLC to GC. Data obtained demonstrate high separation efficiency and well tunable selectivity in the on-line coupled RPLC-GC-MS analysis of chiral compounds. PMID:23768391

Barba, Carmen; Santa-María, Guillermo; Herraiz, Marta; Martínez, Rosa M

2013-11-01

174

The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius from Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was extracted using the hydrodistillation method. The oil yield obtained was 0.65%. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the major constituents of the essential oil were sabinene, ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, ?-pinene, terpinene-4-ol, trans-?-ocimene and myrcene. Using the hole-plate diffusion testing

M. Gundidza; N. Gweru; M. L. Magwa; V. Mmbengwa; A. Samie

2009-01-01

175

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p?oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30?min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. PMID:25280938

Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

2014-10-01

176

Influence of the Duration and Conditions of Storage on the Composition of the Essential Oil from Coriander Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of volatile components of the essential oil extracted from seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativumL.) grown in different years in either Russia or Georgia was studied by capillary gas chromatography. Climatic conditions had a weaker effect on the essential oil composition than the region of growth. After one-year storage in the dark, minor changes were observed in the oil

T. A. Misharina

2001-01-01

177

Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were ...

178

Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study  

PubMed Central

Background Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400–600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000–7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to cancer cell death. While frankincense essential oil elicited selective cancer cell death via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress, sandalwood essential oil induced non-selective cell death via DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. PMID:25006348

2014-01-01

179

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils.  

PubMed

The present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L. The chemical profile of each essential oil was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M. piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10,240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity [expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values, respectively], that were considerably higher than those of the commercial fungicide bifonazole. The essential oils of M. piperita and M. longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M. aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M. piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M. piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 % (IC50 = 2.53 microg/mL). The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica. PMID:12802721

Mimica-Duki?, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Sokovi?, Marina; Mihajlovi?, Biserka; Matavulj, Milan

2003-05-01

180

Effects of Mentha longifolia essential oil on ruminal and abomasal longitudinal smooth muscle in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha longifolia is grown commercially for production of oils and leaves. For centuries, this plant has widely been used traditionally as a folk remedy for treatment of human and ruminant gastrointestinal complaints in the Northwest of Iran. The essential oil of the plant was extracted using hydrodistillation. In the present study a total of 12 constituents, representing 96.6% of the

Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin; Massoud Maham; Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh; Farshad Kheiri

2012-01-01

181

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

182

Preparation and Characterization of Liposomes Containing Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaf  

PubMed Central

Background The increased incidence of fungal resistance has necessitated the need to search for new antifungal agents. Objective The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on dermatophytes growth and to formulate and characterize a liposomal gel loaded with the essential oil. Materials and Methods The essential oil extracted from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was analyzed by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of this essential oil was determined against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. verrucosum, using the well diffusion method. Liposomes were prepared by the freeze-thaw method and evaluation of size distribution was performed using a particle size analyzer. The liposomal gel was prepared using ‘hydroxethyl cellulose (HEC) as the gelling agent. The rheologic characteristics were determined by a Brookfield viscometer. Results The results showed that the minimum inhibitory volume of the essential oil was 0.125 ml and 95 ± 0.57% of the essential oil was successfully entrapped in the liposomes. The main constituents of the essential oil detected by GC-MS were; phenol, 1, 8 cineole, limonene, alcohol, pinene and terpinen. Results of particle size determination showed a wide range from 40.5 to 298 nm for the different formulations. No significant thixotropy was observed in the rheogram of the formulated liposomal gel. Conclusion Liposomal gel formulation of the essential oil may lead to improved antifungal activity. PMID:24624167

Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Ramezani, Zahra; Handali, Somayeh

2012-01-01

183

In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent. PMID:23569981

Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hoseini, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

2012-01-01

184

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.  

PubMed

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

2014-11-01

185

In vitro biological activity and essential oil composition of four indigenous South African Helichrysum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum species are used widely to treat various medical conditions. In this study, the anti-microbial, anti-oxidant (DPPH assay) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase assay) of Helichrysum dasyanthum, Helichrysum felinum, Helichrysum excisum and Helichrysum petiolare were investigated. The essential oil compositions of these species were determined. The acetone and methanol extracts as well as the essential oils exhibited activity against Gram-positive bacteria,

A. C. U. Lourens; D. Reddy; K. H. C. Ba?er; A. M. Viljoen; S. F. Van Vuuren

2004-01-01

186

The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.  

PubMed

The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes. PMID:20433090

Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

2010-04-01

187

Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising. PMID:15612768

Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S; De Marco, Adriana; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

2004-12-29

188

Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The main components of C. cyminum oil were p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al, cumin aldehyde, Á-terpinene, and ‚-pinene, while those of the C. carvi oil were carvone, limonene, germacrene D, and trans-dihydrocarvone. Antibacterial activity, determined with the agar diffusion

Nicola S. Iacobellis; Pietro Lo Cantore; Francesco Capasso; Felice Senatore

2005-01-01

189

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants were evaluated in vitro and in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1,000 mul/liter. At this concentration, most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Essential oils of Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha rotundifolia, and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. These oils and those from Origanum vulgare, O. syriacum, and Coridothymus capitatus mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the root galling of cucumber seedlings in pot experiments. The main components of these essential oils were tested for their nematicidal activity. Carvacrol, t-anethole, thymol, and (+)-carvone immobilized the juveniles and inhibited hatching at >125 mul/liter in vitro. Most of these components mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 75 and 150 mg/kg reduced root galling of cucumber seedlings. In 3-liter pot experiments, nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides. PMID:18944489

Oka, Y; Nacar, S; Putievsky, E; Ravid, U; Yaniv, Z; Spiegel, Y

2000-07-01

190

Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of some essential oils against Ephestia kuehniella.  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of some essential oils extracted from aromatic plants (savory, Satureja thymbra L.; Turkish oregano, Origanum onites L.; myrtle, Myrtus communis L.; marjoram, Origanum majorana L.; laurel, Laurus nobilis L.; lemon, Citrus limon L.; sticky goosefoot, Chenopodium botrys L.; and tansy, Tanecetum armenum [DC.] Suchultz Bip.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fumigant toxicity of volatile compounds was tested against Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), eggs and adults. Percentage of mortality and longevity of E. kuehniella adults were estimated after essential oil treatments. LC50 and LC99 values were determined for each exposure time for each essential oil. Marjoram and lemon oils were the most effective of all the essential oils tested. The major components were linalool, 1.8-cineole, citral, 2-(4a.8-dimethyl-1.2.3.4.4a.5.6.7-octahydro-naphthalen-2-yl)-prop-2-en-l-ol, and p-cymene for marjoram, laurel, lemon, goosefoot, and tansy, respectively. The LC50 and LC99 values were estimated as 3.27 and 5.13 microl liter(-1) air for marjoram and 4.05 and 5.57 microl liter(-1) air for lemon essential oils at the longest exposure time. Decreasing longevity effect of marjoram and lemon was more prominent compared with other essential oils. We suggest that essential oils obtained from certain aromatic plants have potential as fumigants for stored product pests. PMID:21882685

Karabörklü, Salih; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Yilmaz, Semih; Akbulut, Mikail

2011-08-01

191

Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.  

PubMed

The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins. PMID:18706468

Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

2008-10-01

192

Mass propagation and essential oil analysis of Artemisia vulgaris.  

PubMed

Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) is a threatened and valuable medicinal plant. Attempts have been made in this research to mass propagate its plantlets through in vitro liquid culture technology using Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-benzyl adenine (BA) (0.44-8.88 microM). Initially, 22.6 shoots (99.9% shooting frequency) developed from shoot tip explants cultured in MS with 4.44 microM BA at 100 ml flask capacity. This was further subcultured at increasing flask capacity (150, 250, and 500 ml) for shoot proliferation. Of the different concentrations of BA and flask capacities tested, 4.44 microM BA and 500 ml flask capacity were found to produce a maximum of 85.5 shoots after 30 d of culture. Shoot proliferation was found to increase with increasing flask capacity whereas shoot number decreased with increasing BA concentration (>4.44 microM). Individual shoots were isolated and rooted on MS medium containing 8.56 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Then the plantlets were acclimatized under standard laboratory conditions and later under greenhouse conditions. Fresh leaves were collected from greenhouse-grown plants and subjected to essential oil analysis by the simultaneous distillation and extraction method. GC-MS results revealed the presence of 88 components and the extracted oil was rich in camphor (16.8%), alpha-thujone (11.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), camphene (6.5%), 1,8-cineole (5.8%) and beta-caryophyllene (5.4%). This in vitro strategy can be a reliable method for the steady production of a large number of plants for essential oil production, which is reported for the first time for A. vulgaris. PMID:18397765

Govindaraj, Sujatha; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido

2008-03-01

193

Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ?-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure. Volatile terpenes in essential oils, which could influence milk flavor, are transferred into milk via both gastrointestinal and respiratory exposure. PMID:23628249

Lejonklev, J; Løkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

2013-07-01

194

Effect of a Diffused Essential Oil Blend on Bacterial Bioaerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thieves, a commercial blend of five essential oils, was tested for its antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosols. An aerosol suspension of each bacterial culture was sprayed into a 0.4 m enclosed fume hood previously sterilized by ultraviolet light. Thieves essential oil blend was then diffused into the hood for a given time. Depositional sampling

Sue C. Chao; D. Gary Young; Craig J. Oberg

1998-01-01

195

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

196

Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Ocimum sanctum and eugenol, tested in vitro, showed potent anthelmintic activity in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Eugenol exhibited an ED50 of 62.1 ?g\\/ml. Eugenol being the predominant component of the essential oil, is suggested as the putative anthelmintic principle.

M. K. Asha; D. Prashanth; B. Murali; R. Padmaja; A. Amit

2001-01-01

197

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

198

Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Pituranthos chloranthus essential oils.  

PubMed

The SOS-chromotest in Escherichia coli is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work is to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Pituranthos chloranthus. The tested essential oils were not genotoxic towards both E. coli PQ37 and PQ35 strains. These essential oils reduced significantly Nifuroxazide and H(2)O(2)-induced genotoxicity. Essential oils showed a protective effect against damages induced by radicals, obtained from the photolysis of H(2)O(2), on DNA plasmid through free radical scavenging mechanisms. The scavenging capacity of these essential oils was also estimated by evaluating the inhibition of ABTS(+.) radical. PMID:21783938

Neffati, A; Bouhlel, I; Ben Sghaier, M; Boubaker, J; Limem, I; Kilani, S; Skandrani, I; Bhouri, W; Le Dauphin, J; Barillier, D; Mosrati, R; Chekir-Ghedira, L; Ghedira, K

2009-03-01

199

Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.  

SciTech Connect

The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2003-08-01

200

Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements of Mexican Citrus Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Methodology in the Transmission Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic methodology in the transmission configuration (PMTC) was used to study the thermophysical properties and their relation with the composition in Mexican citrus essential oils providing the viability of using photothermal techniques for quality control and for authentication of oils and their adulteration. Linear relations for the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample's thickness, for the PMTC was obtained through a theoretical model fit to the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in Mexican orange, pink grapefruit, mandarin, lime type A, centrifuged essential oils, and Mexican distilled lime essential oil. Gas chromatography for distilled lime essential oil and centrifuged lime essential oil type A is reported to complement the study. Experimental results showed close thermal-diffusivity values between Mexican citrus essential oils obtained by centrifugation, but a significant difference of this physical property for distilled lime oil and the corresponding value obtained by centrifugation, which is due to their different chemical compositions involved with the extraction processes.

Muñoz, G. A. López; González, R. F. López; López, J. A. Balderas; Martínez-Pérez, L.

2011-05-01

201

Effect of salt, drought and metal stress on essential oil yield and quality in plants.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from plants is of high commercial value in medicine, cosmetics and perfumery. Enhancing yield and maintaining the quality of oil is of significant commercial importance. Production of oil in plants is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors to which the plants are subjected during their growth. Plants are exposed to various degrees of stress on account of natural and human-induced factors. Salinization, drought and presence of heavy metals in the substratum cause substantial effect on the yield and quality of bioactive constituents in the oil. In many plants, the level and kind of stress have detrimental effects on the growth and development. This review provides an account of the studies on some common abiotic stresses to which essential oil plants are exposed during their growth period and their influence on quality and quantity of oil. The yield and quality vary in different plants and so is the response. Enhancing essential oil productivity is an important challenge, and understanding the role played by stress may offer significant advantages to the essential oil farmers and processing industry. Scientific evaluation of the data on many important but unexplored essential oil plants will also help in mitigating, ameliorating and minimizing the harmful effects caused by stress. PMID:22164806

Biswas, Shreyasee; Koul, Monika; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

2011-10-01

202

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague: chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activities of respective fractions.  

PubMed

Resistance to antibacterial agents has become a serious problem for global health. The current study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and respective fractions of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague. Seeds of the essential oil were extracted and fractionated using column chromatography. All fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the oil and its fractions were assessed using microdilution method. Compounds ?-terpinene (48.07%), ?-cymene (33.73%), and thymol (17.41%) were determined as major constituents. The effect of fraction II was better than total essential oil, fraction I, and standard thymol. The greater effect of fraction II compared to standard thymol showed the synergistic effects of the ingredients in this fraction. As this fraction and also total oil were effective on the studied microorganism, the combination of these products with current antimicrobial agents could be considered as new antimicrobial compounds in further investigations. PMID:25305209

Moein, Mahmoodreza R; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Yavari, Farnoosh; Motamedi, Marjan; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

2015-01-01

203

[Oregano essential oil as an inhibitor of higher fatty acid oxidation].  

PubMed

Inhibition of the oxidation of fatty acids methyl esters by oregano essential oil was studied using capillary gas chromatography. A mixture of fatty acids which contained saturated, mono-, di-, and polyunsaturated acids with 16-24 carbon atoms was extracted from mice brain. Changes in the composition of esters in hexane solutions both in the presence of oregano essential oil and without it were examined during their autooxidation in light for 1 year. It was found that the oxidation rate of unsaturated fatty acids increases with increasing degree of their unsaturation. Oregano essential oil inhibited the oxidation process. Antioxidant activity of the oil increased with increase of its concentration. It was shown that carvacrol and thymol are the main antioxidant components of oregano oil. PMID:21950127

Terenina, M B; Misharina, T A; Krikunova, N I; Alinkina, E S; Fatkulina, L D; Vorob'eva, A K

2011-01-01

204

Shelf life of meat from lambs given essential oil-free rosemary extract containing carnosic acid plus carnosol at 200 or 400 mg kg?¹.  

PubMed

The use of dietary rosemary extract (DRE) at low doses is proposed as a nutritional strategy to improve meat preservation. Lamb diet was supplemented with 0, 200 or 400mg DRE (containing carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w) per kg feed during the fattening stage. Meat quality was evaluated in lamb fillets packed under protective atmosphere and kept in retail conditions for up to 14 days. The effects of diet and storage time were determined on different physical-chemical (L*a*b* color, pH, TBARS, protein oxidation and volatiles from lipid oxidation), microbial (total viable and psychrophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeasts) and sensory (appearance and odor) characteristics of the meat. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of DRE on meat were demonstrated. DRE delayed lean and fat discoloration, lipid oxidation, odor deterioration and microbial spoilage, extending the shelf life time of fillets from around 9 to 13 days. Both DRE doses provided similar shelf life extension. PMID:24412737

Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Jordán, María José; Bañón, Sancho

2014-04-01

205

Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.  

PubMed

To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products. PMID:16161028

Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

2005-07-01

206

Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

Compton, L. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

207

Essential oils--their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and effect on intestinal cell viability.  

PubMed

Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate possible harmful effects of four commonly used essential oils and their major components on intestinal cells. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts against enteroinvasive Escherichia coli was dose dependent. However, doses of essential oils with the ability to completely inhibit bacterial growth (0.05%) showed also relatively high cytotoxicity to intestinal-like cells cultured in vitro. Lower doses of essential oils (0.01%) had only partial antimicrobial activity and their damaging effect on Caco-2 cells was only modest. Cell death assessment based on morphological and viability staining followed by fluorescence microscopy showed that essential oils of cinnamon and clove and their major component eugenol had almost no cytotoxic effect at lower doses. Although essential oil of oregano and its component carvacrol slightly increased the incidence of apoptotic cell death, they showed extensive antimicrobial activity even at lower concentrations. Relatively high cytotoxicity was demonstrated by thyme oil, which increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death incidence. In contrast, its component thymol showed no cytotoxic effect as well as greatly-reduced ability to inhibit visible growth of the chosen pathogen in the doses used. On the other hand, the addition of all essential oils and their components at lower doses, with the exception of thyme oil, to bacterial suspension significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect of E. coli on Caco-2 cells after 1h culture. In conclusion, it is possible to find appropriate doses of essential oils showing both antimicrobial activity and very low detrimental effect on intestinal cells. PMID:16919909

Fabian, Dusan; Dusan, Fabian; Sabol, Marián; Marián, Sabol; Domaracká, Katarína; Katarína, Domaracká; Bujnáková, Dobroslava; Dobroslava, Bujnáková

2006-12-01

208

Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).  

PubMed

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used. PMID:24005011

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

2013-01-01

209

Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components  

PubMed Central

Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

2012-01-01

210

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

2012-01-01

211

Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats.  

PubMed

Essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. In the present study, the essential oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which is commercially used in soap, toothpaste and cosmetics, was extracted. Essential oil extracted from C. obtusa contains several types of terpenes, which have been shown to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil in vivo and in vitro following the induction of inflammation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats. While LPS induced an inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs), these levels were reduced when essential oil was pre-administered. Additionally, the mechanism of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil was investigated by measuring the mRNA expression of inflammation?associated genes. LPS treatment significantly induced the expression of transforming growth factor ? (TNF?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rats, while C. obtusa essential oil inhibited this effect. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. obtusa essential oil exerts anti?inflammatory effects by regulating the production of PGE2 and TNF? gene expression through the COX-2 pathway. These findings suggest that C. obtusa essential oil may constitute a novel source of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23652412

An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Hong-Seok; Choi, In-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jin; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2013-07-01

212

Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569733

Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

2011-01-01

213

Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

2000-10-15

214

Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.  

PubMed

The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation. PMID:21660258

Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

2011-01-01

215

Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation. PMID:21660258

Furletti, V. F.; Teixeira, I. P.; Obando-Pereda, G.; Mardegan, R. C.; Sartoratto, A.; Figueira, G. M.; Duarte, R. M. T.; Rehder, V. L. G.; Duarte, M. C. T.; Höfling, J. F.

2011-01-01

216

Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.  

PubMed

The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

2013-12-01

217

Comparative chemical study and cytotoxic activity of Uvariodendron angustifolium essential oils from Benin.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the chemical composition of volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, bark and roots of Uvariodendron angustifolium (Engl. & Diels) R. E. Fries. The essential oils, obtained with yields between 0.12 and 0.66%, were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. A great variability in the chemical composition was observed depending on the plant part treated. The essential oils obtained from leaves and stems contained mainly neral (29.7-30.5%) and geranial (42.9-47.3%), while methyl eugenol was the major component of the volatile extracts from bark (68.3%) and roots (85.3%). Interesting cytotoxic properties of these essential oils on human breast cancer cells MCF-7 were demonstrated. PMID:24689305

Noudogbessi, Jean-Pierre; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Adomou, Aristide; Adjalian, Elvis; Alitonou, Guy Alain; Avlessi, Félicien; Garcia, Marcel; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K; Menut, Chantal

2014-02-01

218

Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)  

PubMed Central

The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

Crockett, Sara L.

2010-01-01

219

Interspecific differences in the constituents of essential oils of Cymbopogon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography of essential oils ofCymbopogon showed striking interspecific differences in their major constituents. The two species of lemongrass,C. flexuosus andC. pendulus contained large amounts of citral while the citronella grass species,C. nardus andC. winterianus showed comparable amounts of geraniol, citronellal and citronellol. The essential oil ofC. martini was composed only of geraniol and citronellol and was therefore quite different

G Rajendrudu; V S Rama Das

1983-01-01

220

Essential oil compositions of Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF from Iran.  

PubMed

Aerial parts of aromatic grass, Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF, were collected at flowering stage from Kerman province of Iran. The essential oil of air dried samples obtained by hydro-distillation method. The compositions of the essential oil were determined by the use of GC and GC-MS. Nineteen (98.7%) constituents were identified. The main constituents were piperitone (80.8%), germacrene-D (5.1%), santolinyl acetate (2.1%) and alpha-eudesmol (2.1%). PMID:19090178

Bagheri, R; Mohamadi, S; Abkar, A; Fazlollahi, A

2007-10-01

221

Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds) were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%), carvacrol (7.6–52.3%), and ?-terpinene (3–11.4%). Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging and ?-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas has most antioxidant activity in ?-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1 ± 0.1??g/mL and 96.1 ± 0.8% inhibition rate, resp.). PMID:21876714

Amiri, Hamzeh

2012-01-01

222

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens. PMID:23444311

Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

2013-12-01

223

Effects of essential oil of Croton zehntneri, and of anethole and estragole on skeletal muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (CzEO) yield a mixture of substances in which the major components are anethole and estragole. The action of CzEO and of pure anethole and estragole (at 0.05–1.0 mg\\/ml) were studied in muscle preparations of the toad and rat. All three oils blocked twitches evoked by nerve stimulation. In the rat diaphragm direct

Aline Alice C. Albuquerque; Albert Lee Sorenson; JoséHenrique Leal-Cardoso

1995-01-01

224

Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus  

PubMed Central

The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

2013-01-01

225

Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

2010-10-01

226

Investigation of the Essential Oil of Erigeron acris L. Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from Erigeron acris L. obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS techniques. Over 60 compounds were identified, representing 92.6% of the total components. The major constituents of the oil were monoterpenoid hydrocarbons [limonene, ?-pinene, (E)-?-ocimene] and sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons [?-muurolen, germacrene D, (E)-?-farnesene].

Jolanta Nazaruk; Jan Gudej; Teresa Majda; Jozef Góra

2006-01-01

227

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

228

TLC-direct bioautography for determination of antibacterial activity of Artemisia adamsii essential oil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was the chemical characterization of the essential oil of a Mongolian medicinal plant, Artemisia adamsii Besser, and the investigation of the antibacterial effect of its oil on different human pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and S. epidermidis). The chemical composition of the oil was established by GC and GC/MS. Direct bioautography was used for detecting the antibacterial activity of the essential oil. The result of GC experiments showed that a-thujone was the main component (64.4%) of the oil, while the amount of beta-thujone was 7.1%. 1,8-Cineole seemed to be the other relevant component (15.2%). The antibacterial activity of the A. adamsii essential oil against all three investigated bacteria was observed in the bioautographic system, but this effect was not proportional to the concentrations of a- or beta-thujone; therefore, from a microbiological aspect, thujone content does not determine the medicinal value of this oil. On the whole, the combination of TLC separation with biological detection is an appropriate method for evaluating multicomponent and hydrophobic plant extracts, for instance, essential oils, and it provides more reliable results than traditional microbiological methods (e.g., disc diffusion and agar plate techniques). PMID:24645495

Horváth, Györgyi; Acs, Kamilla; Kocsis, Béla

2013-01-01

229

Classification of Amazonian rosewood essential oil by Raman spectroscopy and PLS-DA with reliability estimation.  

PubMed

The Amazon tree Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (rosewood) provides an essential oil valuable for the perfume industry, but after decades of predatory extraction it is at risk of extinction. The extraction of the essential oil from wood implies the cutting of the tree, and then the study of oil extracted from the leaves is important as a sustainable alternative. The goal of this study was to test the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) as means to classify the essential oil extracted from different parties (wood, leaves and branches) of the Brazilian tree A. rosaeodora. For the development of classification models, the Raman spectra were split into two sets: training and test. The value of the limit that separates the classes was calculated based on the distribution of samples of training. This value was calculated in a manner that the classes are divided with a lower probability of incorrect classification for future estimates. The best model presented sensitivity and specificity of 100%, predictive accuracy and efficiency of 100%. These results give an overall vision of the behavior of the model, but do not give information about individual samples; in this case, the confidence interval for each sample of classification was also calculated using the resampling bootstrap technique. The methodology developed have the potential to be an alternative for standard procedures used for oil analysis and it can be employed as screening method, since it is fast, non-destructive and robust. PMID:24209345

Almeida, Mariana R; Fidelis, Carlos H V; Barata, Lauro E S; Poppi, Ronei J

2013-12-15

230

Enzyme-assisted hexane extraction of soya bean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzymatic treatment with carbohydrases was performed either simultaneously with or prior to the hexane extraction of oil from soya grits. The enzymatic treatment increased the oil extractability by 5% of the extractable oil when it was carried out simultaneously with the oil extraction and 8–10% if the treatment was carried out prior to the solvent extraction. For this latter

H. Domínguez; M. J. Núñez; J. M. Lema

1995-01-01

231

Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

Bellik, Yuva

2014-01-01

232

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: Phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus

M. Tognolini; E. Barocelli; V. Ballabeni; R. Bruni; A. Bianchi; M. Chiavarini; M. Impicciatore

2006-01-01

233

Potential allelopathic activity of Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet is a widespread Mediterranean Lamiacea. Essential oils from S. italica flowerheads and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation and then tested for their potential allelopathic activity against Raphanus sativus L. (Magnoliophyta) and the moss Tortula muralis (Hedw.) (Bryophyta), two organisms already tested for allelopathy, and against two bryophytes growing in the same environment as S.

A. Basile; R. C. Cobianchi; D. Rigano; F. Senatore; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; B. Conte; S. Sorbo

2011-01-01

234

Controlled Release of Perfumes from Polymers. II. Incorporation and Release of Essential Oils  

E-print Network

Controlled Release of Perfumes from Polymers. II. Incorporation and Release of Essential Oils from lead to newfor release of essential oils, perfumes, deodorants, and innovative products for prolonged

Peppas, Nicholas A.

235

The essential oil of Bupleurum fruticosum L. from Corsica: a comprehensive study.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis of Bupleurum fruticosum oil was carried out by combination of GC (RI), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR analyses. After fractionation by column chromatography, 34 components accounting for 97.8% of the oils were identified. The main component was beta-phellandrene (67.7%), followed by sabinene (9.3%), and limonene (5.6%). The evolution of the chemical composition according to the stages of development of the plant was investigated as well as the composition of leaf, twig, and flower oils. A solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of aerial parts was carried out and the composition of the extract compared with that of the essential oil. Finally, 57 oil samples isolated from aerial parts of individual plants, collected all around Corsica, were analyzed, and the data were submitted to statistical analysis. Although the contents of the main components varied, only one group emerged, accompanied with some atypical compositions. PMID:20020456

Liu, Kai; Lota, Marie Laure; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

2009-12-01

236

The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.  

PubMed

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection. PMID:15555788

Edwards-Jones, V; Buck, R; Shawcross, S G; Dawson, M M; Dunn, K

2004-12-01

237

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

238

Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as "biocides" is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides), the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%-42%), linalool (<0.1%-56%), a-pinene (3%-17%), b-pinene (4%-31%), and (E)-nerolidol (0.1%-20%). Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration. PMID:23579997

Sakhanokho, Hamidou F; Sampson, Blair J; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Demirci, Betul; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M; Becnel, James J; Chen, Jian; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Spiers, James M

2013-01-01

239

Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare antimicrobial effects of essential oils alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum. The essential oils included cinnamon, tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifola), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), Leptospermum morrisonii, arnica, eucalyptus, grapefruit, the essential oil mouthrinse Cool Mint Listerine and two of its components, menthol and thymol. Cinnamon exhibited the greatest antimicrobial potency (1.25-2.5 mg/ml). Manuka, L. morrisonii, tea-tree oils, and thymol also showed antimicrobial potency but to a lesser extent. The combination effect of the essential oil-chlorhexidine was greater against biofilm cultures of both S. mutans and L. plantarum than against planktonic cultures. The amount of chlorhexidine required to achieve an equivalent growth inhibition against the biofilm cultures was reduced 4-10-fold in combination with cinnamon, manuka, L. morrisonii, thymol, and Listerine. We conclude that there may be a role for essential oils in the development of novel anticaries treatments. PMID:15943766

Filoche, S K; Soma, K; Sissons, C H

2005-08-01

240

The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

Sienkiewicz, Monika; G?owacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jó?wiak-B?benista, Marta; Lysakowska, Monika

2014-01-01

241

Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi  

PubMed Central

Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p?=?0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid. PMID:24885682

2014-01-01

242

Analysis of the essential oil components from different Carum copticum L. samples from Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The family Apiaceae is defined with the diversity of essential oil. Fruits of Ajwain (Carum copticum), a famous herb of Apiaceae, accumulate up to 5% essential oil which is remarked as important natural product for food and flavoring industry, as well as pharmacological approaches. It is believed that differences in essential oil profile in a certain plant are resulted from various cultivation situations and locations, time of cultivation and also different extracting method. Objective: Present study aimed to evaluate major components of ten different collected Ajwain samples from random cultivation locations of Iran. Materials and Methods: Samples were individually subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus for the extraction of essential oil. GC/MS analysis for samples was carried out using Agilent technologies model 7890A gas chromatograph with a mass detector. Results: The yield of extracted essential oil was calculated as 2.2 to 4.8% (v/w) for ten samples. Major oil components were thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene. Five of ten samples have thymol as the main component with amount of 35.04 to 63.31%. On the other hand, for four samples, para-cymene was major with amount of 40.20 to 57.31% and one sample had gamma-terpinene as main constituent containing 37.43% of total oil. Accordingly, three different chemotypes, thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene can be speculated from collected samples. Conclusion: While these components possess pharmacological effect, screening of different chemotypes not only represent the effect of cultivation situations and locations but also can be beneficial in further investigation. PMID:24497745

Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Petramfar, Peyman; Moein, Mahmoodreza

2014-01-01

243

[Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].  

PubMed

The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

2014-01-01

244

Evaluation of climatic factors on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Myrocarpus frondosus.  

PubMed

The species Myrocarpus frondosus is native to southern Brazil, and it is known as cabreúva. It is a large tree, and its wood is used as a reservoir for distilled spirits, especially Cachaça. In this pioneering work, the essential oil was extracted monthly from the leaves of M. frondosus, for a period of 1 year. The essential oil was extracted by using hydrodistillation and the determination of the chemical composition of essential oil was performed by using the chromatographic techniques GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil and bicyclogermacrene was the major compound. Through multivariate analysis, it was determined that ?-caryophyllene, limonene and terpinen-4-ol were directly proportional to climatic factors. The yield of the oil was directly proportional to temperature and radiation. PMID:25421822

Cabrera, D C; Gomes, G L S; Flach, A; da Costa, L A M A; Rosa, G R; de Moura, N F

2014-11-25

245

[Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].  

PubMed

Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil. PMID:17396950

Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

1982-10-01

246

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Amorpha canescens Pursh.  

PubMed

The essential oils from inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Amorpha canescens Pursh were analysed by GC, GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 100 compounds were identified. Germacrene D (43.6%) and germacrene D-4-ol (8.3%) were the main constituents in the fruit oil. The oil from inflorescences contained mainly ?-elemol (29.4%) and germacrene D (14.6%), whereas the leaf oil contained germacrene D (30.3%), germacrene D-4-ol (10.9%) and ?-elemol (10.1%). PMID:25452264

Lis, Anna; Adamczewska, Anna; Banaszczak, Piotr

2014-01-01

247

COMPARISONS OF ADULT REPELLENCY AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST MOSQUITOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils including thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil and cinnamon oil were studied on three mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens. The repellency of the selected essential oils to female bl...

248

Response of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to potential insecticide derived from essential oil of Mentha arvensis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Mentha arvensis L. was extracted by water distillation method and the insecticidal properties of M. arvensis were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The oil showed repellency and toxicity against T. castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The result revealed that this essential oil strongly repels T. castaneum and S. oryzae even at low concentration, but

Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra; S. P. Tripathi; C. P. M. Tripathi

2012-01-01

249

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.  

PubMed

The beneficial health effects of extracts from many types of plants that are used as seasoning agents in foods and beverages have been claimed for centuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected herb and spice essential oils for control of growth and survival of microorganisms. Inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility discs were used as control. Minimum lethal concentration (MLC) was determined by the tube dilution method. Essential oils from anise, angelica, basil, carrot, celery, cardamom, coriander, dill weed, fennel, oregano, parsley, and rosemary were evaluated. Inhibition ranged from complete with oregano to no inhibition with carrot oil for each of the test strains that included: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O:157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula. Oregano essential oil showed the greatest inhibition (zone, > or = 70 to 80 mm) (MLC, approximately 8 ppm). Coriander and basil were also highly inhibitory (MLC, approximately 25 to 50 ppm) to E. coli O:157:H7 and to the other bacteria and fungi tested. Anise oil was not particularly inhibitory to bacteria (inhibition zone, approximately 25 mm); however, anise oil was highly inhibitory to molds. Because some of the herbal and spice essential oils are highly inhibitory to selected pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, they may provide alternatives and supplements to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. PMID:11456186

Elgayyar, M; Draughon, F A; Golden, D A; Mount, J R

2001-07-01

250

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), ?-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-?-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range. PMID:25050318

Rajendran, Mini Priya; Pallaiyan, Blessed Beautlin; Selvaraj, Nija

2014-01-01

251

Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi  

PubMed Central

Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties. PMID:22808418

Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

2011-01-01

252

Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation  

PubMed Central

The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5–20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25–5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6–41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates. PMID:23577212

Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

2013-01-01

253

Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

254

Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activity of an essential oil recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of white pepper, long pepper, cinnamon, saffron and myrrh in vivo.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil recipe (OR) in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes and hot plate test methods in mice. Additionally, the chemical composition of OR has been also analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds, representing 74.42% of the total oil content, were identified. ?-Selinene (7.38%), aromadendrene (5.30%), ?-elemene (5.22%), cis-piperitol (5.21%), cis-?-guaiene (4.67%), ylangene (3.70%), 3-heptadecene (3.55%), ?-cadinene (3%) and ?-cadinene (2.87%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with OR (62.5-1000 mg/kg) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. OR significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection. All test samples showed no significant analgesic activity on the hot plate pain threshold in mice. These data demonstrated that the OR inhibits inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain. These results may support the fact that the essential oil of traditional Hui prescription played a role in the inflammation of stroke. PMID:25263165

Zhang, Yuanbin; Wang, Xinfang; Ma, Ling; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Chen, Jing; Fu, Xueyan

2014-01-01

255

Essential Oils as Natural Food Antimicrobial Agents: A Review.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Food borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a 'natural' remedy to this problem other than its flavouring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry. PMID:24915323

Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

2013-10-11

256

Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia.  

PubMed

BackgroundPhthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in probable absorption and accumulation by medicinal and dietary plants. As a matter of fact, although the toxicity of phthalate derivatives in human is well-known, food crops and medicinal plants have been exposing to phthalates that can be detected in their extracts and essential oils. Achillea tenuifolia (Compositea) is one of these herbaceous plants with traditional applications which widely growing in Iran.FindingThe plant root was subjected to hydro-distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain its essential oil before and after acid treatment. Both of the hydro-distilled essential oils were analysed by GC-MS method resulted in recognition of their constituent. Phthalate contamination as (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester (5.4%) and phthalic acid (4.5%), were identified in the first and second extracted oils, respectively.ConclusionAs a warning, due to the potential role of phthalates to cause reproductive toxicity, disturb of endocrine system and causing cancers, medicinal plants have to be considered through quality control for detection of these compounds. PMID:25429772

Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

2014-11-28

257

Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters.  

PubMed

The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct contact assays. Some successful EOs were fractionated and the fractions containing hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing molecules tested separately. Twenty EOs showed corrected mortalities ?96% at 2 ?L/mL. These were further tested at lower concentrations. Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs showed lethal concentrations (LC100)<0.4?L/mL. Oxygen-containing molecules fractions showing corrected mortality ?96% did not always show LC100 values similar to the corresponding EOs, suggesting additive and/or synergistic relationships among fractions. Nine decoction waters (remaining hydrodistillation waters) revealed 100% mortality at a minimum concentration of 12.5?L/mL. R. graveolens, S. montana and T. capitata EOs are potential environmentally friendly alternatives for B. xylophilus control given their high nematotoxic properties. Nematotoxic activity of an EO should be taken in its entirety, as its different components may contribute, in distinct ways, to the overall EO activity. PMID:23829930

Faria, Jorge M S; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

2013-10-01

258

Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2010-11-01

259

Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98 %. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5 % while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2 %); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-?-ocimene (17.1-49.8 %) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5 %) and ?-terpinene (33.0 %). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1 %) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1 %, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin, which was the most efficient compound with 100 % of acaricidal activity at a dilution of 0.25 % and could be a valuable acaricide for the control of the cattle tick R. microplus. PMID:25300420

Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

2015-01-01

260

CUPHEA OIL EXTRACTION AND REFINING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oils from the seeds of several Cuphea (Lytraceae) species were found to contain high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). Currently, MCFAs used in cosmetics, soaps, detergents, lubricants and other related products are obtained from coconut and palm kernel oils. One promising outcome of the ...

261

The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

2013-01-01

262

Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The main components of C. cyminum oil were p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al, cumin aldehyde, gamma-terpinene, and beta-pinene, while those of the C. carvi oil were carvone, limonene, germacrene D, and trans-dihydrocarvone. Antibacterial activity, determined with the agar diffusion method, was observed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in this study. The activity was particularly high against the genera Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, Erwinia, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia, and Agrobacterium, which are responsible for plant or cultivated mushroom diseases worldwide. In general, a lower activity was observed against bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. These results suggest the potential use of the above essential oils for the control of bacterial diseases. PMID:15631509

Iacobellis, Nicola S; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

2005-01-12

263

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Achillea clavennae L. essential oil.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of Achillea clavennae L. (Asteraceae), rare plant of Europe, have been analysed using GC/MS. Twenty- five components making up 81.6% of the oil were characterized with camphor (29.5%), myrcene (5.5%), 1,8-cineole (5.3%), beta-caryophyllene (5.1%) and linalool (4.9%) being the major constituents. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil was conducted by a disc diffusion test against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis) and fungal organisms (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans). The activity was more pronounced against Gram-negative and fungal organisms than against Gram-positive bacteria. A. clavennae oil was found to possess antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and all fungal organisms. PMID:14595583

Bezi?, Nada; Skocibusi?, Mirjana; Dunki?, Valerija; Radoni?, Ani

2003-11-01

264

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.  

PubMed

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

2010-05-01

265

Anti-Arthritic Effects and Toxicity of the Essential Oils of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)  

PubMed Central

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was non-toxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment, but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO. PMID:20025215

Funk, Janet L.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Oyarzo, Janice N.; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N.

2010-01-01

266

Composition of Essential Oil of Artemisia campestris L. from Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil yield from the aerial parts of A. campestris was 0.2% (mL\\/g dried plant). The oil was analyzed using GC and GC\\/MS and 38 compounds were identified. The principal components were sesquiterpene alcohols: spathulenol (9.2%) and 4-hydroxy-9-epi-?-caryophyllene (3.0%); and monoterpene hydrocarbons: ?-pinene (9.1%), ?-pinene (3.4%), limonene (2.5%) and germacrene D (3.3%).

Jean-Claude Chalchat; Patrick Cabassu; S. D. Petrovic; Z. A. Maksimovic; M. S. Gorunovic

2003-01-01

267

The Essential Oil of Dutch Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of 14 samples of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), naturally occurring in the North-Eastern part of the Netherlands, revealed the presence of an artemisia ketone, a chrysanthenol\\/chrysanthenyl acetate, a lyratol\\/lyratyl acetate and a ?-thujone chemotype. The essential oils of the flower heads contained a higher percentage of the main constituent than the oil obtained from the leaves. Vulgarone A

H. Hendriks; D. J. D. van der Elst; F. M. S. van Putten; R. Bos

1990-01-01

268

Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica Nakai, its main constituents: 1,8-cineole and selin-11-en-4alpha-ol and monoterpene alcohols fraction were determined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Rhodotorula rubra and Aspergillus fumigatus. The oil exhibited a good inhibitory activity against bacteria and fungi. The monoterpene alcohols fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity. PMID:12164281

Kalemba, D; Kusewicz, D; Swiader, K

2002-05-01

269

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

270

Essential oil from Myrcia ovata: chemical composition, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties in mice.  

PubMed

The leaves of Myrcia ovata, popularly known as "laranjinha do mato", are frequently used as an infusion in folk medicine. The essential oil obtained from these leaves is rich in citral, a mixture of neral and geranial isomers, known for its analgesic effect. Male Swiss mice (20-22 g) were tested in models of acute pain (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick, and formalin tests) and acute inflammation (paw oedema and air pouch tests) as well as in a model for evaluation of spontaneous motor performance (open-field test). The essential oil from M. ovata was administered orally at doses of 50-300 mg/kg. In addition, water, vehicle, morphine (5.01 mg/kg for evaluation of pain and motor performance), acetyl salicylic acid (200 mg/kg in the formalin test), and dexamethasone (2.25 mg/kg for evaluation of oedema formation, leukocyte extravasation, and quantification of cytokines) were administered. The essential oil showed a significant effect at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg in the acute pain and acute inflammation tests. The effect of the essential oil was reduced by pretreatment with naloxone. The essential oil did not induce motor impairment. The extract was not toxic after oral administration (LD50 > 3000 mg/kg). These data provide initial evidence that the traditional use of M. ovata can be effective in reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25295670

Dos Santos, Gabriela Carmelinda Martins; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Gonçalves, Gabriela Mastrangelo; de Sousa, Leôncio Mesquita; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Marinho, Bruno Guimarães

2014-11-01

271

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

272

Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of essential oil from seeds of Zizyphus jujuba for its potential role on hair growth by in vivo method. Essential oil was applied at different concentrations (0.1%, 1% and 10%) over the shaved skin onto the backs of BALB/c mice and monitored for 21 days. After 21 days, mice treated with 1% and 10% of oil produced a greater effect on the length of hair which were measured to be 9.96 and 10.02 mm, respectively, as compared to the control (8.94 mm). We measured the weight of hair/cm(2) area of dorsal skin and also evaluated hair thickness and hair follicles microscopically after plucking the hair immediately from the shaved area of mice and found the best results for 1% of essential oil-treated mice. From this study, it is concluded that Z. jujuba essential oil possesses hair growth promoting activity. PMID:20206225

Yoon, Jung In; Al-Reza, Sharif M; Kang, Sun Chul

2010-05-01

273

Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2010-06-01

274

Phytochemical characterization of essential oil from Ocimum selloi.  

PubMed

Ocimum selloi Benth, a native plant of Brazil, has medicinal uses as anti-diarrheic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory product. The yield of essential oils of the inflorescences, containing flowers and seeds, was 0.6%, and the yield of leaves, collected in two different seasons, was 0.25% (June 2000) and 0.20% (January 2001), respectively. The essential oils of the inflorescences and leaves presented as major constituents trans-anethol (41.34%, 45.42%, 58.59%) and methyl chavicol (27.10%, 24.14%, 29.96%). PMID:11960186

Moraes, Lilia A S; Facanali, Roselaine; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M; Lin, Chau Ming; Meireles, M Angela A

2002-03-01

275

Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were ?-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

Chekem, Marie Stéphanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

2010-01-01

276

Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.  

PubMed

The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

Talbert, R; Wall, R

2012-10-01

277

Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils.  

PubMed

Thirteen essential oils were examined for their antioxidant activity using three different assay systems. Jasmine, parsley seed, rose, and ylang-ylang oils inhibited hexanal oxidation by over 95% after 40 days at a level of 500 microg/mL in the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Scavenging abilities of the oils for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical ranged from 39% for angelica seed oil to 90% for jasmine oil at a level of 200 microg/mL. The greatest inhibitory activity toward malonaldehyde (MA) formation from squalene upon UV-irradiation was obtained from parsley seed oil (inhibitory effect, 67%), followed by rose oil (46%), and celery seed oil (23%) at the level of 500 microg/mL. The main compounds of oils showing high antioxidant activity were limonene (composition, 74.6%) in celery seed, benzyl acetate (22.9%) in jasmine, alpha-pinene (33.7%) in juniper berry, myristicin (44%) in parsley seed, patchouli alcohol (28.8%) in patchouli, citronellol (34.2%) in rose, and germacrene (19.1%) in ylang-ylang. PMID:17295511

Wei, Alfreda; Shibamoto, Takayuki

2007-03-01

278

Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and ?-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

Mahboubi, M.; Kazempour, N.

2012-01-01

279

Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and ?-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

2012-07-01

280

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Allium hookeri consumed in Xishuangbanna, southwest China.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the rhizomes of Allium hookeri Thwaites, obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction, was analyzed by GC-MS. Di-2-propenyl trisulfide (31.8%), diallyl disulfide (28.4%), and dipropyl trisulfide (8.4%) were the main constituents among the thirteen identified components. The essential oil showed strong activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans with MIC (the minimal inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) values ranging from 32-64 microg/mL. These results suggest that the essential oil from the rhizomes of A. hookeri could be used as a potential antimicrobial ingredient in the food industry. PMID:25115101

Li, Ren; Wang, Yuan-Fei; Sun, Qian; Hu, Hua-Bin

2014-06-01

281

Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae. PMID:22581297

Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Ayd?n, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

2012-10-01

282

The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ?-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

283

Characterization of Essential Oils from Helichrysum odoratissimum Using Different Drying Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helichrysum odoratissimum is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. The essential oil from the herb was extracted and characterized for the first time using different drying methods. The oils isolated from fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried aerial parts of the plant yielded 0.28, 0.46, 0.33 and 0.36%, respectively. The fresh leaf oil was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main constituents as p-menthone (35.4%), pulegone (34.2%) and 1, 8-cineole (13.0%). The dried plant oils had limonene (31.6-22.6%), µ-caryophyllene (13.0-12.0%) and µ-pinene (10.0-7.7%) as their major constituents. Generally, the yield and chemical profile of H. odoratissimum were affected by the drying methods utilized. There were noteworthy chemical alterations in the major components of the essential oils using different methods of drying. The compounds pulegone and menthone were reported as potentially harmful compounds, hence their substantial reduction in the dried oils as compared to the fresh leaf oil is noteworthy as it aids reduction of toxicity in the oils.

Asekun, O. T.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

284

Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 ?g mL-1) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 ?g mL-1) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

Asgary, S.; Naderi, G.A.; Shams Ardekani, M.R.; Sahebkar, A.; Airin, A.; Aslani, S.; Kasher, T.; Emami, S.A.

2014-01-01

285

Repellent Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Simulium Species in India  

PubMed Central

Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) on the human volunteers against Simulium (blackflies) in three locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blackflies preferred biting legs (> 79%) as compared to hand and face with profound biting activity during 1000–1100 h (> 23%) and 1500 – 1600 h (> 28%). The essential oil extracted from Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides provided > 2 h protection at 5% concentration and > 5 h protection at 10% concentration in all the three testing locations. The repellency of Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides essential oils after 6 h application was > 50% at 5% concentration and > 90% at 10% concentration. The study provides evidence for the potential of these essential oils in developing new repellents against blackflies. PMID:22943569

Hazarika, S; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, RK; Singh, Lokendera

2012-01-01

286

In vitro and in vivo anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities of essential oils and individual compounds.  

PubMed

Essential oils are increasingly of interest for use as novel drugs acting as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. In the present study, we report the in vitro antiviral activities of 29 essential oils, extracted from Chinese indigenous aromatic plants, against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Of these essential oils, those oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass effected a more than 50% inhibition of TMV at 100 ?g/ml. In addition, the mode of antiviral action of the active essential oils was also determined. Essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass possessed potent inactivation and curative effects in vivo and had a directly passivating effect on TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. However, all other active essential oils exhibited a moderate protective effect in vivo. The chemical constitutions of the essential oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of these essential oils were ?-zingiberene (35.21%), limonene (76.25%), terpinen-4-ol (41.20%), limonene (80.95%), 1,8-cineole (27.45%), and terpinolene (10.67%). The curative effects of 10 individual compounds from the active essential oils on TMV infection were also examined in vivo. The compounds from citronellal, limonene, 1,8-cineole, and ?-zingiberene effected a more than 40% inhibition rate for TMV infection, and the other compounds demonstrated moderate activities at 320 ?g/ml in vivo. There results indicate that the essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass, and the individual compound citronellal, have the potential to be used as an effective alternative for the treatment of tobacco plants infected with TMV under greenhouse conditions. PMID:23676919

Lu, Min; Han, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yun; Yao, Lei

2013-06-28

287

Comparative effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil and piperitone on Callosobruchus maculatus development.  

PubMed

The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds. PMID:16938411

Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques

2006-12-01

288

Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.  

PubMed

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-06-01

289

Biochemical activities of Iranian Mentha piperita L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils.  

PubMed

GC-MS analysis of essential oils of Iranian Mentha piperita and Myrtus communis extracted by hydrodistillation lead to identification of 26 and 32 compounds, respectively. The oils had good to excellent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with the oil of M. piperita being more active. The findings suggest feasibility of application of M. piperita oil in treatment of the infections caused by C. albicans and E. coli. D-values on exposure to M. piperita and Myrtus communis oils were (2.14 and 2.8min), (1.4 and 12.8min) and (4.3 and 8.6min) for E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans , respectively. The oils were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid systems. M. piperirta oil exerted greater antioxidant activity than that of M. communis. Phytochemical and phytobiological characteristics of these oils may lead to extraction and production of active compounds in single or combined forms with useful applications. PMID:16777154

Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Alipoor; Rasooli, Iraj

2006-06-01

290

Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.  

PubMed

Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of ?-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and ?-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high ?-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), ?-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors. PMID:25146764

Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

2014-08-01

291

The Essential Oil of the Leaves of Psidium guajava L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A characterization of the compounds present in the essential oil from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (a traditional Chinese medicinal plant) has been obtained. ?-Pinene (37.8%) and 1,8-cineole (18.9%) are the major components.

Xiao-duo Ji; Quan-long Pu; H. Martin Garraffo; Lewis K. Pannell

1991-01-01

292

Composition of the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the common tansy obtained from a population growing in the Dzhungarain Ala-Tau has been investigated.\\u000a More than 50 substances have been detected, of which 39, including the main ones, have been identified.

A. D. Dembitskii; G. I. Krotova; R. A. Yurina; R. Suleeva

1984-01-01

293

Essential Oil of Mentha spicata L. from Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. grown in Cuba was investigated by liquid-solid chromatography, GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty-nine constituents were identified of which piperitenone oxide (52.3%) was the major component.

Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Esther Sánchez

1998-01-01

294

Essential Oil of Mentha spicata L. from Jalisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. grown in Jalisco was investigated by GC\\/MS. Fifty-three constituents were identified, of which carvone (36.4%) and limonene (14.5%) were the major components.

Jorge Pino; Pedro Borges; Marco Martínez; Martha Vargas; Héctor Flores; Mirna Estarrón; Victor Fuentes

2001-01-01

295

Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Turkish plant spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of nine plant spices (savory, laurel, oregano, basil, cumin, seafennel, myrtle, pickling herb, and mint) were tested at three concentrations (1, 10, and 15%) and tested on various microorganisms (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus niger). The results showed

M. Özcan; Osman Erkmen

2001-01-01

296

Constituents of the Essential Oil of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the flowers of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less. growing wild in Kenya was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, the major constituents being ?-pinene (43.4%), (E, E)-farnesol (16.8%) and ?-humulene (14.6%).

Wilber Lwande; Ahmed Hassanali; Onesmus B. Wanyama; Sarah Ngola; Julius W. Mwangi

1993-01-01

297

Essential Oils of Mentha Species from Northern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 8 species and 15 taxa (including hybrids) of Mentha existing in the flora of Turkey, 8 taxa belonging to 6 species were investigated for essential oils. Of 272 samples collected from 181 stations in northern Turkey, 85 were subjected to water distillation and GC\\/MS analysis. The taxa investigated were as follows: Mentha pulegium, M. suaveolens, M. aquatica, M.

K. H. C. Baser; M. Kürkçüoglu; Gül Tarimcilar; Gönül Kaynak

1999-01-01

298

Essential oils of Mentha species from Marmara region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mentha L. (Lamiaceae) is represented in the world by 62 taxa including 18 species and 11 hybrids. In Turkey, 15 taxa exist. In the course of the present work, 90 samples belonging to 11 Mentha taxa collected from the Marmara region of Turkey in north western Turkey were hydrodistilled to obtain essential oils, which were then subjected to

K. H. C. Ba?er; M. Kürkçüo?lu; B. Demirci; T. Özek; G. Tar?mc?lar

2012-01-01

299

The use of essential oils in animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - The potential of essential oils (EO) in animal nutrition is discussed with some selected examples obtained with the blends produced by CRINA SA. Synergistic effects of EO on endogenous enzyme production and on microbial flora are used to increase animal performances. In ruminants, blends can be created that significantly reduce rumen ammonia production and increase protein by-pass. In

R. Losa

300

Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films for food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter provides a comprehensive update of experimental use of antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible film applications. It reviews the most recent advancement in edible film technology to promote food safety. A brief description of how these antimicrobial edible films are produ...

301

Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

302

The Metabolic Responses to Aerial Diffusion of Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and affect a great number of people worldwide. Essential oils, take effects through inhalation or topical application, are believed to enhance physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of essential oils in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabonomics study that reveals the aromas-induced metabolic changes and the anxiolytic effect of aromas in elevated plus maze (EPM) induced anxiety model rats. The significant alteration of metabolites in the EPM group was attenuated by aromas treatment, concurrent with the behavioral improvement with significantly increased open arms time and open arms entries. Brain tissue and urinary metabonomic analysis identified a number of altered metabolites in response to aromas intervention. These metabolic changes included the increased carbohydrates and lowered levels of neurotransmitters (tryptophan, serine, glycine, aspartate, tyrosine, cysteine, phenylalanine, hypotaurine, histidine, and asparagine), amino acids, and fatty acids in the brain. Elevated aspartate, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose, fructose, and glucose), nucleosides and organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate were also observed in the urine. The EPM induced metabolic differences observed in urine or brain tissue was significantly reduced after 10 days of aroma inhalation, as noted with the loss of statistical significance on many of the metabolites in the aroma-EPM group. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the metabonomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils and provide the basis for pinpointing affected pathways in anxiety-related behavior, which will lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of anxiolytic effect of essential oils. PMID:22984571

Xie, Guoxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Pan, Xiaolan; Chen, Tianlu; Hu, Yixue; Liu, Yumin; Cheng, Yu; Chi, Yi; Yao, Lei; Jia, Wei

2012-01-01

303

Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil  

PubMed Central

Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC50 value of 900 ?g/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer. PMID:25002797

Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Phirdaous, Abbas; Azura, Amid

2014-01-01

304

The mechanism of antifungal action of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

305

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa  

PubMed Central

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa. PMID:25587332

Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

2014-01-01

306

The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

307

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

308

[Effects of low doses of essential oil on the antioxidant state of the erythrocytes, liver, and the brains of mice].  

PubMed

We studied the effects of essential oil from oregano and clove and a mixture of lemon essential oil and a ginger extract on the antioxidant state of organs in intact and three experimental groups of Bulb mice. We found that the essential oil was an efficient in vivo bioantioxidant when mice were treated with it for 6 months even at very low doses, such as 300 ng/day. All essential oil studied inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the membranes of erythrocytes that resulted in increased membrane resistance to spontaneous hemolysis, decreased membrane microviscosity, maintenance of their structural integrity, and functional activity. The essential oil substantially decreased the LPO intensity in the liver and the brains of mice and increased the resistance of liver and brain lipids to oxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The most expressed bioantioxidant effect on erythrocytes was observed after clove oil treatment, whereas on the liver and brain, after treatment with a mixture of lemon essential oil and a ginger extract. PMID:25272759

Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D; Alinkina, E S; Kozachenko, A I; Nagler, L G; Medvedeva, I B; Goloshchapov, A N; Burlakova, E B

2014-01-01

309

Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.  

PubMed

Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 ?g/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. PMID:22510493

Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

2012-06-15

310

Essential-oil diversity of three Calamintha species from Greece.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the essential-oil composition of the Calamintha officinalis-nepeta complex in Greece and to clarify the main patterns of its variation. The oils obtained from 22 wild-growing populations of C. glandulosa, C. nepeta, and C. menthifolia were studied. They could be classified into two different chemotypes, which correspond to the main biosynthetic routes of the C(3)-oxygenated p-menthane compounds. Chemotype I includes oils rich in trans-piperitone oxide, cis-piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide, while Chemotype II comprises oils rich in pulegone and menthone or menthone and isomenthone. Within both chemotypes, quantitative fluctuations of the main components were observed. Comparison with published data showed that the presence of Chemotype II has not been observed before in C. menthifolia, while Chemotype I has been reported in C. nepeta plants from Greece for the first time. PMID:22782882

Karousou, Regina; Hanlidou, Effie; Lazari, Diamando

2012-07-01

311

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

312

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

2012-01-01

313

Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

314

Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.  

PubMed

Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use. PMID:19032971

Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

2009-01-01

315

An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.  

PubMed

Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

2015-01-01

316

An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.  

PubMed Central

Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

2014-01-01

317

Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active compounds of the essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides, which is a well-known edible and medicinal plant. The volatile compounds in the oils were identified by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in combination with GC, GC/MS, GC/O (=olfactometry), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and relative flavor activities (RFA values). The most abundant compound in the HD oil was cis-?-necrodol (12.62%), an irregular monoterpene with a cyclopentane skeleton, which is very unusual in the plant kingdom. In the SAFE oil, the main components included 2-butoxyethanol (9.01%), benzyl alcohol (8.01%), and ?-butyrolactone (7.37%). Through sensory analysis, 21 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC/O. The most intense aroma-active compounds in the HD oil were hexan-1-ol and ?-nonalactone, both of which showed high RFA values. ?-Methyl-?-butyrolactone and dimethyl sulfone contributed more strongly to the aroma of the SAFE oil. These results imply that the essential oils of E. alsinoides deserve further investigation in the food industry. PMID:24634069

Kashima, Yusei; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-03-01

318

An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

2015-01-01

319

Mathematical modeling of supercritical extraction of sage oil  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of essential oils from leaves was studied using sage at 90 bar (9 MPa) and 50 C. The fractional separation of the extracts enabled essential oil to be obtained. Four mean sage particle sizes ranging from 0.25 to 3.10 mm were tested. The model proposed was based on differential mass balances performed along the extraction bed. Experimental data suggest that the internal mass transfer was the controlling stage for the extraction process. Different hypotheses were tested on vegetable matter geometry, and their incidence on the model performance was evaluated. The particle shape proved to be a key factor in fitting experimental results, which were fairly good when the conventional spherical geometry was replaced by a realistic slab geometry. Diffusivity of the solute in the solid matrix was used as the only adjustable parameter of the model; its best fit value was 6.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} m{sup 2}/s. The effect of the introduction of particle-size distribution into calculations was also tested. To verify if the external mass-transfer mechanisms influence the extraction process, experiments at two different CO{sub 2} flow rates were also performed. Simplified models were also considered, and the extent of approximations was evaluated.

Reverchon, E. [Univ. di Salerno (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

1996-06-01

320

Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

2013-01-01

321

Essential oil composition of three Peperomia species from the Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

The essential oils of three species of Peperomia from the Amazon, Brazil, were hydrodistilled and their 96 volatile constituents identified by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents found in the oil of P. macrostachya were epi-alpha-bisabolol (15.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.9%), myristicin (7.6%), an aromatic compound (6.6%) and limonene (5.4%). The oil of P. pellucida was dominated by dillapiole (55.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (14.3%) and carotol (8.1%). The major volatile found in the oil of P. rotundifolia was decanal (43.3%), probably a fatty acid-derived compound, followed by dihydro-P3-santalol (9.0%), (E)-nerolidol (7.9%) and limonene (7.7%). The aromatic compounds elemicin, myristicin, apiole, dillapiole and safrole identified in these Peperomia species has been found also in Amazon Piper species. The oils and methanol extracts showed high brine shrimp larvicidal activities. The oil of P. rotundifolia (LC50 = 1.9 +/- 0.1 microg/mL) was the more toxic, followed by the extract of P. pellucida (LC50 = 2.4 +/- 0.5 microg/mL) and the oil of P. macrostachya (LC50 = 9.0 +/- 0.4 microg/mL), therefore with important biological properties. PMID:19413127

de Lira, Patricia Natália B; da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Sousa, Pergentino José; Silva, Nayla N S; Maia, José Guilherme S

2009-03-01

322

Chemical composition of essential oil from the root bark of Sassafras albidum.  

PubMed

The root bark of Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Lauraceae) was extracted at room temperature with hexane and chloroform as solvents. The isolated essential oils were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Thirty compounds were identified, nine of which have not been previously reported from this species. The major compounds were safrole (85%), camphor (3.25%), and methyleugenol (1.10%). Ten sesquiterpenes were also identified. PMID:8824955

Kamdem, D P; Gage, D A

1995-12-01

323

Essential oil of Psidium cattleianum leaves: Antioxidant and antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtacea) is rich in vitamin C and phenolic compounds, including epicatechin and gallic acid as the main components. Objective: To evaluate the antifungal and antioxidant capacity in vitro of the essential oil of araçá (EOA). The acute toxicity of the EOA also was evaluated in mice. Materials and methods: The leaves of the P. cattleianum were extracted by steam distillation. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by in vitro tests [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), linoleic acid oxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS)], and ex vivo analysis [TBARS, ?-aminulevunilate dehydratase (?-Ala-D) and catalase activity, non-protein thiols (NPSH), and ascorbic acid levels]. The toxicity was studied in mice by a single oral administration of EOA; and the antifungal activity was performed with five strains of fungi. Results: The EOA exhibited antioxidant activity in the FRAP assay and reduced lipid peroxidation in the cortex (Imax?=?32.90?±?2.62%), hippocampus (IC50?=?48.00?±?3.00?µg/ml and Imax?=?32.90?±?2.62%), and cerebellum (Imax?=?45.40?±?14.04%) of mice. Acute administration of the EOA by the oral route did not cause toxicological effects in mice (LD50?>?500?µg/ml). The EOA also showed antifungal activity through of the determination minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 41.67?±?18.04 to 166.70?±?72.17?µg/ml for tested strains. Conclusion: The results of present study indicate that EOA possess antioxidant properties, antifungal and not cause toxicity at tested doses. PMID:25420516

Castro, Micheli R; Victoria, Francine N; Oliveira, Daniela H; Jacob, Raquel G; Savegnago, Lucielli; Alves, Diego

2014-11-25

324

Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugs.  

PubMed

This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-?-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells. PMID:22953886

Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Cavaleiro, C; Canhoto, J; Vaz, S; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

2012-12-01

325

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON THE GROWTH OF Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 16 essential oils from aromatic plants were tested for their inhibitory effect on Aspergillus flavus IMI 242684 on PDA. The results showed that the essential oil of white wood (Melaleuca cajeputi) gave the highest inhibition followed by the essential oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) and lavender (Lavandula officinalis), respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these three essential

Dusanee Thanaboripat; Yaowapa Suvathi; Prapaporn Srilohasin; Saowalak Sripakdee

326

Composition of essential oils of some senecio species.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oils of Senecio vulgaris, S. jacobaea, S. congestus and S. fuchsii was investigated by means of GLC, CC and GC-MS. The principal constituents differ; S. congestus: 1-tridecene and 1-undecene, S. jacobaea: germacrene D and 1-undecene, S. vulgaris: beta-caryophyllene, alpha-copaene and myrcene, S. fuchsii: anhydro-oplopanone and an unknown sesquiterpene C (15)H (24). In all the oils anhydro-oplopanone is present. The spectra of this compound and of the synthesized anhydro-oplopanols are given. PMID:17401994

van Dooren, B; Bos, R; Tattje, D H

1981-08-01

327

Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe(2+). ? -Pinene, ? -pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ? -glucosidase than ? -amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ? -amylase, ? -glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A

2013-01-01

328

Lotus (Nelumbo nuficera) flower essential oil increased melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes  

PubMed Central

In this study, the essential oil from lotus flower extract, including petals and stamens, was assessed with regard to its effects on melanogenesis in human melanocytes. The lotus flower essential oil was shown to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lotus flower essential oil induced the expression of tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor M (MITF-M), and tyrosinase-related proten-2 (TRP-2) proteins, but not tyrosinase mRNA. Moreover, it increased the phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). In order to verify the effective components of the lotus flower oil, its lipid composition was assessed. It was found to be comprised of palmitic acid methyl ester (22.66%), linoleic acid methyl ester (11.16%), palmitoleic acid methyl ester (7.55%) and linolenic acid methyl ester (5.16%). Among these components, palmitic acid methyl ester clearly induced melanogenesis as the result of increased tyrosinase expression, thereby indicating that it may play a role in the regulation of melanin content. Thus, our results indicate that lotus flower oil may prove useful in the development of gray hair prevention agents or tanning reagents. PMID:19322028

Jeon, Songhee; Kim, Nan-Hyung; Koo, Byung-Soo; Kim, Ji-Young

2009-01-01

329

Immunotoxicity activity from the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds.  

PubMed

The seeds of the Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analysis of the essential oil was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which revealed 33 components, representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components are linalool (55.09%), ?-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, ?,?,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-?-pinene (2.39%), citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%). The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 21.55?ppm and LC(90) value of 38.79?ppm. The above data indicate that the major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti. PMID:22208224

Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Nayeem, Abdul; Nagella, Praveen

2012-06-01

330

Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.  

PubMed

This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4a?, 7?, 7a?-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4a?, 7?, and 7a?-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants. PMID:22434692

Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

2013-07-01

331

Comparative analysis of essential oil components of three Phlomis species in Qinling Mountains of China.  

PubMed

The essential oils of three wild-growing Phlomis species (Phlomis umbrosa Turcz., Phlomis megalantha Diels and Phlomis szechuanensis C.Y. Wu), collected from Qinling Mountains of China during the bloom stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 22, 26 and 19 constituents (mainly aliphatic compounds) were identified in P. umbrosa, P. megalantha and P. szechuanensis which represented 92.5%, 96.3% and 93.1% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were hexadecanoic acid (7.1-52.1%), trans-phytol (5.7-50.8%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol (2.2-24.8%). Fatty acids and aliphatic esters were the major groups of P. umbrosa and P. megalantha, but P. szechuanensis showed higher content of alcohols. P. megalantha has relatively higher amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes than the others. The comparison of essential oil components of Phlomis species between the present and previous work indicated that the composition of oils vary greatly with respect to the geographical environment, mainly for the proportion of aliphatic compounds and terpenoids. This study is the first report on the chemical composition of essential oils of the three wild-growing herbs mentioned above. PMID:18243625

Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

2008-05-12

332

Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.  

PubMed

Abstract Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0?mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp. PMID:25062020

Fra?ková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, V?ra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klou?ek, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

2014-10-01

333

Essential oil of Mitracarpus frigidus as a potent source of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

In our previous work (Fabri et al. 2009), we showed that different extracts of Mitracarpus frigidus had significant antibacterial, antifungal and leishmanicidal activities. In order to increase our knowledge about this species, this work assesses the chemical composition and the in vitro biological activity of its essential oil. Thus, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of M. frigidus was analyzed by GC/MS. Among several compounds detected, 11 were identified, being linalool and eugenol acetate the major components. The essential oil exhibited a moderate antibacterial effect against Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae (MIC 250 µg/mL). On the other hand, it showed a strong antifungal effect against Cryptoccocus neoformans (MIC 8 µg/mL) and Candida albicans (MIC 63 µg/mL). Expressive activity against L. major and L. amazonensis promastigote forms with IC50 values of 47.2 and 89.7 µg/mL, respectively, were also observed. In addition, the antioxidant activity was investigated through DPPH radical-scavenging and showed a significative activity with IC50 of 38 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity against Artemia salina was moderate with LC(50) of 88 µg/mL. The results presented here are the first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of M. frigidus essential oil. PMID:23207707

Fabri, Rodrigo L; Coimbra, Elaine S; Almeida, Ana C; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Scio, Elita

2012-12-01

334

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the volatile oil and methanol extract of Xenophyllum poposum.  

PubMed

The essential oil and methanol extract of northwestern Argentina medicinal plant Xenophyllum poposum, collected in Catamarca province, were investigated. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil identified 56 compounds accounting for 92.9%. The main components of the oil were delta-cadinene (16.5%), 6-hydroxytremetone (14.7%), epi-alpha-cadinol (12.0%), alpha-cadinol (8.8%), gamma-cadinene (7.5%), 1-epi-cubenol (4.2%) and alpha-muurolene (3.0%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activities against five pathogenic strains as well as antifungal activities against two pathogenic fungi. The methanol extract showed antibacterial activity against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus and two pathogenic fungal strains. The main components isolated from the methanol extract were the antifungal 4-hydroxy-3-(isopenten-2-yl)-acetophenone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and tremetone. 6-Hydroxytremetone showed activity against all the fungal strains and one of the S. aureus strains assayed. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties of the methanol extract and essential oil were determined using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) test. The methanol extract and the essential oil showed, respectively, moderate and weak antioxidant activity when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. PMID:23413577

González, Ana M; Tracanna, María I; Amani, Sara M; Schuff, Carola; Poch, Miguel J; Bach, Horacio; Catalán, César A N

2012-12-01

335

The Essential Oil Secretory Structures of Prostanthera ovalifolia (Lamiaceae)  

PubMed Central

The structure of the essential oil secretory tissues of Prostanthera ovalifolia R.Br was investigated using bright? and dark?field optical microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. ovalifolia have glandular trichomes of the peltate type common to many Lamiaceae species. The trichomes consist of a basal cell embedded in the epidermis, a stalk cell with heavily cutinized walls and a 16?celled secretory head, but they differ from those of many previously reported Lamiaceae species in their morphological form defined by the elevated cuticle. The sub?cuticular space contains a mixture of lipid and aqueous phases. Secretory cells have dense cytoplasm with many leucoplasts present. Volatile terpenoids are eliminated from the cytoplasm into the sub?cuticular space, the site of essential oil accumulation, via granulocrine secretion. PMID:12096737

GERSBACH, P. V.

2002-01-01

336

A review of the preparation and application of flavour and essential oils microcapsules based on complex coacervation technology.  

PubMed

This paper briefly introduces the preparation and application of flavour and essential oils microcapsules based on complex coacervation technology. The conventional encapsulating agents of oppositely charged proteins and polysaccharides that are used for microencapsulation of flavours and essential oils are reviewed along with the recent advances in complex coacervation methods. Proteins extracted from animal-derived products (gelatin, whey proteins, silk fibroin) and from vegetables (soy proteins, pea proteins), and polysaccharides such as gum Arabic, pectin, chitosan, agar, alginate, carrageenan and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose are described in depth. In recent decades, flavour and essential oils microcapsules have found numerous potential practical applications in food, textiles, agriculturals and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, the different coating materials and their application are discussed in detail. Consequently, the information obtained allows criteria to be established for selecting a method for the preparation of microcapsules according to their advantages, limitations and behaviours as carriers of flavours and essential oils. PMID:24282124

Xiao, Zuobing; Liu, Wanlong; Zhu, Guangyong; Zhou, Rujun; Niu, Yunwei

2014-06-01

337

Essential Oils and Chromosome Numbers From Italian Achillea Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of five Achillea species, A. ptarmica, A. erba-rotta, A. moschata, A. nana and A. nobilis, growing spontaneously in the Northwest Italian Alps were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenols were identified. Camphor and 1,8 cineole were the major constituents of A. erba-rotta, whereas germacrene D was particularly abundant in A. ptarmica and A. nobilis.

Massimo Maffei; Franco Chialva; Arnaldo Codignola

1989-01-01

338

Antiphytoviral activity of essential oil from endemic species Teucrium arduini.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Teucrium arduini L. was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (43.8%) of which beta-caryophyllene (19.9%) being the major compound, followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (19.6%) of which caryophyllene-oxide (14.6%) was dominant. When applied to plants of Chenopodium amaranticolor and Ch. quinoa for two successive days prior inoculation, the oil was effective in reducing lesion numbers on plants infected with Tobacco mosaic virus (25.7%) and Cucumber mosaic virus (21.9%). The main components of oil, beta-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed potent antiviral activity against CMV, but weak activity against TMV infection. PMID:21941920

Dunki?, Valerija; Bezi?, Nada; Vuko, Elma

2011-09-01

339

Composition of the essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum from Tajikistan.  

PubMed

Origanum tyttanthum Gontsch. was collected from two different sites in south-central Tajikistan. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 52 compounds were identified representing 99.0-100% of total oil compositions. The major components of Origanum tyttanthum Gontsch. oil were carvacrol (34.3-59.2%), thymol (10.8-46.4%), p-cymene (0.7-7.3%), beta-thujone (1.9-4.1%), piperitenone oxide (0.1-3.8%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-3.5%), cis-piperitone epoxide (0.8-3.3%), carvacrol acetate (0.4-2.4%), menthone (0.6-2.1%) and borneol (1.0-2.3%). PMID:22224296

Sharopov, Farukh S; Kukaniev, Muhamadsho A; Setzer, William N

2011-11-01

340

Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability  

PubMed Central

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500–1000–2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08–0.12–0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600–1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

2013-01-01

341

Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08-0.12-0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

2013-12-01

342

Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ? rosemary > tea tree ? lemon ? lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-12-01

343

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Mentha suaveolens.  

PubMed

The essential oils (EO) of Mentha suaveolens, a wild Labiatae, which grows in several regions in Morocco, were characterized and their antimicrobial activity assessed. The main aromatic constituents of this plant, as characterized by IR, NMR and MS studies, were pulegone, piperitenone oxide (PEO) and piperitone oxide (PO) occurring in different amounts depending on the subspecies. These constituents as well as a series of other aromatic products such as carvone, limonene and menthone, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 19 bacteria including Gram-positive and Gram-negative and against three fungi, using solid phase and microtitration assays. Pulegone-rich essential oil inhibited efficiently all the micro-organisms tested with MICs ranging between 0.69 and 2.77 ppm. Among the components from Mentha suaveolens EO, pulegone was the most effective against the tested microorganisms, followed by PEO and PO. The structure-activity relationship is discussed on the basis of the activity of the other aromatic derivatives tested such as carvone, limonene, menthone and the profile of the essential oils of Mentha suaveolens was compared with other Mentha species. PMID:12458474

Oumzil, H; Ghoulami, S; Rhajaoui, M; Ilidrissi, A; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Faid, M; Benjouad, A

2002-12-01

344

Antileishmanial activity of the essential oil from Bixa orellana.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa. There is currently no vaccine against leishmaniasis, and chemotherapy remains the only effective control. However, conventional drugs are toxic, expensive, and require long periods of treatment, and resistance to clinical chemotherapeutic agents is emerging. Recent research on plants has shown a successful approach to obtain new antileishmanial alternatives. Herein, the in vitro and in vivo effects of the essential oil from Bixa orellana seeds against Leishmania amazonensis were evaluated. A total of 73 compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, of which ishwarane (18.6%) and geranylgeraniol (9.1%) were the major components. The oil showed activity against intracellular amastigote form (IC50 ?=?8.5?µg/mL), while the cytotoxic concentration was sevenfold higher for the host cells. The ability of Bixa oil to control disease progression of established cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice was demonstrated, after a treatment with 30?mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration over 14?days. The present study reports for the first time the antileishmanial potentialities of the essential oil from B.?orellana. PMID:23983115

Monzote, Lianet; García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Cuellar, Armando; Setzer, William N

2014-05-01

345

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

346

Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.  

PubMed

The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

2002-02-01

347

Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large

Phillip M. Fedorak; Debora L. Coy; Myrna J. Salloum; Marvin J. Dudas

2002-01-01

348

Composition, In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Obtained from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), ?-thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200?ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg?GAE?per?g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as 11.47 ± 0.05, 10.88 ± 0.9, 9.68 ± 0.06, and 8.33 ± 0.01, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24689064

Singh, Sunita; Das, S. S.; Singh, G.; Schuff, Carola; de Lampasona, Marina P.; Catalán, César A. N.

2014-01-01

349

EVALUATION OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AS NATURAL POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils with fungicidal activities were identified in vitro; these were oregano, thyme, lemongrass, and cilantro. Essential oil components in those plants with antimicrobial activity were carvacrol, thymol, citral, and trans-2-decenal, respectively. Vapors of thyme, oregano and lemongrass, ...

350

Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.  

PubMed

Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs. PMID:25044587

Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

2014-07-01

351

Antifungal activity and chemical composition of essential oils from Smyrnium olusatrum L. (Apiaceae) from Italy and Portugal.  

PubMed

The essential oils and supercritical CO? extracts of wild Smyrnium olusatrum L. growing in Sardinia (Italy) and in Portugal were investigated. For the study, oils were isolated from total plant aerial part (umbels containing seeds). The content of ?-phellandrene (67.3% vs. 42.7%) and ?-pinene (31.9% vs. 1.2%), respectively, the main components of Portuguese and Italian essential oils, declined during the maturation stage of the umbels. Contrarily, some other important components, particularly curzerene, germacrene B, germacrone, alexandrofuran, 1-?-acetoxyfurano-4(15)-eudesmene and 1-?-acetoxyfurano-3-eudesmene, increased in fruiting umbels. The chemical composition of the Sardinian oil is rather different from those of other origin. The composition of the supercritical extracts and the essential oils is markedly different, particularly due to the high amount of furanosesquiterpenoids in the supercritical fluid extraction. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oils were particularly active against dermatophyte strains and C. neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.32-0.64?µL?mL?¹. PMID:21902563

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Frau, M A; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2012-01-01

352

Sampling gaseous compounds from essential oils evaporation by solid phase microextraction devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Needle trap samplers (NTS) are packed with 80-100 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles to extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study compared extraction efficiency between an NTS and a commercially available 100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane-solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME) fiber sampler used to sample gaseous products in heated tea tree essential oil in different evaporation modes, which were evaporated respectively by free convection inside a glass evaporation dish at 27 °C, by evaporation diffuser at 60 °C, and by thermal ceramic wicks at 100 °C. The experimental results indicated that the NTS performed better than the SPME fiber samplers and that the NTS primarily adsorbed 5.7 ng ethylbenzene, 5.8 ng m/p-xylenes, 11.1 ng 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 12.4 ng 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 9.99 ng 1,4-diethylbenzene when thermal ceramic wicks were used to evaporate the tea tree essential oil during a 1-hr evaporation period. The experiment also indicated that the temperature used to heat the essential oils should be as low as possible to minimize irritant VOC by-products. If the evaporation temperature does not exceed 100 °C, the concentrations of main by-products trimethylbenzene and diethylbenzene are much lower than the threshold limit values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Lai, Chin-Hsing

2014-12-01

353

In vitro activity of origanum vulgare essential oil against candida species  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. krusei (ATCC 34135), C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449) and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646). Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI) was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 106 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%), carvacrol (9.42%), thymol (8.42%) and ?-terpineol (7.57%). C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 ?L mL-1 and 5 ?L mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 ?L mL-1 and 3.54 ?L mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 ?L mL-1 and 2.97 ?L mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:24031471

Cleff, Marlete Brum; Meinerz, Ana Raquel; Xavier, Melissa; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Araújo Meireles, Mário Carlos; Alves Rodrigues, Maria Regina; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

2010-01-01

354

Fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of essential oils against the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.  

PubMed

The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-,2,6-octadienal, (Z)-3,7-dimethyl,2 ,6-octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2-propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr posttreatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. PMID:25373222

Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

2014-01-01

355

Fumigant, Contact, and Repellent Activities of Essential Oils Against the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus  

PubMed Central

The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)- cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7- dimethyl-,2,6- octadienal, (Z)-3,7- dimethyl- ,2 ,6- octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2- propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr post-treatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. PMID:25373222

Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

2014-01-01

356

Comparison of Essential Oils from Three Plants for Enhancement of Antimicrobial Activity of Nitrofurantoin against Enterobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Piperitone from plant essential oils enhancesbactericidal activities of nitrofurantoin and furazolidone against bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, the essential oils of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)were screened for augmentation of nitrofurantoin activity and the most active components were determined. Method: The effects of essential oils and their components

Fatemeh Rafii; Ahmad R. Shahverdi

2007-01-01

357

Plant essential oils and formamidines as insecticides/ acaricides: what are the molecular targets?  

E-print Network

to combat Varroa mites. Nowadays, mainly plant essential oils and organic acids are applied becausePlant essential oils and formamidines as insecticides/ acaricides: what are the molecular targets protein-coupled receptor / octopamine / thymol / tyramine 1. PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS-- AN INTRODUCTION

358

167Phytologia (August 2010) 92(2) GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OILS  

E-print Network

167Phytologia (August 2010) 92(2) GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OILS OF JUNIPERUS. Kauffmann 4312 Lentell Road, Eureka, CA, 95501 ABSTRACT The leaf essential oils of Juniperus grandis were (chemotypes A and B), are compared with J. grandis. The compositions of leaf essential oils of J. grandis, J

Adams, Robert P.

359

Evaluation of Microencapsulated Essential Oils and Organic Acids in Diets for Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of two products containing essential oils in diets for broiler chickens. These products were RepaXol™, a mixture of essential oils (including oregano, cinnamon, thyme, and capsicum), and Avigro™, a mixture of essential oils along with organic acids (fumaric, citric, and malic). In the first experiment, conducted in litter-floor pens, eight replicate pens

2005-01-01

360

Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous screening work, Foeniculum vulgare essential oil emerged from a pool of 24 essential oils for its antiplatelet properties and its ability to destabilize the retraction of the coagulum. In the present work the main component of the oil, anethole, tested in guinea pig plasma was as potent as fennel oil in inhibiting arachidonic acid-, collagen-, ADP- and

Massimiliano Tognolini; Vigilio Ballabeni; Simona Bertoni; Renato Bruni; Mariannina Impicciatore; Elisabetta Barocelli

2007-01-01

361

Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24?h exposure period was 19.3??g/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8??g/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne. PMID:25238085

Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

2014-09-01

362

Fractionation of citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase by batch vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess the performance of a vacuum fractionating column for the fractionation of citronella essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase during batch mode operation at different pressures, from 20 to 1mbar and reflux ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Fractions from column top and bottom were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC\\/FID) using authentic standards

Stephani C. Beneti; Eline Rosset; Marcos L. Corazza; Caren D. Frizzo; Marco Di Luccio; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2011-01-01

363

Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.  

PubMed

From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose. PMID:24689310

Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

2014-02-01

364

Antimicrobial efficacy of five essential oils against oral pathogens: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was aimed to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens and to find out the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities by detecting MIC and MBC/MFC of five essential oils such as tea tree oil, lavender oil, thyme oil, peppermint oil and eugenol oil were evaluated against four common oral pathogens by broth dilution method. The strains used for the study were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Results: Out of five essential oils, eugenol oil, peppermint oil, tea tree oil exhibited significant inhibitory effect with mean MIC of 0.62 ± 0.45, 9.00 ± 15.34, 17.12 ± 31.25 subsequently. Mean MBC/MFC for tea tree oil was 17.12 ± 31.25, for lavender oil 151.00 ± 241.82, for thyme oil 22.00 ± 12.00, for peppermint oil 9.75 ± 14.88 and for eugenol oil 0.62 ± 0.45. E. fecalis exhibited low degree of sensitivity compared with all essential oils. Conclusion: Peppermint, tea tree and thyme oil can act as an effective intracanal antiseptic solution against oral pathogens. PMID:24966732

Thosar, Nilima; Basak, Silpi; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Rajurkar, Monali

2013-01-01

365

Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Corn Stalk Pyrolysis Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 extraction was employed to separate simulated and real bio-oil. Effects of adsorbents on enrichment were investigated for a simulated bio-oil, which is composed of acetic acid (AC), propanoic acid (PA), furfural (FR), acetylacetone (AA) and 2-methoxyphenol (MP). Extraction of spiked bio-oil shows adsorbents are able to influence extraction efficiency and selectivity. Appropriate water content in the simulated bio-oil

Jinghua Wang; Hongyou Cui; Shuqin Wei; Shuping Zhuo; Lihong Wang; Zhihe Li; Weiming Yi

2010-01-01

366

Coupled extruder-headspace, a new method for analysis of the essential oil components of Coriandrum sativum fruits.  

PubMed

A new method involving concurrent single screw extruder combined with continuous headspace dynamic for the extraction and identification of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruit was developed. The effect of six different nozzle diameters (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 mm) on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of coriander fruit was studied. The oils from fruit samples were obtained by OMEGA 20 extruder. The result showed that the highest yield (0.53%) was obtained by the diameter of the nozzle was 8mm. Twenty-nine components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly hydrocarbons and alcohol monoterpenes. The main components linalool, ?-pinene, ?-terpinene, p-cymene and limonene showed significant variations with drying trials. PMID:23442704

Sriti, Jazia; Msaada, Kamel; Talou, Thierry; Faye, Mamadou; Vilarem, Gerard; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-10-15

367

Antibacterial Activity of Thymus Syriacus Boiss Essential Oil and Its Components against Some Syrian Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolates  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the medical discoveries of different medicines and advanced ways of treatment, statistics have shown that the number of patients is increasing. This may be due to chemical drugs used in healthcare, agriculture, and diets. This soaring demand in medicines urges us to look for natural sources such as aromatic plants and essential oils, which are rich in efficient compounds. Methods: Extraction of essential oils was performed using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Identification was achieved using the GC-FID technique. Confirmation was made using the GC-MS technique, and isolation was done using a preparative HPLC, equipped with an aliquots collector. The microdilution broth susceptibility assay was utilized to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Our in vitro study demonstrated the antibacterial activity of the Thymus syriacus Boiss essential oil and its components against the tested isolates at levels between 0.375 and 50 µl/ml. The main components of the T. syriacus essential oil were carvacrol, ?-terpinene, and ß–caryophyllene. MIC90 values for the T. syriacus essential oil against the gram-negative organisms varied between 3.125 and 12.5 µl/ml. The most effective components against the gram-negative bacteria were thymol, carvacrol, dihydro-carvon, and linalool respectively. Conclusions: The T. syriacus essential oil and some of its components exhibited very good inhibitory effects against Syrian gram-negative isolates. PMID:24031109

Al-Mariri, Ayman; Swied, Ghayath; Oda, Adnan; Al Hallab, Laila

2013-01-01

368

Oil separation from wet milled corn germ dispersions as part of aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oil was obtained from corn germ by aqueous extraction (AE). 100 g batches of germ were mixed with a buffer solution to a mass concentration of 5 to 20% germ, preheated under 2 atm. pressure (120oC), milled in a blender and then churned in an incubator/shaker to coalesce and float oil droplets. The ...

369

Effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil on oxidative stability of sunflower oil during accelerated storage.  

PubMed

In this study, the application of various concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%) of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (EO) was examined on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) during storage at 60°C. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses of the oils revealed that carvacrol (87.7%) was the major component of EO. Peroxide value and anisidine value measurements in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effects in comparison to BHA. Oil samples supplemented with EO concentration of 0.08% were the most stable during storage (p?

Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

2012-01-01

370

Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was highly susceptible to all the other essential oils at the diagnostic dose. Conclusions C. citratus, E. tereticornis, E. citriodora, C. ambrosioides and C. schoenanthus are potential promising plant sources for alternative compounds to pyrethroids, for the control of the Anopheles malaria vector in Benin. The efficacy of their essential oils is possibly based on their chemical compositions in which major and/or minor compounds have reported insecticidal activities on various pests and disease vectors such as Anopheles. PMID:24298981

2013-01-01

371

Comparison of conventional extraction under reflux conditions and microwave-assisted extraction of oil from popcorn.  

PubMed

Popcorn offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the commercial synthetic loose-fill packing materials. Popcorn could be used for cushioning purposes if the oil is extracted after the popping process. Conventional and microwave-assisted extraction methods were used for oil extraction from whole and ground, popped and unpopped kernels. The conventional extraction method achieved 68.5% oil recovery from whole popped kernels. However, whole unpopped kernels were not efficiently de-oiled with either of the methods. Extraction of oil from popped kernels is recommended; corn varieties with higher starch content and lower oil content should be used. PMID:18161415

Cheng, Hoi Po; Dai, Jianming; Nemes, Simona; Raghavan, G S Vijaya

2007-01-01

372

Evaluation of Melaleuca cajuputi (Family: Myrtaceae) Essential Oil in Aerosol Spray Cans against Dengue Vectors in Low Cost Housing Flats  

PubMed Central

Background Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil in aerosol spray was evaluated against the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus at low cost housing flats in Section 10, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: Essential oil in aerosol viz: 5% and 10% of concentrations were sprayed for 5 seconds each towards hung mosquitoes in 5 cylindrical net cages. Aerosol weights were recorded before and after spraying to determine discharge rates. Knockdown and mortality number were observed and compared to MS standard aerosol which contain 0.07% prallethrin and 0.05% d-phenothrin as positive control and aerosol contain 40% kerosene and 60% LPG was used as negative control. Results: High knockdown and mortality was observed in both species of mosquitoes towards MS standard aerosol. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) of mortality and knockdown between 5% and 10% of essential oil aerosol and 5% and 10% essential oil between MS standard. For 5% essential oil, mean percentage (%) of knockdown and mortality of Ae. aegypti displayed slightly higher compared to Ae. albopictus. Spraying with 5% M. cajuputi essential oil aerosol indicated a knockdown of Ae. aegypti 5.60±1.18 and mortality of 22.90±4.22 while Ae. albopictus showed 4.60±0.89 knockdown and 20.00±2.85 mortality. The 10% essential oil concentration gave 23.60±1.68 knockdown and 48.05±0.37 mortality for Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus gave 23.00±3.16 knockdown and 44.20 ± 2.10 mortality respectively. Conclusions: Extracts of essential oils does possessed an adulticidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future dengue vectors control. PMID:23293776

Abu Bakar, A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B; Mat Ali, R

2012-01-01

373

The comparative effect of novel Pelargonium essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols as antimicrobial agents in a model food system.  

PubMed

Essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols, obtained after distillation of various scented Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) leaves were assessed for their antimicrobial activity in a model food system. Both the essential oils and hydrosols were used at 1000 ppm in broccoli soup, previously inoculated with Enterobacter aerogenes (at 10(5) cfu g(-1)) and Staphylococcus aureus (at 10(4) cfu g(-1)). The results showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the broccoli soup by the essential oils of 'Sweet Mimosa', 'Mabel Grey', P. graveolens, 'Atomic Snowflake', 'Royal Oak', 'Attar of Roses' and a lesser effect by 'Chocolate Peppermint' and 'Clorinda'; the hydrosols, however, had a potentiating effect on the bacterial population in the food. Both extracts showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the Maximum Recovery Diluent (MRD). Antibacterial activity against E. aerogenes in the broccoli soup was generally very much reduced: only the essential oil of 'Mabel Grey' showed complete inhibition and virtually no reductions in colonies were seen with the other essential oils; the hydrosols again caused an increase in bacterial colonies. All the essential oils, bar Chocolate Peppermint showed complete inhibition of E. aerogenes in MRD, but the hydrosols showed no effect. The results strongly suggest that the residual hydrosols from distillation of these plant essential oils have no potential as antibacterial agents in foods, in contrast to most of the essential oils, which show potential against some micro-organisms, but only in some food systems. The problem of food component interference and its possible management is discussed. PMID:12557249

Lis-Balchin, M; Steyrl, H; Krenn, E

2003-01-01

374

Larvicidal and repellent activity of Vetiveria zizaniodes (Poaceae) essential oil against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oil extracted by steam distillation of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Poaceae) was evaluated for larvicidal and adult repellent activity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 24 h post treatment for instars 1-4 were, respectively,...

375

Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on

J. Nguefack; V. Leth; P. H. Amvam Zollo; S. B. Mathur

2004-01-01

376

Anti-Onchocerca activity and phytochemical analysis of an essential oil from Cyperus articulatus L  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of a safe and effective adult worm drug and the emergence of resistant animal parasite strains to the only recommended drug, the microfilaricide, ivermectin put many at risk of the devastating effects of the onchocerciasis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acclaimed anti-Onchocerca activity of the roots/rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus in the traditional treatment of onchocerciasis in North Western Cameroon and to assess the plant as a new source of potential filaricidal lead compounds. Methods Crude extracts were prepared from the dried plant parts using hexane, methylene chloride and methanol. The antifilarial activity was evaluated in vitro on microfilariae (Mfs) and adult worms of the bovine derived Onchocerca ochengi, a close relative of Onchocerca volvulus. The viabilities of microfilariae and adult male worms were determined based on motility reduction, while for the adult female worms the viability was based on the standard MTT/formazan assay. Cytotoxicity of the active extract was assessed on monkey kidney epithelial cells in vitro and the selectivity indices (SI) were determined. Acute toxicity of the promising extract was investigated in mice. Chemical composition of the active extract was unraveled by GC/MS analysis. Results Only the hexane extract, an essential oil exhibited anti-Onchocerca activity. The oil killed both the microfilariae and adult worms of O. ochengi in a dose manner dependently, with IC50s of 23.4 ?g/ml on the Mfs, 23.4 ?g/ml on adult male worms and 31.25 ?g/ml on the adult female worms. Selectivity indices were 4, 4, and 2.99 for Mfs, adult males and adult females, respectively. At a single limit dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight, none of 6 mice that received the essential oil by gavage died. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of terpenoids, hydrocarbons and fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives as components of the oil. Conclusions The essential oil from the roots/rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus is active against O. ochengi microfilariae and adult worms in vitro in a dose dependent manner, hence may provide a source of new anti-filarial compounds. The results also support the traditional use of C. articulatus in the treatment of human onchocerciasis. PMID:24998345

2014-01-01

377

Chemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of Algerian Eryngium tricuspidatum L. essential oil.  

PubMed

This study describes the chemical composition and the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from aerial parts of the Algerian Eryngium tricuspidatum L., obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by using the combination of gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. A total of 63 compounds were identified accounting for 93.1% of the total oil. Chemical composition of oil was characterised by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (49.6%) among which ?-bisabolol (32.6%) was the predominant compound. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represent the second major fraction (31.9%) with ?-curcumene (6.5%) being the predominant one. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the oil were tested using the micro-well determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against eleven bacteria and two Candida species. It was found that the aerial parts of E. tricuspidatum exhibited interesting antibacterial and anticandidal activities (MIC = 9 ?g/mL against several strains of bacteria and MIC = 4.6 ?g/mL against Candida albicans). The antioxidant effect of this oil was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-l-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results revealed significant activities (DPPH method: IC?? = 510 ?g/mL; FRAP assay: reducing power of oil increases from 0.0188 at 5 ?g/mL to 0.5016 at 1000 ?g/mL). PMID:24559136

Merghache, Djamila; Boucherit-Otmani, Zahia; Merghache, Salima; Chikhi, Ilyas; Selles, Chaouki; Boucherit, Kebir

2014-01-01

378

Antibacterial effect of some essential oils administered alone or in combination with Norfloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was that of verifying a possible synergistic antibacterial effect between Pelargonium graveolens [Lis-Balchin, M., Deans, S.G., Hart, S., 1996. Bioactive Geranium oils from different commercial sources. J. Essential Oil Res. 8, 281–290.] essential oil (and its main components) and Norfloxacin antibiotic.As a first step growth inhibition by some types of essential oils was assessed

Antonio Rosato; Cesare Vitali; Nicolino De Laurentis; Domenico Armenise; Maria Antonietta Milillo

2007-01-01

379

Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

2014-11-01

380

Essential oil from Eupatorium buniifolium leaves as potential varroacide.  

PubMed

Beekeeping has experienced a great expansion worldwide. Nowadays, several conventional pesticides, some organic acids, and essential oil components are the main means of chemical control used against Varroa destructor, an ectoparasite that may contribute to the colony collapse disorders. Varroa resistance against conventional pesticides has already been reported; therefore it is imperative to look for alternative control agents to be included in integrated pest management programs. A good alternative seems to be the use of plant essential oils (EOs) which, as natural products, are less toxic and leave fewer residues. Within this context, a bioprospecting program of the local flora searching for botanical pesticides to be used as varroacides was launched. A primary screening (driven by laboratory assays testing for anti-Varroa activity, and safety to bees) led us to select the EOs from Eupatorium buniifolium (Asteraceae) for follow up studies. We have chemical characterized EOs from twigs and leaves collected at different times. The three E. buniifolium EOs tested were active against Varroa in laboratory assays; however, there are differences that might be attributable to chemical differences also found. The foliage EO was selected for a preliminary field trial (on an experimental apiary with 40 hives) that demonstrated acaricidal activity when applied to the hives. Although activity was less than that for oxalic acid (the positive control), this EO was less toxic to bees than the control, encouraging further studies. PMID:23839173

Umpiérrez, María Laura; Santos, Estela; Mendoza, Yamandú; Altesor, Paula; Rossini, Carmen

2013-10-01

381

Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil.  

PubMed

There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone--12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone--14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays. PMID:24956490

Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

2014-11-11

382

[Treatment of halitosis with mouth rinsing agents containing essential oils].  

PubMed

The main reason for halitosis is the enhanced evaporable amount of sulphur compounds in the exhalation, which originates in the oral cavity due to local protein fission. Oral bacteria hydrolyze proteins and further degrade amino acids, which leads to halitosis. In an alkaline environment, many bacterial species found in the oral cavity with their enzymes participate in the degradation of proteins and formation of evaporable sulphur compounds. The presence of bacteria in the oral cavity is associated with different chronic inflammations in the soft tissues of the oral cavity. Mouth rinsing agents, which contain essential oils, ensure the renewal of a normal microbiota in the oral cavity, decreases the quantitative amount of bacteria and products released by proteolytic bacteria. Bad breath was confirmed by measurements made by a portable sulphide monitor or halimeter (Interscan Corporation, Model RH-17E USA). The halimeter quantifies breath measurements in parts-per-billion (ppb) of sulphur compounds. Halimeter measurements of patients showed increased levels of sulphur compounds. Oral mouthwashes containing essential oils possess a typical antimicrobial activity, apparently, they do not form resistant microorganism strains, and they do not cause allergic reactions. PMID:22968609

Rostoka, D; Kroi?a, J; Iriste, V; Reinis, A; Kuznetsova, V; Teibe, U

2012-01-01

383

Investigation of the chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship of essential oils by chemometric methods.  

PubMed

The antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and Calamintha nepeta (Lamiaceae) Savi subsp. nepeta var. subisodonda (Borb.) Hayek essential oils on five different bacteria were estimated. Laboratory control strain and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media were researched by broth microdilution method, with an emphasis on a chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95%) and p-cymene (18.34%). Linalool acetate (38.23%) and ?-linalool (35.01%) were main compounds in lavender oil. C. nepeta essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of piperitone oxide (59.07%) and limonene (9.05%). Essential oils have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Classification and comparison of essential oils on the basis of their chemical composition and antibacterial activity were made by utilization of appropriate chemometric methods. The chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierachical cluster analysis (HCA) separated essential oils into two groups and two sub-groups. Thyme essential oil forms separate chemical HCA group and exhibits highest antibacterial activity, similar to tetracycline. Essential oils of lavender and C. nepeta in the same chemical HCA group were classified in different groups, within antibacterial PCA and HCA analyses. Lavender oil exhibits higher antibacterial ability in comparison with C. nepeta essential oil, probably based on the concept of synergistic activity of essential oil components. PMID:22389175

Miladinovi?, Dragoljub L; Ili?, Budimir S; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Nikoli?, Nikola D; Miladinovi?, Ljiljana C; Cvetkovi?, Olga G

2012-05-01

384

Dynamic extraction of spearmint oil components by using supercritical CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The effects of various extraction conditions on the dynamic extraction of the essential oil components carvone and limonene from spearmint leaves using SC-CO{sub 2} were investigated. The extraction rate increased with increasing pressure or decreasing temperature. an increase of the CO{sub 2} flow rate increased the extraction rate but decreased the solvent efficiency of CO{sub 2}. Ground leaf samples with a smaller particle size showed an enhanced initial extraction rate for carvone as compared to larger particle size leaf samples. The use of an ethanol modifier did not enhance the extraction rate but did cause the coextraction of pigment and waxy substances.

Kim, K.H.; Hong, J.

2000-01-01

385

Study on essential oils from four species of Zhishi with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus fruits are widely used as food and or for medicinal purposes, and they contain a host of active substances that contribute to health. The immature fruits of Citrus sinensis Osbeck and its cultivars (CS), C. junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (CJ), C. aurantium L. and its cultivars (CA) and Poncirus trifoliate Raf. (PT) are the most commonly used medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine, called Zhishi. And their mature fruits can be used as food. Results In this study, the essential oils of four different Zhishi species were extracted by steam distillation and detected using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 39 volatiles from the four species were tentatively identified. The limonene was the most abundant amongst the four species. Principal component analysis (PCA) of essential oils showed a clear separation of volatiles among CS, CJ and PT. However, CA could not be separated from these three species. Additionally, the volatiles accounting for the variations among the widely separated species were characterized through their corresponding loading weight. Conclusion Sesquiterpenes were identified as characteristic markers for PT. The content of some monoterpenes could be as taxonomic markers between CS and CJ. This work is of great importance for the evaluation and authentication of Zhishi samples through essential oils. PMID:24708882

2014-01-01

386

Comparative essential oil composition of aerial parts of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss. from Southern Zagros, Iran.  

PubMed

The essential oils of leaves and flowers of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss., an endemic medicinal shrub, were extracted by using hydrodistillation method and analysed using GC and GC-MS. A total of 43 and 44 compounds were identified in the essential oils from the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum, respectively. The major chemical constituents of leaves oil were borneol (27.9%), bornyl acetate (18.4%), 1,8-cineol (17.5%), ?-terpineol (5.3%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (3.3%), camphene (2.7%) and terpinene-4-ol (1.9%), while the main components of the flower oil were isobornyl-2-methyl butanoate (41.1%), trans-linalyl oxide acetate (11.9%), 1,8-cineole (7.7%), thymol (4.2%), linalool (3.9%), camphor (2.9%), isobornyl propanoate (2.9%), ?-terpineol (2.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.0%). Major qualitative and quantitative variations for some main chemical compounds among different aerial parts of T. dumosum were identified. High contents of borneol, bornyl acetate, 1,8-cineol and linalool in the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum show its potential for use in the food and perfumery industry. PMID:25370611

Ghanbarian, Gholam Abbas; Naseri, Mahmood; Hatami, Ahmad; Jafari, Efat

2015-01-01

387

Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking

H. J. Beard; L. C. Fletcher; R. Oblasny

1982-01-01

388

Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:24252340

Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

2014-03-15

389

Enhanced antibacterial effects of clove essential oil by nanoemulsion.  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsion formulations of clove essential oil (CEO) for its antibacterial effects in comparison with pure CEO and standard amikacin antibiotic (positive control). Different nanoemulsions of CEO were developed by aqueous phase titration method via construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and investigated for thermodynamic stability and self-nanoemulsification tests. Selected formulations (F1-F5) were characterized for droplet size distribution, viscosity, zeta potential, transmittance and surface morphology. Based on lowest droplet size (29.1 nm), lowest PI (0.026), lowest viscosity (34.6 cp), optimal zeta potential (-31.4 mV), highest transmittance (99.4 %) and lowest concentration of Triacetin (8 % w/w), CEO nanoemulsion F1 (containing 1 % w/w of CEO, 8 % w/w of Triacetin, 15 % w/w of Tween-80, 15 % w/w of Labrasol and 61 % w/w of water) was subjected to antibacterial studies in comparison with pure oil and standard amikacin. The antibacterial effects of F1 were found to be superior over pure oil against all bacterial strains investigated. However, the antibacterial effects of F1 were highly comparable with standard amikacin against all bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of F1 were observed in the range of 0.075-0.300 % w/w as compared to pure oil (MICs 0.130-0.500 % w/w) and standard amikacin (MICs 2-16 ?g/ml). These results indicated the potential of nanoemulsions for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of natural bioactive ingredients such as CEO. PMID:24599109

Anwer, Md Khalid; Jamil, Shahid; Ibnouf, Elmutasim Osman; Shakeel, Faiyaz

2014-01-01

390

In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544  

PubMed Central

Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1%) in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella. PMID:23115441

Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saour, George; Hamou, Razan

2012-01-01

391

Chemical composition of essential oil of Senecio coincyi, an endemic species of the Central Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

The essential oil has been studied of leaves of Senecio coincyi Rouy, an endemic species of Spain restricted to a very small area of the Central Iberian Peninsula. Samples from five locations were obtained by hydrodistillation and extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compound was 1-tridecene (28.1 +/- 8.5%). The presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons (1-undecene, 1-dodecene and 1-tridecene) seems to indicate a chemotaxonomic relationship between Senecio coincyi and S. congestus. PMID:21366061

Arrabal, Carlos; Martínez García, Felipe; Paz Arraiza, María; Guerrero García, Silvia

2011-01-01

392

The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of Aniba rosaeodora, Laurus nobilis, Sassafras albidum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils were investigated against 17 micromycetes. Among the tested fungal species were food poisoning, spoilage fungi, plant and animal pathogens. In order to determine fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) macrodilution and microdilution tests were used. Linalool was the main component in the essential oil of A. rosaeodora, while 1.8-cineole was dominant in L. nobilis. In sassafras essential oil safrole was the major component and in the oil of C. zeylanicum the main component was trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil of cinnamon showed the strongest antifungal activity. PMID:15478207

Simi?, A; Sokovi?, M D; Risti?, M; Gruji?-Jovanovi?, S; Vukojevi?, J; Marin, P D

2004-09-01

393

The chemical constituents and biological activity of essential oil of Lavandula stoechas ssp. stoechas.  

PubMed

The composition of essential oil of the leaves of Lavandula stoechas ssp. stoechas, was analyzed by means of capillary GC-MS. The main components of L. stoechas ssp. stoechas oil were pulegone (40.4%), menthol (18.1%), menthone (12.6%). The essential oil of the plant was evaluated for antibacterial and a panel cytotoxic activities. PMID:12440714

Gören, Ahmet; Topçu, Gülaçti; Bilsel, Gökhan; Bilsel, Mine; Aydo?mu?, Zeynep; Pezzuto, John M

2002-01-01

394

Genetic Improvement of Mentha arvensis Based on Essential Oil Yield and Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence among 38 genotypes of Japanese mint Mentha arvensis, studied under the climatic conditions of northern India, could be grouped into eight clusters based on essential oil yield and quality components. Genotypes with relatively high essential oil yields could be identified and suggest the possibility of developing high-yielding, Japanese mint plants having good oil quality. Identification of genotype performance

S. P. Singh; Srikant Sharma; R. K. Tewari

1998-01-01

395

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria  

E-print Network

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from-Industrielles'', 17042 La Rochelle, France Abstract: Essential oils of thyme (Thymus numidicus (Poiret)) from Algeria of linalool and thymol. Key Words: Thyme oil, Thymus numidicus (Poiret), chemical composition, insecticidal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.  

PubMed

Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150°C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100°C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150°C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. PMID:25442573

Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

2015-04-01

397

Properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.  

PubMed

Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (p<0.05). Films incorporated with essential oils, especially from lime, at both glycerol levels showed the lower TS but higher EAB than the control films (without incorporated essential oil) (p<0.05). Water vapour permeability (WVP) of films containing essential oils was lower than that of control films for both glycerol levels (p<0.05). Films with essential oils had varying ?E(*) (total colour difference), where the highest value was observed in that added with bergamot essential oil (p<0.05). Higher glycerol content increased EAB and WVP but decreased TS of films. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that films added with essential oils exhibited higher hydrophobicity with higher amplitude at wavenumber of 2874-2926 cm(-1) and 1731-1742 cm(-1) than control film. Film incorporated with essential oils exhibited slightly lower thermal degradation resistance, compared to the control film. Varying effect of essential oil on thermal degradation temperature and weight loss was noticeable, but all films prepared using 20% glycerol had higher thermal degradation temperature with lower weight loss, compared with those containing 30% glycerol. Films added with all types of essential oils had rough cross-section, compared with control films, irrespective of glycerol levels. However, smooth surface was observed in all film samples. Film incorporated with lemon essential oil showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (p<0.05), while the other films had lower activity. Thus, the incorporation of different essential oils and glycerol levels directly affected the properties of gelatin-based film from fish skin. PMID:25005982

Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

2012-10-01

398

Carbohydrase hydrolysis of canola to enhance oil extraction with hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis of three canola cultivars with carbohydrase reduced oil extraction time and increased oil yield. The optimum pretreatment\\u000a before hexane extraction of oil was flaking, autoclaving, adjustment to 30% seed moisture including 0.12% enzyme concentration\\u000a (g enzyme protein\\/100 g flakes), and incubation for 12 hr at 50 C, followed by drying to 4% moisture. Hexane extraction was\\u000a enhanced by grinding

K. Sosulski; F. W. Sosulski; E. Coxworth

1988-01-01

399

Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 ?g/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 ?g/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy observed in this study is attributed to both major and minor compounds of the essential oils. PMID:24885613

2014-01-01

400

Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).  

PubMed

Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode. PMID:18605734

Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

2008-08-27