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1

Essential oils: from extraction to encapsulation.  

PubMed

Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. PMID:25683145

El Asbahani, A; Miladi, K; Badri, W; Sala, M; Aďt Addi, E H; Casabianca, H; El Mousadik, A; Hartmann, D; Jilale, A; Renaud, F N R; Elaissari, A

2015-04-10

2

Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The leaves (needles) of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extra...

3

Extraction of lemongrass essential oil with dense carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was extracted with dense carbon dioxide at 23–50°C and 85–120 bar. The composition of samples collected during the first and the last hours of the extraction experiments was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and coextraction of cuticular waxes was observed. Liquid carbon dioxide extracts had a larger quantity of coextracted waxes than the supercritical extracts.

Luiz Henrique Castelan Carlson; Ricardo Antonio Francisco Machado; Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo; Lia Krücken Pereira; Ariovaldo Bolzan

2001-01-01

4

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:10438227

Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

1999-06-01

5

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oils from orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of orange essential oil was studied using dehydrated orange peel (0.0538 kg H2O kg?1 dm) from naveline cultivars as raw material and CO2 as solvent. The effect of operation conditions was analyzed in a series of experiments at 313 and 323 K and pressures between 1 and 25 MPa. Furthermore, the effect of CO2 flow rate

A. Berna; M BLASCO; S SUBIRATS

1996-01-01

6

Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.  

PubMed

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: ?-pinene, camphene, ?-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and ?-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (< 2.5 min) and decreased with increasing DT; but the trend reversed for the high-boiling point constituents: geraniol and geranyl-acetate. The concentration of the major essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT. PMID:25132088

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

2014-01-01

7

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

8

Liquid CO 2 extraction of essential oil from Star anise fruits ( Illicium verum H.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil from dried Star anise fruits (Illicium verum H.) was extracted with liquid CO2. The yield and the time of extraction were compared with that of the conventional steam distillation method. Extraction with liquid CO2 yielded 9.8% more essential oil than steam distillation. The anethole contents in oils obtained by the two methods were not significantly different and were

Dang Quoc Tuan; Sarath G. Ilangantileket

1997-01-01

9

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of Nepeta cataria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is an important medicinal herb belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Nepeta cataria, and its essential oil composition were investigated. The essential oil, which has 4a\\

AHMET ADIGUZEL; HAKAN OZER; MUNEVVER SOKMEN; MEDINE GULLUCE; ATALAY SOKMEN; HAMDULLAH KILIC; FIKRETTIN SAHIN; OZLEM BARIS

10

[Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].  

PubMed

The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found. PMID:25842910

2015-01-01

11

Isolation of Clove Bud and Star Anise Essential Oil by Supercritical CO 2Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clove bud and star anise volatile oils were isolated by supercritical CO2extraction coupled to a fractional separation technique. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the various fractions obtained in different extraction and fractionation conditions allowed the identification of the best operating conditions for the isolation of essential oil. A good extraction performance was obtained operating at 90 bar and 50 °C

G Della Porta; R Taddeo; E D'Urso; E Reverchon

1998-01-01

12

Use of essential oils and extracts from spices in meat protection.  

PubMed

The hydro distillation method was used in this study to get essential oils (EOs) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), clove (Eugenia caryohyllata) and Elecampane (Inula helenium L.) and the co-hydro distillation method (addition of fatty acid ethyl esters as extraction cosolvents) to get functional extracts (EFs). The MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and the MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) were determined on five pathogenic strains (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Toxoplasma Gondi). The results showed that essential oils of cumin and clove and their functional extracts are effective on concentrations from 500 mg/L to 750 mg/L. The essential oils with functional extracts were used on meat samples at three different concentrations: 750, 1,500 and 2,250 ?L. The cumin essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 750 ?L, the clove essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 2,250 ?L and the cumin and clove functional extracts got a reduction of 3.6 log UFC/g. By chromatography, eugenol was identified in the clove oil, cuminaldehyde in the cumin oil and the isoalactolactones and alactolactones in the elecampane oil as main compounds on the chemical composition of the essential oils and functional extracts obtained. PMID:24803704

Hernández-Ochoa, L; Aguirre-Prieto, Y B; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Gutierrez-Mendez, N; Salas-Muńoz, E

2014-05-01

13

Supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper ( Piper nigrun L.) essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed bed extraction of black pepper essential oil using supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent was studied. Composition of the extracted oil was obtained by chromatographic analysis, and solubility of the oil was determined using the dynamic method of extraction. Experiments were conducted at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C and 150, 200 and 300bar. Solubility varied from 0.09 to 0.15goil\\/g CO2

Sandra R. S. Ferreira; Zivko L. Nikolov; L. K. Doraiswamy; M. Angela A. Meireles; Ademir J. Petenate

1999-01-01

14

Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils is one of the most widely discussed applications in the supercritical fluid literature. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of the analytical, processing and modeling aspects has never been attempted. This is partly due to the difficulties involved in isolating essential oils from the other products which supercritical CO2 can dissolve. Moreover, only a limited number

Ernesto Reverchon

1997-01-01

15

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oils from plants with secretory ducts: Mathematical modelling on the micro-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oils from plants which contain secretory ducts as essential oil reservoirs was investigated and modelled. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oils from Asteraceae family species, marigold and chamomile, indicated that particle size had no significant influence on the extraction rate in two outermost cases: fine milled plant material and

Irena Zizovic; Marko Stameni?; Aleksandar Orlovi?; Dejan Skala

2007-01-01

16

Antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots.  

PubMed

Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, ?-vatirenene, ?-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, ?-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, ?-guaiene, and ?-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity. PMID:24804225

Thusoo, Sakshima; Gupta, Sahil; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika

2014-01-01

17

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising antibacterial activities against most pathogens using broth microdilution method. Maximum activity of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts (MIC 15.6 and 62.5mug/ml) were observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris. Combinations of essential oils and methanol extracts showed an additive action against most tested pathogens especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18226481

Al-Bayati, Firas A

2008-03-28

18

Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Valeriana jatamansi Roots  

PubMed Central

Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, ?-vatirenene, ?-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, ?-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, ?-guaiene, and ?-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity. PMID:24804225

Thusoo, Sakshima; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika

2014-01-01

19

Extraction of essential oil from Pimpinella anisum using supercritical carbon dioxide and comparison with hydrodistillation.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from Pimpinella anisum, using carbon dioxide as a solvent is presented in this work. An orthogonal array design OA9 (3(4)) was applied to select the optimum extraction condition. The effects of pressure, temperature, dynamic extraction time and methanol volume on the extraction efficiency were investigated by the three-level orthogonal array design. Results show that pressure has a significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The extract obtained from P. anisum by using supercritical fluid extraction was compared with the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, considering both quantity and quality of the product. SFE products were found to be of markedly different composition, compared with the corresponding hydrodistilated oil. The total amount of extractable substances obtained in SFE (7.5%) is higher than that obtained by hydrodistillation (3.1%) and SFE is faster than hydrodistillation method. PMID:18266149

Yamini, Yadollah; Bahramifar, Nader; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Saharkhiz, Mohamad Jamal; Salamifar, Ehsan

2008-02-15

20

Extraction of the essential oil of thyme and black pepper by superheated steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superheated heated steam was used to extract volatiles from thyme leaves and black pepper fruits. Steam and extracted volatiles are collected in a condenser and essential oils are separated from the collected mixture by solvents and analysed by GC. Results show that the yield of extraction has an asymptotical evolution with time and increase with steam temperature and flow and

Mouin Rouatbi; Albert Duquenoy; Pierre Giampaoli

2007-01-01

21

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves  

PubMed Central

This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: ?-pinene (32.32%), ?-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), ?-caryophyllene (4.36%), and ?-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

2013-01-01

22

Comparative antibacterial effects of novel Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts.  

PubMed

The scented leaves of a number of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species and cultivars were extracted using steam distillation, petroleum spirit and methanol. The extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus and Staph. epidermidis. The results indicated substantial antibacterial activity and suggested that Pelargonium essential oils could be used as novel antibacterial agents. The methanolic and petroleum spirit extracts were more potent antibacterial agents than the steam-distilled volatile samples. The results suggest that Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts could be used as novel food or cosmetic antimicrobial agents. PMID:9750316

Lis-Balchin, M; Buchbauer, G; Ribisch, K; Wenger, M T

1998-09-01

23

Thymus Daenensis Extract and Essential Oils Effects on Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Thymus species are well known medicinal plants which the previous studies suggested the involvement of the opioid system in them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanolic extract and essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus daenensis (TD), an endemic aromatic medicinal plant of Iran, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed in two groups of five, each group treated with extracts or essential oils of TD. Dependency was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, the last dose of morphine was injected two hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of naloxone while the extract or essential oil of TD was administered 30 minutes before naloxone. A period of 20 minutes after naloxone injection was considered the critical period of the withdrawal syndrome. The number of jumps, standing, leaning, and the weight of stools were recorded as withdrawal signs. Results: The 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of extract and all doses of essential oil decreased significantly the number of jumps, standing, leaning and the weight of stool. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract only decreased the weight of stool and had no effect on the other factors. Conclusions: Extract and essential oil of TD attenuates morphine withdrawal behaviors in mice and may be useful in alleviating the signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome in human. PMID:25237649

Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Taherzadeh, Esmaeil; Siahpoosh, Amir; Mansourzadeh, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Amir Hossein

2014-01-01

24

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

25

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Ligularia hodgsonii and free radical scavenging activity of the oil and crude extracts.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil from roots and rhizomes of Ligularia hodgsonii was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Forty-seven components were identified, representing 77.0% of the total oil. The main constituents were l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6- dihexadecanoate (15.7%), selina-6-en-4-ol (8.4%) and 9,10-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroanthracene (6.6%). The free radical scavenging activities of the essential oil, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, and crude polysaccharides of L. hodgsonii, as well as some of their major components, were investigated using DPPH and ABTS assays. The essential oil displayed a lower capacity to quench free radicals than the extracts; the ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed considerably higher antioxidant potential that deserves further study. PMID:25522549

Zhou, Zihao; Tang, Jun; Song, Xueping

2014-10-01

26

Modeling the supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fixed bed extraction of black pepper essential oil using supercritical carbon dioxide was modeled by the extended Lack's plug flow model developed by Sovová (Sovová's model). The experimental data were obtained for extractions conducted at 30, 40 and 50°C, and 150, 200, and 300 bar, for two different types of ground black pepper (batches 1 and 2). The model

Sandra R. S Ferreira; M. Angela A Meireles

2002-01-01

27

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta cataria.  

PubMed

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is an important medicinal herb belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Nepeta cataria, and its essential oil composition were investigated. The essential oil, which has 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (70.4%), 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (6.0%), thymol (2.3%), and 4aalpha,7alpha, 7abeta3-nepetalactone (2.5%), as main components, exhibited activity against eleven bacteria, and twelve fungi and a yeast, C. albicans; with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values ranging from 12.50 to 250 microl/ml; the methanol extract showed weaker activity. The samples were also subjected to a screening for their possible antioxidant activities by using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. In DPPH assay, the extract showed slight antioxidant activity whereas the essential oil remained inactive. In the latter case, both the extract and the essential oil exerted weak activity having inhibiton ratios of linoleic acid oxidation at 16.4% and 27.0%, respectively. The weak antioxidative nature of the extract could be attributed to the low phenolic content, estimated as gallic acid equivalent at 22.6 +/- 2.07 microg/ml or 2.26%. In both systems, antioxidant capacity of BHT was determined in parallel experiments. PMID:19469289

Adiguzel, Ahmet; Ozer, Hakan; Sokmen, Munevver; Gulluce, Medine; Sokmen, Atalay; Kilic, Hamdullah; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baris, Ozlem

2009-01-01

28

Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.  

PubMed

The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej

2013-06-01

29

Solvent-free microwave extraction : an innovative tool for rapid extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs and spices.  

PubMed

A relatively simple apparatus is described for extracting essential oils from aromatic plant material by atmospheric solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) without the addition of any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds were performed by a single stage. The product solutions of volatile compounds were directly analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils fiom aromatic herbs (basil, crispate mint, thyme) and spices (ajowan, cumin, star anise) extracted by SFME for 30 minutes and I hour, were similar to those obtained by conventional hydro-distillation (HD)for (respectively) 4 and 8 hours. Substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes hydrocarbons are present in the essential oils of the aromatic plants extracted by SFME in comparison with HD. Solvent-free microwave extraction is clearly advantageous to conventional distillation in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness, substantial saving of energy, and is environmentally friendly. PMID:16480156

Lucchesi, Marie E; Chemat, Farid; Smadja, Jacqueline

2004-01-01

30

Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.  

PubMed

In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment. PMID:20813373

Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

2010-10-01

31

Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).  

PubMed

Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively. PMID:16375827

Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica

2005-12-01

32

Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Myrtus communis L.  

PubMed Central

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were ?-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 ?g/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 ?g/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 ?g/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

2015-01-01

33

Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Myrtus communis L.  

PubMed

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were ?-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 ?g/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 ?g/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 ?g/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

2015-02-01

34

Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation  

PubMed Central

Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by ?-pinene as against ?-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

2012-01-01

35

The analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings ? A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. Where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. Particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory

Thomas E. Furia

1977-01-01

36

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

37

Short Communication Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medi- cines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagro- phytes, Epidermophyton Xoccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

38

Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

2007-01-01

39

Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.  

PubMed

Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts. PMID:23292852

Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

2013-01-01

40

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and Extract of Hypericum elongatum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HOFARIGHUN, RAEE flower, thousand eyes wort are popular names for Hypericum sp in Persian language mostly called H. perforatum. It has been used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antimigraine, antiepileptic and cholagouge. Tisane of these plants in red wine was used as snake bite and burning remedy. The volatile constituents, obtained from air-dried aerial parts of fruiting Hypericum elongatum were analyzed by GC/MS method. Thirty four components of about 96.50% of total oil were identified. Pinene (80.43%), Terpinene (4.23%) and Pinene <ß>(2.59%) were the principal components (87.16%). The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and anti-yeast activities by using disc diffusion method. Screening of the antimicrobials was investigated on Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112, Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1114, Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 8043), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli PTCC 1338, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1047, Salmonella typhi PTCC 1609), yeasts (Candida albicans ATCC 14053, Candida kefyr ATCC 3826) and fungi (Aspergillus niger PLM 1140, Aspergillus fumigatus PLM 712). The MIC of essential oil also was identified. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil against all of the microorganisms was observed, except Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. In spite of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract against bacteria, there was no antimicrobial activity against fungi and yeasts. A survey of the literature revealed no reports dealing with chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activity of Hypericum elongatum.

Ghasemi, Younes; Khalaj, Amir; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Khosravi, Ahmad Reza; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein

41

Comparison of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oils produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Eucalyptus cinerea is reported to possess a higher 1,8-cineole content than other Eucalyptus species. Variations in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of E. cinerea oil produced by hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques and a comparison between glycoside-bound and free volatile constituents produced by HD have been studied. It was found that HD produced higher oil (free volatiles) content (3.1%) as compared with SCE (1.1%), whereas bound volatiles constituted only about 0.4%. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the oil samples revealed significant difference in their chemical composition. The essential oil (free volatiles) produced by HD contained 1,8-cineole (85.1%) as the major constituent, followed by a-terpineol (7.2%) and limonene (4.4%). In the bound volatile fraction produced by HD, 1,8 cineole (20.6%), alpha-terpineol (7.6%), p-cymene (6.3%), and limonene (4.5%) were found as major constituents. The extract produced by SCE was dominated by 1,8-cineole (70.4%), a-terpineol (8.6%), globulol (3.1%), aromadendrene (2%), citronellal (1.7%), viridiflorol (1.3%), phytol (1.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1%). Although HD produced higher oil yields, SCE produced better extract in terms of the number of components detected. PMID:21366057

Mann, Tavleen S; Kiran Babu, Garikapati D; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

2011-01-01

42

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

2003-01-01

43

Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, ?-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances. PMID:24770478

Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

2014-01-01

44

Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract.  

PubMed

This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53-76%) and seeds (51-95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300 mg kg(-1) dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of gastric lesions (91% and 95%, respectively) which was similar to that induced by omeprazole (94%). Essential oil and aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts of A. graveolens were tested to determine their antibacterial activity using the paper disc-diffusion method, the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration. Essential oil of A. graveolens was strongly inhibitory against Escherichia coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The chemical composition of the volatile oil was investigated by gas chromatography analysis. The major components identified were ?-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, ?-thuyene, ?-pinene, ?-phellendrene, p-cymene, ?-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene. PMID:22934666

Baananou, Sameh; Bouftira, Ibtissem; Mahmoud, Amor; Boukef, Kamel; Marongiu, Bruno; Boughattas, Naceur A

2013-01-01

45

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were compared with those of the essential oils extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. While MAHD at 660 W required half as much time as HD needed, similar antibacterial efficacies were found from the essential oils obtained by the two extraction methods on two food pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacterium, and Escherchia coli, a gram negative bacterium). Also, as it was the case with the essential oils extracted by HD, that of MAHD indicated greater influence on S. aureus than on E. coli. The compositions of the extracted essential oils were also studied using GC-MS analysis. The same components with negligible differences in their quantities were found in the extracted essential oils using the two methods outlined above. Overall, to reduce the extraction time, MAHD can be applied at higher microwave levels without any compromise in the antibacterial properties of the essential oils extracted. PMID:24031778

Rezvanpanah, Shila; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi

2011-01-01

46

Extraction and GC\\/MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil, which was obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae), was analyzed using both GC\\/MS and Kovat's indices. The major components extracted from the stems, leaves and inflorescences were found to be ?-thujone (8.3–21.7%), camphor (8.6–11.7%), 1, 8-cineole (7.7–15.2%), ?-pinene (3.8–7.8%) and sabinene (5.7–8.9%). More than sixty components have been identified; forty of

Jean-Marie Hachey; Guy-J. Collin; Michel-J. Gagnon; Sandra Simard; Sylvain Dufour; France-Ida Jean; Gaston Vernin; Daniel Fraisse

1990-01-01

47

Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (?-esterase and ?-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are ?-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-?-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

2012-01-01

48

Bioactivities of the Various Extracts and Essential Oils of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L., as well as the content of its essential oil. The activities of essential oils were tested against a wide range of human-, plant-, and food-borne microorganisms. A total of 55 microbial organisms belonging

Atalay SÖKMEN; Münevver SÖKMEN; Moschos POLISSIOU; Julia SERKEDJIEVA

49

Instant controlled pressure drop extraction of lavandin essential oils: fundamentals and experimental studies.  

PubMed

Détente Instantanée contrôlée (DIC), French for Instant Controlled Pressure Drop, was performed on laboratory apparatus as well as on a pilot plant for proving its feasibility, and identifying the optimized processing conditions and recognizing the energy consumption and the quantity of water used for such an operation. GC-MS and SPME analysis of the extracts and residue material were carried out to assess the extracts and solid residues. The lavandin essential oils obtained by using the new DIC extraction process was studied, modeled and quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method. The most important differences between the two essential oils were reflected in the yields, with 4.25 as against 2.3 g EO/100 g of raw matter, and in the extraction time, with 480 s as against some hours for respectively the DIC and the hydrodistillation operations. These differences have been previewed through the fundamental analysis. They can normally explain the great decreasing of energy consumption to be 662 kWh/t of raw material. The amount of water to be added was about 42 kg water/t of raw material. PMID:20870239

Besombes, Colette; Berka-Zougali, Baya; Allaf, Karim

2010-10-29

50

Instant controlled pressure drop technology and ultrasound assisted extraction for sequential extraction of essential oil and antioxidants.  

PubMed

The instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) technology enabled both the extraction of essential oil and the expansion of the matrix itself which improved solvent extraction. The sequential use of DIC and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) triggered complementary actions materialized by supplementary effects. We visualized these combination impacts by comparing them to standard techniques: Hydrodistillation (HD) and Solvent Extraction (SE). First, the extraction of orange peel Essential Oils (EO) was achieved by HD during 4h and DIC process (after optimization) during 2 min; EO yields was 1.97 mg/g dry material (dm) with HD compared to 16.57 mg/g d m with DIC. Second, the solid residue was recovered to extract antioxidant compounds (naringin and hesperidin) by SE and UAE. Scanning electron microscope showed that after HD the recovered solid shriveled as opposite to DIC treatment which expanded the product structure. HPLC analyses showed that the best kinetics and yields of naringin and hesperidin extraction was when DIC and UAE are combined. Indeed, after 1h of extraction, DIC treated orange peels with UAE were 0.825 ± 1.6 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) for hesperidin and 6.45 × 10(-2) ± 2.3 × 10(-4)g/g d m for naringin compared to 0.64 ± 2.7 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) and 5.7 × 10(-2) ± 1.6 × 10(-3)g/g d m, respectively with SE. By combining DIC to UAE, it was possible to enhance kinetics and yields of antioxidant extraction. PMID:22742902

Allaf, Tamara; Tomao, Valérie; Ruiz, Karine; Chemat, Farid

2013-01-01

51

Development of Microwave System for Extraction of Essential Oils from Mesua ferrea L. leaves and Jasminum sambac flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave extraction system (MES) was developed for the extraction of essential oils from Mesua ferrea L. leaves and Jasminum sambac flowers. The performance of MES was compared with the conventional extraction method (CEM) for dry distillation (DD), wet distillation (WD), hydro distillation (HD) and steam distillation (SD) in terms of rapidity, quality and quantity of yield and its efficiency.

Rudy Nurdin; Nurshahidah Osman; Kaida Khalid

2006-01-01

52

Extraction of Lantana camara essential oil by supercritical carbon dioxide: influence of the grinding and biological activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce Lantana camara essential oil by SFE and to study the effect of matrix grinding on the yield and/or composition of the extract. Experiments were carried out on grinding matrices (G) and on not grinding matrices (NG). The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. A comparison with the oil obtained by hydrodistillation is also given. Finally, the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the various extracts has been assayed. PMID:17365686

Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Deriu, Antonella; Zanetti, Stefania

2007-01-01

53

Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.  

PubMed

In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:25459951

Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

2015-01-01

54

In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oil of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to the complexity of the antioxidant materials and their mechanism of actions, it is obvious that no single testing method is capable of providing a comprehensive picture of the antioxidant profile. The essential oil of the Thymus specie may still possess other important activities in traditional medicine, it can be used in the treatment of fever and cough. This essential oil may also have an anticancer activity. Methods The essential oils aerial parts hydrodistilled from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were characterised by GC/MS analysis and the methanolic extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC method. The essence of thyme was evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Result The Terpinen-4-ol are the principal class of metabolites (33.34%) among which 1.8-cineole (19.96%) and camphor (19.20%) predominate. In this study, quantitative values of antioxidant activity of crude methanolic extracts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis were investigated. The essential oils was screened for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteridis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes) by well diffusion method and agar dilution method (MIC). All the essences were found to inhibit the growth of both gram (+) and gram (?) bacteria organisms tested. These activities were correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds in active fractions. HPLC confirmed presence of phenolic compounds in methanol extracts. Conclusion Methanol extracts and essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The technique for measuring antioxidant activity, which was developed using DPPH, ABTS and ?-carotene bleaching, produced results as found in established literatures. The present results indicate clearly that methanol extracts and essential oils from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants, also their essential oil have an antibacterial effect. PMID:25022197

2014-01-01

55

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2013-01-01

56

The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25050312

Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

2014-01-01

57

Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis).  

PubMed

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (-)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (-)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

Cantrell, Charles L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Carvalho, Camila R; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Rosa, Luiz H

2014-01-01

58

Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)  

PubMed Central

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (?)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (?)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

Cantrell, Charles L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Carvalho, Camila R.; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Rosa, Luiz H.

2014-01-01

59

Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract, essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The dichloromethane-methanol extract, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Nepeta parnassica, and the isolated 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone were evaluated for their repellent effect against the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards and Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskĺl. The chemical analysis of N. parnassica essential oil, dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (87 %), revealed 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (36.8%), 1,8-cineole (25.5%), and 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (11.1%) as the major constituents. The results of the insect bioassays showed that the essential oil and the dichloromethane-methanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Culex pipiens for up to 2 h post application. The isolated 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone showed very high mosquito repellency for periods of at least 2 h against both species. PMID:24449446

Gkinis, G; Michaelakis, A; Koliopoulos, G; Ioannou, E; Tzakou, O; Roussis, V

2014-03-01

60

Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.  

PubMed

A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected. PMID:16624501

Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

2006-06-01

61

Assessment of NNARX structure as a global model for self-refilling steam distillation essential oil extraction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the performance of neural network autoregressive with exogenous input (NNARX) model structure and evaluates the training data that provide robust model on fresh data set. The system under test is a self-refilling steam distillation essential oil extraction system. Two PRBS signals with different probability band were tested at different operating points and conditions. A total of three

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

2008-01-01

62

Assessment of ARMAX Structure as a Global Model for Self-Refilling Steam Distillation Essential Oil Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an essential oil extraction system with self-refilling system is modeled based on input- output data collected from a dedicated acquisition system. The ARMAX model structure is assumed and PRBS signal was used to perturb the process in open-loop manner. Two PRBS signals with different probability band were tested at different operating points. A total of three data

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

2007-01-01

63

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oil from orange peel; effect of the height of the bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the height of the particle bed on the kinetics of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from orange peel is analyzed in this article. Peel of dehydrated oranges of the satsuma and naveline cultivars was used. A series of experiments were designed wherein, for the same conditions, particle height varied widely. These experiments were also carried

A Berna; A Tárrega; M Blasco; S Subirats

2000-01-01

64

Comparison between neural network and mathematical modeling of supercritical CO 2 extraction of black pepper essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feed-forward multi-layer neural network with Levenberg–Marquardt training algorithm was developed to predict yield for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper essential oil. Since yield of extraction strongly depends on five independent variables including residence time, supercritical carbon dioxide temperature and pressure, particle size and supercritical carbon dioxide mass flux per unit mass of substratum, these five inputs were

Mohammad Izadifar; Farzad Abdolahi

2006-01-01

65

Antidiabetic potentials of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at assessing the potential of essential oil from the leaf of Hoslundia opposita in the treatment of diabetes. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomized into two groups; nondiabetic and diabetic groups, each with four subgroups. Animals in the diabetic group were induced with diabetes using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate, 160?mg/kg body weight (b. wt.). The rats were treated with 110 and 220?mg/kg b. wt. of the essential oil. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for 4 days. In the nondiabetic condition, there was no effect of the oil on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in rats. In diabetic rats, the oil caused a significant reduction in FBG levels. Treatment with 110?mg/kg b. wt. of the oil reduced FBG almost to the normoglycemic level by day 4 and the overall glucose excursion during a 3-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test approached the baseline level at 120?min. Also, hepatic glycogen was significantly higher, while the glucose concentrations were lower in the diabetic-treated group when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Histological examinations revealed a mildly distorted architecture of the pancreatic islets ?-cells of diabetic rats treated with the oil, while those of the untreated rats were severely degenerated. Overall, the in vivo antihyperglycemic activity of the essential oil may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25137031

Akolade, Jubril Olayinka; Usman, Lamidi Ajao; Okereke, Omoaruemike Ebele; Muhammad, Nasir Olarewaju

2014-10-01

66

Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.  

PubMed

Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be ?-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-?-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium. PMID:23027699

Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2013-08-01

67

Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils....

68

Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34?mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23216669

2012-01-01

69

Biomolecular characterization of wild sicilian oregano: phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of wild Sicilian oregano was made. A total of 57 samples were collected from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. Based on morphological and production characteristics obtained from the 57 samples, cluster analysis was used to divide the samples into homogeneous groups, to identify the best biotypes. All samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying a cascade-extraction protocol and hydrodistillation, to obtain the non volatile components and the essential oils, respectively. The extracts contained thirteen polyphenol derivatives, i.e., four flavanones, seven flavones, and two organic acids. Their qualitative and quantitative characterization was carried out by LC/MS analyses. The essential oils were characterized using a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS analyses; a total of 81 components were identified. The major components of the oils were thymol, p-cymene, and ?-terpinene. Cluster analysis was carried out on both phytochemical profiles and resulted in the division of the oregano samples into different chemical groups. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts was investigated by the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) colorimetric assay, by UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and by determining the O(2)(?-)-scavenging activity. PMID:23495158

Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio; Speciale, Antonio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Pasquale, Andrea; Curcuruto, Giusy; Ruberto, Giuseppe

2013-03-01

70

Studies on the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and extract of Tunisian Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. (Cupressaceae).  

PubMed

This study analyses the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and the 80% aqueous acetone extract of Tetraclinis articulata leaves. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil identified 66 components that comprise 93.5% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil are: bornyl acetate (31.4%), ?-pinčne (24.5%) and camphor (20.3%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using four different test systems, namely DPPH, ?-carotene/linoleic acid, reducing power and metal chelating activity assay. Test results from the DPPH system showed the strongest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the 80% aqueous acetone extract (IC???=?5.5?µg?mL?ą), which was two times higher than the positive control (BHT). The amount of the total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins was very high in the 80% aqueous acetone extracts. The correlation between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic level of the extract was noted. PMID:23082942

Jemia, Mariem Ben; Chaabane, Sana; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes

2013-01-01

71

Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Essential oils and Related Compounds from Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).  

PubMed

The volatile oil of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) obtained from the fruits by soxhlet-dynamic headspace (S-DHS), solvent extraction (SE), steam distillation (SD), hydrodistillation (HYD) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The SC-CO2 offered a higher yield (4.5%, w/w) than the other used techniques. Among the identified constituents, linalool was the main compound whatever the employed extraction procedure in contrast to the remaining components which varied according to the isolation technique showing a strong effect of the method used on the composition of these minor compounds. SC-CO2 as compared to the other extraction techniques revealed its high efficiency in addition to the integrity saving of coriander fruit volatiles. Statistical analysis showed that all the detected and identified compounds were highly (P > 0.001) affected by the extraction technique used except the a-terpineol which appear stable. On the other hand, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed on the determination of one group represented by SC-CO2, S-DHS and HYD suggesting a similar essential oil composition. Obtained results show that, in Tunisian coriander essential oil, linalool was the main compound. PMID:24061362

Msaada, Kamel; Taârit, Mouna Ben; Hosni, Karim; Nidhal, Salem; Tammar, Sonia; Bettaieb, Iness; Hammami, Mohamed; Limam, Férid; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-12-01

72

Essential and fatty oils of Agastache rugosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have continued an investigation of wrinkled giant hyssop and have studied the physicochemical properties of the essential and fatty oils and also the acid composition of the fatty oil. The essential oil was distilled off from the leaves with steam. The fatty oil was extracted from the previously dried and ground seeds with petroleum ether (bp 40-70°C) in a

A. M. Zakharov; V. S. Dolya; O. I. Zakharova; A. S. Bespalova; N. V. Litvinova

1988-01-01

73

Comparison of essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.  

PubMed

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), is an annual herb in the Apiaceae family which disperses in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The Coriander essential oil has been used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its flavor and odor. In Iran, fruits of Coriander used in pickle, curry powders, sausages, cakes, pastries, biscuits and buns. The aim of this study was to investigate microwave radiation effects on quality, quantity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Coriander fruits. The essential oils were obtained from the Coriander fruits by hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) then, the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by microdilution method. The results indicated that the HD and MAHD essential oils (EO) were dominated by monoterpenoids such as linalool, geranyl acetate and ?-terpinene. The major compound in both EO was linalool which its amount in HD and MAHD was 63 % and 66 %, respectively. The total amount of monoterpenes hydrocarbons in HD EO differ significantly with the amount in MAHD EO (12.56 % compare to 1.82 %). HD EO showed greater activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans than MAHD EO. Moreover, their activities against Ecoli and P. aeruginosa were the same with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 0.781 and 6.25 ?L mL(-1), respectively. By using MAHD method, it was superior in terms of saving energy and extraction time, although the oil yield and total composition decrease by using this method. PMID:25829632

Sourmaghi, Mohammad Hossein Salehi; Kiaee, Gita; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khanavi, Mahnaz

2015-04-01

74

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of different extracts of Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Meyer and Nepeta saccharata Bunge.  

PubMed

Aerial parts essential oil of Nepeta betonicifolia and N. saccharata were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three and eighteen components represented 97.9% and 98.2% of the total oils identified, respectively. Main compounds of the oil of N. betonicifolia were 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (42.0%), germacrene D (6.0%), triplal (5.2%), 1-nor-bourbonanone (4.0%) and 1,8-cineole (3.2%). The principal constituents of the essential oil of N. saccharata were found to be 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (66.9%), germacrene D (12.9%), sabinene (6.5%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.3%). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of methanol extracts and chloroform, butanol and water subfractions of aerial parts of N. betonicifolia and N. saccharata were evaluated by using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS assays. TPC of each extract was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau. The antioxidant activity of the butanolic subfractions of both plants was higher than other extracts examined. PMID:21995833

Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Khaligh, Pooneh; Mirzajani, Fateme

2012-01-01

75

Comparison of models for supercritical fluid extraction of seed and essential oils in relation to the mass-transfer rate  

SciTech Connect

A general dimensionless model was developed for a sensitivity analysis of the supercritical extraction process of vegetable oils and essential oils. Two dimensionless parameters, {Gamma}, a dimensionless partition coefficient, and {Theta}, a dimensionless characteristic time, appeared as the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of the extraction process. Some limiting values of these two parameters within the general model yielded simpler models which are often used in the literature. The numerical solutions of both the complete model and the simpler cases were compared to assess the range of relevance of the simpler models in terms of {Gamma} and {Theta} values. These results were compared with the experimental data found in the literature to assess the correctness of the assumption used to model supercritical fluid extraction in single cases. The implications of this analysis on the development of scale-up procedures were also discussed.

Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E. [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

1996-10-01

76

Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant. PMID:22466851

Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

77

Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), ?-terpinene (19.68%), ?-pinene (9.7%) and ?-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and ?-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were ?-calacorene (25.98%), ?-cedrene (16.55%), ?-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml. PMID:24881771

Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

2014-01-01

78

Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L. flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety. PMID:25050317

Naemi, Forough; Asghari, Gholamreza; Yousofi, Hossein; Yousefi, Hossein Ali

2014-01-01

79

Comparative analysis of essential oil components and antioxidant activity of extracts of Nelumbo nucifera from various areas of China.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the composition of extracts and essential oil components from Nelumbo nucifera leaves from the principal habitats in China. The amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the lotus leaf extracts varied widely, ranging from 354 to 487 mg/g gallic acid equivalents, from 172 to 236 mg/g rutin equivalents, and from 124 to 179 mg/g catechin equivalents, respectively. All of the extracts had strong antioxidant activity in comparison to the standard compounds butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin C. Wild lotus samples from Baiyangdian Lake and Weishan Lake exhibited a stronger free radical scavenging effect and greater reducing power than the cultural samples, but no such differences were observed in the inhibition of lipid oxidation. Chemical variation in the essential oils from the various samples was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents were l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (0-33.5%), trans-phytol (5.1-24.1%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5.6-15.3%), pentadecyl acrylate (2.2-12.4%), geranyl acetone (1.9-8.0%), and beta-ionone (0-8.0%). The rhizome lotus and seed lotus samples were clustered into separate groups by hierarchical cluster analysis according to the composition of the corresponding essential oils. No significant relationship was found between essential oil composition and geographical distribution of the 11 populations. However, the results indicated that region of origin and growing conditions could significantly affect both the bioactivities of the lotus leaf and the content of bioactive compounds in the leaves. Thus, the existence of chemical polymorphism in the N. nucifera leaf in China was demonstrated. PMID:19919095

Huang, Bo; Ban, Xiaoquan; He, Jingsheng; Tong, Jing; Tian, Jun; Wang, Youwei

2010-01-13

80

Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

81

Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6?g/100?g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50?g/100?g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07?g/100?g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and ?-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching ?-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts. PMID:24224115

Iqbal, Tahseen; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain

2013-01-01

82

Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

2013-01-01

83

Thermodynamic and kinetic models for the extraction of essential oil from savory and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil with hot (subcritical) water and supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms that control the extraction rates of essential oil from savory (Satureja hortensis) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from historically-contaminated soil with hot water and supercritical carbon dioxide were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow-rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent

Alena Kubátová; Boris Jansen; Jean-François Vaudoisot; Steven B Hawthorne

2002-01-01

84

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cupressus sempervirens is a medicinal plant traditional, its dried leaves are used in treatment of stomach pain, diabetes, inflammation, toothache, laryngitis and as contraceptive. Methods The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and determination chemical contents of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from Mediterranean C. sempervirens L. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. sempervirens was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. Results A total of 20 constituents representing 98.1% of the oil were identified: ?-pinene (48.6%), ?-3-carene (22.1%), limonene (4.6%) and ?-terpinolene (4.5%) were the main components comprising 79.8% of the oil. The antimicrobial test results showed that the methanol extract of C. sempervirens strongly inhibited the growth of the test bacteria studied, except for yeast species while the Eo had moderate antibacterial, but no anti-candida activity. Klebsiella pneumoniae was proven to be the most susceptible against methanol extract. The exposure time of Eo and methanol extract for complete inhibition of cell viability of K. pneumoniae was found to be 250 ?g at 30 min and 500 ?g at 120 min, respectively. The antibiofilm potential of the samples was evaluated using methods of PVC microtiter and eradication on biomaterial. Visual results showed visible biofilm eradication from the surface of intravenous infusion tube at 500 ?g of Eo and methanol extract. Conclusions The results presented here may suggest that the Eo and extracts of C. sempervirens possess antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals. PMID:24890383

2014-01-01

85

Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS  

PubMed Central

The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

86

Dual bioactivities of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi as an antimelanogenic versus antioxidant agent and chemical composition analysis by GC/MS.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

87

Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... mechanically pressed. Oils that are made with chemical processes are not considered true essential oils. There are many essential oils used in aromatherapy, including those from Roman chamomile , geranium , lavender , tea tree , ...

88

Supercritical extraction of essential oil from aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L) using CO2: solubility, kinetics, and composition data.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) from aniseed using carbon dioxide was performed at 30 degrees C and pressures of 80-180 bar. The chemical composition of the SFE extract was determined by GC-MS; the quantitative analysis was done by GC-FID and TLC. The total amount of extractable substances or global yield (mass of extract/mass of feed) for the SFE process varied from 3.13 to 10.67% (mass). The solubilities of the anise essential oil in CO(2) were 0.0110, 0.0277, 0.0143, and 0.0182 kg of solute/kg of CO(2) at 80, 100, 140, and 180 bar, respectively. The major compounds identified and quantified in the extracts were anethole ( approximately 90%), gamma-himachalene (2-4%), p-anisaldehyde (<1%), methylchavicol (0.9-1.5%), cis-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate ( approximately 3%), and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate ( approximately 1.3%). The Sovová model described quite well the experimental overall extraction curves. PMID:12617576

Rodrigues, Vera M; Rosa, Paulo T V; Marques, Marcia O M; Petenate, Ademir J; Meireles, M Angela A

2003-03-12

89

GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.  

PubMed Central

This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be ?-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-?-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including ?-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700?nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0?mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98??g gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 ?g quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

2013-01-01

90

Effects of solvent-free microwave extraction on the chemical composition of essential oil of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi compared with the conventional production method.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Calamintha nepeta has been obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and by classical hydrodistillation (HD). A comparative qualitative-quantitative study on the composition of the oils was carried out. A total of 38 compounds, constituting 97.6% of the oil, were identified in the oil obtained by SFME, whereas 46 compounds, representing 95.4% of the oil, were characterized in the HD oil. SFME-distilled oil is richer in lightly oxygenated monoterpenes (LOM) than HD oil. It also has a higher amount of sesquiterpenes and a lower quantity of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. HD oil seems to be affected by chemical changes more than SFME oil. PMID:18266294

Riela, Serena; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Rosselli, Sergio; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Senatore, Felice

2008-04-01

91

Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum , Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down\\u000a to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100%

Moises Martinez-Velazquez; Gustavo Adolfo Castillo-Herrera; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Jose Miguel Flores-Fernandez; Julisa Lopez-Ramirez; Rodolfo Hernandez-Gutierrez; Eugenia del Carmen Lugo-Cervantes

2011-01-01

92

Bioactivity of the essential oil extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa Hook f. et Thomas against the grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic, repellent and feeding deterrent activities of the essential oil extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa Hook f. et Thomas, were evaluated against Sitophilus zeamais adults and Tribolium castaneum larvae and adults. Contact toxicity assayed by topical application showed that S. zeamais adults were significantly more susceptible (LD50=0.043 ?g\\/mg body wt) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LD50=0.118 ?g\\/mg body wt)

Z. L. Liu; S. H. Ho

1999-01-01

93

Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods. PMID:19298216

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

2009-02-01

94

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

95

Repellency of essential oils extracted from plants in Thailand against four mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) and oviposition deterrent effects against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

In this study we evaluated and reported repellent effects of essential oils from Thai plants against 4 mosquito vectors: Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Anopheles. dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions using human volunteers. The essential oils were extracted from 18 plant species, belonging to 11 families, and the oils were then prepared as 10% solution in absolute ethanol with additives. Two chemical repellents, deet and IR3535, were also prepared in the same formulation as the essential oil repellents and tested for repellency as controls. The essential oils were also evaluated for oviposition deterrent effects against Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions. The results show night-biting mosquitoes (An. dirus and Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Ae. albopictus were more sensitive to all the essential oils (repellency 4.5 - 8 hours) than was Ae. aegypti (repellency 0.3 - 2.8 hours), whereas deet and IR3535 provided excellent repellency against all four mosquito species (repellency 6.7- 8 hours). All essential oils exhibited oviposition deterrent activity against Ae. aegypti with various degrees of repellency ranging from 16.6 to 94.7%, whereas deet and IR3535 had no repellency. The present study demonstrates the potential for using essential oils as mosquito repellents and oviposition deterrents. These findings may lead to new and more effective strategies for protection from and control of mosquitoes. PMID:17333734

Tawatsin, Apiwat; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Thavara, Usavadee; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Bansidhi, Jaree; Boonruad, Thidarat; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Komalamisra, Narumon; Mulla, Mir S

2006-09-01

96

GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Coral Ginger ( Zingiber corallinum Hance) Rrhizome Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Steam Distillation Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical compositions of volatile oils extracted from Zingiber corallinum Hance were obtained by steam distillation extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry analysis. The effects of pressure, temperature, modifier volume, and extraction time on the SFE of Z. corallinum oil were investigated, and optimization of the conditions were: extraction temperature, 30 °C; dynamic extraction time,

Yang Zhannan; Luo Shiqiong; Peng Quancai; Zhao Chao; Yu Zhengwen

2009-01-01

97

Mass Transfer and Equilibrium Parameters on High-Pressure CO 2 Extraction of Plant Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Supercritical fluids (SCF) in general and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in particular allow convenient and environmentally friendly extraction processes because of their liquid-like solvent properties\\u000a and gas-like transport properties, that allow efficient and fast extraction processes, and complete elimination of solvent\\u000a traces from extracts and treated substrates. High-pressure CO2 is an inexpensive gas that offers safe and selective supercritical fluids

José M. Valle; Juan C. Fuente; Edgar Uquiche; Carsten Zetzl; Gerd Brunner

98

Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) showed that ocimene (26.51%), 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa-1,3-diene (9.87%), alpha-pinene (7.69%) and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66%) were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o-Cymene (28.66%), methanol (8.50%), alpha-pinene (7.42%) and gamma-decalactone (5.20%). The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono-cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended. PMID:25653784

Hashemi, Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Mahmoudi, Razzaqh

2013-01-01

99

The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

2015-01-01

100

The Allelopathic Effect of Pictacia Leaf Extracts and Pure Essential Oil Components on Pelargonium Ringo Deep Scarlet F1 Hybrid Seed Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic effects of leaf extracts obtained from Pictacia vera, Pictacia lentiscus and Pictacia terebinthus and limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene and terpinen-4-ol, which occur in essential oils of plants, on seed germination at 1000 and 5000 ppm doses were investigated. Among the tested extracts000 ppm doses of chloroform and ethyl alcohol extracts of P. terebinthus increased the seed germination with

Yahya Bulutsaban Kordali; Omer Atabeyoglu

2006-01-01

101

Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of aerial part of Ledum palustre L. - Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of two extracts from the aerial parts of Ledum palustre has been reported. The volatile oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and the essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD). The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor their composition. Both extracts shared as main compound (41.0-43.4%) ledol (23.3-26.7%) and ascaridole (15.1-4.5%). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the subcutaneous carrageenan injection-induced hind paw oedema. The treated animals received essential oil (SFE and HD), the reference group received ketoprofen or piroxicam and the control group received NaCl 0.9%. A statistical analysis was performed by the Student t-test. The results show that L. palustre essential oil enhanced a significant inhibition of oedema (50-73%) for HD oil and (52-80%) for SFE oil. These results were similar to those obtained with piroxicam (70%) and ketoprofen (55%). PMID:25427723

Baananou, Sameh; Bagdonaite, Edita; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Boughattas, Naceur A

2014-11-27

102

Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

2012-03-01

103

Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.  

PubMed

A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

Setzer, William N

2009-09-01

104

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum Grown in North-Western Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ?-fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ?-phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ?-pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ?-fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH•, reducing power and chelating ability on Fe2+ ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

Tiku, A. K.; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V. K.

2013-01-01

105

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?-pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

Mojarrab, M; Delazar, A; Esnaashari, S; Afshar, F Heshmati

2013-01-01

106

Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. using Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts of two plants including fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. have been studied with brine shrimp test. There is only one report about cytotoxicity of H. sphondylium in literature and so H. persicum has been used as second selection. At first

Mohammad Hassan Moshafi; Fariba Sharififar; Gholam-Reza Dehghan; Alieh Ameri

2009-01-01

107

Development of an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted method for simultaneous extraction and distillation for determination of proanthocyanidins and essential oil in Cortex cinnamomi.  

PubMed

Cortex cinnamomi is associated with many health benefits and is used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, an efficient ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) technique was used to extract cassia oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi; these were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the vanillin-HCl colorimetric method, respectively. 0.5M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 20.0 g sample were 230 W microwave irradiation power, 15 min microwave extraction time and 10 liquid-solid ratio. The yields of essential oil and proanthocyanidins were 1.24 ± 0.04% and 4.58 ± 0.21% under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Using the ILMSED method, the energy consumption was reduced and the extraction yields were improved. The proposed method was validated using stability, repeatability, and recovery experiments. The results indicated that the developed ILMSED method provided a good alternative for the extraction of both the essential oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi. PMID:22980836

Liu, Ye; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Wenjie

2012-12-15

108

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of supercritical extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare growing wild in Lithuania.  

PubMed

This article reports the results concerning the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile oil obtained from the aerial parts of Tanacetum vulgare, collected in Lithuania, by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 at 90 bar and 40 °C and by hydrodistillation (HD). GC-MS and GC-FID analysis revealed that the oils mainly consisted of 1,8-cineole, trans-thujone, cis-chrysanthenol, borneol and myrtenol. Oils obtained by HD displayed, with respect to the SFE volatile oil, a higher amount of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. The hydrodistilled oil was particularly active against dermatophyte strains and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.16-0.64 ?L/mL. The oil revealed a significant inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in Candida albicans at sub-inhibitory concentrations. At the concentration of 1/16 MIC, the inhibition of filamentation was more than 80% in comparison to untreated control cells. PMID:25055158

Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Bagdonaite, Edita; Maxia, Andrea; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Porcedda, Silvia

2014-01-01

109

Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood.  

PubMed

Vegetal water extracts, namely the water remaining after hydro-distillation and decoctions, and essential oils of 10 plant species were tested as inhibitors for the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood. Achyrocline satureioides, Chenopodium ambrosioide, Eucalyptus cinerea, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum, Lippia turbinata, Marrubium vulgare,Minthostachys verticillata, Origanum vulgare, Tagetes minuta and Thymus vulgaris were included in the study. The water remaining after hydro-distillation showed the highest antibacterial activities, the growth of almost all the P. larvae strains tested was inhibited by these extracts. Regarding the plants tested, E. cinerea and M. verticillata were the plant species with the highest biological activity with 100% efficacy (all its extracts inhibited the growth of all P. larvae strains). Essential oils were less active for the inhibition of P. larvae growth. PMID:20398671

González, M J; Marioli, J M

2010-07-01

110

An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents.

Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

2015-01-01

111

The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li.  

PubMed

The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC(50) = 1.57?mg/mL) and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 1.01?mg/mL), decreased the melanin content (EC(50) = 1.04?mg/mL), and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (EC(50) = 1.87?mg/mL). The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) (EC(50) = 0.121?mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS(+) radicals (EC(50) = 0.122?mg/mL). It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC(50) = 0.021?mg/mL) and metal-ion chelating activity (EC(50) = 0.029?mg/mL). The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%), ketones (19.57%), monoterpenes (7.82%), alcohols (3.85%), esters (3.77%), sesquiterpenes (3.72%), and aromatic compounds (2.85%). The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis. PMID:23304214

Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

112

Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), ?-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides. PMID:20865426

Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

2011-02-01

113

"In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.  

PubMed

One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), ?-pinene (8.4%), and ?-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry. PMID:22526656

Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

2012-08-01

114

Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of  

E-print Network

Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare and Pimpinella anisum biological activity (Farnsworth & Bingel, 1977). Essential oils extracted from higher plants have been of the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Pimpinella anisum L. has been tested against PVX (potato

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Characterization of Aromatherapy Massage Oils Prepared from Virgin Coconut Oil and Some Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize aromatherapy massage oils prepared from virgin coconut oil (VCO) and some essential\\u000a oils. VCO extracted from fresh coconut endosperm by a centrifugation method, which was the most effective method to prepare\\u000a VCO, was composed mainly of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic acid. Three essential oils (lemon, eucalyptus and\\u000a lavender oils) at

Sarunyoo Songkro; Anusak Sirikatitham; Supreedee Sungkarak; Khemmarat Buaking; Juraithip Wungsintaweekul; Duangkhae Maneenuan; Kwunchit Oungbho

2010-01-01

116

Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 ?l/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration. PMID:24459470

Keshavarz, A.; Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Mahzouni, P.

2013-01-01

117

Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils had antibacterial activity in the three assays, suggesting that they would be good candidates for testing in clinical trials. The observed antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves suggests a mechanistic explanation for the efficacy of a mixture of coriander, lemon balm and mint extracts against IBS in a published clinical trial. PMID:24283351

2013-01-01

118

Biological effects of essential oils – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components.

F. Bakkali; S. Averbeck; D. Averbeck; M. Idaomar

2008-01-01

119

Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of Oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), ?-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), ?-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. PMID:25438081

Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

120

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

2009-01-01

121

Essential Oil Composition of Origanum ramonense Danin Leaves from Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of Origanum ramonense Danin leaves were obtained using two methods: steam-distillation followed by dichloromethane extraction (SDR), and simultaneous purging and extraction (SPE). Volatile constituents of the oils were isolated and identified by GC and GC\\/MS. A total of 132 compounds were identified using both methods. Among the more than 90 compounds identified in the oil obtained by SDR,

Avinoam Danin; Uzi Ravid; Katsumi Umano; Takayuki Shibamoto

1997-01-01

122

Chemical profile by LC-MS/MS, GC/MS and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and crude extracts of two Euphorbia species.  

PubMed

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of two Euphorbia species. The major component of the fatty acid compositions obtained from the petroleum ether extracts was identified as palmitic acid for Euphorbia gaillardotii and Euphorbia macroclada. The main constituents of the essential oils were identified as arachidic acid for E. gaillardotii and tetratetracontane for E. macroclada. Among the 27 studied compounds, hesperidin, rutin, hyperoside and quinic, malic, gallic and tannic acids were found to be the most abundant compounds in the two Euphorbia species. The methanol extracts of E. gaillardotii and E. macroclada showed strong antioxidant activity in all tested methods. Particularly, IC50 values of E. macroclada methanol extract that was the richest in terms of total phenolic-flavonoid contents were found to be lower than ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene in ?-carotene bleaching, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free and ABTS cation radical scavenging methods. PMID:25184782

Ertas, Abdulselam; Yilmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Firat, Mehmet

2015-03-01

123

Antifungal and herbicidal properties of essential oils and n-hexane extracts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor., Achillea biebersteinii Afan. and n-hexane extracts obtained from the flowers of A. gypsicola and A. biebersteinii Afan. was analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Camphor (40.17–23.56%, respectively), 1,8-cineole (22.01–38.09%, respectively), piperitone (11.29–0.37%, respectively), borneol (9.50–5.88%, respectively) and ?-terpineol (1.56–5.15%, respectively) were found to be

Saban Kordali; Ahmet Cakir; Tulay Aytas Akcin; Ebru Mete; Adnan Akcin; Tuba Aydin; Hamdullah Kilic

2009-01-01

124

Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.  

PubMed

By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638

Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

2005-03-01

125

Regulation of essential oil production in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a summary of the physiological dynamics andregulation of essential oil production, from the literature and availableinformation on diverse volatile oil crops. Essential oil production is highlyintegrated with the physiology of the whole plant and so depends on themetabolic state and preset developmental differentiation programme of thesynthesising tissue. Essential oil productivity is ecophysiologically andenvironmentally friendly. These and other

N. S. Sangwan; A. H. A. Farooqi; F. Shabih; R. S. Sangwan

2001-01-01

126

Variability of antioxidant and antibacterial effects of essential oils and acetonic extracts of two edible halophytes: Crithmum maritimum L. and Inula crithmo?des L.  

PubMed

This work aimed to assess the richness of the food halophytes Crithmum maritimum and Inula crithmo?des on phenolics and essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of these metabolites. Results displayed that extract of I. crithmo?des possesses considerable contents of phenolic compounds (14.1mg GAE.g?ą DW) related to important antioxidant activities (IC?? = 13 ?g ml?ą for the DPPH test) as compared to C. maritimum. C. maritimum EOs composition is dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes, while I. crithmo?des one is mainly consisted by monoterpene hydrocarbons. EOs have low antioxidant activity as compared to acetone extracts; nevertheless, they show best antimicrobial activity. A significant variability is also depicted between the provenances of each species and depended on the chemical nature of antioxidant and antibacterial molecules as well as the used tests. PMID:24128580

Jallali, Ines; Zaouali, Yosr; Missaoui, Ibtissem; Smeoui, Abderrazek; Abdelly, Chedly; Ksouri, Riadh

2014-02-15

127

Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

128

Repellent activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active. PMID:16890387

Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B

2006-12-01

129

REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS IN THAILAND AGAINST FOUR MOSQUITO VECTORS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) AND OVlPOSlTlON DETERRENT EFFECTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTl (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated and reported repellent effects of essential oils from Thai plants against 4 mosquito vectors: Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions using human volunteers. The essent~al oils were ex- tracted from 18 plant species, belonging to 11 families, and the oils were then prepared as 10% solution in absolute ethanol

Apiwat Tawatsin; Preecha Asavadachanukorn; Usavadee Thavara; Prapai Wongsinkongman; Pranee Chavalit-tumrong; Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon; Mir S Mulla; Narumon Komalamisra

2006-01-01

130

Cytological Aspects on the Effects of a Nasal Spray Consisting of Standardized Extract of Citrus Lemon and Essential Oils in Allergic Rhinopathy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy. PMID:23304560

Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

2012-01-01

131

Antioxidant activity of essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) are liquid mixtures of volatile compounds obtained from aromatic plants. Many EOs have antioxidant properties, and the use of EOs as natural antioxidants is a field of growing interest because some synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT are now suspected to be potentially harmful to human health. Addition of EOs to edible products, either by direct mixing or in active packaging and edible coatings, may therefore represent a valid alternative to prevent autoxidation and prolong shelf life. The evaluation of the antioxidant performance of EOs is, however, a crucial issue, because many commonly used "tests" are inappropriate and give contradictory results that may mislead future research. The chemistry explaining EO antioxidant activity is discussed along with an analysis of the potential in food protection. Literature methods to assess EOs' antioxidant performance are critically reviewed. PMID:24156356

Amorati, Riccardo; Foti, Mario C; Valgimigli, Luca

2013-11-20

132

Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: A new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.  

PubMed

In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22±0.03% and 4.16±0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02mgGA/100gdm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500W in only 3min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:25435398

Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loďc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

2015-05-01

133

Fungitoxicity of essential oils against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Sixteen essential oils were screened in vitro for their fungitoxicity against the two dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. Five oils (from Artemisia nelagrica, Caesulia axillaris, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha arvensis) showed strong activity and were assessed for their fungitoxicity against eight other dermatophytes as well as against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium trichoides. These five essential oils by formulation of ointments were able to cure experimental ringworm in guinea pigs within 7 to 12 days. Artemisia oil was found to be the most effective essential oil. PMID:8264720

Kishore, N; Mishra, A K; Chansouria, J P

1993-01-01

134

Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as ?-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), ?-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), ?-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including ?-pinene, ?-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. PMID:23646297

Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

2013-01-01

135

Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat  

PubMed Central

Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

2014-01-01

136

Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.  

PubMed

Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

2014-01-01

137

Examination of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Xenobiotic-Inducing Potential of Broccoli Extract and Various Essential Oils during a Mild DSS-Induced Colitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Phytogenic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed to evaluate possible protective and curative effects of broccoli extract (BE) and of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), thyme (To), and rosemary (Ro) in a rat model with a mild dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Therefore Wistar rats were fed a diet without an additive (Con) or diets with the addition of BE, Cuo, To, and Ro during the whole experiment. Pretreatment with Ro, Cuo, and To increased the expression of the tight junction protein Cldn3. All additives reduced mRNA of VCAM-1 which plays a crucial role in the first state of inflammatory response. Only Ro pretreatment affected the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO1, GPx2, and of glutathione-S-transferases. All additives counteracted the DSS-induced rise in COX2 and VCAM-1 expression. Colonic IL-10 was increased by Cuo, To, and Ro. During the recovery phase DSS pretreatment increased NF?B, VCAM-1, and MCP-1: This response was counter-regulated by all additives. We conclude that the phytogenic additives tested have a promising anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and a particular role in the prevention of IBD. PMID:23533793

Blum, Nicole Michaela; Mueller, Andreas Stefan

2013-01-01

138

Antilisterial Properties of Cilantro Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude essential oil of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) and four fractions recovered by fractional distillation of the crude oil were determined against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi, Listeria innocua and Listeria seeligeri. Crude oil inhibited all the test strains at concentrations ? 0.01% (v\\/v) and the remaining fractions were effective at concentrations <

Pascal J. Delaquis; Kareen Stanich

2004-01-01

139

Effect of Essential Oils on Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24287491

Nazzaro, Filomena; Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

140

Lotus (Nelumbo nuficera) flower essential oil increased melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the essential oil from lotus flower extract, including petals and stamens, was assessed with re- gard to its effects on melanogenesis in human mela- nocytes. The lotus flower essential oil was shown to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lotus flower essential oil induced the expression of tyrosinase, microphthal- mia-associated transcription factor

Songhee Jeon; Nan-Hyung Kim; Byung-Soo Koo; Ji-Young Kim; Ai-Young Lee

2009-01-01

141

www.ewosinnovation.com Effect of essential oils on the viability of Caligus  

E-print Network

shown that a mixture of essential oils including extracts from neem, cinnamon, thyme, cloves and sesame of essential oils derived from neem, cinnamon, thyme, cloves and sesame against copepodids and adultswww.ewosinnovation.com Effect of essential oils on the viability of Caligus rogercresseyi using

Kane, Andrew S.

142

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

143

Composition of the essential oil of Lepidium meyenii (Walp).  

PubMed

The essential oil profile of maca (Lepidium meyenii) obtained from Lima, Peru, was examined. Steam distillates of the aerial parts of L. meyenii were continuously extracted with pentane and the pentane extracts analyzed by GC/MS. Retention indices and mass spectral data were used to identify 53 oil components. Phenyl acetonitrile (85.9%), benzaldehyde (3.1%), and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile (2.1%) were the major components of the steam distilled oil. The oil of L. meyenii was tested for phytotoxic, cyanobactericidal, and antitermite activity. The oil was selectively toxic towards the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata compared to the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, with complete growth inhibition at 100 microg/ml. Mortality of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, was numerically, but not significantly, higher when held on filter paper treated with maca oil. At 1% (w/w), maca oil also appeared to act as a feeding deterrent to termites. Several minor components of the essential oil of maca including 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and benzylthiocyanate were significantly active against the Formosan termite. This is the first report on the essential oil composition of L. meyenii. PMID:12169308

Tellez, Mario R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kobaisy, Mozaina; Schrader, Kevin K; Dayan, Franck E; Osbrink, Weste

2002-09-01

144

Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils.  

PubMed

The antioxidant property of anise, caraway, cumin and fennel essential oils extracted from untreated, gamma-irradiated and microwaved fruits against sunflower oil oxidative rancidity was evaluated. The fruits were exposed to gamma-irradiation at 10 KGy and to microwaves at low oven power setting for 1 min. The essential oils were added individually (200 ppm) to sunflower oil and the rate of oil oxidation was followed by determining the peroxide value during storage at room temperature. The irradiated and microwaved essential oils exhibited an antioxidant activity and was superior to that of sunflower oil catalysed by a mixture of BHT + BHA (200 ppm) in most cases. The present data show that gamma-irradiation and microwave treatments did not affect the antioxidant property of the essential oils under study. In addition the essential oils extracted from the gamma-irradiated fruits were more effective as an antioxidant in sunflower oil than those produced from microwaved fruits. PMID:9713581

Farag, R S; el-Khawas, K H

1998-03-01

145

Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.  

PubMed

Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 ?g mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 ?g mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination. PMID:24563645

Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

2014-01-01

146

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of Curcuma aromatica Salisb.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil from leaves of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. was analysed by GC-MS. Twenty-three compounds representing 94.29% of the total oil were identified. The antioxidant activities of the oil and various extracts of C. aromatica were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical-scavenging assays. The oil and methanol extract showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC(50)=14.45 and 16.58 microg/ml, respectively), which were higher than butylated hydroxyanisole (IC(50)=18.27 microg/ml). The extracts also exhibited remarkable superoxide radical-scavenging activities (IC(50)=22.6-45.27 microg/ml) and the activity in the methanol extract was superior to all other extracts (IC(50)=22.6 microg/ml). Furthermore, the amount of total phenolic compounds was determined and its content in ethyl acetate extract was the highest as compared to other extracts. The results indicate that the oil and extracts of C. aromatica could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in the food industries. PMID:20385198

Al-Reza, Sharif M; Rahman, Atiqur; Sattar, M A; Rahman, M Oliur; Fida, Hasan M

2010-06-01

147

Repellent activity of essential oils: a review.  

PubMed

Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment. PMID:19729299

Nerio, Luz Stella; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena

2010-01-01

148

Antibacterial effect of essential oils and interaction with food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effect of essential oils (EOs) derived from Citrus lemon, Juniperus communis, Origanum majorana, and Salvia sclarea, was investigated either alone or in combination, on 2 food related bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli). The influence of food ingredients — hydrolyzed proteins originating from animal and plant (meat extract and soy peptone)\\u000a and sucrose — on the antibacterial effect

Rentsenkhand Tserennadmid; Miklós Takó; László Galgóczy; Tamás Papp; Csaba Vágvölgyi; László Ger?; Judit Krisch

2010-01-01

149

Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.  

PubMed

Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877

Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbň, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

2015-01-01

150

Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application  

PubMed Central

Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbň, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino

2015-01-01

151

Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto

2012-01-01

152

Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were ?-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and ?-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

2004-01-01

153

Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.  

PubMed

The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration. PMID:12410554

Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

2002-11-01

154

Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.  

PubMed

The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests. PMID:25454470

Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

2015-02-01

155

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils: autoxidation of essential oils from laurel and fennel and effects of mixing with essential oil from coriander].  

PubMed

Changes in the composition of essential oils from the seeds of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling) and their mixture with essential oil from coriander were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography during storage in the dark and in light. Under these conditions, essential oil of laurel retained its composition for 12 months. Essential oil of fennel was rapidly oxidized in light. However, the rate of its oxidation in the dark was lower. The major component of essential oil of fennel, transanethol, had a lower antioxidant activity than essential oil of coriander. The mixture of essential oils from laurel and coriander possessed antioxidant properties and strongly inhibited the oxidation of components of the fennel oil. PMID:16358762

Misharina, T A; Polshkov, A N

2005-01-01

156

Feeding Essential Oils and 2-Heptanone in Sugar Syrup and Protein Diets to Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) as Potential Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor) Controls and Traced by SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) Fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils and oil components were fed to honey bees in a sugar syrup and liquid protein diet in order to determine if the oils were being incorporated into the bee larvae and could be traced by means of SPME. The compounds used were origanum, 2-heptanone, thymol and connamon oil. The main com...

157

Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

158

Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.  

PubMed

White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:24006802

Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

2013-01-01

159

Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 ?l/cm˛ essential oil and 3.144 ?l/cm˛ vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC?? = 0.118 ?l/cm˛ for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC?? = 0.044 ?l/cmł), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD?? = 0.137 ?l/g) than the essential oil alone (LD?? = 0.193 ?l/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F? insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans. PMID:22410230

Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

2012-03-01

160

The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and

Huey-Jen Su; Chung-Jen Chao; Ho-Yuan Chang; Pei-Chih Wu

2007-01-01

161

Impact of lemongrass oil, an essential oil, on serum cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that non-sterol mevalonate pathway end products lower serum cholesterol levels, we asked 22 hypercholesterolemic\\u000a subjects (315±9 mg cholesterol\\/dl) to take a daily capsule containing 140 mg of lemongrass oil, an essential oil rich in geraniol\\u000a and citral. The paired difference in serum cholesterol levels of subjects completing the 90-day study approached significance\\u000a (P<0.06, 2-tailed t-test). The

C. E. Elsona; G. L. Underbakkel; P. Hanson; E. Shrago; R. H. Wainberg; A. A. Qureshi

1989-01-01

162

Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.  

PubMed

The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. PMID:24702542

Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

2015-02-01

163

Encapsulation of essential oils in zein nanosperical particles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils, oregano, red thyme, and cassia (100% pure oil), were encapsulated by phase separation into zein particles. Typical yields were between 65% and 75% of product. Encapsulation efficiency of all oils was 87% except for cassia oil which was 49%. Loading efficiency of all oils was 22% exce...

164

[Effect of conditions and duration of storage on composition of essential oil from coriander seeds].  

PubMed

The composition of volatile components of the essential oil extracted from seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) grown in different years in either Russia or Georgia was studied by capillary gas chromatography. Climatic conditions had a weaker effect on the essential oil composition than the region of growth. After one-year storage in the dark, minor changes were observed in the oil composition, and its organoleptic properties were virtually unchanged. However, the essential oil underwent significant chemical transformation of monoterpenes when stored in the light. PMID:11771329

Misharina, T A

2001-01-01

165

The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

2014-01-01

166

Direct enantiomeric analysis of Mentha essential oils.  

PubMed

A rapid and fully automated screening of chiral compounds in essential oils, aimed to the selection of natural sources of pure enantiomers of limonene and carvone, is performed by using on-line coupled reversed phase liquid chromatography with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (RPLC-GC-MS). Essential oils obtained from Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita were analysed by direct injection into RPLC. The reported procedure includes fractionation and clean-up in RPLC, selection of the fraction to be transferred from RPLC to GC, trapping and concentration of the target compounds in the interface, thermal desorption and, finally, enantiomeric resolution and identification of chiral compounds by GC-MS. The presence of (S)-limonene and (R)-carvone as the unique enantiomeric forms existing for both compounds could be unambiguously established by transferring different volume fractions from RPLC to GC. Data obtained demonstrate high separation efficiency and well tunable selectivity in the on-line coupled RPLC-GC-MS analysis of chiral compounds. PMID:23768391

Barba, Carmen; Santa-María, Guillermo; Herraiz, Marta; Martínez, Rosa M

2013-11-01

167

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p?oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30?min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. PMID:25280938

Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

2014-10-01

168

Phthalides in the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale.  

PubMed

The composition of the phthalide mixture of the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale Koch was investigated. The phthalide mixture was analyzed by combining separation methods - GLC, LSC and TLC - and subsequently using spectroscopic methods - IR, MS and NMR. E- and Z-butylidenephthalide, E- and Z-ligustilide, senkyunolide and validene-4,5-dihydrophthalide were found to be present; isosenkyunolide and propylidenephthalide were tentatively identified. The influence of the isolation procedure on the composition of the phthalide mixture was tentatively studied by comparison of mixtures isolated by solvent extraction and hydrodistillation respectively. PMID:17402120

Gijbels, M J; Scheffer, J J; Baerheim Svendsen, A

1982-04-01

169

Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were ...

170

In vitro cytotoxic activity guided essential oil composition of flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) was fractioned by chromatography. Forty-three constituents were characterized with the help of GC, GC-MS and other spectroscopic techniques. The essential oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono- and sesqui-terpenes. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil and its fractions was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) based assay against two cancer cell types viz. C-6 (rat glioma cells) and CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells). The essential oil and its fractions showed promising cytotoxicity against both cell lines. The highest activity (95.6+/-0.6%) was show by the essential oil on the C-6 cell line at a concentration of 400 microg/mL, which was comparable with that of the standard drug vinblastin. PMID:25026731

Mann, Tavleen S; Agnihotri, Vijai K; Kumar, Dharmesh; Pal, Probir K; Koundal, Rajkesh; Kumar, Ashish; Padwad, Yogendra S

2014-05-01

171

Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study  

PubMed Central

Background Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400–600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000–7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to cancer cell death. While frankincense essential oil elicited selective cancer cell death via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress, sandalwood essential oil induced non-selective cell death via DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. PMID:25006348

2014-01-01

172

Antimicrobial properties of essential oils against Salmonella in organic soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil is one of the important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of essential...

173

Antifungal Activity of Citrus Essential Oils.  

PubMed

Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are a mixture of volatile compounds consisting mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons and are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their antifungal activities. To face the challenge of growing public awareness and concern about food and health safety, studies concerning natural biopreservatives have become the focus of multidisciplinary research efforts. In the past decades, a large amount of literature has been published on the antifungal activity of CEOs. This paper reviews the advances of research on CEOs and focuses on their in vitro and food antifungal activities, chemical compositions of CEOs, and the methods used in antifungal assessment. Furthermore, the antifungal bioactive components in CEOs and their potential mechanism of action are summarized. Finally, the applications of CEOs in the food industry are discussed in an attempt to provide new information for future utilization of CEOs in modern industries. PMID:24628448

Jing, Li; Lei, Zhentian; Li, Ligai; Xie, Rangjin; Xi, Wanpeng; Guan, Yu; Sumner, Lloyd W; Zhou, Zhiqin

2014-03-27

174

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils.  

PubMed

The present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L. The chemical profile of each essential oil was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M. piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10,240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity [expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values, respectively], that were considerably higher than those of the commercial fungicide bifonazole. The essential oils of M. piperita and M. longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M. aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M. piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M. piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 % (IC50 = 2.53 microg/mL). The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica. PMID:12802721

Mimica-Duki?, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Sokovi?, Marina; Mihajlovi?, Biserka; Matavulj, Milan

2003-05-01

175

Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500?L/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000?L/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000?L/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000?L/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500?L/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000?L/L) and clove oils (3000?L/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000?L/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure as effective non-toxic biopreservatives against OTA contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23107498

Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

2012-10-15

176

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

177

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

178

Seasonal Variation in Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) Essential Oil Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) oils produced from the leaves and the flowering tops obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction were compared. Seasonal changes in wormwood oil were also studied. Analyses of oils produced from plants collected at 3-month intervals, showed similar patterns in composition of both leaves and flowering tops as well as small quantitative differences in the oil

Amaia Arińo; Inés Arberas; Gustavo Renobales; Silvia Arriaga; Juan B. Domínguez

1999-01-01

179

Preparation and Characterization of Liposomes Containing Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaf  

PubMed Central

Background The increased incidence of fungal resistance has necessitated the need to search for new antifungal agents. Objective The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on dermatophytes growth and to formulate and characterize a liposomal gel loaded with the essential oil. Materials and Methods The essential oil extracted from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was analyzed by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of this essential oil was determined against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. verrucosum, using the well diffusion method. Liposomes were prepared by the freeze-thaw method and evaluation of size distribution was performed using a particle size analyzer. The liposomal gel was prepared using ‘hydroxethyl cellulose (HEC) as the gelling agent. The rheologic characteristics were determined by a Brookfield viscometer. Results The results showed that the minimum inhibitory volume of the essential oil was 0.125 ml and 95 ± 0.57% of the essential oil was successfully entrapped in the liposomes. The main constituents of the essential oil detected by GC-MS were; phenol, 1, 8 cineole, limonene, alcohol, pinene and terpinen. Results of particle size determination showed a wide range from 40.5 to 298 nm for the different formulations. No significant thixotropy was observed in the rheogram of the formulated liposomal gel. Conclusion Liposomal gel formulation of the essential oil may lead to improved antifungal activity. PMID:24624167

Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Ramezani, Zahra; Handali, Somayeh

2012-01-01

180

Towards more rational techniques for the isolation of valuable essential oils from plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is drawn to the use of new and clean alternative methods for the isolation of essential oils from plants. A critical overview is presented of conventional methods (based on either organic solvent extraction or distillation) and new alternatives (including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as well as supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction and subcritical water extraction). The advantages and disadvantages of each

M. D Luque de Castro; M. M Jiménez-Carmona; V Fernández-Pérez

1999-01-01

181

Commercial opportunities for pesticides based on plant essential oils in agriculture, industry and consumer products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of intensive research on plant natural products and insect-plant chemical interactions over the past three decades,\\u000a only two new types of botanical insecticides have been commercialized with any success in the past 15 years, those based on\\u000a neem seed extracts (azadirachtin), and those based on plant essential oils. Certain plant essential oils, obtained through\\u000a steam distillation and rich in

Murray B. Isman; Saber Miresmailli; Cristina Machial

2011-01-01

182

Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopteransRhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, andSitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most

Eli Shaaya; Uzi Ravid; Nachman Paster; Benjamin Juven; Uzi Zisman; Vladimir Pissarev

1991-01-01

183

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

184

Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising. PMID:15612768

Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S; De Marco, Adriana; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

2004-12-29

185

Fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Citrus sinensis on post-harvest pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The essential oil extracted from the epicarp of Citrus sinensis exhibited absolute fungitoxicity against the 10 post-harvest pathogens. GC–MS studies of the oil revealed the presence of\\u000a 10 chemical constituents, of which limonene was found to be the major component (84.2%). The activity of the oil was tested\\u000a by the poisoned food technique (PF) and the volatile activity (VA) assay

Neeta Sharma; Abhishek Tripathi

2006-01-01

186

Constituents of the Essential Oil of Strobilanthes callosus Nees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from Strobilanthes callosus (Acanthaceae) from Central India was analyzed by a combination of GC, GC\\/MS and NMR. An oil obtained from pre-flowering plants was found to possess compositional differences to an oil from post-flowering plants. The oil from post-flowering plants contained trans-sabinene hydrate (3%), cis-sabinenehydrate (9%), terpinen-4-ol (19%), ?-terpineol (5%) and methylchavicol (24%). The oil from pre-flowering

Peter Weyerstahl; Helga Marschall-Weyerstahl; Elfriede Manteuffel; Vijay K. Kaul

1992-01-01

187

Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil).  

PubMed

Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree. It is one of the most widely used floral oils in perfumery. In this study chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of neroli oil are investigated. The essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. Flowers (Neroli oil) cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. About 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by (E)-nerolidol (17.5%), alpha-terpineol (14%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and (E, E)-farnesol (8%). Antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar-well-diffusion method against 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. Neroli oil exhibited a marked antibacterial activity especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Neroli oil exhibited a very strong antifungal activity compared with the standard antibiotic (Nystatin) as evidenced by their inhibition zones. Antioxidant activity determined by ABTS assay showed IC50 values of 672 mg L(-1). Finally, this study may be considered as the first report on the biological properties of this essential oil. The results of this study have provided a starting point for the investigations to exploit new natural substances present in the essential oil of C. aurantium L. flowers. PMID:24163946

Ammar, A Haj; Bouajila, J; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Romdhane, M; Zagrouba, F

2012-11-01

188

Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil From the Seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisia aerial parts are well known for antimicrobial activities including anti malaria. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil from the seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss (Asteraceae). Materials and Methods Essential oil was extracted from the powdered seeds of Artemisia aucheri by hydrodistillation. Antimicrobial activity against five bacterial species was tested using the disc diffusion method, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The essential oil of Artemisia aucheri seed showed activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The essential oil constituents identified by GC-MS were as follows: decane, ?-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, ?-mentha-8-ol, triene, borneol, lavandulol, bornyl acetate, chrysanthenyl acetate, dehydro aromadenderene, and caryophyllene oxide. Most of these compounds are also found in the aerial parts of Artemisia aucheri. Conclusions Variation in the compositions of essential oils from Artemisia aucheri, and thus variation in the antimicrobial activity of these oils, may be due to the plant parts used for essential oil prepration. PMID:24624145

Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Mohamad; Sadoughi, Ehsan

2012-01-01

189

Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ?-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure. Volatile terpenes in essential oils, which could influence milk flavor, are transferred into milk via both gastrointestinal and respiratory exposure. PMID:23628249

Lejonklev, J; Lřkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

2013-07-01

190

Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

191

Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)  

PubMed Central

Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950

Nuńez, L.; Aquino, M. D’

2012-01-01

192

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

193

Chemotaxonomic characterisation of essential oil plants by vibrational spectroscopy measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from basil (Ocimum sp.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and oregano (Origanum sp.) were analysed rapidly and non-destructively applying different vibrational spectroscopic methods (ATR-IR, NIR and Raman spectroscopy). Whereas NIR spectroscopic data can be interpreted only by application of chemometric algorithms, IR and Raman spectra obtained from the essential oils present characteristic key

Hartwig Schulz; Malgorzata Baranska; Hans-Hermann Belz; Petra Rösch; Marion A Strehle; Jürgen Popp

2004-01-01

194

Biocontrol of Salmonella in organic soil using essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil is one of the most important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of esse...

195

Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

Compton, L. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

196

The leaf essential oils and chemotaxonomy of Juniperus sect. Juniperus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the leaf essential oils of all ten species of Juniperus in sect. Juniperus (=sect. Oxycedrus) are reported and compared (J. brevifolia, J. cedrus, J. communis, J. conferta, J. formosana,. J. navicularis, J. oblonga, J. oxycedrus, J. rigida, J. sibirica). The oils of these Juniperus are all dominated by monoterpenes (?-pinene, sabinene and limonene). The simplest oil was

Robert P Adams

1998-01-01

197

Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.  

SciTech Connect

The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2003-08-01

198

Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4?? for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. PMID:23897978

Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

2014-12-01

199

Comparative Essential Oil Composition of Lavendula species from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils of two species of Lavendula—Lavendula stoechas and L. angustifolia—from India was investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The essential oil yield from the flowering spikes were 0.86% in L. stoechas and 1.56% in L. angustifolia. Twenty-five components amounting to 96.7% of the oil were identified in L. stoechas, and 31 compounds were

Archana P. Raina; K. S. Negi

2012-01-01

200

Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

201

Lippia origanoides chemotype differentiation based on essential oil GC-MS and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Chromatographic (GC/flame ionization detection, GC/MS) and statistical analyses were applied to the study of essential oils and extracts obtained from flowers, leaves, and stems of Lippia origanoides plants, growing wild in different Colombian regions. Retention indices, mass spectra, and standard substances were used in the identification of 139 substances detected in these essential oils and extracts. Principal component analysis allowed L. origanoides classification into three chemotypes, characterized according to their essential oil major components. Alpha- and beta-phellandrenes, p-cymene, and limonene distinguished chemotype A; carvacrol and thymol were the distinctive major components of chemotypes B and C, respectively. Pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) was found in L. origanoides chemotype A supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extract at a concentration of 0.83+/-0.03 mg/g of dry plant material, which makes this plant an interesting source of an important bioactive flavanone with diverse potential applications in cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:19950347

Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Ruíz, Carlos A; Arias, Ginna; Durán, Camilo; Salgar, William; Cala, Mónica

2010-01-01

202

Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.  

PubMed

Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial. Because plant extracts may act at different levels in the carbohydrate and protein degradation pathways, their careful selection and combination may provide a useful tool to manipulate rumen microbial fermentation effectively. However, additional research is required to establish the optimal dose in vivo in units of the active component, to consider the potential adaptation of microbial populations to their activities, to examine the presence of residues in the products (milk or meat), and to demonstrate improvements in animal performance. PMID:17517698

Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

2007-06-01

203

Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements of Mexican Citrus Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Methodology in the Transmission Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic methodology in the transmission configuration (PMTC) was used to study the thermophysical properties and their relation with the composition in Mexican citrus essential oils providing the viability of using photothermal techniques for quality control and for authentication of oils and their adulteration. Linear relations for the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample's thickness, for the PMTC was obtained through a theoretical model fit to the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in Mexican orange, pink grapefruit, mandarin, lime type A, centrifuged essential oils, and Mexican distilled lime essential oil. Gas chromatography for distilled lime essential oil and centrifuged lime essential oil type A is reported to complement the study. Experimental results showed close thermal-diffusivity values between Mexican citrus essential oils obtained by centrifugation, but a significant difference of this physical property for distilled lime oil and the corresponding value obtained by centrifugation, which is due to their different chemical compositions involved with the extraction processes.

Muńoz, G. A. López; González, R. F. López; López, J. A. Balderas; Martínez-Pérez, L.

2011-05-01

204

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-01-01

205

In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils  

PubMed Central

Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

206

Essential Oil Composition of Three Sideritis Species from Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of essential oils of three Sideritis species was investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. It was found that the oil of S. syriaca L. contained a high percentage of myrcene (50.5%), while sesquiterpenes dominated in the oils of S. scardica Griseb and S. moniana L. The major components in S. scardica oil were ?-caryophyllene (18.8%) and nerolidol (12.1%), while

Milka N. Todorova; Rumen C. Christov; Lyuba N. Evstatieva

2000-01-01

207

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague: chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activities of respective fractions.  

PubMed

Resistance to antibacterial agents has become a serious problem for global health. The current study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and respective fractions of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague. Seeds of the essential oil were extracted and fractionated using column chromatography. All fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the oil and its fractions were assessed using microdilution method. Compounds ?-terpinene (48.07%), ?-cymene (33.73%), and thymol (17.41%) were determined as major constituents. The effect of fraction II was better than total essential oil, fraction I, and standard thymol. The greater effect of fraction II compared to standard thymol showed the synergistic effects of the ingredients in this fraction. As this fraction and also total oil were effective on the studied microorganism, the combination of these products with current antimicrobial agents could be considered as new antimicrobial compounds in further investigations. PMID:25305209

Moein, Mahmoodreza R; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Yavari, Farnoosh; Motamedi, Marjan; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

2015-01-01

208

Immunotoxicity activity of the major essential oils of Valeriana fauriei Briq against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The rhizomes and roots of Valeriana fauriei were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of V. fauriei. The V. fauriei essential oil (VFEO) yield was 1.93%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were bornyl acetate (32.83%), terpinyl acetate (3.82%), bornyl isovalerate (2.11%), ?-sesquiphellandrene (2.21%), sesquiterpene alcohol (7.32%), and cedrol (2.45%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 30.44?ppm and an LC(90) value of 82.64?ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against Aedes aegypti L. PMID:20462349

Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Moon, Hyung-In

2011-03-01

209

Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).  

PubMed

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used. PMID:24005011

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

2013-01-01

210

Synergistic antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils with chitosan films.  

PubMed

The synergistic antimicrobial activities of three natural essential oils (i.e., clove bud oil, cinnamon oil, and star anise oil) with chitosan films were investigated. Cinnamon oil had the best antimicrobial activity among three oils against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Aspergillus oryzae , and Penicillium digitatum . The chitosan solution exhibited good inhibitory effects on the above bacteria except the fungi, whereas chitosan film had no remarkable antimicrobial activity. The cinnamon oil-chitosan film exhibited a synergetic effect by enhancing the antimicrobial activities of the oil, which might be related to the constant release of the oil. The cinnamon oil-chitosan film had also better antimicrobial activity than the clove bud oil-chitosan film. The results also showed that the compatibility of cinnamon oil with chitosan in film formation was better than that of the clove bud oil with chitosan. However, the incorporated oils modified the mechanical strengths, water vapor transmission rate, moisture content, and solubility of the chitosan film. Furthermore, chemical reaction took place between cinnamon oil and chitosan, whereas phase separation occurred between clove bud oil and chitosan. PMID:22034912

Wang, Lina; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yanfeng; Chai, Zhi; Li, Pinglan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Jing, Hao; Leng, Xiaojing

2011-12-14

211

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium growing wild in Iran.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to investigate the composition of essential oil of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) growing wild in Iran. The wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area between Deylaman and Asiabar villages, at Alborz altitudes in Guilan province in September 2005. Aerial parts were dried at shade (room temperature) for several days and their essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that essential oil yield was 1.3%. Twenty eight components representing 93.3% of the oil were identified, which were mostly monoterpenes. beta-pinene and beta-thujone were the main components, which their contents were 23.8 and 18.6% respectively. The largest part of the essential oil was formed by hydrocarbon monoterpenes (47.8%). The results proved that chemotype of the studied wormwood essential oil was specific and different from other wormwood essential oil chemotypes, which have been reported so far. PMID:18814663

Rezaeinodehi, A; Khangholi, S

2008-03-15

212

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

2012-01-01

213

Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569733

Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

2011-01-01

214

Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.  

PubMed

The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation. PMID:21660258

Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

2011-01-01

215

Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation. PMID:21660258

Furletti, V. F.; Teixeira, I. P.; Obando-Pereda, G.; Mardegan, R. C.; Sartoratto, A.; Figueira, G. M.; Duarte, R. M. T.; Rehder, V. L. G.; Duarte, M. C. T.; Höfling, J. F.

2011-01-01

216

Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.  

PubMed

The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

2013-12-01

217

Extraction of oil from oil sands using thermoresponsive polymeric surfactants.  

PubMed

Several thermoresponsive block copolymers constituted of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate) (PMEO2MA) block were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and their ability to extract oil from oil sands was evaluated. The chemical composition of the PEG113-b-PMEO2MAX block copolymers was determined by (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with X-values ranging between 48 and 80. Aqueous solutions of block copolymers showed a cloud point of 34 ± 1 °C as determined by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. DLS experiments indicated that these polymers formed stable block copolymer micelles due to association of the PMEO2MA blocks at temperatures greater than 45 °C with a unimodal distribution of hydrodynamic diameters. Since characterization of the block copolymer solutions as a function of temperature indicated the formation of hydrophobic domains in water for T > 45 °C, extractions of oil from oil sands with the block copolymers were conducted at T = 45 and 50 °C. At these temperatures, 15 mL of a 1 mg/mL PEG113-b-PMEO2MA77 aqueous solution extracted 100% of the oil trapped in 1 g of oil sand if 60 mg of toluene was added to the mixture. When the extraction was conducted under the same experimental conditions without block copolymer, a poor oil recovery of less than 30% was achieved. Starting with a 1 mg/mL block copolymer concentration, the block copolymer aqueous solution could be recycled up to five successive extractions while maintaining satisfying oil recovery. Each extraction cycle led to a 22% mass loss of block copolymer, certainly due to association with the toluene, oil, and sand particles. Together these experiments demonstrate that thermoresponsive block copolymers can be powerful aids to enhance the oil recovery of oil sands. PMID:25719623

Yang, Bingqing; Duhamel, Jean

2015-03-18

218

Antimicrobial activity of some Salvia species essential oils from Iran.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Salvia multicaulis, S. sclarea and S. verticillata were collected at full flowering stage. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils were studied against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumulis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger). The results of antibacterial activity tests of the essential oils according to the disc diffusion method and MIC values indicated that all the samples have moderate to high inhibitory activity against the tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa which was totally resistant. In contrast to antibacterial activity, the oils exhibited no or slight antifungal property, in which only the oil of S. multicaulis showed weak activity against two tested yeasts, C. albicans and S. cerevisiae. PMID:17913065

Yousefzadi, Morteza; Sonboli, Ali; Karimic, Farah; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Asghari, Behvar; Zeinalia, Amineh

2007-01-01

219

Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

1995-01-01

220

Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds) were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%), carvacrol (7.6–52.3%), and ?-terpinene (3–11.4%). Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging and ?-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak) Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger) Jalas has most antioxidant activity in ?-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1 ± 0.1??g/mL and 96.1 ± 0.8% inhibition rate, resp.). PMID:21876714

Amiri, Hamzeh

2012-01-01

221

Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)  

PubMed Central

The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

Crockett, Sara L.

2010-01-01

222

Boiling temperatures and enthalpy changes of Essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary long neck glass sample holder is proposed for the determination of boiling temperatures of essential oils containing\\u000a a majority component. Essential oils from Aniba dukei K. and Pimenta dioica L. containing linalool and eugenol, respectively, as major constituents were used after optimization of parameters such as scan\\u000a rate, sample mass and starting temperature. Best performance in the determination

J. S. Chaar; V. E. Mouchreck-Filho; Susete T. Breviglieri; É. T. G. Cavalheiro; G. O. Chierice

2004-01-01

223

40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

224

Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 ?l/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45?C, 60?C, 100?C for 1 hour) and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal). PMID:25657164

Rath, C C; Mohapatra, S

2015-02-01

225

Microwave-assisted isolation of essential oils from Nepeta crispa and N. racemosa and comparisons with the conventional method.  

PubMed

In this study microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) has been compared with the conventional method of hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oils from two Iranian Lamiaceae species: Nepeta crispa Willd and N. racemosa Lam. The essential oils extracted by MAHD for 40 min were quantitatively and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 3.5 h. The MAHD method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs in terms of time, energy and plant material. PMID:23285819

Daryasari, Ameneh Porgham; Soleimani, Mojtaba; Ghorbani, Azam; Kheiri, Homayon; Daryasarie, Mohammad Porgham

2012-11-01

226

Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

227

Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

228

Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

2010-10-01

229

Biological Activity of Heterotheca latifolia Essential Oil Against Varroa jacobsoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acaricidal effects and adult bee toxicity of Heterotheca latifolia essential oil on Varroa jacobsoni mites were evaluated. The oil was prepared as an emulsion and applied on the varroa females and on adult bees by pulverization in Burgerjon's tower.Varroa lethality test was determined by 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations. The active ingredient was sprayed on the mites placed in

Sergio R. Ruffinengo; Martín J. Eguaras; Damién Cora; Edgardo Rodriguez; Enrique Bedascarrasbure; Pedro N. Bailac; Marta I. Ponzi

2002-01-01

230

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

231

Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus  

PubMed Central

The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

2013-01-01

232

Glandular trichomes and essential oil of Thymus quinquecostatus.  

PubMed

The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1-2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

2013-01-01

233

Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90–98% of the oils) 60–68 were identified (80–97%

Sof??a Salido; Joaqu??n Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez; Christophe Pannecouque; Myriam Witvrouw; Erik De Clercq

2002-01-01

234

Classification of Amazonian rosewood essential oil by Raman spectroscopy and PLS-DA with reliability estimation.  

PubMed

The Amazon tree Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (rosewood) provides an essential oil valuable for the perfume industry, but after decades of predatory extraction it is at risk of extinction. The extraction of the essential oil from wood implies the cutting of the tree, and then the study of oil extracted from the leaves is important as a sustainable alternative. The goal of this study was to test the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) as means to classify the essential oil extracted from different parties (wood, leaves and branches) of the Brazilian tree A. rosaeodora. For the development of classification models, the Raman spectra were split into two sets: training and test. The value of the limit that separates the classes was calculated based on the distribution of samples of training. This value was calculated in a manner that the classes are divided with a lower probability of incorrect classification for future estimates. The best model presented sensitivity and specificity of 100%, predictive accuracy and efficiency of 100%. These results give an overall vision of the behavior of the model, but do not give information about individual samples; in this case, the confidence interval for each sample of classification was also calculated using the resampling bootstrap technique. The methodology developed have the potential to be an alternative for standard procedures used for oil analysis and it can be employed as screening method, since it is fast, non-destructive and robust. PMID:24209345

Almeida, Mariana R; Fidelis, Carlos H V; Barata, Lauro E S; Poppi, Ronei J

2013-12-15

235

[Sensitivity assessment of thyme and lavender essential oils against clinical strains of Escherichia coli for their resistance].  

PubMed

Strong antiseptic activity of plant essential oils and extracts has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils were tested against 30 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the both oils, from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia were active against all of the clinical strains, but thyme oil demonstrated the highest activity. Thyme and lavender essential oils were active against multi drug resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli genera. The results of experiments justify a study related to activity other essential oils against different genus of bacteria. PMID:22184923

Sienkiewicz, Monika; Kalemba, Danuta; Wasiela, Ma?gorzata

2011-01-01

236

Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

Bellik, Yuva

2014-01-01

237

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: Phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus

M. Tognolini; E. Barocelli; V. Ballabeni; R. Bruni; A. Bianchi; M. Chiavarini; M. Impicciatore

2006-01-01

238

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria  

E-print Network

.5 minutes of extraction were tested using the filter paper method. Analysis of the essential oil made with the discovery of the pesticides of synthesis. However, their massive and irrational use in the fight against of resistance at the treated devastating insects 1,2 , the pollution of the biosphere, the presence of residues

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri  

PubMed Central

This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and to inhibitory activity of efflux pump by gaseous contact. The main component of the essential oil of C. zehntneri was estragole (76,8%). The gaseous components of the oil enhanced the inhibition zone of norfloxacin in 39,5%. This result shows that this oil influences the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin, possibly affecting the bacterial NorA efflux system, and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:21264094

Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcăo-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Júnior, JP

2010-01-01

240

The essential oil of Sideritis syriaca.  

PubMed

The volatile oil of Sideritis syriaca L. has been investigated by means of GC/MS, resulting in the identification of 29 terpenes, fatty acids, esters, and alcohols. The presence of glycosylated derivatives of terpenes could not be established. PMID:17252419

Läer, U; Glombitza, K W; Neugebauer, M

1996-02-01

241

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

242

Rice brain oil. I. Oil obtained by solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Freshly milled rice bran has been extracted with commercial hexane and the recovered oil and extracted meal examined for their\\u000a respective content of wax. The oils were refined and bleached by standards as well as several special methods. The crude,\\u000a caustic soda refined, and several refined and bleached oils were examined spectrophotometrically.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a When freshly milled rice bran

P. B. V. Reddi; K. S. Murti; R. O. Feuge

1948-01-01

243

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

2011-10-11

244

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

PubMed Central

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

2011-01-01

245

Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare antimicrobial effects of essential oils alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum. The essential oils included cinnamon, tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifola), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), Leptospermum morrisonii, arnica, eucalyptus, grapefruit, the essential oil mouthrinse Cool Mint Listerine and two of its components, menthol and thymol. Cinnamon exhibited the greatest antimicrobial potency (1.25-2.5 mg/ml). Manuka, L. morrisonii, tea-tree oils, and thymol also showed antimicrobial potency but to a lesser extent. The combination effect of the essential oil-chlorhexidine was greater against biofilm cultures of both S. mutans and L. plantarum than against planktonic cultures. The amount of chlorhexidine required to achieve an equivalent growth inhibition against the biofilm cultures was reduced 4-10-fold in combination with cinnamon, manuka, L. morrisonii, thymol, and Listerine. We conclude that there may be a role for essential oils in the development of novel anticaries treatments. PMID:15943766

Filoche, S K; Soma, K; Sissons, C H

2005-08-01

246

The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

Sienkiewicz, Monika; G?owacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jó?wiak-B?benista, Marta; ?ysakowska, Monika

2014-01-01

247

Evaluation of climatic factors on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Myrocarpus frondosus.  

PubMed

The species Myrocarpus frondosus is native to southern Brazil, and it is known as cabreúva. It is a large tree, and its wood is used as a reservoir for distilled spirits, especially Cachaça. In this pioneering work, the essential oil was extracted monthly from the leaves of M. frondosus, for a period of 1 year. The essential oil was extracted by using hydrodistillation and the determination of the chemical composition of essential oil was performed by using the chromatographic techniques GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil and bicyclogermacrene was the major compound. Through multivariate analysis, it was determined that ?-caryophyllene, limonene and terpinen-4-ol were directly proportional to climatic factors. The yield of the oil was directly proportional to temperature and radiation. PMID:25421822

Cabrera, D C; Gomes, G L S; Flach, A; da Costa, L A M A; Rosa, G R; de Moura, N F

2015-04-01

248

Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi  

PubMed Central

Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p?=?0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid. PMID:24885682

2014-01-01

249

[Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].  

PubMed

The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

2014-01-01

250

Response of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to potential insecticide derived from essential oil of Mentha arvensis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Mentha arvensis L. was extracted by water distillation method and the insecticidal properties of M. arvensis were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The oil showed repellency and toxicity against T. castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The result revealed that this essential oil strongly repels T. castaneum and S. oryzae even at low concentration, but

Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra; S. P. Tripathi; C. P. M. Tripathi

2012-01-01

251

CUPHEA OIL EXTRACTION AND REFINING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oils from the seeds of several Cuphea (Lytraceae) species were found to contain high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). Currently, MCFAs used in cosmetics, soaps, detergents, lubricants and other related products are obtained from coconut and palm kernel oils. One promising outcome of the ...

252

[Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].  

PubMed

Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil. PMID:17396950

Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

1982-10-01

253

Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activity of an essential oil recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of white pepper, long pepper, cinnamon, saffron and myrrh in vivo.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil recipe (OR) in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes and hot plate test methods in mice. Additionally, the chemical composition of OR has been also analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds, representing 74.42% of the total oil content, were identified. ?-Selinene (7.38%), aromadendrene (5.30%), ?-elemene (5.22%), cis-piperitol (5.21%), cis-?-guaiene (4.67%), ylangene (3.70%), 3-heptadecene (3.55%), ?-cadinene (3%) and ?-cadinene (2.87%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with OR (62.5-1000 mg/kg) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. OR significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection. All test samples showed no significant analgesic activity on the hot plate pain threshold in mice. These data demonstrated that the OR inhibits inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain. These results may support the fact that the essential oil of traditional Hui prescription played a role in the inflammation of stroke. PMID:25263165

Zhang, Yuanbin; Wang, Xinfang; Ma, Ling; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Chen, Jing; Fu, Xueyan

2014-01-01

254

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from Cleome spinosa.  

PubMed

Five different essential oil extractions of the aerial parts of Cleome spinosa Jacq. were examined. The oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the whole aerial parts, aerial parts without flowers (fruit, leaves and stem), flowers, fruits and leaves have been examined by GC-FID and GC-MS. The chemical profiles of the oils reveal the dominance of oxygenated sesqui- and diterpenes, with the exception of the fruit oil, which contained a high content of fatty acids. The most abundant compounds from the whole aerial parts were (Z)-phytol (31.3%), integerrimine (5.5%) and incensole (4.0%). The major compounds from the aerial portion without flowers were caryophyllene oxide (10.5%), (-)-spathulenol (7.5%) and Z-phytol (6.9%). In the flower oil, the main components were 7-alpha-hydroxy manool (23.8%), incensole (9.2%) and sclareol (8.7%). The chief constituents in the fruit oil were tetradecanoic acid (40.6%), (Z)-phytol (6.58%) and sclareol (4.5%). In the leaf oil, (Z)-phytol (19.5%), 7-alpha-hydroxy manool (6.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.36%) were the predominant compounds. Antimicrobial activity of the oil obtained from the whole aerial part was evaluated against nine microbial strains using a filter paper disc-diffusion method. The volatile oil showed moderate action against seven of the eight bacteria strains used, with significant inhibitory activity against Streptococcus pyogenes Group A when compared with the standard antibiotics, ampicillin and gentamicin. The fungus, Candida albicans was less sensitive to the essential oil. The oils showed moderate insecticidal activity against Cylas formicarius elegantalus, but possessed no antioxidant activity as indicated by the DPPH method. This represents the first report on the chemical composition of the essential oils from C. spinosa found in Jamaica and the in vitro antioxidant, insecticidal and antimicrobial potential of the oil from the aerial parts. PMID:20839641

McNeil, Megil J; Porter, Roy B R; Williams, Lawrence A D; Rainford, Lois

2010-08-01

255

COMPARISONS OF ADULT REPELLENCY AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST MOSQUITOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils including thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil and cinnamon oil were studied on three mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens. The repellency of the selected essential oils to female bl...

256

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur Variety.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety grown in Pakistan was extracted by hydro-distillation. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 25 constituents, out of which nine chemical constituents were identified. The eucalyptol (10.27%) was the major component of the essential oil. ?-pinene (1.50%), ?-phellandrene (2.49%), ?-pinene (3.57%), limonene (2.73%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (1.76%), ascaridole epoxide (1.452%), 2-methylisoborneol (2.92%), 5-isopropyl-6-methyl-hepta-3, dien-2-ol (2.07%) were also present in considerable quantity. The antimicrobial properties of leaves of Curcuma longa were tested by disc diffusion method against various human pathogens, including eight fungal and five bacterial strains. Essential oil showed maximum resistance against Fusarium miniformes MAY 3629 followed by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 whereas; it exhibited least resistance against Fusarium oxysporium ATCC 48122. The results of the antimicrobial assay revealed that essential oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested organisms. PMID:23901173

Parveen, Z; Nawaz, S; Siddique, S; Shahzad, K

2013-01-01

257

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur Variety  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety grown in Pakistan was extracted by hydro-distillation. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 25 constituents, out of which nine chemical constituents were identified. The eucalyptol (10.27%) was the major component of the essential oil. ?-pinene (1.50%), ?-phellandrene (2.49%), ?-pinene (3.57%), limonene (2.73%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (1.76%), ascaridole epoxide (1.452%), 2-methylisoborneol (2.92%), 5-isopropyl-6-methyl-hepta-3, dien-2-ol (2.07%) were also present in considerable quantity. The antimicrobial properties of leaves of Curcuma longa were tested by disc diffusion method against various human pathogens, including eight fungal and five bacterial strains. Essential oil showed maximum resistance against Fusarium miniformes MAY 3629 followed by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 whereas; it exhibited least resistance against Fusarium oxysporium ATCC 48122. The results of the antimicrobial assay revealed that essential oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested organisms. PMID:23901173

Parveen, Z.; Nawaz, S.; Siddique, S.; Shahzad, K.

2013-01-01

258

Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil of Curcuma zedoaria.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of the essential oil of Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and showed a high content of epicurzerenone and curdione representing 46.6% and 13.7% of the total oil, respectively. The essential oil was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasa aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus cereus. V. parahaemolyticus was sensitive to the presence of the essential oil, while the most resistant strain appeared to be E. coli. Based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction and cell morphology, the essential oil of C. zedoaria could inhibit the proliferation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the essential oil has the antimicrobial activity against some of Gram- positive and negative pathogenic microorganisms and the components of the extract lead to the apoptosis of human cancer cell line. PMID:15315265

Lai, Eric Y C; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Chen, Chien-Chou; Lai, Yi-Jui; Shih, Ching-Fang; Lin, Long-Liu

2004-01-01

259

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), ?-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-?-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range. PMID:25050318

Rajendran, Mini Priya; Pallaiyan, Blessed Beautlin; Selvaraj, Nija

2014-01-01

260

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.  

PubMed

The beneficial health effects of extracts from many types of plants that are used as seasoning agents in foods and beverages have been claimed for centuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected herb and spice essential oils for control of growth and survival of microorganisms. Inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility discs were used as control. Minimum lethal concentration (MLC) was determined by the tube dilution method. Essential oils from anise, angelica, basil, carrot, celery, cardamom, coriander, dill weed, fennel, oregano, parsley, and rosemary were evaluated. Inhibition ranged from complete with oregano to no inhibition with carrot oil for each of the test strains that included: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O:157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula. Oregano essential oil showed the greatest inhibition (zone, > or = 70 to 80 mm) (MLC, approximately 8 ppm). Coriander and basil were also highly inhibitory (MLC, approximately 25 to 50 ppm) to E. coli O:157:H7 and to the other bacteria and fungi tested. Anise oil was not particularly inhibitory to bacteria (inhibition zone, approximately 25 mm); however, anise oil was highly inhibitory to molds. Because some of the herbal and spice essential oils are highly inhibitory to selected pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, they may provide alternatives and supplements to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. PMID:11456186

Elgayyar, M; Draughon, F A; Golden, D A; Mount, J R

2001-07-01

261

Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.  

PubMed

The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates. PMID:23577212

Martins, Carla; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

2013-01-01

262

Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation  

PubMed Central

The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5–20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25–5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6–41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates. PMID:23577212

Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

2013-01-01

263

Transfer of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from some medicinal plants to their essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from 35 medicinal plants used by Syrians, organic compounds were determined in these oils and concentrations of (210)Po (210)Pb and (238)U were determined in the original plants and in the essential oils. The results showed that the highest activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb were found in leaves with large surfaces and in Sage were as high as 73.5 Bq kg(-1) and 73.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentration of (238)U was as high as 4.26 Bq kg(-1) in Aloe. On the other hand, activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.2 and 71.1 Bq kg(-1) in extracted essential oils for Rosemary and False yellowhead, respectively. The activity concentration of (210)Pb reached 63.7 Bq kg(-1) in Aloe oil. The activity concentrations of (238)U were very low in all extracted oils; the highest value was 0.31 Bq kg(-1) in peel of Orange oil. The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb from plant to its oil was the highest for Eugenia; 7.1% and 5.5% for (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the transfer factor of radionuclides from plant to its essential oil and the chemical content of this oil. PMID:25531268

Al-Masri, M S; Amin, Y; Ibrahim, S; Nassri, M

2015-03-01

264

Composition of the Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium L. from Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) from air-dried aerial parts of plant species Achillea millefolium L. yarrow was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-six components were identified. The major constituents in the oil extracts were ?-pinene (14.9–29.2%), sabinene (2.9–17.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.9–18.3%), ?-caryophyllene (3.3–6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (0.5–6.4%), guaiol (0.3–11.8%) and chamazulene (0.1–13.3%). The monoterpene fraction represented

Anne Orav; Tiiu Kailas; Kaire Ivask

2001-01-01

265

Optimisation of steam extraction of oil from maritime pine needles S.A. REZZOUG  

E-print Network

in "Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 29, 2 (2009) 87-100" DOI : 10.1080/0277381092879025 #12;2 1. Essential oils extracted from plants such as pines are used as fragrances in cosmetics, flavouring additives

Boyer, Edmond

266

Supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from ground black pepper, using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of process parameters, namely pressure (90,100,150bar) and temperature (40,50°C) of extraction, and solvent flow rate (1.1,2,3kg\\/h), on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments conducted in a bench scale apparatus.

C. Perakis; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2005-01-01

267

Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia.  

PubMed

BackgroundPhthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in probable absorption and accumulation by medicinal and dietary plants. As a matter of fact, although the toxicity of phthalate derivatives in human is well-known, food crops and medicinal plants have been exposing to phthalates that can be detected in their extracts and essential oils. Achillea tenuifolia (Compositea) is one of these herbaceous plants with traditional applications which widely growing in Iran.FindingThe plant root was subjected to hydro-distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain its essential oil before and after acid treatment. Both of the hydro-distilled essential oils were analysed by GC-MS method resulted in recognition of their constituent. Phthalate contamination as (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester (5.4%) and phthalic acid (4.5%), were identified in the first and second extracted oils, respectively.ConclusionAs a warning, due to the potential role of phthalates to cause reproductive toxicity, disturb of endocrine system and causing cancers, medicinal plants have to be considered through quality control for detection of these compounds. PMID:25429772

Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

2014-11-28

268

Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils.  

PubMed

Strong antiseptic activity of essential oils has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of oils was tested against clinical bacterial strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia and Pseudomonas genera. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. 120 strains of bacteria isolated from patients with infections of oral cavity, respiratory, genitourinary tracts and from hospital environment were investigated. The results of experiments showed that the oil from T. vulgaris exhibited extremely strong activity against all of the clinical strains. Thyme oil demonstrated a good efficacy against antibiotics resistant strains of the tested bacteria. Lavender oil has been less activity against clinical strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Escherichia genus. The worst results have been observed against all strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22313307

Sienkiewicz, Monika; ?ysakowska, Monika; Cie?wierz, Julita; Denys, Pawe?; Kowalczyk, Edward

2011-11-01

269

Chitosan/cashew gum nanogels for essential oil encapsulation.  

PubMed

Nanogels based on chitosan and cashew gum were prepared and loaded with Lippia sidoides oil. Several parameters such as cashew gum concentration and relative oil content in the matrix had their influence on nanogel properties investigated. Nanogels were characterized regarding their morphologies, particle size distributions, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and essential oil contents. The release profile was investigated by UV/vis spectroscopy and its efficacy was determined through bioassays. Results showed that samples designed using relative ratios matrix:oil 10:2, gum:chitosan 1:1 and 5% gum concentration showed high loading (11.8%) and encapsulation efficiency (70%). Nanogels were found to exhibit average sizes in the range 335-558 nm. In vitro release profiles showed that nanoparticles presented slower and sustained release. Bioassays showed that larval mortality was related mainly to oil loading, with samples presenting more effective larvicide efficacies than the pure L. sidoides oil. PMID:24750942

Abreu, Flávia O M S; Oliveira, Erick F; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M

2012-08-01

270

Gas chromatographic technologies for the analysis of essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil analysis has basically had one technical goal: to achieve the best possible separation performance by using the most effective, available technology of the day. The result achieved from this may then be used to answer the research or industrial analysis questions which necessitated the analysis. This may be for comparative purposes, where one oil is contrasted with other(s) for quality control or investigation of adulteration, to discover new components, or to characterise the chemical classes of compounds present. Clearly, today the analyst turns to chromatography as the provider of separation and then may supplement that with mass spectrometry to aid identification. The power of GC-MS means that advances in both the separation technique, and improvements in mass spectrometry detection - along with improved data handling tools - will immediately be relevant to the essential oil area. This present review outlines the developmental nature of instrumental approaches to essential oil analysis using gas chromatography. Mass spectrometry will be included to the extent that it represents the hyphenation of choice for most analysts when analysing essential oils. Thus single-column and multi-dimensional analysis will be covered, as will sample handling or introduction techniques prior to the analysis step, where these techniques provide some measure of separation. The recent demonstration of comprehensive gas chromatography will be discussed as the potentially most powerful separation method for essential oils. This brief review is not intended to be a comprehensive dissertation on the field of essential oil analysis since that would require sufficient space to occupy a book in its own right. Rather, it will outline selected considerations and developments, to help explain where new technology has been applied to advantage in this field. PMID:11760992

Marriot, P J; Shellie, R; Cornwell, C

2001-11-30

271

Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.  

PubMed

Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry. PMID:24915323

Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

2015-08-24

272

Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters.  

PubMed

The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct contact assays. Some successful EOs were fractionated and the fractions containing hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing molecules tested separately. Twenty EOs showed corrected mortalities ?96% at 2 ?L/mL. These were further tested at lower concentrations. Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs showed lethal concentrations (LC100)<0.4?L/mL. Oxygen-containing molecules fractions showing corrected mortality ?96% did not always show LC100 values similar to the corresponding EOs, suggesting additive and/or synergistic relationships among fractions. Nine decoction waters (remaining hydrodistillation waters) revealed 100% mortality at a minimum concentration of 12.5?L/mL. R. graveolens, S. montana and T. capitata EOs are potential environmentally friendly alternatives for B. xylophilus control given their high nematotoxic properties. Nematotoxic activity of an EO should be taken in its entirety, as its different components may contribute, in distinct ways, to the overall EO activity. PMID:23829930

Faria, Jorge M S; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

2013-10-01

273

Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2010-11-01

274

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in northern hilly areas of India.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Forty-three constituents amounting to 98.16% of the total essential oil contents were identified. The essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. ?-Thujone (36.35%), ?-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), ?-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED(50), 85.75?mg?L(-1)), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED(50), 87.63?mg?L(-1)) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED(50), 93.23?mg?L(-1)). This study indicated that A. nilagirica essential oil can be used to control phytopathogenic fungi infesting agricultural crops and commodities. PMID:22348279

Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Walia, Suresh; Sati, O P

2013-01-01

275

Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with equivalent LD95 values of 115.7 microg/ml, whereas it was 149.7 microg/ml against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Essential oils of Zingiber officinale and Rosmarinus officinalis were found to be ovicidal and repellent, respectively towards the three mosquito species. The essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum resulted into highest repellent (RD95) values of 49.6, 53.9 and 44.2 mg/mat against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively apart from oviposition-deterrent potential. PMID:16051081

Prajapati, Veena; Tripathi, A K; Aggarwal, K K; Khanuja, S P S

2005-11-01

276

Composition and antioxidant activities of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in Soybean oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes was studied in soybean oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activitiey of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in soybean oil during the storage period. The essential oil obtained from Pulicaria gnaphalodes by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/Mass. Fifty-eight compounds representing 90.7% of total was identified. Main ingredient in the oil were involved ? -Pinene (30.2%), 1,8-Cineole (12.1%), Beta-Citronellol (9.6%), Mertenol (6.6%), ?-Terpineol (6.1%), 4-Terpineol (5.9%) and Chrysanthenone (2.9%). Different concentrations (0.200, 400 and 800 ppm) of essential oil and ? hydroxyl toluene (BHT; 100 and 200 ppm) was added to soybean oil and incubated for 35 days at 65°C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbitoric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels were measured every week during the time period of the study. Moreover, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was determined using 1,1 diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time using ANOVA test. Results revealed that DPPH ?-carotene-linolic acid assay findings on the P. gnaphalodes essential oil were lower than these of synthetic antioxidant, BHT. Moreover, during the incubation time, P. gnaphalodes essential oil lowered PVs and TBARs levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). According to our results essential oil was less effective than synthetic antioxidant. Therefore it may be used as a food flavor, natural antioxidant and a preventive agent for many diseases caused by free radicals. PMID:25015444

Shariatifar, Nabi; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Shamse-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Misagi, Ali; Akhonzade, Afshin; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein

2014-07-01

277

Development of microemulsion of a potent anti-tyrosinase essential oil of an edible plant.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to develop a microemulsion product from a plant essential oil having the highest anti-tyrosinase activity. The in vitro anti-tyrosinase activity of six essential oils extracted from six edible plants was compared. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus demonstrated the highest activity which was significantly nontoxic to normal human cells. The GC-MS data indicated that geranial and neral are the major compounds in the oil. The phase diagram composed of C. citrates oil, water, and surfactant mixture was conducted by a titration method. Ethyl alcohol was found to be the most suitable cosurfactant for the C. citrates oil microemulsion. The results revealed that the amount of oil and water played an important role in microemulsion conductivity and type. The most desirable o/w type of C. citratus oil microemulsion was found to be composed of 20% oil, 30% water, and 50% surfactant mixture of a 2:1 weight ratio of Tween 20 and ethyl alcohol. PMID:22466371

Saeio, K; Yotsawimonwat, S; Anuchapreeda, S; Okonogi, S

2011-10-01

278

Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-?-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and ?-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin, which was the most efficient compound with 100 % of acaricidal activity at a dilution of 0.25% and could be a valuable acaricide for the control of the cattle tick R. microplus. PMID:25300420

Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

2015-01-01

279

The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

2013-01-01

280

Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.  

PubMed

In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening. PMID:16390196

Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

2006-01-11

281

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.  

PubMed

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

2010-05-01

282

Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of the Morinda lucida essential oil against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 ?g/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 ?g/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 ?g/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 ?g/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 ?g/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and ?-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and ?-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

Owolabi, Moses S; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Ogundajo, Akintayo L; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Flamini, Guido; Yusuff, Olaniyi K; Allen, Kirk; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

2014-01-01

283

Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30?g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05??g/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20??g/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629??g/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652??g/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726??g/mL), at 24?h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and ?-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and ?-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

2014-01-01

284

Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), ?-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

Borug?, O; Jianu, C; Mi?c?, C; Gole?, I; Gruia, AT; Horhat, FG

2014-01-01

285

Essential oils, a new horizon in combating bacterial antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

For many years, the battle between humans and the multitudes of infection and disease causing pathogens continues. Emerging at the battlefield as some of the most significant challenges to human health are bacterial resistance and its rapid rise. These have become a major concern in global public health invigorating the need for new antimicrobial compounds. A rational approach to deal with antibiotic resistance problems requires detailed knowledge of the different biological and non-biological factors that affect the rate and extent of resistance development. Combination therapy combining conventional antibiotics and essential oils is currently blooming and represents a potential area for future investigations. This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals may shed light on the development of new pharmacological regimes in combating antibiotic resistance. This review consolidated and described the observed synergistic outcome between essential oils and antibiotics, and highlighted the possibilities of essential oils as the potential resistance modifying agent. PMID:24627729

Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Yiap, Beow Chin; Ping, Hu Cai; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

2014-01-01

286

Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.  

PubMed

Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil). PMID:17511352

Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-03-01

287

Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

For many years, the battle between humans and the multitudes of infection and disease causing pathogens continues. Emerging at the battlefield as some of the most significant challenges to human health are bacterial resistance and its rapid rise. These have become a major concern in global public health invigorating the need for new antimicrobial compounds. A rational approach to deal with antibiotic resistance problems requires detailed knowledge of the different biological and non-biological factors that affect the rate and extent of resistance development. Combination therapy combining conventional antibiotics and essential oils is currently blooming and represents a potential area for future investigations. This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals may shed light on the development of new pharmacological regimes in combating antibiotic resistance. This review consolidated and described the observed synergistic outcome between essential oils and antibiotics, and highlighted the possibilities of essential oils as the potential resistance modifying agent. PMID:24627729

Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Yiap, Beow Chin; Ping, Hu Cai; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

2014-01-01

288

Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.  

PubMed

In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 ?g/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 ?m and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

2014-12-15

289

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

290

Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2010-06-01

291

Antifungal and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana from Spain.  

PubMed

The essential oils extracted from the young stems and leaves of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A.Murray) Parl. have been analysed by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. A total of 66 compounds were identified representing around the 99% of the total oil. The oil was richer in monoterpenes than in sesquiterpenes. The only main component was limonene with a percentage composition of 77.7%. The rest of compounds that contribute to the fragrance had percentage composition lower that the 3.0%: p-cymen-7-ol (3.0%), myrcene (2.4%), camphor (2.1%), delta-elemene (1.6%), oplopanonyl acetate (1.6%), methyl perillate (1.3%), terpinen-4-ol (1.0%) and beta-oplopenone 1.0%. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of this oil was also tested against different microorganisms. The only fungus tested, Candida albicans, was very sensitive to the treatment with an inhibition halos of 20mm. The oil was more effective with the Gram (+) than with Gram (-) bacteria. The inhibition halos were 12mm, 12-13mm and 12-13mm for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus respectively. We report new data of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of this species. The essential oil of C. lawsoniana could be considered as a good natural antibacterial and antifungal agent. PMID:23157017

Palá-Paúl, Jesús; Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Granda, Elena; Soria, Ana-Cristina

2012-10-01

292

Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were ?-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-dične (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

Chekem, Marie Stéphanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

2010-01-01

293

Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.  

PubMed

The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

Talbert, R; Wall, R

2012-10-01

294

Chemical composition of Vernonia albicans essential oil from India.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the flowering aerial parts of Vernonia albicans DC. (Asteraceae) was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine compounds have been identified, representing 97.5% of the total oil. The major constituents were beta-caryophyllene (34.3%), gamma-amorphene (19.5%), 9-epi-beta-caryophyllene (6.9%), and a-pinene (6.9%). The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (73.9%). PMID:25230512

Joshi, Rajesh K

2014-07-01

295

The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ?-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

296

Characterization of Essential Oils from Helichrysum odoratissimum Using Different Drying Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helichrysum odoratissimum is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. The essential oil from the herb was extracted and characterized for the first time using different drying methods. The oils isolated from fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried aerial parts of the plant yielded 0.28, 0.46, 0.33 and 0.36%, respectively. The fresh leaf oil was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main constituents as p-menthone (35.4%), pulegone (34.2%) and 1, 8-cineole (13.0%). The dried plant oils had limonene (31.6-22.6%), µ-caryophyllene (13.0-12.0%) and µ-pinene (10.0-7.7%) as their major constituents. Generally, the yield and chemical profile of H. odoratissimum were affected by the drying methods utilized. There were noteworthy chemical alterations in the major components of the essential oils using different methods of drying. The compounds pulegone and menthone were reported as potentially harmful compounds, hence their substantial reduction in the dried oils as compared to the fresh leaf oil is noteworthy as it aids reduction of toxicity in the oils.

Asekun, O. T.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

297

Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 ?g mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 ?g mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

2014-01-01

298

Repellent Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Simulium Species in India  

PubMed Central

Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) on the human volunteers against Simulium (blackflies) in three locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blackflies preferred biting legs (> 79%) as compared to hand and face with profound biting activity during 1000–1100 h (> 23%) and 1500 – 1600 h (> 28%). The essential oil extracted from Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides provided > 2 h protection at 5% concentration and > 5 h protection at 10% concentration in all the three testing locations. The repellency of Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides essential oils after 6 h application was > 50% at 5% concentration and > 90% at 10% concentration. The study provides evidence for the potential of these essential oils in developing new repellents against blackflies. PMID:22943569

Hazarika, S; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, RK; Singh, Lokendera

2012-01-01

299

Phytochemical and Toxicological Evaluations of the Essential Oil From the Bark of Aniba canellila (H.B.K.) Mez  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its therapeutic action, the phytochemical study of the essential oil of Aniba canelilla H.B.K Mez. (Lauraceae) and its toxicological preclinical trial were evaluated. The essential oil extracted from the bark (OEAC) yielded 1.0% and the major constituents were 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (52.9%) and methyl eugenol (38.7%), both identified by GC\\/MS and GC-FID. The observed LD50 (oral) was 720 ± 66.4

P. J. C. Sousa; J. S. Araujo; L. L. S. Pereira; M. N. R. Modro; J. G. S. Maia; M. T. F. Araujo; J. C. T. Carvalho; F. F. Perazzo

2009-01-01

300

Biochemical activities of Iranian Mentha piperita L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils.  

PubMed

GC-MS analysis of essential oils of Iranian Mentha piperita and Myrtus communis extracted by hydrodistillation lead to identification of 26 and 32 compounds, respectively. The oils had good to excellent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with the oil of M. piperita being more active. The findings suggest feasibility of application of M. piperita oil in treatment of the infections caused by C. albicans and E. coli. D-values on exposure to M. piperita and Myrtus communis oils were (2.14 and 2.8min), (1.4 and 12.8min) and (4.3 and 8.6min) for E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans , respectively. The oils were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid systems. M. piperirta oil exerted greater antioxidant activity than that of M. communis. Phytochemical and phytobiological characteristics of these oils may lead to extraction and production of active compounds in single or combined forms with useful applications. PMID:16777154

Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Alipoor; Rasooli, Iraj

2006-06-01

301

Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.  

PubMed

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-06-01

302

In vitro and in vivo anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities of essential oils and individual compounds.  

PubMed

Essential oils are increasingly of interest for use as novel drugs acting as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. In the present study, we report the in vitro antiviral activities of 29 essential oils, extracted from Chinese indigenous aromatic plants, against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Of these essential oils, those oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass effected a more than 50% inhibition of TMV at 100 ?g/ml. In addition, the mode of antiviral action of the active essential oils was also determined. Essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass possessed potent inactivation and curative effects in vivo and had a directly passivating effect on TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. However, all other active essential oils exhibited a moderate protective effect in vivo. The chemical constitutions of the essential oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of these essential oils were ?-zingiberene (35.21%), limonene (76.25%), terpinen-4-ol (41.20%), limonene (80.95%), 1,8-cineole (27.45%), and terpinolene (10.67%). The curative effects of 10 individual compounds from the active essential oils on TMV infection were also examined in vivo. The compounds from citronellal, limonene, 1,8-cineole, and ?-zingiberene effected a more than 40% inhibition rate for TMV infection, and the other compounds demonstrated moderate activities at 320 ?g/ml in vivo. There results indicate that the essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass, and the individual compound citronellal, have the potential to be used as an effective alternative for the treatment of tobacco plants infected with TMV under greenhouse conditions. PMID:23676919

Lu, Min; Han, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yun; Yao, Lei

2013-06-28

303

Essential oils, kava pyrones and phenolic compounds from leaves and rhizomes of Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt. & R.M. Sm. and their antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During essential oil production from Alpinia zerumbet, large volumes of water and solid wastes are produced and subsequently discarded. An extraction protocol to obtain essential oil, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) and enriched antioxidant phenolic extracts from fresh leaves or rhizomes of A. zerumbet and their wastes was developed. The main components determined in leaf oil were 1,8-cineol, camphor and methyl cinnamate, whereas

Abdelnaser A. Elzaawely; Tran D. Xuan; Shinkichi Tawata

2007-01-01

304

Water soluble fractions of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family: Geraniaceae) obtained through steam or water plus steam distillation of shoot biomass is extensively used in the fragrance industry and in aromatherapy. During distillation, a part of the essential oil becomes dissolved in the distillation water (hydrosol) and is lost as this hydrosol is discarded. In this investigation, hydrosol was shaken for 30 min with hexane (10:1 proportion) and the hexane was distilled to yield 'secondary' or 'recovered' essential oil. The chemical composition of secondary oil was compared with that of 'primary' oil (obtained directly by distilling shoot biomass of the crop). Primary oil accounted for 93.0% and secondary oil 7.0% of the total oil yield (100.2 ml from 100 kg green shoot biomass). Fifty-two compounds making up 95.0-98.5% of the primary and the secondary oils were characterized through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC--MS). Primary oil was richer in hydrocarbons (8.5-9.4%), citronellyl formate (6.2-7.5%), geranyl formate (4.1-4.7%), citronellyl propionate (1.0-1.2%), alpha-selinene (1.8-2.2%), citronellyl butyrate (1.4-1.7%), 10-epi-gamma-eudesmol (4.9-5.5%) and geranyl tiglate (1.8-2.1%). Recovered oil was richer in organoleptically important oxygenated compounds (88.9-93.9%), commercial rhodinol fraction (74.3-81.2%), sabinene (0.4-6.2%), cis-linool oxide (furanoid) (0.7-1.2%), linalool (14.7-19.6%), alpha-terpineol (3.3-4.8%) and geraniol (21.3-38.4%). Blending of recovered oil with primary oil is recommended to enhance the olfactory value of the primary oil of rose-scented geranium. Distillation water stripped of essential oil through hexane extraction can be recycled for distilling the next batch of rose-scented geranium. PMID:12118700

Rao, B R Rajeswara; Kaul, P N; Syamasundar, K V; Ramesh, S

2002-09-01

305

Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.  

PubMed

Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of ?-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and ?-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high ?-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), ?-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors. PMID:25146764

Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

2014-08-01

306

Essential Oil of Artemisia scoparia Inhibits Plant Growth by Generating Reactive Oxygen Species and Causing Oxidative Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the chemical composition and phytotoxicity of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. (red stem wormwood, Asteraceae). GC\\/GC-MS analyses revealed 33 chemical constituents representing 99.83%\\u000a of the oil. The oil, in general, was rich in monoterpenes that constitute 71.6%, with ?-myrcene (29.27%) as the major constituent followed by (+)-limonene (13.3%), (Z)-?-ocimene (13.37%), and

Harminder Pal Singh; Shalinder Kaur; Sunil Mittal; Daizy Rani Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli

2009-01-01

307

Antibacterial acivity of the essential oil of lippie nodiflora.  

PubMed

The plant Lippia nodiflora (Family-Verbenaceae) has medicinal properties and particularly used as an antidandruff agent. The essential oil of the plant was tested for its antibacterial activity against both gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. It showed good activity and compared with standard neomycin sulphate. However, it was inactive in the case of shigella flexneri. PMID:22556775

Balakrishna, K; Gopal, R H; Ramkumar, V; Rao, R B; Vasanth, S; Narayanappa, D

1996-07-01

308

Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity from Two Juniperus Essential Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils of two Tibetan Junipers Juniperus saltuaria and J. squamata var. fargesii (Cupressaceae) were obtained by distilling dried leaves and branches using a Clevenger apparatus. Sixty-seven compounds from J. saltuaria and 58 compounds from J. squamata var. fargesii were identified by gas c...

309

Chemical composition and bioactivity studies of Alpinia nigra essential oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Free radical scavenging, bactericidal and bitting deterrent properties of Alpinia nigra essential oils (EOs) were investigated in the present study. Chemical composition of the EOs were analyzed using GC-MS/GC-FID which revealed the presence of 63 constituents including ß-caryophyllene as major comp...

310

Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The essential oil, eugenol, and a eugenol based herbicide (Matran EC) were applied to apple and peach trees during bloom to evaluate the thinning effect of these materials. Several additional bloom thinners including ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), liquid lime sulfur, and sulfcarbamide were included in...

311

Essential oils of seven Stachys taxa from Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Stachys alpina L., Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis., Stachys palustris L., Stachys recta L. subsp. recta, S. recta L. subsp. subcrenata (Vis.) Briq., Stachys salviifolia Ten., and Stachys sylvatica L. were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the main group of constituents of all taxa, except

Vjera Bilusic Vundac; Hartwig W. Pfeifhofer; Adelheid H. Brantner; Zeljan Males; Misko Plazibat

2006-01-01

312

Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

313

Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Turkish plant spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of nine plant spices (savory, laurel, oregano, basil, cumin, seafennel, myrtle, pickling herb, and mint) were tested at three concentrations (1, 10, and 15%) and tested on various microorganisms (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus niger). The results showed

M. Özcan; Osman Erkmen

2001-01-01

314

Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films for food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter provides a comprehensive update of experimental use of antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible film applications. It reviews the most recent advancement in edible film technology to promote food safety. A brief description of how these antimicrobial edible films are produ...

315

Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum.  

PubMed

Sesuvium portulacastrum has long been used as a remedy for fever and scurvy. Hydrodistillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum. The essential oil yield obtained was 0.15%. Using GC-MS analysis, alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, alpha-terpinene, O-cymene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpinene, bornyl acetate, tridecane, trans-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene were identified. The hole plate diffusion method was used for antibacterial testing. The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Acetobacter calcoacetica, Bacillus subtillis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The mycelium growth inhibition method was used for the antifungal testing. The oil exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium notatum. Using the beta-carotene, acetone and linoleic acid method for the antioxidant testing, the essential oil showed antioxidant activity threshold of 15.9 mm mean zone of color retention. PMID:16243465

Magwa, Michael L; Gundidza, Mazuru; Gweru, Nyasha; Humphrey, Godfred

2006-01-01

316

Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.  

PubMed

In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

2010-04-01

317

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus  

PubMed Central

Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC100) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1–octen-3-ol (9%), n–nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and ?-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), ?-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

Barbosa, P.; Lima, A. S.; Vieira, P.; Dias, L. S.; Tinoco, M. T.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Figueiredo, A. C.

2010-01-01

318

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and ?-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), ?-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

2010-03-01

319

Composition of the essential oil of Cynanchum mongolicum (Asclepiadaceae) and insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphidiae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Farmers have applied Cynanchum mongolicum (Maxim) to control crop pests. The aim of this study was to analyze composition of essential oil from C. mongolicum, evaluate insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines, and lethal doses. Materials and Methods: Essential oil from C. mongolicum was efficiently extracted by steam distillation. The main components of the oil were analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system, and the insecticidal activity of the essential oil on soybean aphids Aphis glycines was tested using a variety of methods. Results: The components of the essential oil from C. mongolicum mainly included terpenes and ester compounds, of which (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol acetate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, ?-farnesene, and ?-caryophyllene accounted for 15.8, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.5%, respectively. With 1- and 2-day exposure, the essential oil showed pronounced contact toxicity (median lethal concentration (LC50) =37.8 and 38.4 ?L/mL, respectively), weak fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 139.7 and 139.9 ?L/L, respectively). The essential oil showed strong deterrent activity on soybean aphids in 2 and 4 h. Conclusion: The essential oil of C. mongolicum contained insecticidal components and possessed contact toxicity and deterrent activity to A. glycines. PMID:24914292

Yang, Wang; Zhao, An; Congai, Zhen; Qizhi, Liu; Wangpeng, Shi

2014-01-01

320

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saďdani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

321

The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

322

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa  

PubMed Central

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa. PMID:25587332

Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

2014-01-01

323

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa. PMID:25587332

Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

2014-01-01

324

The Metabolic Responses to Aerial Diffusion of Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and affect a great number of people worldwide. Essential oils, take effects through inhalation or topical application, are believed to enhance physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of essential oils in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabonomics study that reveals the aromas-induced metabolic changes and the anxiolytic effect of aromas in elevated plus maze (EPM) induced anxiety model rats. The significant alteration of metabolites in the EPM group was attenuated by aromas treatment, concurrent with the behavioral improvement with significantly increased open arms time and open arms entries. Brain tissue and urinary metabonomic analysis identified a number of altered metabolites in response to aromas intervention. These metabolic changes included the increased carbohydrates and lowered levels of neurotransmitters (tryptophan, serine, glycine, aspartate, tyrosine, cysteine, phenylalanine, hypotaurine, histidine, and asparagine), amino acids, and fatty acids in the brain. Elevated aspartate, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose, fructose, and glucose), nucleosides and organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate were also observed in the urine. The EPM induced metabolic differences observed in urine or brain tissue was significantly reduced after 10 days of aroma inhalation, as noted with the loss of statistical significance on many of the metabolites in the aroma-EPM group. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the metabonomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils and provide the basis for pinpointing affected pathways in anxiety-related behavior, which will lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of anxiolytic effect of essential oils. PMID:22984571

Xie, Guoxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Pan, Xiaolan; Chen, Tianlu; Hu, Yixue; Liu, Yumin; Cheng, Yu; Chi, Yi; Yao, Lei; Jia, Wei

2012-01-01

325

Anticandidal activity of the essential oil of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh.  

PubMed

Hydrodistallation of the aerial parts of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh. (Lamiaceae), collected in A?r?, Do?ubayaz?t Province, afforded an essential oil that was characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. Twenty-seven compounds, representing 97.69% of the total oil composition, were identified, and 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (1; 39%), 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (2; 28%), and germacrene D (3; 15%) constituted the major components. The anticandidal effects of the oil were evaluated against seven Candida strains by using the broth microdilution method. The oil showed good inhibitory effects against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.09 and 0.375 mg/ml, respectively. PMID:22083927

I?can, Gökalp; Köse, Y Bülent; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can

2011-11-01

326

Essential-oil diversity of three Calamintha species from Greece.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the essential-oil composition of the Calamintha officinalis-nepeta complex in Greece and to clarify the main patterns of its variation. The oils obtained from 22 wild-growing populations of C. glandulosa, C. nepeta, and C. menthifolia were studied. They could be classified into two different chemotypes, which correspond to the main biosynthetic routes of the C(3)-oxygenated p-menthane compounds. Chemotype I includes oils rich in trans-piperitone oxide, cis-piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide, while Chemotype II comprises oils rich in pulegone and menthone or menthone and isomenthone. Within both chemotypes, quantitative fluctuations of the main components were observed. Comparison with published data showed that the presence of Chemotype II has not been observed before in C. menthifolia, while Chemotype I has been reported in C. nepeta plants from Greece for the first time. PMID:22782882

Karousou, Regina; Hanlidou, Effie; Lazari, Diamando

2012-07-01

327

Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens.  

PubMed

The leaves of Apium graveolens were extracted and the essential oil composition, immunotoxicity effects, and antioxidant activity were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of A. graveolens leaves. Twenty-eight components, representing 73.72% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are 4-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1-imidazolyl)-valerophenone (19.90%), 1-dodecanol (16.55%), 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester (4.93%), ethyl 4,4-D2-N-hexyl ether (4.11%), 3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-phenyl-1-heptadecyn-3-ol (3.28%), 1,4-methano-1H-indene, octahydro-4-methyl-8-methylene-7-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1?,3??,4?,7?,7??)]- (2.99%), 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-(3?-t-butyl)benzodioxepine (2.56%), Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (2.53%), 9H-pyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrrolo[2,1-?]phthalazine-9, 11(10H)-dione, 10-ethyl-8-phenyl (2.07%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC(50) value of 59.32?ppm and an LC(90) value of 127.69?ppm. The essential oil from the A. graveolens leaves was investigated for scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity and the results demonstrate that the essential oil from the A. graveolens has potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation process. The above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils and also as natural antioxidant. PMID:21740094

Nagella, Praveen; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Chung, Ill-Min

2012-04-01

328

Larvicidal activity of two Algerian Verbenaceae essential oils against Culex pipiens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of essential oils extracted from the leaves of Verbena officinalis and Lantana camara L. for the control of Culex pipiens. Triplicate bioassays were performed with fourth larval instars of C. pipiens (n=25 per replicate) with solutions at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ?L/L of V. officinalis and L. camara L. extracts. Cumulative mortalities were determined 3, 6, 12 and 24h after treatment. Results showed cumulative mortalities, at three (3) hours to be 30.0 ± 2.9% and 14.8 ± 1.5% and achieve 43.3 ± 1.9% and 44.4 ± 3.1% after 24h exposure time, at 100mg/L of essential oil from L. camara and V. officinalis, respectively. PMID:21592668

Zoubiri, Safia; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

2011-09-27

329

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

330

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

2012-01-01

331

Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.  

PubMed

Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use. PMID:19032971

Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

2009-01-01

332

An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.  

PubMed

Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

2015-01-01

333

An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

2015-01-01

334

Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active compounds of the essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides, which is a well-known edible and medicinal plant. The volatile compounds in the oils were identified by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in combination with GC, GC/MS, GC/O (=olfactometry), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and relative flavor activities (RFA values). The most abundant compound in the HD oil was cis-?-necrodol (12.62%), an irregular monoterpene with a cyclopentane skeleton, which is very unusual in the plant kingdom. In the SAFE oil, the main components included 2-butoxyethanol (9.01%), benzyl alcohol (8.01%), and ?-butyrolactone (7.37%). Through sensory analysis, 21 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC/O. The most intense aroma-active compounds in the HD oil were hexan-1-ol and ?-nonalactone, both of which showed high RFA values. ?-Methyl-?-butyrolactone and dimethyl sulfone contributed more strongly to the aroma of the SAFE oil. These results imply that the essential oils of E. alsinoides deserve further investigation in the food industry. PMID:24634069

Kashima, Yusei; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2014-03-01

335

An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.  

PubMed Central

Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

2014-01-01

336

Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

337

Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

2013-01-01

338

Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of edible films to release antimicrobial constituents in food packaging is a form of active packaging. Antimicrobial properties of spice extracts are well known, however their application to edible films is limited. In this study, antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films containing 1.0–4.0% (wt\\/vol) ratios of oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils were tested against Escherichia

A. C. Seydim; G. Sarikus

2006-01-01

339

Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

2010-01-01

340

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cachrys libanotis from Algeria.  

PubMed

The essential oil of aerial parts of Cachrys libanotis L. (Apiaceae) from east Algeria was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-one compounds were identified, the main components being germacrene-D (18.0%), gamma-terpinene (6.4%), p-cymene (5.5%), caryophyllene oxide (5.1%), and limonene (5.1%). PMID:21366059

Bouderdara, Nabila; Elomri, Abdelhakim; Djarri, Lakhdar; Medjroubi, Kamel; Seguin, Elisabeth; Vérité, Philippe

2011-01-01

341

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis.The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the

Andrzej L. Dawidowicz; Ewelina Rado

2010-01-01

342

Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Citrus extracts, particularly bergamot essential oil (BEO) and its fractions, have been found to exhibit anticancer efficacy. However, the poor water solubility, low stability and limited bioavailability have prevented the use of BEO in cancer therapy. To overcome such drawbacks, we formulated BEO liposomes that improved the water solubility of the phytocomponents and increased their anticancer activity in vitro against human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The results warrant further investigation of BEO liposomes for in vivo applications. PMID:24099646

Celia, Christian; Trapasso, Elena; Locatelli, Marcello; Navarra, Michele; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Wolfram, Joy; Carafa, Maria; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Britti, Domenico; Di Marzio, Luisa; Paolino, Donatella

2013-12-01

343

Serum biochemical profile and performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing essential oils and pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum biochemical parameters and performance data were evaluated in broilers fed diets supplemented with antibiotics or essential\\u000a oils from oregano, sage, rosemary, and pepper crude extract (OLES). Animals (n?=?910) were distributed into five treatment groups, with seven replicates of 26 birds in each group: the control group (diet\\u000a without additives); the group receiving an antibiotic growth promoter diet; and the

Carolina Kist Traesel; Patricia Wolkmer; Candice Schmidt; Cássia B. Silva; Francine C. Paim; Alexandre P. Rosa; Sydney H. Alves; Janio M. Santurio; Sonia T. A. Lopes

344

Chemical composition of essential oil from the root bark of Sassafras albidum.  

PubMed

The root bark of Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Lauraceae) was extracted at room temperature with hexane and chloroform as solvents. The isolated essential oils were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Thirty compounds were identified, nine of which have not been previously reported from this species. The major compounds were safrole (85%), camphor (3.25%), and methyleugenol (1.10%). Ten sesquiterpenes were also identified. PMID:8824955

Kamdem, D P; Gage, D A

1995-12-01

345

Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

Felšöciová, So?a; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovi?, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stri?ík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

2015-02-24

346

[On the essential oil of green algae. II. The oils of the genera Ankistrodesmus and Scendesmus].  

PubMed

The essential oil and its main components (i.e., proazulenes) are useful taxonomic characters also in the genera Ankistrodesmus and Scenedesmus. The amounts of oil in these genera are similar to that of the genus Chlorella. A few strains of Ankistrodesmus, which are unable to synthesize proazulenes, seem to belong to other genera. PMID:942283

Liersch, R

1976-07-01

347

Liquid-phase microextraction utilising plant oils as intermediate extraction medium--towards elimination of synthetic organic solvents in sample preparation.  

PubMed

Hollow fibre based liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) using fatty oils and essential oils as the organic phase was evaluated to develop sample preparation technology eliminating the use of hazardous organic solvents. Basic drugs were extracted from different aqueous samples (0.2 to 1 mL) through approximately 15 microL of either almond oil, arachis oil, olive oil, soy-bean oil, anise oil, fennel oil, lavender oil, or peppermint oil (organic phase) immobilised within the pores of a polypropylene hollow fibre and into 20 microL of 10 mM HCOOH (acceptor phase) present inside the lumen of the hollow fibre. The extraction performance of the essential oils was comparable with the solvents normally used in LPME (dihexyl ether, n-octanol, and dodecyl acetate) in terms of extraction recovery and extraction speed. Whereas all essential oils tested were compatible with human urine, only anise oil was successful for plasma. The fatty oils provided lower recoveries than the essential oils due to higher viscosity, but all the fatty oils were compatible both with urine and plasma samples. In spite of the multi-component nature of the oils tested, they were not found to seriously contaminate the acceptor phases during extraction. In conclusion, fatty oils and essential oils may serve as alternative organic phase in LPME, eliminating the use of hazardous organic solvents. PMID:15638160

Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Rasmussen, Knut Einar

2004-12-01

348

Effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil on oxidative stability of sunflower oil during accelerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the application of various concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%) of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (EO) was examined on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) during storage at 60°C. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry analyses of the oils revealed that carvacrol (87.7%) was the major component of EO. Peroxide value

Mohammad Bagher Hashemi; Mehrdad Niakousari; Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz; Mohammad Hadi Eskandari

2011-01-01

349

Effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil on oxidative stability of sunflower oil during accelerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the application of various concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%) of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (EO) was examined on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) during storage at 60°C. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry analyses of the oils revealed that carvacrol (87.7%) was the major component of EO. Peroxide value

Mohammad Bagher Hashemi; Mehrdad Niakousari; Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz; Mohammad Hadi Eskandari

2012-01-01

350

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

351

Antibacterial potential assessment of jasmine essential oil against e. Coli.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 mul/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis. PMID:20046722

Rath, C C; Devi, S; Dash, S K; Mishra, R K

2008-01-01

352

Antibacterial Potential Assessment of Jasmine Essential Oil Against E. Coli  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 ?l/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis. PMID:20046722

Rath, C. C.; Devi, S.; Dash, S. K.; Mishra, R. K.

2008-01-01

353

Composition of essential oils of some senecio species.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oils of Senecio vulgaris, S. jacobaea, S. congestus and S. fuchsii was investigated by means of GLC, CC and GC-MS. The principal constituents differ; S. congestus: 1-tridecene and 1-undecene, S. jacobaea: germacrene D and 1-undecene, S. vulgaris: beta-caryophyllene, alpha-copaene and myrcene, S. fuchsii: anhydro-oplopanone and an unknown sesquiterpene C (15)H (24). In all the oils anhydro-oplopanone is present. The spectra of this compound and of the synthesized anhydro-oplopanols are given. PMID:17401994

van Dooren, B; Bos, R; Tattje, D H

1981-08-01

354

Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large

Phillip M. Fedorak; Debora L. Coy; Myrna J. Salloum; Marvin J. Dudas

2002-01-01

355

Bioactivity and qualitative analysis of some essential oils from Mediterranean plants against stored-product pests: Evaluation of repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and Tenebrio molitor (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) were tested for repellency against Sitophilus zeamais and Cryptolestes ferrugineus adults and Tenebrio molitor larvae. Composition of L. nobilis essential oil included large amounts of monoterpenes, mainly oxygenated derivatives, while in C. bergamia essential oil limonene was the main compound followed by

S. Cosimi; E. Rossi; P. L. Cioni; A. Canale

2009-01-01

356

Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe2+. ?-Pinene, ?-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase than ?-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

2013-01-01

357

Immunotoxicity activity from the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds.  

PubMed

The seeds of the Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analysis of the essential oil was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which revealed 33 components, representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components are linalool (55.09%), ?-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, ?,?,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-?-pinene (2.39%), citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%). The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 21.55?ppm and LC(90) value of 38.79?ppm. The above data indicate that the major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti. PMID:22208224

Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Nayeem, Abdul; Nagella, Praveen

2012-06-01

358

Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.  

PubMed

This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4a?, 7?, 7a?-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4a?, 7?, and 7a?-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants. PMID:22434692

Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

2013-07-01

359

Diurnal Variation of Essential of the Oil Components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne. ex Boiss  

PubMed Central

Background: Pycnocycla spinosa Decne. ex Boiss is an aromatic plant which showed relaxant effects on isolated ileum contractions and antidiarrheal activity. Thirty four components have been extracted from P. spinosa essential oil, of which several major constituents were found to show seasonal variation. Objectives: The aim of this work is to evaluate the diurnal variation of its oil constituents during specific hours of the day. Materials and Methods: The Pycnocycla spinosa samples were collected at different times of the day. The hydro-distilled aerial parts oils of collected P. spinosa were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results: Fourteen monoterpenoid and nine sesquiterpenoid components were identified, of which the fluctuating constituents were p-cymene, trans-?-ocimene, ?-citronellol, citronellyl pentanoate, geranyl isovalerate, ?-humulene, caryophyllen oxide, ?-cadinol, and ?-eudesmol. The content of p-cymene in the essential oil in different daily times varied from 0.16 to 4.19%, and the geranyl isovalerate 7.75 -23.99%. Conclusions: Essential oils with different qualities can be obtained according to the harvest time of the plant in a day. PMID:24644437

Asghari, Gholamreza; Gholamali, Houshfar; Mahmoudi, Zahra; Asghari, Matin

2014-01-01

360

Lotus (Nelumbo nuficera) flower essential oil increased melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes.  

PubMed

In this study, the essential oil from lotus flower extract, including petals and stamens, was assessed with regard to its effects on melanogenesis in human melanocytes. The lotus flower essential oil was shown to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lotus flower essential oil induced the expression of tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor M (MITF-M), and tyrosinase-related proten-2 (TRP-2) proteins, but not tyrosinase mRNA. Moreover, it increased the phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). In order to verify the effective components of the lotus flower oil, its lipid composition was assessed. It was found to be comprised of palmitic acid methyl ester (22.66%), linoleic acid methyl ester (11.16%), palmitoleic acid methyl ester (7.55%) and linolenic acid methyl ester (5.16%). Among these components, palmitic acid methyl ester clearly induced melanogenesis as the result of increased tyrosinase expression, thereby indicating that it may play a role in the regulation of melanin content. Thus, our results indicate that lotus flower oil may prove useful in the development of gray hair prevention agents or tanning reagents. PMID:19322028

Jeon, Songhee; Kim, Nan-Hyung; Koo, Byung-Soo; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Ai-Young

2009-07-31

361

Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ATP was determined. The bacterial strains were treated with two irradiation doses: 1.2 kGy to induce cell damage and 3.5 kGy to cause cell death for L. monocytogenes. A dose of 0.4 kGy to induce cell damages, 1.1 kGy to obtain viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and 1.3 kGy to obtain a lethal dose was also applied on E. coli O157H7. Oregano essential oil was used at 0.020% and 0.025% (w/v), which is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for L. monocytogenes. For E. coli O157H7, a concentration of 0.006% and 0.025% (w/v) which is the minimum inhibitory concentration was applied. The use of essential oils in combination with irradiation has permitted an increase of the bacterial radiosensitization by more than 3.1 times. All treatments had also a significant effect ( p?0.05) on the murein composition, although some muropeptides did not seem to be affected by the treatment. Each treatment influenced differently the relative percentage and number of muropeptides. There was a significant ( p?0.05) correlation between the reduction of intracellular ATP and increase in extracellular ATP following treatment of the cells with oregano oil. The reduction of intracellular ATP was even more important when essential oil was combined with irradiation, but irradiation of L. monocytogenes alone induced a significant decrease ( p?0.05) of the internal ATP without affecting the external ATP.

Lacroix, Monique; Caillet, Stéphane; Shareck, Francois

2009-07-01

362

Contact toxicity, feeding reduction, and repellency of essential oils from three plants from the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and their major components against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

The essential oils from rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera Griff, Zingiber zerumbet Smitt, Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe; their major compounds (camphene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha-humulene, isoborneol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and terpinen-4-ol); and synthetic essential oils comprised of mixtures of major pure compounds in the same ratios as the extracted essential oils were tested for contact, feeding reduction, and repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults. Via topical applications, the three extracted oils had similar toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 fiducial limits: 18-24 microg oil/mg insect). T. castaneum had similar sensitivity to all three oils (35-58 microg/mg), and it was less sensitive than S. zeamais. The LD50 values of synthetic A. conchigera and synthetic Z. zerumbet oils were similar to those of their corresponding extracted essential oils. The synthetic C. zedoaria oils showed lower contact toxicity than the extracted C. zedoaria oils to both insects. Sitophilus zeamais and T. castaneum were sensitive to terpinen-4-ol and isoborneol in contact toxicity tests. In antifeedant tests, the three extracted oils were able to decrease the consumption of flour disks, especially Z. zerumbet oils, whereas both insect species could feed on the flour disks treated with three synthetic essential oils. Only terpinen-4-ol deterred feeding in both insects. In repellency tests, A. conchigera oils at highest concentration repelled S. zeamais and T. castaneum. None of the synthetic essential oils repelled S. zeamais (315 microl/cm2) and T. castaneum (31 microl/cm2) Only terpinen-4-ol showed repellent activity against both insects. PMID:21882715

Suthisut, Duangsamorn; Fields, Paul G; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

2011-08-01

363

A review of the preparation and application of flavour and essential oils microcapsules based on complex coacervation technology.  

PubMed

This paper briefly introduces the preparation and application of flavour and essential oils microcapsules based on complex coacervation technology. The conventional encapsulating agents of oppositely charged proteins and polysaccharides that are used for microencapsulation of flavours and essential oils are reviewed along with the recent advances in complex coacervation methods. Proteins extracted from animal-derived products (gelatin, whey proteins, silk fibroin) and from vegetables (soy proteins, pea proteins), and polysaccharides such as gum Arabic, pectin, chitosan, agar, alginate, carrageenan and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose are described in depth. In recent decades, flavour and essential oils microcapsules have found numerous potential practical applications in food, textiles, agriculturals and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, the different coating materials and their application are discussed in detail. Consequently, the information obtained allows criteria to be established for selecting a method for the preparation of microcapsules according to their advantages, limitations and behaviours as carriers of flavours and essential oils. PMID:24282124

Xiao, Zuobing; Liu, Wanlong; Zhu, Guangyong; Zhou, Rujun; Niu, Yunwei

2014-06-01

364

Process for extracting oil from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the extraction of oil and bitumen fractions from tar sands. It comprises: heating the tar sands within the range of about seventy degrees Fahrenheit (70{degrees} F.) to about one hundred fifty five degrees Fahrenheit (155{degrees} F.); mixing the mined tar sands with an aqueous solution of water soluble separation chemicals that induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the sand under such temperature conditions, the chemicals being such that they also induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the water and separation chemicals. The separation chemicals comprise an aqueous solution of an effective amount of water conditioner, wetting agents and a coupling agent selected from the group consisting of sulfonated fatty acid salts; holding the mined tar sands and the separation chemicals for a sufficient period of time under sufficient quiescent conditions that the oil and bitumen become substantially separated from the sands, the separated oil and bitumen floating on the water and the sand sinking in the water; segregation of the oil or bitumen fractions from the water and separation chemicals and retention of the fractions for use as a chemical resource.

Hall, J.B.; Russo, A.

1990-10-30

365

Essential Oil of Artemisia absinthium L. from the Spanish Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several essential oils obtained from Artemisia absinthium L. from four localities in the Spanish Pyrenees were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Two chemotypes were detected; a cis-epoxyocimene type (with more than 50% of this compound) which was predominant in all the populations, and a cis-epoxyocimene + chrysanthenyl acetate type (with 25–65% of cis-epoxyocimene and 15–50% of chrysanthenyl acetate). The distribution of these

Amaia Arińo; Inés Arberas; Gustavo Renobales; Silvia Arriaga; Juan B. Dominguez

1999-01-01

366

Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented. PMID:25401162

Sobral, Marianna Vieira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damiăo Pergentino

2014-01-01

367

Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.  

PubMed

Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

2010-02-01

368

Extraction and utilization of breadfruit seed oil ( Treculia africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil was extracted from crushed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds by Soxhlet. The yield of the oil was 20·83 ± 0·57%. Tests showed the oil to be a semi-drying oil which is unsaturated, with a high saponification value, acidic and requires purification. The oil could be used for making soap, hair shampoo and alkyd resin.

V. I. E. Ajiwe; C. A. Okeke; H. U. Agbo

1995-01-01

369

Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ? rosemary > tea tree ? lemon ? lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-12-01

370

Chemotypes of Pistacia atlantica leaf essential oils from Algeria.  

PubMed

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Pistacia atlantica Desf. leaves collected from different regions of Algeria were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was rich in monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major components were alpha-pinene (0.0-67%), delta-3-carene (0.0-56%), spathulenol (0.5-22%), camphene (0.0-21%), terpinen-4-ol (0.0-16%) and beta-pinene (0.0-13%). Among the various components identified, twenty were used for statistical analyses. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) showed the occurrence of three chemotypes: a delta-3-carene chemotype (16.4-56.2%), a terpinen-4-ol chemotype (10.8-16.0%) and an alpha-pinene/camphene chemotype (10.9-66.6%/3.8-20.9%). It was found that the essential oil from female plants (delta-3-carene chemotype) could be easily differentiated from the two other chemotypes corresponding to male trees. PMID:20184035

Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Yousfi, Mohamed; Gaydou, Emile M

2010-01-01

371

Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability  

PubMed Central

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500–1000–2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08–0.12–0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600–1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

2013-01-01

372

Cercaricidal activity of some essential oils of plants from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended screening tests on the cercaricidal activity of various plants from northeast Brazil have shown that the extracts of the leaves and fruits ofPiper marginatum,Protium heptaphyllum, andCapsicum annuum show a remarkable effect on the cercaria ofSchistosoma mansoni. In the case of the oils ofPiper marginatum andCapsicum annuum, 90–96% of the cercaria ofSchistosoma mansoni were killed within 15 min. According to

C. G. B. Frischkorn; H. E. Frischkorn; E. Carrazzoni

1978-01-01

373

Composition, In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Obtained from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), ?-thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200?ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg?GAE?per?g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as 11.47 ± 0.05, 10.88 ± 0.9, 9.68 ± 0.06, and 8.33 ± 0.01, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24689064

Singh, Sunita; Das, S. S.; Singh, G.; Schuff, Carola; de Lampasona, Marina P.; Catalán, César A. N.

2014-01-01

374

Composition, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and oleoresins obtained from black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.).  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), ?-thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200 ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg GAE?per g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as 11.47 ± 0.05, 10.88 ± 0.9, 9.68 ± 0.06, and 8.33 ± 0.01, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24689064

Singh, Sunita; Das, S S; Singh, G; Schuff, Carola; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, César A N

2014-01-01

375

EVALUATION OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AS NATURAL POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils with fungicidal activities were identified in vitro; these were oregano, thyme, lemongrass, and cilantro. Essential oil components in those plants with antimicrobial activity were carvacrol, thymol, citral, and trans-2-decenal, respectively. Vapors of thyme, oregano and lemongrass, ...

376

Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

2013-01-01

377

Inhibition of quorum-sensing signals by essential oils.  

PubMed

The role of quorum sensing (QS) is well known in microbial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. QS is responsible for motility, swarming, and biofilm production based on the signal molecules, e.g., acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by micro-organisms above certain population density. The inhibition of QS may reduce pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in systemic and local infections. The homoserine lactones and other transmitters contribute to antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity of several bacteria; consequently the inhibition of QS signals reduces the problem of resistance and virulence. Due to the increasing number of persistent non-treatable infections, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to combat infections that destabilize bacterial communities in the host. The effect of essential oils on bacterial growth and QS were evaluated using the sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producing Escherichia coli ATTC 31298 and the grapevine colonizing Ezf 10-17 strains. Of the tested oils, rose, geranium, lavender and rosemary oils were the most potent QS inhibitors. Eucalyptus and citrus oils moderately reduced pigment production by CV026, whereas the chamomile, orange and juniper oils were ineffective. PMID:19827025

Szabó, Mira Agnes; Varga, Gábor Zoltán; Hohmann, Judit; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Szegedi, Erno; Amaral, Leonard; Molnár, József

2010-05-01

378

Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.  

PubMed

Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs. PMID:25044587

Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peńa-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

2014-07-01

379

Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil

N. M. Sachindra; N. S. Mahendrakar

2005-01-01

380

Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50?10.0 ml\\/m3. Five essential oils Salvia sclarea, Thymus mastichina, Origanum majorana, Pogostemon cablin and Mentha

Roman Pavela

2005-01-01

381

Sampling gaseous compounds from essential oils evaporation by solid phase microextraction devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Needle trap samplers (NTS) are packed with 80-100 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles to extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study compared extraction efficiency between an NTS and a commercially available 100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane-solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME) fiber sampler used to sample gaseous products in heated tea tree essential oil in different evaporation modes, which were evaporated respectively by free convection inside a glass evaporation dish at 27 °C, by evaporation diffuser at 60 °C, and by thermal ceramic wicks at 100 °C. The experimental results indicated that the NTS performed better than the SPME fiber samplers and that the NTS primarily adsorbed 5.7 ng ethylbenzene, 5.8 ng m/p-xylenes, 11.1 ng 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 12.4 ng 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 9.99 ng 1,4-diethylbenzene when thermal ceramic wicks were used to evaporate the tea tree essential oil during a 1-hr evaporation period. The experiment also indicated that the temperature used to heat the essential oils should be as low as possible to minimize irritant VOC by-products. If the evaporation temperature does not exceed 100 °C, the concentrations of main by-products trimethylbenzene and diethylbenzene are much lower than the threshold limit values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Lai, Chin-Hsing

2014-12-01

382

Fumigant, Contact, and Repellent Activities of Essential Oils Against the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus  

PubMed Central

The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)- cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7- dimethyl-,2,6- octadienal, (Z)-3,7- dimethyl- ,2 ,6- octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2- propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr post-treatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus. PMID:25373222

Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

2014-01-01

383

In vitro activity of origanum vulgare essential oil against candida species  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. krusei (ATCC 34135), C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449) and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646). Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI) was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 106 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%), carvacrol (9.42%), thymol (8.42%) and ?-terpineol (7.57%). C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 ?L mL-1 and 5 ?L mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 ?L mL-1 and 3.54 ?L mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 ?L mL-1 and 2.97 ?L mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:24031471

Cleff, Marlete Brum; Meinerz, Ana Raquel; Xavier, Melissa; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Araújo Meireles, Mário Carlos; Alves Rodrigues, Maria Regina; de Mello, Joăo Roberto Braga

2010-01-01

384

Oil separation from wet milled corn germ dispersions as part of aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oil was obtained from corn germ by aqueous extraction (AE). 100 g batches of germ were mixed with a buffer solution to a mass concentration of 5 to 20% germ, preheated under 2 atm. pressure (120oC), milled in a blender and then churned in an incubator/shaker to coalesce and float oil droplets. The ...

385

Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum (Piperaceae).  

PubMed

The study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of three Piper species: Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum, all from Malaysia. GC and GC/MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences between these oils. GC and GC-MS analysis of P. abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum oils resulted in the identification of 33, 35 and 39 components, representing 70.5%, 63.4% and 78.2% of the components, respectively. The major components of P. abbreviatum oil were spathulenol (11.2%), (E)-nerolidol (8.5%) and ?-caryophyllene (7.8%), whereas P. erecticaule oil mainly contained ?-caryophyllene (5.7%) and spathulenol (5.1%). Borneol (7.5%), ?-caryophyllene (6.6%) and ?-amorphene (5.6%) were the most abundant components in P. lanatum oil. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution method against nine microorganisms. All of the essential oils displayed weak activity towards Gram-positive bacteria with MIC values in the range 250-500 ?g/mL. P. erecticaule oil showed the best activity on Aspergillus niger (MIC 31.3 ?g/mL), followed by P. lanatum oil (MIC 62.5 ?g/mL). This study demonstrated that the essential oils have potential as antimicrobial agents and may be useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:25632488

Wan Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

2014-12-01

386

PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AND PARTICLE FILMS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT ON TOMATOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the effects of three different plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of tomato spotted wilt and flower thrips in field grown tomatoes. The three plant essential oils tested were geraniol, lemon grass oil, and tea tree oil, and were applied at 250 ppm twic...

387

Essential oil content and composition in commercially available dill cultivars in comparison to caraway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In field tests carried out over several years, 26 accessions of dill were compared to four annual and seven biennial caraway varieties concerning seed harvest yield, essential oil content and composition. Essential oil contents and carvone ratio in the essential oil are similar in caraway and dill, so harvest yield figures are crucial whether dill can be regarded as an

Josef Bailer; Thomas Aichinger; Gerald Hackl; Karl de Hueber; Michael Dachler

2001-01-01

388

Plant essential oils and formamidines as insecticides/ acaricides: what are the molecular targets?  

E-print Network

Plant essential oils and formamidines as insecticides/ acaricides: what are the molecular targets to combat Varroa mites. Nowadays, mainly plant essential oils and organic acids are applied because protein-coupled receptor / octopamine / thymol / tyramine 1. PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS-- AN INTRODUCTION

389

Comparison of Essential Oils from Three Plants for Enhancement of Antimicrobial Activity of Nitrofurantoin against Enterobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Piperitone from plant essential oils enhancesbactericidal activities of nitrofurantoin and furazolidone against bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, the essential oils of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)were screened for augmentation of nitrofurantoin activity and the most active components were determined. Method: The effects of essential oils and their components

Fatemeh Rafii; Ahmad R. Shahverdi

2007-01-01

390

Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24?h exposure period was 19.3??g/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8??g/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne. PMID:25238085

Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

2014-09-01

391

Direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus culture using vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green, downstream process using common vegetable oils was used for the direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus. The process consists of a single integrated unit to extract astaxanthin with subsequent separation of the astaxanthin-containing\\u000a oil extract. Without a cell harvest process step, the culture broth was directly mixed with the vegetable oils; the astaxanthin\\u000a inside the cell was extracted

Chang Duk Kang; Sang Jun Sim

2008-01-01

392

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916

de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceiçăo, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

2012-01-01

393

Chemical compositions of essential oils from Xyloselinum vietnamense and X. selinum leonidii.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves and stems of Xyloselinum vietnamense and X. leonidii, two new species belonging to the family Apiaceae, were analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in both species were sabinene, alpha- and beta-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, (Z)-beta-ocimene, and terpinen-4-ol. The monoterpene sabinene was most abundant in the leaves of X. vietnamense (75.0%). These compounds might be considered as chemotaxonomic markers of Xyloselinum species. In the DPPH radical scavenging assay, all four essential oils showed moderate activity, while the water extracts exhibited stronger effects. The strong DPPH scavenging activity of the water residues of X. vietnamens and X. leonidii might be due to their phenolic components. This paper is the first report on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of X. vietnamens and X. leonidii. PMID:23162914

Tran, Huy Thai; Nguyen, Sinh Khang; Nguyen, Thi Hien; Tran, Minh Hoi; Nguyen, Tien Dat

2012-10-01

394

In vivo antioxidant activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil.  

PubMed

Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Lamiaceae) is an endemic plant to Iran with many traditional uses. We have reported previously in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil of the plant. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the oil in rat. Antioxidant activity was measured by the test of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by measuring the index of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). Three doses of 100, 200 and 400 ?L/ kg of the essential oil of Z. multiflora (ZMO) was administered to animals by i.g mouth for 10 days. The blood was collected in 11th day through direct puncture and the liver was rapidly excised. The histopathology studies of the animals was compared to animals in butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) group. The results showed that ZMO in all tested doses significantly was able to scavenge DPPH radical (P<0.05). ZMO also decreased TBARs in a dose dependent manner. No alteration in LFT enzymes or changes in histopathology of the liver was considered in ZMO treated groups. The results indicated that ZMO might be used in healthy medicine and food industry. PMID:21454174

Sharififar, Fariba; Derakhshanfar, Amin; Dehghan-Nudeh, Gholamreza; Abbasi, Najma; Abbasi, Reza; Gharaei, Reza Rezaei; Koohpayeh, Abed; Daneshpajouh, Mohammad

2011-04-01

395

Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.  

PubMed

Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. PMID:24721259

Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

2014-07-01

396

Fractionation of citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase by batch vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess the performance of a vacuum fractionating column for the fractionation of citronella essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase during batch mode operation at different pressures, from 20 to 1mbar and reflux ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Fractions from column top and bottom were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC\\/FID) using authentic standards

Stephani C. Beneti; Eline Rosset; Marcos L. Corazza; Caren D. Frizzo; Marco Di Luccio; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2011-01-01

397

Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.  

PubMed

From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose. PMID:24689310

Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

2014-02-01

398

Toxicity studies on western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays.  

PubMed

The essential oil extracts of western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) were evaluated for possible dermal toxic effects on mice and rabbits. Mice were tested for their response to both extracts utilizing a local lymph node assay. Western juniper oil extract at 0.5% and 5% concentrations did not show a stimulation index (SI) greater than normal (3.0); however, a 50% concentration did show a positive response at 3.3. Port-Orford-cedar oil extract did not show a positive response at concentrations of 0.5%, 5% or 50%. An acute dermal irritation study using rabbits had a primary irritation index (PII) of 3.3 with 100% Port-Orford-cedar oil extract. This was reduced to a PII of 0.625 when diluted 1:1 with olive oil. Undiluted western juniper oil extract had a PII score of 2.7. While a 5.0% solution had a PII score of 0.3, a 0.5% solution of western juniper oil was a non-irritant. It would appear that animals bedded on wood shavings have contact with essential oils at concentrations far less than the 2% maximum by weight obtained by steam distillation extraction. These concentrations did not elicit a hypersensitivity response. PMID:15501613

Craig, A Morrie; Karchesy, Joseph J; Blythe, Linda L; del Pilar González-Hernández, Maria; Swan, Laurence R

2004-12-30

399

Antimicrobial efficacy of five essential oils against oral pathogens: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was aimed to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens and to find out the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities by detecting MIC and MBC/MFC of five essential oils such as tea tree oil, lavender oil, thyme oil, peppermint oil and eugenol oil were evaluated against four common oral pathogens by broth dilution method. The strains used for the study were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Results: Out of five essential oils, eugenol oil, peppermint oil, tea tree oil exhibited significant inhibitory effect with mean MIC of 0.62 ± 0.45, 9.00 ± 15.34, 17.12 ± 31.25 subsequently. Mean MBC/MFC for tea tree oil was 17.12 ± 31.25, for lavender oil 151.00 ± 241.82, for thyme oil 22.00 ± 12.00, for peppermint oil 9.75 ± 14.88 and for eugenol oil 0.62 ± 0.45. E. fecalis exhibited low degree of sensitivity compared with all essential oils. Conclusion: Peppermint, tea tree and thyme oil can act as an effective intracanal antiseptic solution against oral pathogens. PMID:24966732

Thosar, Nilima; Basak, Silpi; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Rajurkar, Monali

2013-01-01

400

Coupled extruder-headspace, a new method for analysis of the essential oil components of Coriandrum sativum fruits.  

PubMed

A new method involving concurrent single screw extruder combined with continuous headspace dynamic for the extraction and identification of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruit was developed. The effect of six different nozzle diameters (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 mm) on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of coriander fruit was studied. The oils from fruit samples were obtained by OMEGA 20 extruder. The result showed that the highest yield (0.53%) was obtained by the diameter of the nozzle was 8mm. Twenty-nine components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly hydrocarbons and alcohol monoterpenes. The main components linalool, ?-pinene, ?-terpinene, p-cymene and limonene showed significant variations with drying trials. PMID:23442704

Sriti, Jazia; Msaada, Kamel; Talou, Thierry; Faye, Mamadou; Vilarem, Gerard; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-10-15

401

Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is a health problem. Essential oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and have been screened as potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. Terpenes and terpenoids are components derived from EOs. Some of these EOs show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Carvacrol has specific effects on S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Perilla oil suppresses expression of ?-toxin, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin. Geraniol shows good activity in modulating drug resistance in several gram-negative species. EOs could act as biopreservatives, reducing or eliminating pathogenic bacteria and increasing the overall quality of animal and vegetable food products. Although clinical studies are scarce, the uses of EOs for topical administration and as penetration enhancers for antiseptics are promising. Little information exists for oral administration. PMID:21903378

Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Maria Guadalupe

2012-04-01

402

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Equisetum arvense L. essential oil.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the sterile stems of Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) were investigated for the first time using GC, GC/MS and (13)C-NMR. Twenty-five compounds were identified. Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (18.34%), cis-geranyl acetone (13.74%), thymol (12.09%) and trans-phytol (10.06%) were the major constituents. A disk diffusion method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this oil against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis; fungi: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). The 1:10 dilution of the essential oil of Equisetum arvense L. was shown to possess a broad spectrum of a very strong antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. PMID:16397851

Radulovi?, Niko; Stojanovi?, Gordana; Pali?, Radosav

2006-01-01

403

Antibacterial Activity of Thymus Syriacus Boiss Essential Oil and Its Components against Some Syrian Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolates  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite the medical discoveries of different medicines and advanced ways of treatment, statistics have shown that the number of patients is increasing. This may be due to chemical drugs used in healthcare, agriculture, and diets. This soaring demand in medicines urges us to look for natural sources such as aromatic plants and essential oils, which are rich in efficient compounds. Methods: Extraction of essential oils was performed using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Identification was achieved using the GC-FID technique. Confirmation was made using the GC-MS technique, and isolation was done using a preparative HPLC, equipped with an aliquots collector. The microdilution broth susceptibility assay was utilized to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Our in vitro study demonstrated the antibacterial activity of the Thymus syriacus Boiss essential oil and its components against the tested isolates at levels between 0.375 and 50 µl/ml. The main components of the T. syriacus essential oil were carvacrol, ?-terpinene, and ß–caryophyllene. MIC90 values for the T. syriacus essential oil against the gram-negative organisms varied between 3.125 and 12.5 µl/ml. The most effective components against the gram-negative bacteria were thymol, carvacrol, dihydro-carvon, and linalool respectively. Conclusions: The T. syriacus essential oil and some of its components exhibited very good inhibitory effects against Syrian gram-negative isolates. PMID:24031109

Al-Mariri, Ayman; Swied, Ghayath; Oda, Adnan; Al Hallab, Laila

2013-01-01

404

Potential use of essential oils from Cameroon applied as fumigant or contact insecticides against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Essential oils from seven plants species currently found in Cameroon were extracted by steam distillation and tested for their insecticidal activities against Sitophilus zeamats Motsch. Responses varied with the test applied and the plant species. For the contact toxicity, the acetone was used in order to dilute the pure essential oil. Formulations of 1% of essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica and Ocimum gratissimum were the most toxic and led to 96 and 98% of mortality respectively after 24 h. There was no death in control (0% of mortality). Fumigation test were done by applying 300 microl of pure essential oils in the bottom of closed 800 ml glass containers. In that case, the essential oil of Hyptis spicigera was the most toxic (fumigant) after 48 hours of fumigation followed by Annona seregalensis and Xylopia aethiopica 96 and 95% of mortality respectively. Some of the essential oils of plant species tested are promising for pest control in farmer granaries. However, further investigations are to be done on formulation and side effects. PMID:16628918

Kounin