Sample records for essential oil extraction

  1. Essential oils: from extraction to encapsulation.

    PubMed

    El Asbahani, A; Miladi, K; Badri, W; Sala, M; Aït Addi, E H; Casabianca, H; El Mousadik, A; Hartmann, D; Jilale, A; Renaud, F N R; Elaissari, A

    2015-04-10

    Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. PMID:25683145

  2. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

  3. Extraction of Essential Oil from Laurel Leaves by Using Microwaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beste Bayramoglu; Serpil Sahin; Gulum Sumnu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of microwave power and time in solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) on the yield and composition of the essential oil obtained from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves were studied. The extraction was also performed by hydrodistillation as a control. Specific gravities and refractive indices of the essential oils obtained by different methods and at various conditions were also examined.

  4. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from oregano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beste Bayramoglu; Serpil Sahin; Gulum Sumnu

    2008-01-01

    Applicability of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) in the extraction of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. was examined and the effects of microwave power and extraction time on the yield and composition of the product were investigated. Specific gravity and refractive index of the essential oil and its solubility in alcohol were also examined. Hydrodistillation was performed as control. GC–MS\\/FID

  5. Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaves (needles) of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extra...

  6. Extraction of lemongrass essential oil with dense carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Henrique Castelan Carlson; Ricardo Antonio Francisco Machado; Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo; Lia Krücken Pereira; Ariovaldo Bolzan

    2001-01-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was extracted with dense carbon dioxide at 23–50°C and 85–120 bar. The composition of samples collected during the first and the last hours of the extraction experiments was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and coextraction of cuticular waxes was observed. Liquid carbon dioxide extracts had a larger quantity of coextracted waxes than the supercritical extracts.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1999-06-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:10438227

  8. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  9. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  10. PRESSURIZED FLUIDS FOR EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using liquid carbon dioxide (LC-CO2) was investigated, including the effects of extraction pressure and length of extraction. The chemical composition of the extracts were monitored over the course of the extraction as well. When 80 liters of carbon dioxide we...

  11. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia tomentosa Miller (Lamiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bektas Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Atalay Sokmen; Munevver Sokmen; Moschos Polissiou

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts (prepared by using solvents of varying polarity) of Salvia tomentosa (Miller). The essential oil was particularly found to possess strong antimicrobial activity while other non-polar extracts and subfractions showed moderate activities while polar extracts remained almost inactive. GC and GC\\/MS

  12. Effect of extract and essential oil of Coriandrum sativum seed against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidari-Hamedani GH

    2008-01-01

    2 Objectives: Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) has been indicated for a number of medical problems in traditional medicine such as relief of insomnia, anxiety and convulsion. The aim of this study was to examine whether the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts or essential oil of coriander seeds have anticonvulsant effect in mice. Methods: Anticonvulsant effects of extracts and essential oil were

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Valeriana jatamansi Roots

    PubMed Central

    Thusoo, Sakshima; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, ?-vatirenene, ?-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, ?-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, ?-guaiene, and ?-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity. PMID:24804225

  14. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Vian, Maryline Abert; Fernandez, Xavier; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2008-05-01

    A new process design and operation for the extraction of essential oils was developed. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is a combination of microwaves for hydrodiffusion of essential oils from the inside to the exterior of biological material and earth gravity to collect and separate. MHG is performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. MHG has been compared with a conventional technique, hydrodistillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from two aromatic herbs: spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) belonging to the Labiatae family. The essential oils extracted by MHG for 15 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 90 min. MHG also prevents pollution through potential 90% of energy saved which can lead to greenhouse gas emission benefits. PMID:18343393

  15. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: ?-pinene (32.32%), ?-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), ?-caryophyllene (4.36%), and ?-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  16. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

  17. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

  18. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

  19. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Melissa officinalis: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and ultrasound extraction.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Buyuktas, Birsen S

    2010-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been applied to the extraction of essential oils from Melissa officinalis L. and Laurus nobilis L. The results of SFME were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) of essential oils from dried plant materials. The compositions of the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The essential oil obtained with SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than the oils obtained by conventional methods. The three different extraction methods used showed differences in the compositions and contents of the essential oils. PMID:20184034

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seied Mahdi Pourmortazavi; Seiedeh Somayyeh Hajimirsadeghi

    2007-01-01

    The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of plant volatile components has increased during two last decades due to the expected advantages of the supercritical extraction process. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a rapid, selective and convenient method for sample preparation prior to the analysis of compounds in the volatile product of plant matrices. Also, SFE

  1. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Piper chaba Hunter Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atiqur Rahman; Sharif M. Al-Reza; Sun Chul Kang

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the essential oil and various leaf extracts of Piper chaba Hunter was evaluated for controlling the growth of some important phytopathogenic fungi. The hydrodistilled essential oil\\u000a was analysed by GC–MS. Fifty-three compounds representing 95.1% of the total oil were identified, of which ?-humulene (16.4%), caryophyllene oxide (12.2%), viridiflorol (8.1%), globulol (7.4%), ?-selinene (7.1%), spathulenol (6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (5.1%),

  2. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-02-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were ?-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 ?g/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 ?g/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 ?g/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

  3. Experimental design on supercritical extraction of essential oil from valerian roots and study of optimal conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asghar Safaralie; Shohreh Fatemi; Alireza Salimi

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 extraction from valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) roots was studied. The objective of this study was to optimize the independent process parameters (temperature, pressure, dynamic time and modifier volume) in order to attain the highest yield of the essential oil and valerenic acids as the desired compounds. The process optimization was based on a simplex centroid design (mixture design),

  4. Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

  5. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Satureja hortensis L . extracts and essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valiollah Hajhashemi; Alireza Ghannadi; Sayed Karim Pezeshkian

    2002-01-01

    Satureja hortensis L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as muscle and bone pain reliever. In the present study, hydroalcoholic extract, polyphenolic fraction and essential oil of the aerial parts of the herb were prepared and evaluated for the analgesic activity using light tail flick, formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Also, the anti-inflammatory effects

  6. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan-based films including spices’ essential oils and functional extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hernández-Ochoa; C. A. Macías-Castañeda; G. V. Nevárez-Moorillón; E. Salas-Muñoz; F. Sandoval-Salas

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and functional extracts (EXs) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), clove (Eugenia caryohyllata), and elecampane (Inula helenium L.) were used as antimicrobial ingredients for the elaboration of edible films. EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation and EXs were obtained by co-hydrodistillation using fatty acid ethyl esters (E6 and E7) as co-solvents. Antimicrobial activities of EOs and EXs were evaluated

  7. Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Akhbari; Hossein Batooli; Fereshteh Jookar Kashi

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the leaves of Viola odorata L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, was extracted by hydro distillation–solvent extraction method and analysed using GC–MS technique. The analysis revealed the presence of 25 identified compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil with butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%) being the two main components. Several components were identified for the first

  8. Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Akhbari; Hossein Batooli; Fereshteh Jookar Kashi

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the leaves of Viola odorata L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, was extracted by hydro distillation–solvent extraction method and analysed using GC–MS technique. The analysis revealed the presence of 25 identified compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil with butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%) being the two main components. Several components were identified for the first

  9. Determination of antioxidant activities of various extracts and essential oil compositions of Thymus praecox subsp. skorpilii var. skorpilii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tevfik Ozen; Ibrahim Demirtas; Huseyin Aksit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of separated essential oils and different solvent extracts of Thymus praecox subsp. skorpilii var. skorpilii (TPS). The ethanol, acetone, methanol, hexane, aqueous extracts and separated essential oils of TPS were assessed for their antioxidant activities. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V), reducing

  10. Improved solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from dried Cuminum cyminum L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziming Wang; Lan Ding; Tiechun Li; Xin Zhou; Lu Wang; Hanqi Zhang; Li Liu; Ying Li; Zhihong Liu; Hongju Wang; Hong Zeng; Hui He

    2006-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a recently developed green technique which is performed in atmospheric conditions without adding any solvent or water. SFME has already been applied to extraction of essential oil from fresh plant materials or dried materials prior moistened. The essential oil is evaporated by the in situ water in the plant materials. In this paper, it was

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

  12. Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, ?-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances. PMID:24770478

  13. A comparison of essential oils obtained from lavandin via different extraction processes: Ultrasound, microwave, turbohydrodistillation, steam and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Ginies, Christian; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-08-30

    A total of eight extraction techniques ranging from conventional methods (hydrodistillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbohydrodistillation (THD)), through innovative techniques (ultrasound assisted extraction (US-SD) and finishing with microwave assisted extraction techniques such as In situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (ISMH), microwave steam distillation (MSD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), and microwave steam diffusion (MSDf)) were used to extract essential oil from lavandin flowers and their results were compared. Extraction time, yield, essential oil composition and sensorial analysis were considered as the principal terms of comparison. The essential oils extracted using the more innovative processes were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained from the conventional techniques. The method which gave the best results was the microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) method which gave reduced extraction time (30min against 220min for SD) and gave no differences in essential oil yield and sensorial perception. PMID:23890545

  14. Antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe's extract, oleoresin and essential oil from Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Khalid Saeed; Zafar Iqbal; Shahid Mehmud; Nusrat Ejaz; W. U. Nisa

    2009-01-01

    Crude extract, essential oil and oleoresin of fresh Zingeber Officinale Roscoe was studied for their antioxidant activity. Free radical scavenging activity was determined using DPPH free radical assay which based on the inhibition of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Concentrations 20-100% of these were prepared and their antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometer at 517 nm. Results indicate that oleoresin

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts and essential oils of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Verica; Knezevic, Petar

    2014-04-01

    Since synthetic antimicrobial agents and food additives can cause a number of adverse effects, there is a growing interest from consumers in ingredients from natural sources. Medicinal plants, such as Myrtus communis L. are a source of new compounds which can be used in both the food industry and for medical purposes, primarily as antimicrobial agents. In this review, the characteristics of myrtle essential oils and extracts are summarized, with particular attention to their chemical composition, biological activities and potential applications. PMID:24291016

  16. Wild Sicilian Rosemary: Phytochemical and Morphological Screening and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Extracts and Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Speciale, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Leto, Claudio; Rubino, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    To identify the best biotypes, an extensive survey of Sicilian wild rosemary was carried out by collecting 57 samples from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. All the biotypes collected were classified as Rosmarinus officinalis L. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characteristics of the plants allowed the division of the biotypes into seven main groups, although the characteristics examined were found to be highly similar and not area-dependent. Moreover, all samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying an extraction protocol to obtain the nonvolatile components and hydrodistillation to collect the essential oils for the volatile components. The extracts were characterized by LC-UV-DAD/ESI-MS, and the essential oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the nonvolatile fractions, 18?components were identified, namely, 13 flavones, two organic acids, and three diterpenes. In the volatile fractions, a total of 82?components were found, with as predominant components ?-pinene and camphene among the monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone among the oxygenated monoterpenes. Cluster analyses were carried out on both phytochemical profiles, allowing the separation of the rosemary samples into different chemical groups. Finally, the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) colorimetric assay, the UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and the scavenging activity of the superoxide radical (O$\\rm{{_{2}^{{^\\cdot} -}}}$). The present study confirmed that the essential oils and organic extracts of the Sicilian rosemary samples analyzed showed a considerable antioxidant/free radical-scavenging activity. PMID:26172328

  17. Extraction and GC\\/MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Hachey; Guy-J. Collin; Michel-J. Gagnon; Sandra Simard; Sylvain Dufour; France-Ida Jean; Gaston Vernin; Daniel Fraisse

    1990-01-01

    The essential oil, which was obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae), was analyzed using both GC\\/MS and Kovat's indices. The major components extracted from the stems, leaves and inflorescences were found to be ?-thujone (8.3–21.7%), camphor (8.6–11.7%), 1, 8-cineole (7.7–15.2%), ?-pinene (3.8–7.8%) and sabinene (5.7–8.9%). More than sixty components have been identified; forty of

  18. Insecticidal activities of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils against Sitophilus oryzae and Callosobruchus chinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon-Il Kim; Jung-Yeon Roh; Do-Hyoung Kim; Han-Seung Lee; Young-Joon Ahn

    2003-01-01

    Methanol extracts from 30 aromatic medicinal plant species and five essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Callosobruchus chinensis (L.), using direct contact application and fumigation methods. Responses varied with plant material, insect species, and exposure time. In a test with a filter paper diffusion method at 3.5mg\\/cm2, potent insecticidal activity against

  19. Bioactivities of the Various Extracts and Essential Oils of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atalay SÖKMEN; Münevver SÖKMEN; Moschos POLISSIOU; Julia SERKEDJIEVA

    The present study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L., as well as the content of its essential oil. The activities of essential oils were tested against a wide range of human-, plant-, and food-borne microorganisms. A total of 55 microbial organisms belonging

  20. Extraction of essential oils from garlic ( Allium sativum ) using ligarine as solvent and its immunity activity in gastric cancer rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui LiWei-chang; Wei-chang Chen; Wei-peng Wang; Wen-yan Tian; Xue-guang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The solvent extraction (SE) of garlic essential oil (Allium sativum) was studied. A multivariate study based on a four-factor, three-level Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to evaluate the\\u000a influence of four major variables affecting the performance of the SE of garlic essential oil. The yield and the composition\\u000a of the essential oils from garlic obtained by SE were determined, and

  1. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (?-esterase and ?-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are ?-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-?-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

  2. The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of endemic Thymus spathulifolius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atalay Sokmen; Medine Gulluce; H Askin Akpulat; Dimitra Daferera; Bektas Tepe; Moschos Polissiou; Münevver Sokmen; Fikrettin Sahin

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of essential oil and methanol extracts from a unique and endemic plant, Thymus spathulifolius (Hausskn. and Velen.). The antimicrobial test results showed that the essential oil of T. spathulifolius strongly inhibited the growth of test microorganisms studied, except for 4 fungi species while polar and non-polar

  3. The Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Alcoholic extract of Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Proença da Cunha; Odete L. R. Roque

    1989-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme) was investigated by means of gas chromatography. This analysis was compared with that of an aqueous alcoholic extract of the juniper berries of similar origin. The qualitative composition of the oil and the alcoholic extract was found to be very similar. The major

  4. Multidisciplinary Approach to Determine the Optimal Time and Period for Extracting the Essential Oil from Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Garzoli, Stefania; Pirolli, Adele; Vavala, Elisabetta; Di Sotto, Antonella; Sartorelli, Gianni; Božovi?, Mijat; Angiolella, Letizia; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Pepi, Federico; Ragno, Rino

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study on essential oils (EOs) extracted from some Mentha suaveolens L. samples, collected in the countryside of Tarquinia, is reported. In this study, the procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of harvesting and extraction time, was analyzed in detail for the first time. The GC/MS analysis, carried out on 18 samples, revealed that piperitenone oxide (PO), the main essential oils' chemical constituent, is primarily responsible for the related antifungal activity. Nevertheless, EOs with lower PO content indicate that other chemicals, such as para-cymenene, may participate in exerting the EOs' antifungal effect. Furthermore, the bacterial reverse mutation assay highlighted lack of mutagenic effect in all tested samples. Analysis of the results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with 3 h maximum hydrodistillation, regardless of the harvesting time. Differently, the maximum essential oil yield can be obtained in August and the highest piperitenone oxide percentage is obtainable in July. PMID:26016551

  5. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rosa damascena Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Essential Oil in Animal Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valiollah Hajhashemi; Alireza Ghannadi; Mohammad Hajiloo

    2010-01-01

    Extracts obtained from the petals of Rosa damascena (Rosaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases. In this study the hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of the plant were investigated for its possible anti- inflammatory and analgesic activities. The extract was administered at the doses (p.o.) of 250, 500 and 1000 mg\\/kg

  6. Extraction of Cuminum cyminum essential oil by combination technology of organic solvent with low boiling point and steam distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-M. Li; S.-L. Tian; Z.-C. Pang; J.-Y. Shi; Z.-S. Feng; Y.-M. Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Extraction of essential oil from Cuminum cyminum seeds using a combination of organic solvent with low boiling point and steam distillation was explored. The effect of different parameters, such as particle size (40, 60, 80mesh), temperature (°C) 10, 15, 20 and extraction time (3, 5, 8h), on the extraction yield was investigated using three-level orthogonal array design. The experimental results

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract and essential oil of Iranian Teucrium polium against some of phytobacteria.

    PubMed

    Purnavab, S; Ketabchi, S; Rowshan, V

    2015-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium polium was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea agglomerans, Brenneria nigrifluens, Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium vitis, Streptomyces scabies, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris and Pectobacterium cartovorum by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by using the serial dilution method. Chemical composition of essential oil and methanolic extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC. ?-Pinene (25.769%) and myrcene (12.507) were of the highest percentage in T. polium essential oil, and sinapic acid (15.553 mg/g) and eugenol (6.805 mg/g) were the major compounds in the methanolic extract. Our results indicate that both methanolic extract and essential oil did not show antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Also the essential oil did not show antibacterial activity against P. cartovorum. In general, both methanolic extract and essential oil showed the same antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum, P. agglomerans, B. nigrifluens and S. scabies. PMID:25583240

  8. Citrus essential oil terpenless by extraction using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ionic liquid: Effect of the temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Arce; A. Pobudkowska; O. Rodríguez; A. Soto

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids have awakened a big interest as solvents in the last years. In this work, the possibility of using an ionic liquid as solvent for the citrus essential oil deterpenation by liquid–liquid extraction has been studied. Citrus essential oil was simulated as the binary mixture (limonene+linalool) and equilibrium data for limonene+linalool+1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([emim][EtSO4]) have experimentally been measured at 298.15

  9. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques

    2011-01-01

    Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

  10. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques

    2012-01-01

    Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

  11. In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oil of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Owing to the complexity of the antioxidant materials and their mechanism of actions, it is obvious that no single testing method is capable of providing a comprehensive picture of the antioxidant profile. The essential oil of the Thymus specie may still possess other important activities in traditional medicine, it can be used in the treatment of fever and cough. This essential oil may also have an anticancer activity. Methods The essential oils aerial parts hydrodistilled from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were characterised by GC/MS analysis and the methanolic extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC method. The essence of thyme was evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Result The Terpinen-4-ol are the principal class of metabolites (33.34%) among which 1.8-cineole (19.96%) and camphor (19.20%) predominate. In this study, quantitative values of antioxidant activity of crude methanolic extracts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis were investigated. The essential oils was screened for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteridis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes) by well diffusion method and agar dilution method (MIC). All the essences were found to inhibit the growth of both gram (+) and gram (?) bacteria organisms tested. These activities were correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds in active fractions. HPLC confirmed presence of phenolic compounds in methanol extracts. Conclusion Methanol extracts and essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The technique for measuring antioxidant activity, which was developed using DPPH, ABTS and ?-carotene bleaching, produced results as found in established literatures. The present results indicate clearly that methanol extracts and essential oils from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants, also their essential oil have an antibacterial effect. PMID:25022197

  12. Small-Scale Steam Distillation Plant for Cymbopogon Nardus Essential Oil Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Hamazul Azhar Hamzah; Mazidah Tajjudin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    This paper presents the extraction result and quality analysis of Cymbopogon Nardus leaves using a small-scale steam distillation plant. The extraction plant was successfully developed and interfaced to a computer for monitoring and control purposes. The plant performance was analyzed in terms of its efficiency and the quality of the oil produced. The oil quality was assessed by means of

  13. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

  14. Arthropod repellency, especially tick ( Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tunón; W. Thorsell; A. Mikiver; I. Malander

    2006-01-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were

  15. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected. PMID:16624501

  16. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis L. roots cultivated in Iran. Comparative analysis between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Safaralie, Asghar; Fatemi, Shohreh; Sefidkon, Fatemeh

    2008-02-01

    The composition of essential oil extracted from Valeriana officinalis L. roots growing wild in Iran was studied by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. Forty-seven components representing 89.3% and 35 constituents varying from 86.1% to 95.1% of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 were identified, respectively. The major components in the extracted oil from supercritical CO2 were isovaleric acid (18.7-41.8%), valerenic acid (8.2-11.8%), acetoxyvaleranone (5.6-9.6%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (4.5-6.5%), bornyl acetate (2.3-7.7%) and valerenol (3.7-5.2%), whereas by hydrodistillation were bornyl acetate (11.6%), valerenic acid (8.0%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (7.9%) and acetoxyvaleranone (7.6%). The analysis of the extracts was performed by capillary GC and GC/MS. PMID:18164718

  17. Antidiabetic potentials of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl.

    PubMed

    Akolade, Jubril Olayinka; Usman, Lamidi Ajao; Okereke, Omoaruemike Ebele; Muhammad, Nasir Olarewaju

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of essential oil from the leaf of Hoslundia opposita in the treatment of diabetes. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomized into two groups; nondiabetic and diabetic groups, each with four subgroups. Animals in the diabetic group were induced with diabetes using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate, 160?mg/kg body weight (b. wt.). The rats were treated with 110 and 220?mg/kg b. wt. of the essential oil. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for 4 days. In the nondiabetic condition, there was no effect of the oil on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in rats. In diabetic rats, the oil caused a significant reduction in FBG levels. Treatment with 110?mg/kg b. wt. of the oil reduced FBG almost to the normoglycemic level by day 4 and the overall glucose excursion during a 3-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test approached the baseline level at 120?min. Also, hepatic glycogen was significantly higher, while the glucose concentrations were lower in the diabetic-treated group when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Histological examinations revealed a mildly distorted architecture of the pancreatic islets ?-cells of diabetic rats treated with the oil, while those of the untreated rats were severely degenerated. Overall, the in vivo antihyperglycemic activity of the essential oil may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25137031

  18. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

  19. Acaricidal activity of 31 essential oils extracted from plants collected in Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrine Attia; Kaouthar L. Grissa; Zeineb G. Ghrabi; Anne C. Mailleux; Georges Lognay; Thierry Hance

    2012-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a worldwide pest, feeding on a large variety of plant families. As its resistance to acaricides spreads rapidly, it is crucial to develop new biological control tactics to manage its populations. In this respect, essential oils may be a good alternative, as they are currently considered minimum-risk pesticides. In this paper, we

  20. Biomolecular characterization of wild sicilian oregano: phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio; Speciale, Antonio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Pasquale, Andrea; Curcuruto, Giusy; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    An extensive survey of wild Sicilian oregano was made. A total of 57 samples were collected from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. Based on morphological and production characteristics obtained from the 57 samples, cluster analysis was used to divide the samples into homogeneous groups, to identify the best biotypes. All samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying a cascade-extraction protocol and hydrodistillation, to obtain the non volatile components and the essential oils, respectively. The extracts contained thirteen polyphenol derivatives, i.e., four flavanones, seven flavones, and two organic acids. Their qualitative and quantitative characterization was carried out by LC/MS analyses. The essential oils were characterized using a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS analyses; a total of 81 components were identified. The major components of the oils were thymol, p-cymene, and ?-terpinene. Cluster analysis was carried out on both phytochemical profiles and resulted in the division of the oregano samples into different chemical groups. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts was investigated by the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) colorimetric assay, by UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and by determining the O(2)(?-)-scavenging activity. PMID:23495158

  1. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34?mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23216669

  2. Comparison of essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Sourmaghi, Mohammad Hossein Salehi; Kiaee, Gita; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2015-04-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), is an annual herb in the Apiaceae family which disperses in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The Coriander essential oil has been used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its flavor and odor. In Iran, fruits of Coriander used in pickle, curry powders, sausages, cakes, pastries, biscuits and buns. The aim of this study was to investigate microwave radiation effects on quality, quantity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Coriander fruits. The essential oils were obtained from the Coriander fruits by hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) then, the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by microdilution method. The results indicated that the HD and MAHD essential oils (EO) were dominated by monoterpenoids such as linalool, geranyl acetate and ?-terpinene. The major compound in both EO was linalool which its amount in HD and MAHD was 63 % and 66 %, respectively. The total amount of monoterpenes hydrocarbons in HD EO differ significantly with the amount in MAHD EO (12.56 % compare to 1.82 %). HD EO showed greater activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans than MAHD EO. Moreover, their activities against Ecoli and P. aeruginosa were the same with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 0.781 and 6.25 ?L mL(-1), respectively. By using MAHD method, it was superior in terms of saving energy and extraction time, although the oil yield and total composition decrease by using this method. PMID:25829632

  3. TLC-MS VERSUS TLC-LC-MS FINGERPRINTS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS. PART I. ESSENTIAL OILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mieczys?aw Sajewicz; ?ukasz Wojtal; Maja Nati?; Dorota Staszek; Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos; Teresa Kowalska

    2011-01-01

    In our earlier studies, we proposed the low-temperature thin-layer chromatography with densitometric and mass spectrometric detection for fingerprinting of essential oils derived from several different species from the Salvia genus. Development of the proposed LT-TLC-MS approach was only possible with use of the TLC-MS interface able to couple the chromatographic plate with mass spectrometer. The goal of this study was

  4. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of different extracts of Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Meyer and Nepeta saccharata Bunge.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Khaligh, Pooneh; Mirzajani, Fateme

    2012-01-01

    Aerial parts essential oil of Nepeta betonicifolia and N. saccharata were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three and eighteen components represented 97.9% and 98.2% of the total oils identified, respectively. Main compounds of the oil of N. betonicifolia were 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (42.0%), germacrene D (6.0%), triplal (5.2%), 1-nor-bourbonanone (4.0%) and 1,8-cineole (3.2%). The principal constituents of the essential oil of N. saccharata were found to be 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (66.9%), germacrene D (12.9%), sabinene (6.5%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.3%). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of methanol extracts and chloroform, butanol and water subfractions of aerial parts of N. betonicifolia and N. saccharata were evaluated by using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS assays. TPC of each extract was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau. The antioxidant activity of the butanolic subfractions of both plants was higher than other extracts examined. PMID:21995833

  5. Metabolic profile and biological activities of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco: studies on the essential oil and polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Almeida, Carlos; Nogueira, José M F; Romano, Anabela

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the metabolic profile and biological activities of the essential oil and polar extracts of Lavandula pedunculata subsp. lusitanica (Chaytor) Franco collected in south Portugal. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that oxygen-containing monoterpenes was the principal group of compounds identified in the essential oil. Camphor (40.6%) and fenchone (38.0%) were found as the major constituents. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis allowed the identification of hydroxycinnamic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids) and flavones (luteolin and apigenin) in the polar extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the main compound in most of them. The bioactive compounds from L. pedunculata polar extracts were the most efficient free-radical scavengers, Fe(2+) chelators and inhibitors of malondialdehyde production, while the essential oil was the most active against acetylcholinesterase. Our results reveal that the subspecies of L. pedunculata studied is a potential source of active metabolites with a positive effect on human health. PMID:23870987

  6. Comparison of models for supercritical fluid extraction of seed and essential oils in relation to the mass-transfer rate

    SciTech Connect

    Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E. [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

    1996-10-01

    A general dimensionless model was developed for a sensitivity analysis of the supercritical extraction process of vegetable oils and essential oils. Two dimensionless parameters, {Gamma}, a dimensionless partition coefficient, and {Theta}, a dimensionless characteristic time, appeared as the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of the extraction process. Some limiting values of these two parameters within the general model yielded simpler models which are often used in the literature. The numerical solutions of both the complete model and the simpler cases were compared to assess the range of relevance of the simpler models in terms of {Gamma} and {Theta} values. These results were compared with the experimental data found in the literature to assess the correctness of the assumption used to model supercritical fluid extraction in single cases. The implications of this analysis on the development of scale-up procedures were also discussed.

  7. Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts

    PubMed Central

    Naemi, Forough; Asghari, Gholamreza; Yousofi, Hossein; Yousefi, Hossein Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L. flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety. PMID:25050317

  8. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Teucrium orientale (L.) subsp. taylori (Boiss.) Rech. f.

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium orientale subsp. taylori. The GC and GC–MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in determination of 40 components representing 96.4% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were linalool (28.6%), caryophyllene oxide (15.6%), 1,8-cineol (4.5%), ?-pinene (8.7%), 3-octanol (9.5%), ?-caryophyllene (7.3%), and germacrene-D (4.1%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different tests, namely DPPH and ?-carotene- linoleic acid assay. In DPPH system, the weakest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the non-polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (237.40 ± 2.1 ?g/mL). Antioxidant activity of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract was superior to all samples tested, showing an EC50 value of 61.45 ± 0.5 ?g/ mL. The inhibition capacity (%) of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (95.21% ± 1.3) was found to be the strongest and almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (94.9% ± 1.1). The amount of the total phenolics was the highest in the polar subfraction, i.e. 370 ?g/mg of the dry extract (37%). A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics of the extracts. PMID:24381607

  9. Antimicrobial activity of cloves and cinnamon extracts against food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria, and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in ground chicken meat with their essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol, aqueous extracts, and essential oils of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) were analyzed for determination of antibacterial activity against 21 food borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes (5 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (4 strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...

  10. Extraction of essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens: comparison of global yields, chemical composition and antioxidant activity obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical extraction.

    PubMed

    Nejia, Herzi; Séverine, Camy; Jalloul, Bouajila; Mehrez, Romdhane; Stéphane, Condoret Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 and hydrodistillation (HD) were compared as methods to isolate the essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens. The odour of the oil obtained by SFE at 90 bar and 40°C was very close to the odour of the leaves of C. sempervirens before the extraction. Compounds extracted by both SFE and HD were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. Moreover, the difference in the chemical composition obtained by SFE and HD was quite noticeable qualitatively and quantitatively. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were also determined. Compared to HD, the SFE method presents some advantages: the extraction was completed after 1 h in SFE, although 4 h is necessary for HD, and the yield was improved by 34%. Finally, it has also been shown that SFE is very selective towards some specific components such as manoyl oxide, trans-totarol and ?-acoradiene. PMID:23316864

  11. Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

    Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

  12. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cupressus sempervirens is a medicinal plant traditional, its dried leaves are used in treatment of stomach pain, diabetes, inflammation, toothache, laryngitis and as contraceptive. Methods The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and determination chemical contents of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from Mediterranean C. sempervirens L. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. sempervirens was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. Results A total of 20 constituents representing 98.1% of the oil were identified: ?-pinene (48.6%), ?-3-carene (22.1%), limonene (4.6%) and ?-terpinolene (4.5%) were the main components comprising 79.8% of the oil. The antimicrobial test results showed that the methanol extract of C. sempervirens strongly inhibited the growth of the test bacteria studied, except for yeast species while the Eo had moderate antibacterial, but no anti-candida activity. Klebsiella pneumoniae was proven to be the most susceptible against methanol extract. The exposure time of Eo and methanol extract for complete inhibition of cell viability of K. pneumoniae was found to be 250 ?g at 30 min and 500 ?g at 120 min, respectively. The antibiofilm potential of the samples was evaluated using methods of PVC microtiter and eradication on biomaterial. Visual results showed visible biofilm eradication from the surface of intravenous infusion tube at 500 ?g of Eo and methanol extract. Conclusions The results presented here may suggest that the Eo and extracts of C. sempervirens possess antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals. PMID:24890383

  13. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

  14. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    PubMed Central

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be ?-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-?-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including ?-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700?nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0?mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98??g gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 ?g quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

  15. Chemical composition and in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium sauvagei Le Houerou

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bel Hadj Salah; M. A. Mahjoub; J. P. Chaumont; L. Michel; J. Millet-Clerc; I. Chraeif; S. Ammar; Z. Mighri; M. Aouni

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition and the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and the methanolic leaf extracts of Teucrium sauvagei Le Houerou, an endemic medicinal plant growing in Tunisia, have been studied. More than 35 constituents having an abundance ?0.2% were identified in the oil. ?-Eudesmol, T-cadinol, ?-thujene, ?-cadinene, and sabinene were the prevalent constituents. Results of

  16. Effects of solvent-free microwave extraction on the chemical composition of essential oil of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi compared with the conventional production method.

    PubMed

    Riela, Serena; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Rosselli, Sergio; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Senatore, Felice

    2008-04-01

    The essential oil of Calamintha nepeta has been obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and by classical hydrodistillation (HD). A comparative qualitative-quantitative study on the composition of the oils was carried out. A total of 38 compounds, constituting 97.6% of the oil, were identified in the oil obtained by SFME, whereas 46 compounds, representing 95.4% of the oil, were characterized in the HD oil. SFME-distilled oil is richer in lightly oxygenated monoterpenes (LOM) than HD oil. It also has a higher amount of sesquiterpenes and a lower quantity of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. HD oil seems to be affected by chemical changes more than SFME oil. PMID:18266294

  17. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

    2009-02-01

    The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods. PMID:19298216

  18. Extraction of the essential oil from endemic Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis with two different methods: comparison of the oil composition and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Sözmen, Fazli; Uysal, Burcu; Köse, Elif Odaba?; Akta?, Ozgür; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Oksal, Birsen S

    2012-07-01

    The antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis by two different extraction methods, i.e., hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), were examined. This endemic Origanum species had shown very good antibacterial activity. The composition of the O. bilgeri EOs obtained by SFME and HD was investigated by GC/MS analysis. The main components of the oils obtained by both methods were carvacrol (90.20-84.30%), p-cymene (3.40-5.85%), ?-terpinene (0.47-1.20%), and thymol (0.69-1.08%). The EO isolation by SFME offered many important advantages, including a higher extraction yield, a shorter extraction time, and a higher content of the active component carvacrol. The carvacrol-rich oils obtained by both HD and SFME showed a good antibacterial activity. The largest inhibition zones were observed for the O. bilgeri EO obtained by SFME. Our study suggests that O. bilgeri EO has the potential to be used as preventative against bacterial contamination in many foods, instead of the common synthetic antimicrobial products. PMID:22782881

  19. Polyphenolic extract and essential oil quality of Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis shrubs cultivated under different watering levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María J. Jordán; Rosa M. Martínez; C. Martínez; I. Moñino; Jose A. Sotomayor

    2009-01-01

    Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis shrubs were cultivated as an experimental crop under different watering level, in order to achieve 81, 63, 44 and 30% of the local potential evapotranspiration (ETo). After 4 years of cultivation, thyme leaves were analyzed on the basis of their essential oil (yield and quality), total phenolic content, free radical-scavenging activity and polyphenolic profile.Essential oil yield

  20. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Echinophora platyloba D.C against some of food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Mahmoudi, Razzaqh

    2013-01-01

    Echinophora Platyloba D.C as a medicinal plant is used for preservation of foods and treatment of many diseases in different regions of Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition and investigation of the antibacterial effects of essential oil as well as methanol extract from aerial part of Echinophora Platyloba D.C against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Thyphimurium and E. coli. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) showed that ocimene (26.51%), 2,3-Dimethyl-cyclohexa-1,3-diene (9.87%), alpha-pinene (7.69%) and gamma-dodecanolactone (5.66%) were dominant components of essential oil and the main constituents of methanol extract were o-Cymene (28.66%), methanol (8.50%), alpha-pinene (7.42%) and gamma-decalactone (5.20%). The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive against gram-negative bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to essential oil and extract of Echinophora Platyloba D.C were L. mono-cytogenes and S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oil against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 6250 and 12500 ppm, respectively. MIC of methanol extract against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was 25000 ppm. Therefore, purifying and evaluation of antibacterial effects of the active substances of the essential oil and methanol extract of this plant for future application as antibacterial agents and food preservatives to combat pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms is recommended. PMID:25653784

  1. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

  2. SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM Cordia curassavica (JACQ.) ROEMER AND SCHULTES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Socrates Quispe-Condori; Paulo T. V. Rosa; Mary Ann Foglio; M. Angela

    In this work, the results of a preliminary experimental study to obtain extracts from leaves of Cordia curassavica using CO2 supercritical as solvent is presented. The influence of operational conditions (pressure and temperature) was studied by response surface method with three central points. The operating pressure in the extraction was varied from 78 to 341 bar and the temperature was

  3. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

  4. Supercritical CO2 extract and essential oil of aerial part of Ledum palustre L. - Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Baananou, Sameh; Bagdonaite, Edita; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Boughattas, Naceur A

    2015-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of two extracts from the aerial parts of Ledum palustre has been reported. The volatile oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and the essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD). The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor their composition. Both extracts shared as main compound (41.0-43.4%) ledol (23.3-26.7%) and ascaridole (15.1-4.5%). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the subcutaneous carrageenan injection-induced hind paw oedema. The treated animals received essential oil (SFE and HD), the reference group received ketoprofen or piroxicam and the control group received NaCl 0.9%. A statistical analysis was performed by the Student t-test. The results show that L. palustre essential oil enhanced a significant inhibition of oedema (50-73%) for HD oil and (52-80%) for SFE oil. These results were similar to those obtained with piroxicam (70%) and ketoprofen (55%). PMID:25427723

  5. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  6. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum Grown in North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Tiku, A. K.; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ?-fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ?-phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ?-pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ?-fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH•, reducing power and chelating ability on Fe2+ ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil and extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum grown in north-western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Sanjay; Tiku, A K; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V K

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ? -fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ? -phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ? -pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ? -fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH(•), reducing power and chelating ability on Fe(2+) ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

  8. Effects of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi essential oils and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberis integerrima and Crocus sativus on rat isolated uterus contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Sadraei; Alireza Ghannadi; Maryam Takei-bavani

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion can be a problem in pregnancy. Consumption of some plant material might be a cause, while other plant materials are being used in folk medicine for treatment of this condition. The aim of this study was to look for effects of essential oils of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberies integerrima and

  9. Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. González; J. M. Marioli

    2010-01-01

    Vegetal water extracts, namely the water remaining after hydro-distillation and decoctions, and essential oils of 10 plant species were tested as inhibitors for the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood. Achyrocline satureioides, Chenopodium ambrosioide, Eucalyptus cinerea, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum, Lippia turbinata, Marrubium vulgare,Minthostachys verticillata, Origanum vulgare, Tagetes minuta and Thymus vulgaris were included in the study. The

  10. Chemical investigation of different extracts and essential oil from the tubers of (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus . Correlation with their antiradical and antimutagenic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumaya Kilani; Ines Bouhlel; Ribai Ben Ammar; Mohamed BEN SGHAIR; Ines Skandrani; Jihed Boubaker; Amor Mahmoud; Marie-Geneviève Dijoux-Franca; Kamel Ghedira; Leila Chekir-Ghedira

    2007-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of aqueous, Total Oligomers Flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts as well as essential\\u000a oil (EO) obtained from tubers ofCyperus rotundus L. was assessed by “Ames assay”, usingSalmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100, and “SOS chromotest” usingEscherichia coli PQ37 strain with and without an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9). None of the different extracts showed a

  11. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292?mg/L after 24?h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  12. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292?mg/L after 24?h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  13. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jana; Schellenberg, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Different extraction methods for the subsequent gas chromatographic determination of the composition of essential oils and related compounds from marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) have been compared. The comparison was also discussed with regard to transformation processes of genuine compounds, particularly in terms of expenditure of time. Hydrodistillation is the method of choice for the determination of the essential oil content of plants. For investigating the composition of genuine essential oils and related, aroma-active compounds, hydrodistillation is not very useful, because of discrimination and transformation processes due to high temperatures and acidic conditions. With cold solvent extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, discrimination of high and non-volatile aroma-active components as well as transformation processes can be diminished, but non-aroma-active fats, waxes, or pigments are often extracted, too. As solid-phase microextraction is a solvent-free fully automizable sample preparation technique, this was the most sparing to sensitive components and the most time-saving method for the rapid determination of the aroma compounds composition in marjoram, caraway, sage, and thyme. Finally, solid-phase microextraction could be successfully optimized for the extraction of the aroma components from the plants for their subsequent gas chromatographic determination. PMID:17221240

  14. Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiradej Manosroi; Pongsathorn Dhumtanom; Aranya Manosroi

    2006-01-01

    Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1!10 4 cells\\/well of KB cell line and 1! 10 5 cells\\/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962

  15. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of ?-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200??g/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50??g/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200??g/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100??g/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

  16. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents. PMID:25825639

  17. Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood.

    PubMed

    González, M J; Marioli, J M

    2010-07-01

    Vegetal water extracts, namely the water remaining after hydro-distillation and decoctions, and essential oils of 10 plant species were tested as inhibitors for the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood. Achyrocline satureioides, Chenopodium ambrosioide, Eucalyptus cinerea, Gnaphalium gaudichaudianum, Lippia turbinata, Marrubium vulgare,Minthostachys verticillata, Origanum vulgare, Tagetes minuta and Thymus vulgaris were included in the study. The water remaining after hydro-distillation showed the highest antibacterial activities, the growth of almost all the P. larvae strains tested was inhibited by these extracts. Regarding the plants tested, E. cinerea and M. verticillata were the plant species with the highest biological activity with 100% efficacy (all its extracts inhibited the growth of all P. larvae strains). Essential oils were less active for the inhibition of P. larvae growth. PMID:20398671

  18. Lavender essential oil: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather M. A. Cavanagh; Jenny M. Wilkinson

    2005-01-01

    Lavender essential oil is popular as a complementary medicine in its own right and as an additive to many over the counter complementary medicine and cosmetic products ' \\\\ Indeed, products derived from the popular garden herb Lavender (Lavandula spp.) have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more 'recent ' addition, the essential oils derived from

  19. The Dual Antimelanogenic and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The antimelanogenic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Acorus macrospadiceus (Yamamoto) F. N. Wei et Y. K. Li have never been explored. The essential oil effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (EC50 = 1.57?mg/mL) and B16F10 tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 1.01?mg/mL), decreased the melanin content (EC50 = 1.04?mg/mL), and depleted the cellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (EC50 = 1.87?mg/mL). The essential oil effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 = 0.121?mg/mL) and 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS+ radicals (EC50 = 0.122?mg/mL). It also exhibited an apparent reducing power (EC50 = 0.021?mg/mL) and metal-ion chelating activity (EC50 = 0.029?mg/mL). The chemical constituents of the essential oil are ethers (55.73%), ketones (19.57%), monoterpenes (7.82%), alcohols (3.85%), esters (3.77%), sesquiterpenes (3.72%), and aromatic compounds (2.85%). The results confirm that A. macrospadiceus essential oil is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of melanogenesis. PMID:23304214

  20. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabac? & Budak.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Agar, Osman Tuncay; Akaydin, Galip; Hayran, Mutlu; Demirci, Betul

    2015-01-01

    According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, ?-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, ?-bisabolon oxide A, ?-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract. PMID:26111175

  1. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhusita Wannissorn; Siripen Jarikasem; Thammathad Siriwangchai; Sirinun Thubthimthed

    2005-01-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha

  2. Determination of essential oil content in caraway (Carum carvi L.) species by means of supercritical fluid extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sedláková; B. Kocourková; L. Lojková

    Dependently on planting conditions caraway fruits contain 1-9% of essential oils consisting of about 30 compounds. Carvone and limonene account for the main portion, about 95%. To evaluate the quality of various registered caraway (Carum carvi L.) cultivars (Kepron, Prochan and Rekord) planted during 1998-2000, regarding the effect of sample grinding and preparation, plant treatment and time of harvest, the

  3. Solvent-free microwave extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oils from endemic Origanum husnucanbaseri H. Duman, Aytac & A. Duran: comparison of antibacterial activity and contents.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Kose, Elif Odabas; Gokhan Deniz, I; Oksal, Birsen S

    2010-10-01

    The essential oils (EOs) obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) from endemic Origanum husnucanbaseri H. Duman, Aytac & A. Duran were investigated using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. The main constituents of both oils obtained from SFME and HD from O. husnucanbaseri are borneol (15.2-12.8%), ?-terpineol (12.3-10.8%) and trans-sabinene hydrate (11.8-9.92%). The EO obtained from SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than that from HD. The antibacterial activities of the EOs from SFME and HD were evaluated by the disc diffusion method against six bacterial strains. The EO extracted by SFME was more effective than the EO extracted by HD against the tested bacteria, except for Klebsiella pneumoniae American type culture collection (ATCC) 13883. Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 in particular were more sensitive against the EO extracted by SFME. PMID:20954094

  4. Characterization of Aromatherapy Massage Oils Prepared from Virgin Coconut Oil and Some Essential Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarunyoo Songkro; Anusak Sirikatitham; Supreedee Sungkarak; Khemmarat Buaking; Juraithip Wungsintaweekul; Duangkhae Maneenuan; Kwunchit Oungbho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize aromatherapy massage oils prepared from virgin coconut oil (VCO) and some essential\\u000a oils. VCO extracted from fresh coconut endosperm by a centrifugation method, which was the most effective method to prepare\\u000a VCO, was composed mainly of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic acid. Three essential oils (lemon, eucalyptus and\\u000a lavender oils) at

  5. Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, A; Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Mahzouni, P

    2013-01-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 ?l/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration. PMID:24459470

  6. Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, A.; Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Mahzouni, P.

    2013-01-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 ?l/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration. PMID:24459470

  7. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction\\/gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Richter; Ingo Schellenberg

    2007-01-01

    Different extraction methods for the subsequent gas chromatographic determination of the composition of essential oils and\\u000a related compounds from marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) have been compared. The comparison was also discussed with regard to transformation processes of genuine compounds, particularly\\u000a in terms of expenditure of time. Hydrodistillation

  8. Biological effects of essential oils – A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bakkali; S. Averbeck; D. Averbeck; M. Idaomar

    2008-01-01

    Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components.

  9. Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

    2009-01-01

    Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

  10. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  11. Essential oil analysis and anticancer activity of leaf essential oil of Croton flavens L. from Guadeloupe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muriel Sylvestre; André Pichette; Angélique Longtin; Francine Nagau; Jean Legault

    2006-01-01

    The leaf essential oil of Croton flavens L., a native plant from the Caribbean area used in traditional medicine, was extracted by hydrodistillation. The composition of the volatile fraction of this essential oil was determined by GC and GC–MS analyses. We have identified 47 compounds, of which viridiflorene (12.22%), germacrone (5.27%), (E)-?-bisabolene (5.25%) and ?-caryophyllene (4.95%) are the main components.

  12. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of Lantana camara L. leaf essential oils from Algeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Safia Zoubiri; Aoumeur Baaliouamer

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from Lantana camara were tested for fumigant activity against Sitophilus granarius adults. Composition of L. camara essential oil included large amounts of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, mainly ?-caryophyllene. The bioactivity of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from leaves of L. camara was assessed under laboratory conditions. With fumigation bioassays, essential oils showed different activities on S. granarius. April

  13. Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.

    PubMed

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action. PMID:24571090

  14. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils and fatty acids from flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Jowkarderis, Mina; Raofie, Farhad

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils and fatty acids of Descurainia sophia L. seed were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and steam distillation methods. The effect of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, dynamic and static extraction timeon the extraction yield were optimized using a central composite design after a 2 (n-1) fractional factorial design. The results showed that under the pressure of 355 bar, temperature of 65 °C, methanol volume of 150 ?L, dynamic and static extraction times of 35 and 10 min, respectively, the major components were methyl linoleate (18.2 %), camphor (12.32 %), cis-thujone (11.3 %) and trans-caryophyllene (9.17 %). The results indicated that by using the proper conditions, the supercritical fluid extraction is more selective than the steam distillation method. Extraction yields based on supercritical fluid extraction varied in the range of 0.68 to 17.1 % (w/w), and the extraction yield based on the steam distillation was 0.25 % (v/w). PMID:26139911

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Origanum saccatum P.H. Davis essential oil obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction: comparison with hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, Fazli; Uysal, Burcu; Oksal, Birsen S; Kose, Elif Odabas; Deniz, I Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    The components of the essential oils (EOs) obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) from endemic Origanum saccatum P.H. Davis were identified by using GC/MS. The main constituents of both EOs obtained by SFME and HD, respectively, from O. saccatum were p-cymene (72.5 and 70.6%), thymol (9.32 and 8.11%), and carvacrol (7.18 and 6.36%). The EO obtained by SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than did the EO obtained by HD. The antibacterial activities of the EOs obtained by SFME and HD were evaluated with the disc diffusion method by comparison with 10 different bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of the EO extracted by SFME was found to be more effective than that of the EO extracted by HD against seven of the tested bacteria. PMID:21391501

  16. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rounds, Liliana; Havens, Cody M; Feinstein, Yelena; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-04-11

    Meats need to be heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature treatment used to prepare well-done meats increases the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). We evaluated the ability of plant extracts, spices, and essential oils to simultaneously inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and suppress HCA formation in heated hamburger patties. Ground beef with added antimicrobials was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g). Patties were cooked to reach 45 °C at the geometric center, flipped, and cooked for 5 min. Samples were then taken for microbiological and mass spectrometry analysis of HCAs. Some compounds were inhibitory only against E. coli or HCA formation, while some others inhibited both. Addition of 5% olive or apple skin extracts reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations to below the detection limit and by 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. Similarly, 1% lemongrass oil reduced E. coli O157:H7 to below detection limits, while clove bud oil reduced the pathogen by 1.6 log CFU/g. The major heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were concurrently reduced with the addition of olive extract by 79.5% and 84.3% and with apple extract by 76.1% and 82.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed with clove bud oil: MeIQx and PhIP were reduced by 35% and 52.1%, respectively. Addition of onion powder decreased formation of PhIP by 94.3%. These results suggest that edible natural plant compounds have the potential to prevent foodborne infections as well as carcinogenesis in humans consuming heat-processed meat products. PMID:22397498

  17. Comparative Evaluation of SFE and Steam Distillation Methods on the Yield and Composition of Essential Oil Extracted from Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madduri V. Rao; Baboucarr Jobe

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was optimized to obtain high quality mint oil. The effect of oven and freeze drying techniques on the quality of mint oil was investigated. The flavor principles in the SFE extract were compared with those obtained by a conventional steam distillation method. Then highest extraction yield was obtained at SFE conditions (50°C and 350

  18. Antioxidant properties of essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Misharina; M. B. Terenina; N. I. Krikunova

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography, we studied the antioxidant properties and stability during the storage\\u000a of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniper berry (Juniperus communis L.), fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum

  19. Analysis of essential oils, using capillary chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Paukov; B. A. Rudenko; V. F. Kucherov

    1968-01-01

    1.The possibility of using capillary chromatography for a complete analysis of essential oils without preliminary separation into fractions was demonstrated.2.The relative retainable volumes and Kovach indices of a number of components of the essential oils of fennel, geranium, and coriander were determined.3.All the components of the essential oils of fennel, coriander, and geranium detected in capillary chromatography were identified.

  20. Cytological aspects on the effects of a nasal spray consisting of standardized extract of citrus lemon and essential oils in allergic rhinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy. PMID:23304560

  1. Anaerobic utilization of essential oils bydenitrifying bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Harder; Udo Heyen

    2000-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbonsource in nature. We studied the degradability ofthese substances by anaerobic microorganisms inenrichment cultures with representative essential oilsas organic substrates and nitrate as electronacceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supportedmicrobial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereasparsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oilsupported growth only when the essential oils weredissolved in

  2. Fungitoxic activity of some essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Singh; Anupam Dikshit; M. L. Sharma; S. N. Dixit

    1980-01-01

    Of the five essential oils screened against Helminthosporium oryzae, the oils of Cymbopogon martinii (ginger grass oil), Cymbopogon\\u000a oliveri, Cymbopogon sp. (rosa sofia oil) and Trachyspermum ammi (dethymolysed oil) exhibited strong fungitoxicity and showed\\u000a wide range of activity. The oils were found more active than some of the prevalent synthetic fungicides and thus might be\\u000a exploited as natural fungicides if

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Devakul Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn; Songsak, Thanapat; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Poungshompoo, Somlak

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves decrease serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic animals. No experimental evidences support the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative actions against hypercholesterolemia. Moreover the identity of the specific chemical ingredients in OS leaves responsible for these pharmacological effects are unknown. Since OS leaves are rich in essential oil (EO). Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative activities of EO extracted from OS leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol (HC) diet. EO was extracted by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical constituents were then identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The experiment was performed in Male Wistar rats fed with 2.5 g%(w/w) of cholesterol diet for seven weeks. During the last 3 weeks, rats were daily fed with EO. The results showed that phenyl propanoid compounds including eugenol and methyl eugenol were the major constituents of EO. EO suppressed the high serum lipid profile and atherogenic index as well as serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase MB subunit without significant effect on high serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rats fed with HC diet. In addition, EO was found to decrease the high levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) without impacting catalase (CAT) in the cardiac tissue while in the liver, it decreased high level of TBARS without significantly effecting GPx, SOD and CAT. Histopathological results confirmed that EO preserved the myocardial tissue. It can be concluded that EO extracted from OS leaves has lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects that protect the heart against hypercholesterolemia. Eugenol that is contained in EO likely contribute to these pharmacological effects. PMID:20104265

  4. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

  5. Three Essential Oils for the Medicine Cabinet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace Welsh

    1997-01-01

    The scope of Aromatherapy is a vast field of study, reaching out into many directions, and can be quite mind-boggling. There are well over 400 kinds of essential oils. Lavender, Tea tree, and Peppermint are three top essential oils that deserve a place in everyone's medicine cabinet.

  6. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

  7. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  8. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ?C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat. PMID:25568700

  9. www.ewosinnovation.com Effect of essential oils on the viability of Caligus

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    shown that a mixture of essential oils including extracts from neem, cinnamon, thyme, cloves and sesame of essential oils derived from neem, cinnamon, thyme, cloves and sesame against copepodids and adultswww.ewosinnovation.com Effect of essential oils on the viability of Caligus rogercresseyi using

  10. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from-Industrielles'', 17042 La Rochelle, France Abstract: Essential oils of thyme (Thymus numidicus (Poiret)) from Algeria.5 minutes of extraction were tested using the filter paper method. Analysis of the essential oil made

  11. Comparison of Essential Oils Compositions of Citrus maxima Merr. Peel Obtained by Cold Press and Vacuum Stream Distillation Methods and of Its Peel and Flower Extract Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Method and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napaporn Thavanapong; Penpun Wetwitayaklung; Juree Charoenteeraboon

    2010-01-01

    The oils and extracts of the fruit peels of pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr. cultivar ‘khao-yai’) were obtained by cold-pressing (CP), vacuum steam distillation (VSD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) and the extract of the flowers was obtained by SC-CO2. The composition of the oils and extracts of the peel and flower were determined by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty, 53

  12. Essential oil from Artemisia compacta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Dudko; T. P. Berezovskaya; R. V. Usynina

    1972-01-01

    compacta Fisch. collected in the flowering phase in the environs of the village of Kosh-Agach, Gorno-Altai autonomous region, was 0.35%. The oil has a yellowish-greeni sh color with a characteristic odor, n~ 1.4650, d22~ 0.900. The acids isolated from the oil with sodium hydrogen carbonate were investigated by descending paper chromatography (LM paper) using butanol saturated with 25% aqueous ammonia

  13. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 ?g mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 ?g mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination. PMID:24563645

  14. On the Bulgarian Valerian Essential Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgenii V. Georgiev; Albena St. Stojanova; Vesko At. Tchapkanov

    1999-01-01

    The essential oil from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L., ‘Shipka’ grown in Bulgaria was investigated by GC\\/MS. The essential oil yield from the roots and rhizomes was 0.42 % and 0.18%, respectively. The basic components, among the identified 22 were ?-guaiene (4,6–11,2%), valeranone (6.8–11.5%) and bornyl acetate (7.3–9.8%). Spathulenol was also identified (2.0–4.5%). There were no substantial qualitative

  15. Studies on the essential oil from guarana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Benoni; Paul Dallakian; Kambiz Taraz

    1996-01-01

    The essential oil from guarana [Paullinia cupana H.B.K. var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke] was analysed. Nine components were identified, namely (2) methylbenzenes, (1) cyclic monoterpene and (2) cyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, (2) methoxyphenylpropenes and (2) alkylphenol derivatives. The alleged psychoactivity of the essential oil is presumably due to the identified constituents estragole and anethole. Any contribution of aminated metabolites of estragole\\/anethole to

  16. Autumn essential oils of Greek oregano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella Kokkini; Regina Karousou; Antonia Dardioti; Nikos Krigas; Tom Lanaras

    1997-01-01

    The essential oils of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum plants collected in late autumn from six localities of three distinct geographic areas of Greece were analysed by means of GC and GC-mass spectrometry. A high quantitative variation was found in the amount of the four main components; ?-terpinene ranged from 0.6 to 3.6% of the total essential oil, p-cymeme from 17.3

  17. Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor de Almeida; Daniela Sales Alviano; Danielle Pereira Vieira; Péricles Barreto Alves; Arie Fitzgerald Blank; Angela Hampshire C. S. Lopes; Celuta Sales Alviano; Maria do Socorro S. Rosa

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Giardia lamblia and on the modulation of the interaction of these parasites by peritoneal mouse macrophage. The essential oil (2 mg\\/ml) and\\u000a its purified substances demonstrated antigiardial activity. Linalool (300 ?g\\/ml), however, was able to kill 100% parasites\\u000a after 1 h of incubation, which demonstrates its high antigiardial potential. Pretreatment

  18. Effect of essential oils in control of plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Peighami-Ashnaei, S; Farzaneh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Behboudi, K

    2009-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of some essential oils, extracted from Syzygium aromoticum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cuminum cyminum and Mentha piperita were investigated against grey mould of apple. The essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare showed considerable antifungal activities on PDA medium against Botrytis cinerea. Results indicated that the increasing of dosage of the essential oils caused to the more antifungal activity against B. cinerea in vitro condition. After 10 days, results showed that the essential oil of F. vulgare in both of the concentrations (750 and 1000 microL/L) was more effective than the essential oil of S. aromaticum against grey mould of apple and decrease the disease up to 15.5% in comparison with the check treatment (100%). After 20 days, biocontrol potential of the essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare at 1000 microL/L were more effective than the other treatments and the percentage of disease was evaluated 41.6% and 50.8%, respectively, in comparison with the check treatment (100%). PMID:20222570

  19. Essential oils from Azorean Laurus azorica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis G Pedro; Pedro A. G Santos; A. Cristina Figueiredo; José G Barroso; Stanley G Deans; Anja Looman; Johannes J. C Scheffer

    2001-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from leaves of ten and from unripe berries of eight populations of Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, collected on five islands of the Azorean archipelago, were analysed by GC and GC–MS. All oil samples were dominated by their monoterpene fraction (60–94%), ?-pinene (15–37%) and 1,8-cineole (12–31%) being the main components of the leaf oils, while trans-?-ocimene (27–45%)

  20. Antibacterial effect of essential oils and interaction with food components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rentsenkhand Tserennadmid; Miklós Takó; László Galgóczy; Tamás Papp; Csaba Vágvölgyi; László Ger?; Judit Krisch

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of essential oils (EOs) derived from Citrus lemon, Juniperus communis, Origanum majorana, and Salvia sclarea, was investigated either alone or in combination, on 2 food related bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli). The influence of food ingredients — hydrolyzed proteins originating from animal and plant (meat extract and soy peptone)\\u000a and sucrose — on the antibacterial effect

  1. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Van Hung; Pham Thi Lan Chi; Nguyen Thi Lan Phi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Palmarosa, Evening Primrose, Lavender and Tuberose

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, M. H.; Bhatt, K. R.; Thaker, V. S.

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

  3. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from palmarosa, evening primrose, lavender and tuberose.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, M H; Bhatt, K R; Thaker, V S

    2009-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

  4. The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Edwards-Jones; R. Buck; S. G. Shawcross; M. M. Dawson; K. Dunn

    2004-01-01

    Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal™ (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Heracleum rechingeri Manden from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohreh Habibi; Rasool Eshaghi; Mehdi Mohammadi; Maryam Yousefi

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from Heracleum rechingeri was analysed using GC-MS. Twenty-seven compounds, accounting for 94.62% of the extracted essential oil, were identified. The main oil compounds were octyl acetate (29.49%), elemicine (23.06%), (E)-caryophyllene (9.26%), caryophyllene oxide (6.42%), terpinolene (6.12%) and (Z)-3-octenyl acetate (4.72%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against three different bacteria

  6. Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto

    2012-01-01

    The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

  7. Antitumor Phenylpropanoids Found in Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Sousa, Élida Batista Vieira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2015-01-01

    The search for new bioactive substances with anticancer activity and the understanding of their mechanisms of action are high-priorities in the research effort toward more effective treatments for cancer. The phenylpropanoids are natural products found in many aromatic and medicinal plants, food, and essential oils. They exhibit various pharmacological activities and have applications in the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, the anticancer potential of 17 phenylpropanoids and derivatives from essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental report, and mechanisms of action of bioactive substances are presented. PMID:25949996

  8. Essential oils from Azorean Laurus azorica.

    PubMed

    Pedro, L G; Santos, P A; da Silva, J A; Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Deans, S G; Looman, A; Scheffer, J J

    2001-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from leaves of ten and from unripe berries of eight populations of Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, collected on five islands of the Azorean archipelago, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. All oil samples were dominated by their monoterpene fraction (60-94%), alpha-pinene (15-37%) and 1,8-cineole (12-31%) being the main components of the leaf oils, while trans-beta-ocimene (27-45%) and alpha-pinene (12-22%) were the main components of the oils from the berries. The sesquiterpene fractions of the oils ranged from 3 to 17% and the main components were beta-caryophyllene (traces-8%) and beta-elemene (traces-3%) both in the leaf and berry oils. Some phenylpropanoid components were also present, in total amounting to 17%, trans-cinnamyl acetate (215% of the leaf oils) being the main component of this fraction. Cluster analysis of the enantiomeric composition of alpha- and beta-pinene in the oils from the leaves clearly showed two groups, one constituted by the two populations growing on the island S. Jorge, and the other constituted by the remaining populations. PMID:11382240

  9. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

    2000-09-01

    Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no proof that adding essential oils is more beneficial than massage alone. Further studies on the essential oil massage group showed a deterioration in the eczematous condition after two further 8 week periods of therapy, following a period of rest after the initial period of contact. This may have been due to a decline in the novelty of the treatment, or, it strongly suggests possible allergic contact dermatitis provoked by the essential oils themselves. The results of this study indicate the necessity of prolonged studies with novel plant extracts as short-term beneficial results could be overturned by adverse effects after repeated usage. PMID:10960901

  10. Essential oil polymorphism in finnish thymus species.

    PubMed

    Stahl-Biskup, E; Laakso, I

    1990-10-01

    Chemical polymorphism concerning the essential oils of the genus THYMUS is a widespread phenomenon, especially in the northern species. The two Finnish species, T. SERPYLLUM ssp. SERPYLLUM and T. SERPYLLUM ssp. TANAENIS, turned out to form four different chemotypes each, with hedycaryol, germacra-1(10),5-dien-4-ol, germacra-1(10),4-dien-6-ol, linalool, and linalyl acetate as type-characterizing compounds. Otherwise the oils of the two subspecies were similar containing myrcene, TRANS-beta-ocimene, beta-caryophyllene, and germacrene D as the main terpene hydrocarbons. 1,8-Cineol and camphor represented another great portion in both oils. If Finland is regarded as an area of T. SERPYLLUM (s.l.), a total of six types of plants can be defined with regard to the essential oil chemistry only. Including the frequency of these six types at the four areas investigated, a certain gradient from the south to the north can be seen. A most interesting aspect is the fact that the most frequent, linalyl acetate containing chemotype of the northern Lapland has nearly the same oil composition as T. PRAECOX ssp. ARCTICUS in Island, Norway, and Greenland. PMID:17221449

  11. Susceptibility of the Honeybee Bacterial Pathogen Paenibacillus larvae to Essential Oils Distilled from Exotic and Indigenous Argentinean Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra R. Fuselli; S. B. García de la Rosa; M. J. Eguaras; R. Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of eight exotic and indigenous Argentinean essential oils to control American Foulbrood (AFB) were determined. The oils tested were extracted from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua, Lepechinia floribunda, Aloysia polystachya, Verbena officinalis, Wedelia glauca, Satureja odora and Hetherothalamus alienus. The components of the essential oils were identified by SPME-GC\\/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the oils

  12. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veena Prajapati; A. K. Tripathi; K. K. Aggarwal; S. P. S. Khanuja

    2005-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi

  13. Antibacterial activities of a new combination of essential oils against marine bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; George Wilson; David Raftos; Seyed Saeed Mirzargar; Reza Omidbaigi

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of essential oils and herbal extracts have been demonstrated against a range of bacterial species.\\u000a In this study, the antibacterial effects of a new combination of essential oils from the herbs Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Eucalyptus globulus and Mentha piperita were assayed against common bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) and fifteen novel marine

  14. Phytologia (April 2009) 91(1)226 GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OILS

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    five separate trees from all of the type localities from which we then extracted and analyzed the leafPhytologia (April 2009) 91(1)226 GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OILS OF HESPEROCYPARIS-4213 ABSTRACT The compositions of the volatile leaf essential oils of Hesperocyparis abramsiana and its putative

  15. Composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from Curcuma zedoaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeng-Leun Mau; Eric Y. C Lai; Nai-Phon Wang; Chien-Chou Chen; Chi-Huarng Chang; Charng-Cherng Chyau

    2003-01-01

    Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) has long been used as a folk medicine. The essential oil of its dried rhizome was isolated using simultaneous steam-distillation and solvent-extraction apparatus and its fractions were prepared by silica gel column chromatography. Totally, 36 compounds were identified in the essential oil, including 17 terpenes, 13 alcohols and 6 ketones. The yields of Fractions 2

  16. Feeding Essential Oils and 2-Heptanone in Sugar Syrup and Protein Diets to Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) as Potential Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor) Controls and Traced by SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils and oil components were fed to honey bees in a sugar syrup and liquid protein diet in order to determine if the oils were being incorporated into the bee larvae and could be traced by means of SPME. The compounds used were origanum, 2-heptanone, thymol and connamon oil. The main com...

  17. Composition of essential oils from Cupressus lusitanica and a Xylariaceous fungus found on its leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florisvaldo C. Santos Filho; Luciana da Silva Amaral; Edson Rodrigues-Filho

    2011-01-01

    A Xylariaceous endophytic fungus was isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica. Essential oil was extracted from these two organisms using the hydrodistillation method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and retention index. A variety of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes were identified in the fungus and the plant, and some of them were co-produced by both organisms. The oil extracted from

  18. Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

    2013-01-01

    White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:24006802

  19. [Nursing care and essential oils in geriatrics].

    PubMed

    Lobstein, Annelise; Marinier, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Aromatherapy is a valuable complementary therapeutic tool which is increasingly being used in hospitals. Essential oils help to improve patients' quality of life. They can be used for well-being purposes as well in specific nursing procedures. Some services offer aromatherapy through diffusion, inhalation, massages or aromatic baths. The benefits for healthcare teams as well as for patients are undeniable. There is also a significant reduction in the consumption of certain drugs. PMID:25137964

  20. Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare and Pimpinella anisum of the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Pimpinella anisum L. has been tested against PVX (potato Chenopodium ama!a!!icolo!. Both the essential oils totally inhibit the formation of local lesions at a concen

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils of Some Iranian Citrus Peels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Monajemi; Shahrbanoo Oryan; Ali Haeri-Roohani; Alireza Ghannadi; Abbas Jafariane

    There have been efforts to overcome the problem in treatment of cancer using medicinal plants. It has been shown that Citrus essential oil of contains different terpens with antitumor activities. In this study we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of essential oils of Iranian Citrus limon (L.), C. medica (L.), C. sinsensis (L.) peels on cancer cell lines. Essential oils

  2. The Essential Oil Composition of Marrubium vulgare L. from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katayoun Morteza-Semnani; Majid Saeedi; Esmaeil Babanezhad

    2008-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. (Labiatae) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty components have been identified in the essential oil of M. vulgare. The major constituents of the essential oil were ?-bisabolene (20.4%), ?-cadinene (19.1%) and isocaryophyllene (14.1%).

  3. Anti-Oxidative Abilities of Essential Oils from Atractylodes ovata Rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun-Teng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chou, Duen-Suey; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2011-01-01

    The rhizome of Atractylodes ovata De Candolle is rich in essential oils, which are usually removed by processing. In this study, anti-oxidative abilities of essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata rhizome were explored, and the influence of processing on the anti-oxidative abilities was examined. Essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata were extracted by boiling water and steam distillation, respectively. Quality of these two A. ovata samples was controlled by HPLC and GC-MS system, and anti-oxidative abilities were then evaluated. Results showed that surface color of A. ovata turned to brown and chemical components were changed by processing. Contents of both atractylon and atractylenolide II decreased in the essential oils, but only the contents of atractylon decreased by processing. Atractylenolide III increased in both A. ovata samples. However, A. ovata essential oils displayed stronger anti-oxidative abilities than aqueous extracts in DPPH-scavenging, TBH-induced lipid peroxidation and catalase activity assays. Moreover, the bioactivity of essential oils from raw A. ovata was stronger than oils from processed A. ovata. On the other hand, cytotoxicity of A. ovata essential oils was stronger than that of aqueous extracts, and was more sensitive on H9C2 cell than NIH-3T3 and WI-38 cells. In contrast, stir-frying processing method increased cytotoxicity of essential oils, but the cytotoxicity was ameliorated when processed with assistant substances. The results suggested that phytochemical components and bioactivity of A. ovata were changed after processing and the essential oils from raw A. ovata showed better anti-oxidative and fewer cytotoxicity effects. PMID:21799672

  4. Antioxidant effect of oregano ( Lippia berlandieri v. Shauer) essential oil and mother liquors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Rocha-Guzmán; J. A. Gallegos-Infante; R. F. González-Laredo; M. Ramos-Gómez; M. E. Rodríguez-Muñoz; R. Reynoso-Camacho; A. Rocha-Uribe; M. R. Roque-Rosales

    2007-01-01

    The conventional steam distillation process for oregano (Lippia berlandieri v. Shauer) essential oil extraction produces large volumes of mother liquor. This residual liquid represents a potential value because the soluble antioxidants it contains. Essential oil and ethyl acetate mother liquor extracts (MLEs) were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities by the 2-2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, by the

  5. Impact of lemongrass oil, an essential oil, on serum cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Elsona; G. L. Underbakkel; P. Hanson; E. Shrago; R. H. Wainberg; A. A. Qureshi

    1989-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that non-sterol mevalonate pathway end products lower serum cholesterol levels, we asked 22 hypercholesterolemic\\u000a subjects (315±9 mg cholesterol\\/dl) to take a daily capsule containing 140 mg of lemongrass oil, an essential oil rich in geraniol\\u000a and citral. The paired difference in serum cholesterol levels of subjects completing the 90-day study approached significance\\u000a (P<0.06, 2-tailed t-test). The

  6. Essential oils with high antimicrobial activity for therapeutic use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Williams; J. K. Stockley; W. Yan; V. N. Home

    1998-01-01

    After a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Australian tea tree oil, Australian lavender, New Zealand manuka, lemongrass oil, and eucalyptus oil it was found that the relative antimicrobial activity varied depending upon the microorganism under test.Lavender has useful antimicrobial properties and a product was formulated containing a combination of tea tree oil and lavender for

  7. Encapsulation of essential oils in zein nanosperical particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils, oregano, red thyme, and cassia (100% pure oil), were encapsulated by phase separation into zein particles. Typical yields were between 65% and 75% of product. Encapsulation efficiency of all oils was 87% except for cassia oil which was 49%. Loading efficiency of all oils was 22% exce...

  8. [Solid adsorption and stability of essential oil from pericarp of Gaultheria yunnaensis (Franch.) Rehd].

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ma, J; Yang, L; Wu, J; Chen, H

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been made on the solid adsorption and stability of the essential oil extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis. The results show that among the chemical constituents of the oil, methyl salicylate accounts for 99.66%. Grain adsorbents of aluminum hydroxide gel have been proved useful in obtaining higher release rates of the oil at required temperatures as well as keeping the oil stable at room temperature. PMID:11243152

  9. The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2012-02-01

    The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus). PMID:22474966

  10. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. PMID:22771867

  11. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  12. Direct enantiomeric analysis of Mentha essential oils.

    PubMed

    Barba, Carmen; Santa-María, Guillermo; Herraiz, Marta; Martínez, Rosa M

    2013-11-01

    A rapid and fully automated screening of chiral compounds in essential oils, aimed to the selection of natural sources of pure enantiomers of limonene and carvone, is performed by using on-line coupled reversed phase liquid chromatography with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (RPLC-GC-MS). Essential oils obtained from Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita were analysed by direct injection into RPLC. The reported procedure includes fractionation and clean-up in RPLC, selection of the fraction to be transferred from RPLC to GC, trapping and concentration of the target compounds in the interface, thermal desorption and, finally, enantiomeric resolution and identification of chiral compounds by GC-MS. The presence of (S)-limonene and (R)-carvone as the unique enantiomeric forms existing for both compounds could be unambiguously established by transferring different volume fractions from RPLC to GC. Data obtained demonstrate high separation efficiency and well tunable selectivity in the on-line coupled RPLC-GC-MS analysis of chiral compounds. PMID:23768391

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p?oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30?min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. PMID:25280938

  14. Essential oils analysis. I. Evaluation of essential oils composition using both GC and MS fingerprints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Oprean; M. Tamas; R. Sandulescu; L. Roman

    1998-01-01

    The chemical nature of essential oils makes them suitable for analysis using a gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Mass spectra (MS) libraries can not be used as unique and absolute criteria for the identification of chromatogram peaks. The wide variety of MS of the libraries, recorded in different conditions, can lead us to erroneous results. In order to increase the

  15. Transfer of ²¹?Po, ²¹?Pb and ²³?U from some medicinal plants to their essential oils.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Amin, Y; Ibrahim, S; Nassri, M

    2015-03-01

    Essential oils were extracted from 35 medicinal plants used by Syrians, organic compounds were determined in these oils and concentrations of (210)Po (210)Pb and (238)U were determined in the original plants and in the essential oils. The results showed that the highest activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb were found in leaves with large surfaces and in Sage were as high as 73.5 Bq kg(-1) and 73.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentration of (238)U was as high as 4.26 Bq kg(-1) in Aloe. On the other hand, activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.2 and 71.1 Bq kg(-1) in extracted essential oils for Rosemary and False yellowhead, respectively. The activity concentration of (210)Pb reached 63.7 Bq kg(-1) in Aloe oil. The activity concentrations of (238)U were very low in all extracted oils; the highest value was 0.31 Bq kg(-1) in peel of Orange oil. The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb from plant to its oil was the highest for Eugenia; 7.1% and 5.5% for (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the transfer factor of radionuclides from plant to its essential oil and the chemical content of this oil. PMID:25531268

  16. Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were ...

  17. Antimicrobial properties of essential oils against Salmonella in organic soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is one of the important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of essential...

  18. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, ?-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent. PMID:26072990

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Liposomes Containing Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Ramezani, Zahra; Handali, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased incidence of fungal resistance has necessitated the need to search for new antifungal agents. Objective The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on dermatophytes growth and to formulate and characterize a liposomal gel loaded with the essential oil. Materials and Methods The essential oil extracted from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was analyzed by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of this essential oil was determined against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. verrucosum, using the well diffusion method. Liposomes were prepared by the freeze-thaw method and evaluation of size distribution was performed using a particle size analyzer. The liposomal gel was prepared using ‘hydroxethyl cellulose (HEC) as the gelling agent. The rheologic characteristics were determined by a Brookfield viscometer. Results The results showed that the minimum inhibitory volume of the essential oil was 0.125 ml and 95 ± 0.57% of the essential oil was successfully entrapped in the liposomes. The main constituents of the essential oil detected by GC-MS were; phenol, 1, 8 cineole, limonene, alcohol, pinene and terpinen. Results of particle size determination showed a wide range from 40.5 to 298 nm for the different formulations. No significant thixotropy was observed in the rheogram of the formulated liposomal gel. Conclusion Liposomal gel formulation of the essential oil may lead to improved antifungal activity. PMID:24624167

  20. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

  1. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurdip Singh; I. P. S. Kapoor; Pratibha Singh; Carola S. de Heluani; Marina P. de Lampasona; Cesar A. N. Catalan

    2008-01-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl4 and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC–MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl4 and isooctane

  2. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Shaaya; Uzi Ravid; Nachman Paster; Benjamin Juven; Uzi Zisman; Vladimir Pissarev

    1991-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopteransRhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, andSitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most

  3. Pressurized solvent extraction of wheat germ oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurhan Turgut Dunford; Minquan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the pressurized solvent extraction of wheat germ oil. The effects of temperature (45–135 °C at 1500 psi), extraction time, sample size and solvent type on the extraction efficiency and oil quality were studied. Extraction efficiency of the normal-hexane was compared to that of the iso- and high purity-hexane, iso-propanol, ethanol and acetone. The extracts were analyzed for n-3

  4. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S; De Marco, Adriana; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2004-12-29

    Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising. PMID:15612768

  5. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes. PMID:20433090

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. Essential Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola S. Iacobellis; Pietro Lo Cantore; Francesco Capasso; Felice Senatore

    2005-01-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The main components of C. cyminum oil were p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al, cumin aldehyde, Á-terpinene, and ‚-pinene, while those of the C. carvi oil were carvone, limonene, germacrene D, and trans-dihydrocarvone. Antibacterial activity, determined with the agar diffusion

  7. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-?-ocimene (43.3%), ?-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 ?g ml?1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 ?l ml?1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 ?g ml?1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  8. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode.

    PubMed

    Oka, Y; Nacar, S; Putievsky, E; Ravid, U; Yaniv, Z; Spiegel, Y

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT Nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants were evaluated in vitro and in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1,000 mul/liter. At this concentration, most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Essential oils of Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha rotundifolia, and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. These oils and those from Origanum vulgare, O. syriacum, and Coridothymus capitatus mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the root galling of cucumber seedlings in pot experiments. The main components of these essential oils were tested for their nematicidal activity. Carvacrol, t-anethole, thymol, and (+)-carvone immobilized the juveniles and inhibited hatching at >125 mul/liter in vitro. Most of these components mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 75 and 150 mg/kg reduced root galling of cucumber seedlings. In 3-liter pot experiments, nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides. PMID:18944489

  9. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of some essential oils against Ephestia kuehniella.

    PubMed

    Karabörklü, Salih; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Yilmaz, Semih; Akbulut, Mikail

    2011-08-01

    The chemical constituents of some essential oils extracted from aromatic plants (savory, Satureja thymbra L.; Turkish oregano, Origanum onites L.; myrtle, Myrtus communis L.; marjoram, Origanum majorana L.; laurel, Laurus nobilis L.; lemon, Citrus limon L.; sticky goosefoot, Chenopodium botrys L.; and tansy, Tanecetum armenum [DC.] Suchultz Bip.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fumigant toxicity of volatile compounds was tested against Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), eggs and adults. Percentage of mortality and longevity of E. kuehniella adults were estimated after essential oil treatments. LC50 and LC99 values were determined for each exposure time for each essential oil. Marjoram and lemon oils were the most effective of all the essential oils tested. The major components were linalool, 1.8-cineole, citral, 2-(4a.8-dimethyl-1.2.3.4.4a.5.6.7-octahydro-naphthalen-2-yl)-prop-2-en-l-ol, and p-cymene for marjoram, laurel, lemon, goosefoot, and tansy, respectively. The LC50 and LC99 values were estimated as 3.27 and 5.13 microl liter(-1) air for marjoram and 4.05 and 5.57 microl liter(-1) air for lemon essential oils at the longest exposure time. Decreasing longevity effect of marjoram and lemon was more prominent compared with other essential oils. We suggest that essential oils obtained from certain aromatic plants have potential as fumigants for stored product pests. PMID:21882685

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  11. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.

    PubMed

    Lejonklev, J; Løkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ?-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure. Volatile terpenes in essential oils, which could influence milk flavor, are transferred into milk via both gastrointestinal and respiratory exposure. PMID:23628249

  12. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h. PMID:20334152

  13. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, L.; Aquino, M. D’

    2012-01-01

    Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950

  14. Biocontrol of Salmonella in organic soil using essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is one of the most important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of esse...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ferulago angulata subsp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Taran; Hamid Reza Ghasempour; Ebrahim Shirinpour

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Ferulago angulata is an important medicinal plant of Iran. The essential oil of seeds aerial parts of this plant contains variety of components with different therapeutical effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the first examination of the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils obtained from aerial parts and seeds of F. angulata subsp.

  16. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Litsea cubeba Pers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranati Gogoi; Paran Baruah; Subhan C. Nath

    1997-01-01

    Investigation on the antifungal activity of naturally occurring citral containing essential oil of Litsea cubeba Pers. at various dilutions revealed the possibility of its utilization as an antifungal agent. The oil isolated from the fruits of L. cubeba was tested in vitro for its activity at different concentrations against Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The oil

  17. The leaf essential oils and chemotaxonomy of Juniperus sect. Juniperus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P Adams

    1998-01-01

    The composition of the leaf essential oils of all ten species of Juniperus in sect. Juniperus (=sect. Oxycedrus) are reported and compared (J. brevifolia, J. cedrus, J. communis, J. conferta, J. formosana,. J. navicularis, J. oblonga, J. oxycedrus, J. rigida, J. sibirica). The oils of these Juniperus are all dominated by monoterpenes (?-pinene, sabinene and limonene). The simplest oil was

  18. Composition of the essential oil of Genista tricuspidata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lograda; A. N. Chaker; J. C. Chalchat; M. Ramdani; G. Figueredo

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the composition of the essential oil of the endemic species Genista tricuspidata. The average oil yield of this species is found to be 0.32% based on fresh weight. The compounds identified in this oil and their relative proportions are listed upon their elution and are given in Table 1. Seventy-seven compounds were characterized, representing

  19. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    PubMed

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4?? for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. PMID:23897978

  20. In vitro interactions of Peucedanum officinale essential oil with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Miladinovi?, Dragoljub L; Ili?, Budimir S; Koci?, Branislava D; Miladinovi?, Ljiljana C; Markovi?, Marija S

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Peucedanum officinale L. (Apiaceae) essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and antibiotics: tetracycline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. The interactions of the essential oil with antibiotics were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay. Monoterpene hydrocarbons, with ?-phellandrene as the dominant constituent, were the most abundant compound class of the essential oil of P. officinale. The researched essential oil exhibited slight antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains in vitro. On the contrary, essential oil of P. officinale possesses a great synergistic potential with chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Their combinations reduced the minimum effective dose of the antibiotic and, consequently, minimised its adverse side effects. In addition, investigated interactions are especially successful against Gram-negative bacteria, the pharmacological treatment of which is very difficult nowadays. PMID:25236807

  1. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  2. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  3. Chemical composition and biological activities of a new essential oil chemotype of Tunisian Artemisia herba alba Asso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Zouari; Nacim Zouari; Nahed Fakhfakh; Ali Bougatef; M. A. Ayadi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, angiotensin I- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Aha), a traditional medicinal plant widely growing in Tunisia. The essential oil from the air dried leaves and flowers of Aha were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by

  4. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oils on Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Production on Asparagus racemosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyanka Singh; Ravindra Shukla; Ashok Kumar; Bhanu Prakash; Shubhra Singh; Nawal Kishore Dubey

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

  6. Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. PMID:24082356

  7. Composition of the Essential Oil of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. C. Baser; N. Ermin; N. Adigüzel; Z. Aytaç

    1996-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from whole and crushed fruits of Prangos ferulacea were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three compounds were identified representing 85.32% to 93.83% of the oils. Crushed and whole fruits yielded oils rich in ?-terpinene (30.22% and 33.27%) and ?-pinene (16.71% and 12.83%), respectively. Germacrene B (30.30%) and ?-terpinene (17.17%) were the major constituents in the oil obtained

  8. Essential oil constituents from Japanese and Indian Curcuma aromatica rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Kojima, H; Yanai, T; Toyota, A

    1998-05-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils from rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica cultivated in Japan and India were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. These oils were extremely different. The major constituents in both oils from Japanese samples were curdione, germacrone, 1,8-cineole, (45,5S)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, beta-elemene, and linalool, whereas those in the oil from Indian were beta-curcumene, ar-curcumene, xanthorrhizol, germacrone, camphor, and curzerenone. PMID:17253254

  9. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453

  10. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of coconut oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. B. Che Man; Suhardiyono; A. B. Asbi; M. N. Azudin; L. S. Wei

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous extraction of coconut oil with various enzymes was investigated. Several enzyme preparations (cellulase, polygalacturonase,\\u000a protease, and ?-amylase) were used at different concentrations, pH, and temperature values to enhance oil extraction. After\\u000a the oil had been released by the enzyme reaction, it was separated by centrifugation. The results showed that an enzyme mixture\\u000a at 1% (w\\/w) each of cellulase, ?-amylase,

  11. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

  12. Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569733

  13. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), ?-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), ?-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and ?-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), ?-terpinene (2.7%), and ?-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), ?-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), ?-pinene (6.0%), and ?-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), ?-terpinene (11.5%), ?-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and ?-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers. PMID:26197558

  14. Antimicrobial activity of some Salvia species essential oils from Iran.

    PubMed

    Yousefzadi, Morteza; Sonboli, Ali; Karimic, Farah; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Asghari, Behvar; Zeinalia, Amineh

    2007-01-01

    The aerial parts of Salvia multicaulis, S. sclarea and S. verticillata were collected at full flowering stage. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils were studied against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumulis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger). The results of antibacterial activity tests of the essential oils according to the disc diffusion method and MIC values indicated that all the samples have moderate to high inhibitory activity against the tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa which was totally resistant. In contrast to antibacterial activity, the oils exhibited no or slight antifungal property, in which only the oil of S. multicaulis showed weak activity against two tested yeasts, C. albicans and S. cerevisiae. PMID:17913065

  15. The Essential Oils of Rhus coriaria L. (Sumac)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kurucu; M. Koyuncu; A. Güvenç; K. H. C. Baser; T. Özek

    1993-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from the leaf, fruit pericarp and branch\\/bark of Rhus coriaria L. by hydrodistillation were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-three constituents in the branch\\/bark oil, sixty-three constituents in the leaf oil and eighty-five constituents in the fruit pericarp oil were identified. The predominant compounds in the pericarp oil were limonene (0.17–9.49%), nonanal (10.77–13.09%) and (Z)-2-decenal (9.90–42.35%),

  16. In vitro Activity of Celery Essential Oil against Malassezia furfur

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Hee

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal activity of celery essential oil against Malassezia furfur was investigated using broth microdilution and vapor contact methods. Potent antifungal activity was evident using both methods. Fungicidal activity was revealed in the vapor contact method. PMID:23983510

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia herba-alba essential oil cultivated in Tunisian arid zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hedi Mighri; Hafedh Hajlaoui; Ahmed Akrout; Hanen Najjaa; Mohamed Neffati

    2010-01-01

    This study was conceived to examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of four essential oil types extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba cultivated in southern Tunisia. The chemical composition was investigated using both capillary GC and GC\\/MS techniques. ?-thujone, ?-thujone, ?-thujone\\/?-thujone and 1,8-cineole\\/camphor\\/?-thujone\\/?-thujone were respectively, the major components of these oil types. The antimicrobial activity of

  18. Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

  19. Analysis of the essential oil of Juniperus procera Endl. growing in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Akeng'a, T A; Chhabra, S C

    1997-01-01

    The essential oil of the wood of Juniperus procera Endl. (Cupressaceae) from the Aberdares mountains, Central Province, Kenya has been extracted by steam distillation for varying times and analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The optimum time has been found to be 8 hours with the yield of the oil and cedrol as 0.48 and 79.10%, respectively. Other constituents include 3,4-dimethylbiphenyl, a-cedrene, camphor, trans-geraniol, eugenol, and a-terpineol. PMID:10895238

  20. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

  1. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

  2. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

  3. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

  4. Microwave-assisted isolation of essential oils from Nepeta crispa and N. racemosa and comparisons with the conventional method.

    PubMed

    Daryasari, Ameneh Porgham; Soleimani, Mojtaba; Ghorbani, Azam; Kheiri, Homayon; Daryasarie, Mohammad Porgham

    2012-11-01

    In this study microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) has been compared with the conventional method of hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oils from two Iranian Lamiaceae species: Nepeta crispa Willd and N. racemosa Lam. The essential oils extracted by MAHD for 40 min were quantitatively and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 3.5 h. The MAHD method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs in terms of time, energy and plant material. PMID:23285819

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Huang, Bo; Wang, Youwei

    2011-02-28

    The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were ?-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 ?L/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B? (AFB?) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 ?L/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 ?L/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage. PMID:21320730

  6. Molluscicidal and leishmanicidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Syzygium cumini (L.) SKEELS from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice N; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Carvalho, Fernando A A; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Maia, Jose G S; Andrade, Eloisa H A; Moraes, Denise F C

    2013-06-01

    The chemical composition and biological potential of the essential oil extracted from Syzygium cumini leaves collected in Brazil were examined. GC/MS Analyses revealed a high abundance of monoterpenes (87.12%) in the oil. Eleven compounds were identified, with the major components being ?-pinene (31.85%), (Z)-?-ocimene (28.98%), and (E)-?-ocimene (11.71%). To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the oil, it was tested against Biomphalaria glabrata and the LC?? obtained was 90 mg/l. The essential oil also showed significant activity against Leishmania amazonensis, with an IC50 value equal to 60 mg/l. In addition, to evaluate its toxicity towards a non-target organism, the essential oil was tested against Artemia salina and showed a LC?? of 175 mg/l. Thus, the essential oil of S. cumini showed promising activity as a molluscicidal and leishmanicidal agent and might be valuable in combating neglected tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Further research is being conducted with regard to the purification and isolation of the most active essential-oil compounds. PMID:23776029

  7. Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan; Manickkam Jayakumar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. METHODS:: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the

  9. TLC-direct bioautography for determination of antibacterial activity of Artemisia adamsii essential oil.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Acs, Kamilla; Kocsis, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the chemical characterization of the essential oil of a Mongolian medicinal plant, Artemisia adamsii Besser, and the investigation of the antibacterial effect of its oil on different human pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and S. epidermidis). The chemical composition of the oil was established by GC and GC/MS. Direct bioautography was used for detecting the antibacterial activity of the essential oil. The result of GC experiments showed that a-thujone was the main component (64.4%) of the oil, while the amount of beta-thujone was 7.1%. 1,8-Cineole seemed to be the other relevant component (15.2%). The antibacterial activity of the A. adamsii essential oil against all three investigated bacteria was observed in the bioautographic system, but this effect was not proportional to the concentrations of a- or beta-thujone; therefore, from a microbiological aspect, thujone content does not determine the medicinal value of this oil. On the whole, the combination of TLC separation with biological detection is an appropriate method for evaluating multicomponent and hydrophobic plant extracts, for instance, essential oils, and it provides more reliable results than traditional microbiological methods (e.g., disc diffusion and agar plate techniques). PMID:24645495

  10. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  11. Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Kiralan; Ali Bayrak; Omar Fawzi Abdulaziz; Tu?ba Özbucak

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq. The essential oils of myrtle and parsley seed contained ?-pinene (36.08% and 22.89%, respectively) as main constituents. Trans-Anethole was the major compound found in fennel and aniseed oils (66.98% and 93.51%, respectively). The dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene

  12. Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Kiralan; Ali Bayrak; Omar Fawzi Abdulaziz; Tu?ba Özbucak

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq. The essential oils of myrtle and parsley seed contained ?-pinene (36.08% and 22.89%, respectively) as main constituents. Trans-Anethole was the major compound found in fennel and aniseed oils (66.98% and 93.51%, respectively). The dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene

  13. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL. PMID:11858553

  14. Investigation of the Essential Oil of Erigeron acris L. Herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Nazaruk; Jan Gudej; Teresa Majda; Jozef Góra

    2006-01-01

    The essential oil from Erigeron acris L. obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS techniques. Over 60 compounds were identified, representing 92.6% of the total components. The major constituents of the oil were monoterpenoid hydrocarbons [limonene, ?-pinene, (E)-?-ocimene] and sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons [?-muurolen, germacrene D, (E)-?-farnesene].

  15. Composition and antitermite activities of essential oils from Melaleuca species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miyusse Sakasegawa; Keko Hori; Mitsuyoshi Yatagai

    2003-01-01

    The composition and antitermite activities of nine essential oils from two Melaleuca species, gelam and cajuputi, were compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis and bioassays. Gelam oils\\u000a were rich in compounds whose boiling points were high, and they were separated into the elemene-rich type and the ?-terpinene- and terpinolene-rich type. Cajuputi oils in this experiment were categorized into three chemotypes

  16. The Essential Oil Composition of Leonurus cardiaca L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katayoun Morteza-Semnani; Majid Saeedi; Mohammad Akbarzadeh

    2008-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried aerial parts of Leonurus cardiaca L. (Labiatae) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-one components have been identified in the oil of L. cardiaca. The major constituents of the oil were epi-cedrol (9.7%), ?-humulene (9.2%), dehydro-1,8-cineole (8.9%), germacrene D (8.9%), spathulenol (8.8%).

  17. Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sof??a Salido; Joaqu??n Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez; Christophe Pannecouque; Myriam Witvrouw; Erik De Clercq

    2002-01-01

    Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90–98% of the oils) 60–68 were identified (80–97%

  18. Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    PubMed Central

    Bellik, Yuva

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeane Silva; Worku Abebe; S. M Sousa; V. G Duarte; M. I. L Machado; F. J. A Matos

    2003-01-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced

  20. Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Mahdad, Elahe; Craker, Lyle

    2013-12-01

    Sweet basil, a plant that is extensively cultivated in some countries, is used to enhance the flavour of salads, sauces, pasta and confectioneries as both a fresh and dried herb. To determine the effect of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the plant and essential oil of basil, two landraces, Purple and Green, were dried in sunlight, shade, mechanical ovens at 40 °C and 60 °C, a microwave oven at 500 W and by freeze-drying. For comparison, the essential oils of all samples were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The highest essential oil yields (v/w on dry weight basis) were obtained from shade-dried tissue in both landraces followed by the freeze-dried sample of the purple landrace and the fresh sample of green landrace. Increasing the drying temperature significantly decreased the essential oil content of all samples. Significant changes in the chemical profile of the essential oils from each of the landrace were associated with the drying method, including the loss of most monoterpene hydrocarbons, as compared with fresh samples. No significant differences occurred among several constituents in the extracted essential oils, including methyl chavicol (estragole), the major compound in the oil of both landraces, whether the plants were dried in the shade or sun, oven at 40 °C or freeze-dried, as compared with a fresh sample. The percentage methyl chavicol in the oil, however, decreased significantly when the plant material was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved. In addition, linalool, the second major compound in the purple landrace, and geranial and neral, major compounds in the green landrace, decreased significantly when the plant tissue was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved. PMID:23870979

  1. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  2. Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcão-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Júnior, JP

    2010-01-01

    This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and to inhibitory activity of efflux pump by gaseous contact. The main component of the essential oil of C. zehntneri was estragole (76,8%). The gaseous components of the oil enhanced the inhibition zone of norfloxacin in 39,5%. This result shows that this oil influences the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin, possibly affecting the bacterial NorA efflux system, and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:21264094

  3. The essential oil of Bupleurum fruticosum L. from Corsica: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lota, Marie Laure; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2009-12-01

    A detailed analysis of Bupleurum fruticosum oil was carried out by combination of GC (RI), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR analyses. After fractionation by column chromatography, 34 components accounting for 97.8% of the oils were identified. The main component was beta-phellandrene (67.7%), followed by sabinene (9.3%), and limonene (5.6%). The evolution of the chemical composition according to the stages of development of the plant was investigated as well as the composition of leaf, twig, and flower oils. A solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of aerial parts was carried out and the composition of the extract compared with that of the essential oil. Finally, 57 oil samples isolated from aerial parts of individual plants, collected all around Corsica, were analyzed, and the data were submitted to statistical analysis. Although the contents of the main components varied, only one group emerged, accompanied with some atypical compositions. PMID:20020456

  4. Essential Oil of Salvia syriaca L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. C. Baser; B. Demirçakmak; N. Ermin

    1996-01-01

    The aerial parts of Salvia syriaca were water distilled to produce an oil which was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Germacrene D (33.83%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.47%) were found as major constituents among the more than 50 compounds identified.

  5. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; G?owacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jó?wiak-B?benista, Marta; ?ysakowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

  6. Evaluation of climatic factors on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Myrocarpus frondosus.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, D C; Gomes, G L S; Flach, A; da Costa, L A M A; Rosa, G R; de Moura, N F

    2015-01-01

    The species Myrocarpus frondosus is native to southern Brazil, and it is known as cabreúva. It is a large tree, and its wood is used as a reservoir for distilled spirits, especially Cachaça. In this pioneering work, the essential oil was extracted monthly from the leaves of M. frondosus, for a period of 1 year. The essential oil was extracted by using hydrodistillation and the determination of the chemical composition of essential oil was performed by using the chromatographic techniques GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil and bicyclogermacrene was the major compound. Through multivariate analysis, it was determined that ?-caryophyllene, limonene and terpinen-4-ol were directly proportional to climatic factors. The yield of the oil was directly proportional to temperature and radiation. PMID:25421822

  7. Analysis of the essential oil components from different Carum copticum L. samples from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Petramfar, Peyman; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The family Apiaceae is defined with the diversity of essential oil. Fruits of Ajwain (Carum copticum), a famous herb of Apiaceae, accumulate up to 5% essential oil which is remarked as important natural product for food and flavoring industry, as well as pharmacological approaches. It is believed that differences in essential oil profile in a certain plant are resulted from various cultivation situations and locations, time of cultivation and also different extracting method. Objective: Present study aimed to evaluate major components of ten different collected Ajwain samples from random cultivation locations of Iran. Materials and Methods: Samples were individually subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus for the extraction of essential oil. GC/MS analysis for samples was carried out using Agilent technologies model 7890A gas chromatograph with a mass detector. Results: The yield of extracted essential oil was calculated as 2.2 to 4.8% (v/w) for ten samples. Major oil components were thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene. Five of ten samples have thymol as the main component with amount of 35.04 to 63.31%. On the other hand, for four samples, para-cymene was major with amount of 40.20 to 57.31% and one sample had gamma-terpinene as main constituent containing 37.43% of total oil. Accordingly, three different chemotypes, thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene can be speculated from collected samples. Conclusion: While these components possess pharmacological effect, screening of different chemotypes not only represent the effect of cultivation situations and locations but also can be beneficial in further investigation. PMID:24497745

  8. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p?=?0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid. PMID:24885682

  9. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  10. COMPARISONS OF ADULT REPELLENCY AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST MOSQUITOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils including thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil and cinnamon oil were studied on three mosquito species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens. The repellency of the selected essential oils to female bl...

  11. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur Variety.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Z; Nawaz, S; Siddique, S; Shahzad, K

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety grown in Pakistan was extracted by hydro-distillation. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 25 constituents, out of which nine chemical constituents were identified. The eucalyptol (10.27%) was the major component of the essential oil. ?-pinene (1.50%), ?-phellandrene (2.49%), ?-pinene (3.57%), limonene (2.73%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (1.76%), ascaridole epoxide (1.452%), 2-methylisoborneol (2.92%), 5-isopropyl-6-methyl-hepta-3, dien-2-ol (2.07%) were also present in considerable quantity. The antimicrobial properties of leaves of Curcuma longa were tested by disc diffusion method against various human pathogens, including eight fungal and five bacterial strains. Essential oil showed maximum resistance against Fusarium miniformes MAY 3629 followed by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 whereas; it exhibited least resistance against Fusarium oxysporium ATCC 48122. The results of the antimicrobial assay revealed that essential oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested organisms. PMID:23901173

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties. PMID:22808418

  13. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Mini Priya; Pallaiyan, Blessed Beautlin; Selvaraj, Nija

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), ?-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-?-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range. PMID:25050318

  14. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Amorpha canescens Pursh.

    PubMed

    Lis, Anna; Adamczewska, Anna; Banaszczak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Amorpha canescens Pursh were analysed by GC, GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 100 compounds were identified. Germacrene D (43.6%) and germacrene D-4-ol (8.3%) were the main constituents in the fruit oil. The oil from inflorescences contained mainly ?-elemol (29.4%) and germacrene D (14.6%), whereas the leaf oil contained germacrene D (30.3%), germacrene D-4-ol (10.9%) and ?-elemol (10.1%). PMID:25452264

  15. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activity of an essential oil recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of white pepper, long pepper, cinnamon, saffron and myrrh in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanbin; Wang, Xinfang; Ma, Ling; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Chen, Jing; Fu, Xueyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil recipe (OR) in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes and hot plate test methods in mice. Additionally, the chemical composition of OR has been also analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds, representing 74.42% of the total oil content, were identified. ?-Selinene (7.38%), aromadendrene (5.30%), ?-elemene (5.22%), cis-piperitol (5.21%), cis-?-guaiene (4.67%), ylangene (3.70%), 3-heptadecene (3.55%), ?-cadinene (3%) and ?-cadinene (2.87%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with OR (62.5-1000 mg/kg) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. OR significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection. All test samples showed no significant analgesic activity on the hot plate pain threshold in mice. These data demonstrated that the OR inhibits inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain. These results may support the fact that the essential oil of traditional Hui prescription played a role in the inflammation of stroke. PMID:25263165

  16. Composition of the Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium L. from Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Orav; Tiiu Kailas; Kaire Ivask

    2001-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) from air-dried aerial parts of plant species Achillea millefolium L. yarrow was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-six components were identified. The major constituents in the oil extracts were ?-pinene (14.9–29.2%), sabinene (2.9–17.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.9–18.3%), ?-caryophyllene (3.3–6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (0.5–6.4%), guaiol (0.3–11.8%) and chamazulene (0.1–13.3%). The monoterpene fraction represented

  17. Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry. PMID:24915323

  18. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito. PMID:16041723

  19. CUPHEA OIL EXTRACTION AND REFINING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils from the seeds of several Cuphea (Lytraceae) species were found to contain high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). Currently, MCFAs used in cosmetics, soaps, detergents, lubricants and other related products are obtained from coconut and palm kernel oils. One promising outcome of the ...

  20. Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2010-11-01

    Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

  1. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    PubMed

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-?-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and ?-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin, which was the most efficient compound with 100 % of acaricidal activity at a dilution of 0.25% and could be a valuable acaricide for the control of the cattle tick R. microplus. PMID:25300420

  2. Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Nicola S; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2005-01-12

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The main components of C. cyminum oil were p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al, cumin aldehyde, gamma-terpinene, and beta-pinene, while those of the C. carvi oil were carvone, limonene, germacrene D, and trans-dihydrocarvone. Antibacterial activity, determined with the agar diffusion method, was observed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in this study. The activity was particularly high against the genera Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, Erwinia, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia, and Agrobacterium, which are responsible for plant or cultivated mushroom diseases worldwide. In general, a lower activity was observed against bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. These results suggest the potential use of the above essential oils for the control of bacterial diseases. PMID:15631509

  3. Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles for essential oil encapsulation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Erick F; Paula, Haroldo C B; de Paula, Regina C M

    2014-01-01

    Alginate/cashew gum nanoparticles were prepared via spray-drying, aiming at the development of a biopolymer blend for encapsulation of an essential oil. Nanoparticles were characterized regarding to their hydrodynamic volume, surface charge, Lippia sidoides essential oil content and release profile, in addition to being analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. Nanoparticles in solution were found to have averaged sizes in the range 223-399 nm, and zeta potential values ranging from -30 to -36 mV. Encapsulated oil levels varied from 1.9 to 4.4% with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 55%. The in vitro release profile showed that between 45 and 95% of oil was released within 30-50h. Kinetic studies revealed that release pattern follow a Korsmeyer-Peppas mechanism. PMID:24077112

  4. Chemical composition and biological activity of Salvia verbenaca essential oil.

    PubMed

    Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice

    2011-07-01

    Salvia verbenaca L. (syn. S. minore) is a perennial herb known in the traditional medicine of Sicily as "spaccapetri" and is used to resolve cases of kidney stones, chewing the fresh leaves or in decoction. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of S. verbenaca collected in Piano Battaglia (Sicily) on July 2009, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oil was strongly characterized by fatty acids (39.5%) and carbonylic compounds (21.2%), with hexadecanoic acid (23.1%), (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid (11.1%) and benzaldehyde (7.3%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil against some microorganisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the broth dilution method was determined. The oil exhibited a good activity as inhibitor of growth of Gram + bacteria. PMID:21834249

  5. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms. PMID:19969046

  6. Review article Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa jacobsoni

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in honey bee colonies - Essential oils and essential oil components offer an attractive alternative to synthetic acaricides (mainly monoterpenes) are the main components of essential oils, comprising about 90 % of the total. More

  7. Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC, 85.0 pg/ml) and which presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. PMID:12760864

  8. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  9. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 ?g/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 ?m and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  10. Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

    2011-09-01

    The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), ?-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and ?-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23?ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24?ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (?98.0%), ?-phellandrene (?95.0%), fenchone (?98.0%), (E)-anethole (?99.0%), myrcene (?99.0%), and ?-pinene (?99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (?98.0%) and (E)-anethole (?99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11?ppm and 102.41?ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21077804

  11. Evaluation of bacterial resistance to essential oils and antibiotics after exposure to oregano and cinnamon essential oils.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Raquel; Nerín, Cristina; Gómez-Lus, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are excellent antimicrobial agents sometimes used in active food packaging. This work studies the susceptibility of 48 clinical isolates and 12 reference strains of Gram-negative bacilli to oregano essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, and combinations of both. Furthermore, the tendency of the clinical isolates to develop resistance to these EOs and to different antibiotics after sequential oregano or cinnamon exposure was studied. For this purpose, antibiotic susceptibility (through disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] determination) and oregano and cinnamon susceptibility (through MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] determination) were compared after 50 passages in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of oregano and cinnamon essential oils. The results showed that all strains were susceptible to both EOs and their combination independently of the antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, neither synergistic nor antagonistic effects were observed between oregano and cinnamon essential oils at the concentrations tested. After the sequential exposure to both EOs, only Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, and Proteus mirabilis treated with oregano changed their antibiotic resistance profile and/or increased their resistance to this EO. However, the changes in antibiotic and oregano resistance were not related. PMID:22827568

  12. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512?µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  13. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512?µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  14. Analysis of the Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L) and from Peppermint (Mentha piperita L)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sebe?an; A. C?r?ban

    Peppermint oil and thyme oil is obtained by steam distillation from the fresh overground parts of flowering plant of Mentha piperita L and Thymus vulgaris L. For essential oil obtained, were determined the chemical property. Thyme oil and peppermint oil were analyzed using the chromatography before and after microorganisms absorptions. Essential oils is used in different pharmaceutical products and these

  15. . 1.Essent. Oil Res., 15,108-111(MarcldApril 2003) The Essential Oil Composition of Psorothamnus

    E-print Network

    . 1.Essent. Oil Res., 15,108-111(MarcldApril 2003) The Essential Oil Composition of Psorothamnus dalea, essential oil composition, p-cynene, y-terpinene Introduction Experimental Psoru/Joumalof Essential Oil Research Vol. 15, MarchIApril 2003 #12;-Psorothamnus scoparius Table I. Compounds identified

  16. Characteristic Odor Components of Essential Oils from Eurya japonica.

    PubMed

    Motooka, Ryota; Usami, Atsushi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Koutari, Satoshi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Ryoyu; Tsuji, Kaoru; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-05-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils from the flower and aerial parts (i.e., leaf and branch) of Eurya japonica were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 87 and 50 compounds were detected in the oils from the flower and aerial parts, respectively. The main compounds of the flower oil were linalool (14.0%), (9Z)-tricosene (12.0%), and nonanal (7.4%). In the oil from the aerial parts, linalool (37.7%), ?-terpineol (13.5%), and geraniol (9.6%) were detected. In the oils from the flower and aerial parts, 13 and 8 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, respectively. The key aroma-active compounds of the flower oil were heptanal [fatty, green, flavor dilution (FD) = 128, odor activity value (OAV) = 346], nonanal (sweet, citrus, FD = 128, OAV = 491), and eugenol (sweet, spicy, FD = 64, OAV = 62): in the oil from the aerial parts, the key aroma-active compounds were linalool (sweet, citrus, FD = 64, OAV = 95), (E)-?-damascenone (sweet, FD = 256, OAV = 4000), and (E)-?-ionone (floral, violet, FD = 128, OAV = 120). This study revealed that nonanal and eugenol impart the sweet, citrus, and spicy odor of the flower oil, while (E)-?-damascenone and (E)-?-ionone contribute the floral and sweet odor of the oil from the aerial parts. PMID:25843279

  17. Essential oils: Toxicity and antimicrobial properties. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic properties of essential oils, and the use of essential oils in preventing development of microbes. These essential oils are derived from plants and other living organisms. Citations included cover the toxicological testing of essential oils, and the identification and testing of essential oils and their components for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. (Contains a minimum of 81 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 ?g mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 ?g mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

  19. The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

    Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ?-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

  20. Essential oil yield and composition reflect browsing damage of junipers.

    PubMed

    Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos

    2008-12-01

    The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores. PMID:19009322

  1. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  2. High pressure extraction of oil seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Eggers; U. Sievers; W. Stein

    1985-01-01

    For calculation of phase equilibria of the system seed oil\\/CO2, an equation of state published in the literature has been fitted to experimental data of that system. The results thus obtained\\u000a are of only limited use in designing a supercritical extraction process. The experimental investigation of the mass transfer\\u000a kinetics is much more significant. Mechanical processing of the oil seed’s

  3. Essential Oil of Mentha spicata L. from Jalisco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Pino; Pedro Borges; Marco Martínez; Martha Vargas; Héctor Flores; Mirna Estarrón; Victor Fuentes

    2001-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. grown in Jalisco was investigated by GC\\/MS. Fifty-three constituents were identified, of which carvone (36.4%) and limonene (14.5%) were the major components.

  4. Essential Oil of Mentha spicata L. from Cuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Esther Sánchez

    1998-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. grown in Cuba was investigated by liquid-solid chromatography, GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty-nine constituents were identified of which piperitenone oxide (52.3%) was the major component.

  5. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  6. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil, eugenol, and a eugenol based herbicide (Matran EC) were applied to apple and peach trees during bloom to evaluate the thinning effect of these materials. Several additional bloom thinners including ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), liquid lime sulfur, and sulfcarbamide were included in...

  7. The Essential Oil of Thymus serpylloides ssp. gadorensis.

    PubMed

    Crespo, M E; Gomis, E; Jimenez, J; Navarro, C

    1988-04-01

    THYMUS SERPYLLOIDES ssp. GADORENSIS is endemic in the Betic region (Spain). Gas chromatography and GC/mass spectrometry studies of its essential oil showed its major components to be carvacrol and its biosynthetic precursors (gamma-terpinene and P-cymene). PMID:17265229

  8. The Essential Oil from Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Pant; Vasu Dev; Rashmi Parihar; Chandra S. Mathela; Josef Rauscher; Otto Vostrowsky; H. J. Bestmann

    1992-01-01

    GC, CG\\/MS, FTIR, H-NMR and C-NMR analyses revealed that the essential oil of Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla growing in Kumaun region (India) contained 53% geranial and 39% neral together with 19 other, mainly terpenoid constituents.

  9. Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity from Two Juniperus Essential Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils of two Tibetan Junipers Juniperus saltuaria and J. squamata var. fargesii (Cupressaceae) were obtained by distilling dried leaves and branches using a Clevenger apparatus. Sixty-seven compounds from J. saltuaria and 58 compounds from J. squamata var. fargesii were identified by gas c...

  10. Essential oils increase weight gain in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Biomin® P.E.P. MGE) on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival of channel catfish. Five hundred catfish (32.4 ± 1.7 g/fish) were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicate tanks/tre...

  11. The Essential Oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lis-Balchin

    1993-01-01

    The essential oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae) were examined by GC\\/MS and found to be very similar. The major components were isomenthone (12.8%, 11.2%), citronellol (11.6%, 15.4%), geraniol (15.9%, 16.7%) and methyl eugenol (11.2%, 10.6%) respectively.

  12. Essential oils of seven Stachys taxa from Croatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vjera Bilusic Vundac; Hartwig W. Pfeifhofer; Adelheid H. Brantner; Zeljan Males; Misko Plazibat

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils of Stachys alpina L., Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis., Stachys palustris L., Stachys recta L. subsp. recta, S. recta L. subsp. subcrenata (Vis.) Briq., Stachys salviifolia Ten., and Stachys sylvatica L. were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the main group of constituents of all taxa, except

  13. Chemical study of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Sonwa, M M; König, W A

    2001-11-01

    Minor constituents of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus have been investigated. The three new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (-)-isorotundene, (-)-cypera-2,4(15)-diene, (-)-norrotundene and the ketone (+)-cyperadione were isolated and their structures elucidated. The absolute configuration of (-)-rotundene was derived by chemical correlation and enantioselective gas chromatography. PMID:11672746

  14. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

    2010-03-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and ?-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), ?-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

  15. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 ?g/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 ?g/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 ?g/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  16. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa. PMID:25587332

  17. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

  18. Mathematical modeling of supercritical extraction of sage oil

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E. [Univ. di Salerno (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

    1996-06-01

    Modeling of supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of essential oils from leaves was studied using sage at 90 bar (9 MPa) and 50 C. The fractional separation of the extracts enabled essential oil to be obtained. Four mean sage particle sizes ranging from 0.25 to 3.10 mm were tested. The model proposed was based on differential mass balances performed along the extraction bed. Experimental data suggest that the internal mass transfer was the controlling stage for the extraction process. Different hypotheses were tested on vegetable matter geometry, and their incidence on the model performance was evaluated. The particle shape proved to be a key factor in fitting experimental results, which were fairly good when the conventional spherical geometry was replaced by a realistic slab geometry. Diffusivity of the solute in the solid matrix was used as the only adjustable parameter of the model; its best fit value was 6.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} m{sup 2}/s. The effect of the introduction of particle-size distribution into calculations was also tested. To verify if the external mass-transfer mechanisms influence the extraction process, experiments at two different CO{sub 2} flow rates were also performed. Simplified models were also considered, and the extent of approximations was evaluated.

  19. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  20. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    PubMed

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 ?g/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. PMID:22510493

  1. Essential-oil diversity of three Calamintha species from Greece.

    PubMed

    Karousou, Regina; Hanlidou, Effie; Lazari, Diamando

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the essential-oil composition of the Calamintha officinalis-nepeta complex in Greece and to clarify the main patterns of its variation. The oils obtained from 22 wild-growing populations of C. glandulosa, C. nepeta, and C. menthifolia were studied. They could be classified into two different chemotypes, which correspond to the main biosynthetic routes of the C(3)-oxygenated p-menthane compounds. Chemotype I includes oils rich in trans-piperitone oxide, cis-piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide, while Chemotype II comprises oils rich in pulegone and menthone or menthone and isomenthone. Within both chemotypes, quantitative fluctuations of the main components were observed. Comparison with published data showed that the presence of Chemotype II has not been observed before in C. menthifolia, while Chemotype I has been reported in C. nepeta plants from Greece for the first time. PMID:22782882

  2. Anticandidal activity of the essential oil of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh.

    PubMed

    I?can, Gökalp; Köse, Y Bülent; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can

    2011-11-01

    Hydrodistallation of the aerial parts of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh. (Lamiaceae), collected in A?r?, Do?ubayaz?t Province, afforded an essential oil that was characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. Twenty-seven compounds, representing 97.69% of the total oil composition, were identified, and 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (1; 39%), 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (2; 28%), and germacrene D (3; 15%) constituted the major components. The anticandidal effects of the oil were evaluated against seven Candida strains by using the broth microdilution method. The oil showed good inhibitory effects against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.09 and 0.375 mg/ml, respectively. PMID:22083927

  3. Effects of Essential Oils on Symptoms of Exercising Women with Fibromyalgia

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Effects of Essential Oils on Symptoms of Exercising Women with Fibromyalgia Background of 7 organically derived essential oils (aloe vera a 12 week exercise program differed for women with FM who used essential oil vs.those who used sham oil

  4. Serum biochemical profile and performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing essential oils and pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Kist Traesel; Patricia Wolkmer; Candice Schmidt; Cássia B. Silva; Francine C. Paim; Alexandre P. Rosa; Sydney H. Alves; Janio M. Santurio; Sonia T. A. Lopes

    Serum biochemical parameters and performance data were evaluated in broilers fed diets supplemented with antibiotics or essential\\u000a oils from oregano, sage, rosemary, and pepper crude extract (OLES). Animals (n?=?910) were distributed into five treatment groups, with seven replicates of 26 birds in each group: the control group (diet\\u000a without additives); the group receiving an antibiotic growth promoter diet; and the

  5. Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Celia, Christian; Trapasso, Elena; Locatelli, Marcello; Navarra, Michele; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Wolfram, Joy; Carafa, Maria; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Britti, Domenico; Di Marzio, Luisa; Paolino, Donatella

    2013-12-01

    Citrus extracts, particularly bergamot essential oil (BEO) and its fractions, have been found to exhibit anticancer efficacy. However, the poor water solubility, low stability and limited bioavailability have prevented the use of BEO in cancer therapy. To overcome such drawbacks, we formulated BEO liposomes that improved the water solubility of the phytocomponents and increased their anticancer activity in vitro against human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The results warrant further investigation of BEO liposomes for in vivo applications. PMID:24099646

  6. Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Seydim; G. Sarikus

    2006-01-01

    The use of edible films to release antimicrobial constituents in food packaging is a form of active packaging. Antimicrobial properties of spice extracts are well known, however their application to edible films is limited. In this study, antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films containing 1.0–4.0% (wt\\/vol) ratios of oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils were tested against Escherichia

  7. Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

  8. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  9. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas other oils resulted in 16-76% egg mortality, the least mortality caused by the A. graveolens oil. These results suggest that these essential oils can be employed in a resistance-management program against A. aegypti. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. PMID:21445613

  10. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, So?a; Ka?ániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovi?, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stri?ík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

  11. OIL OF CATNIP BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Louey; Nathan Petersen; Dennis Salotti; Heather Shaeffer

    Supercritical fluids and in particular supercritical fluid carbon dioxide have shown to be a viable technology for a variety of extractions. While process conditions require high pressures, technological advances have now made it feasible to acquire such equipment for the laboratory. Traditionally, the oil of catnip has been isolated by steam distillation. Working with dried plant material, we have introduced

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2005-12-28

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

  13. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe2+. ?-Pinene, ?-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase than ?-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

  14. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Rados?aw; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Gra?yna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  15. Rapid determination of essential oil compounds in Artemisia Selengensis Turcz by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with microwave distillation and simultaneous solid-phase microextraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhui Deng; Xiuqin Xu; Ning Yao; Ning Li; Xiangmin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In the work, for the first time, two solvent-free sample preparation techniques of microwave distillation (MD) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were combined, and developed for determination of essential oil compounds in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of TCM essential oil compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility,

  16. Thermally Induced Wettability Change During SAGD for Oil Sand Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Unal, Yasin

    2014-08-20

    Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an in-situ bitumen extraction technique that significantly increases ultimate oil recovery from oil sand reservoirs. Because SAGD is one of the newest proven thermal oil recovery techniques, laboratory test...

  17. The use of essential oils in veterinary ectoparasite control: a review.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2014-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating the potential value of essential oils as control agents against a range of arthropod ectoparasites, particularly lice, mites and ticks. Toxicity has been demonstrated following immersion and physical contact with treated surfaces, as well as after exposure to the vapour of these oils; the last of these factors implies that there is a neurotoxic, rather than simply a mechanical, pathway in their mode of action. However, the volatile nature of essential oils suggests that their residual activity is likely to be short-lived. A possible advantage of essential oils over conventional ectoparasite treatments may refer to their reported ovicidal efficacy, although it is unclear whether this results from neurotoxicity or mechanical suffocation. There are many difficulties in comparing the findings of existing studies of essential oil toxicity. One major issue is the wide variation among batches in the relative concentrations of oil constituents. A second issue concerns the fact that many experimental designs make it difficult to confirm that the effect seen is attributable to the oil; in many cases inappropriate controls mean that the effects of the excipient on mortality cannot be distinguished. Hence, it is important that an excipient-only control is always included in these bioassays. Furthermore, in direct contact assays, when attempting to identify the toxicity pathway of the essential oil tested, it is important to include a hydrophobic control. Without this, it is impossible to distinguish simple mechanical effects from neurological or other cellular toxicity. The use of essential oils in the control of veterinary ectoparasites is an area which holds considerable potential for the future and research into their use is still at an early stage. More extensive field trials, the standardization of components, the standardization of extraction, the standardization of good experimental design, mammalian toxicology profiling and excipient development, as well as further investigation into the residual activities and shelf-lives of these oils are all required to allow the full realization of their potential. PMID:24147451

  18. Lotus (Nelumbo nuficera) flower essential oil increased melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Songhee; Kim, Nan-Hyung; Koo, Byung-Soo; Kim, Ji-Young

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the essential oil from lotus flower extract, including petals and stamens, was assessed with regard to its effects on melanogenesis in human melanocytes. The lotus flower essential oil was shown to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lotus flower essential oil induced the expression of tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor M (MITF-M), and tyrosinase-related proten-2 (TRP-2) proteins, but not tyrosinase mRNA. Moreover, it increased the phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). In order to verify the effective components of the lotus flower oil, its lipid composition was assessed. It was found to be comprised of palmitic acid methyl ester (22.66%), linoleic acid methyl ester (11.16%), palmitoleic acid methyl ester (7.55%) and linolenic acid methyl ester (5.16%). Among these components, palmitic acid methyl ester clearly induced melanogenesis as the result of increased tyrosinase expression, thereby indicating that it may play a role in the regulation of melanin content. Thus, our results indicate that lotus flower oil may prove useful in the development of gray hair prevention agents or tanning reagents. PMID:19322028

  19. Diurnal Variation of Essential of the Oil Components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne. ex Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Gholamali, Houshfar; Mahmoudi, Zahra; Asghari, Matin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pycnocycla spinosa Decne. ex Boiss is an aromatic plant which showed relaxant effects on isolated ileum contractions and antidiarrheal activity. Thirty four components have been extracted from P. spinosa essential oil, of which several major constituents were found to show seasonal variation. Objectives: The aim of this work is to evaluate the diurnal variation of its oil constituents during specific hours of the day. Materials and Methods: The Pycnocycla spinosa samples were collected at different times of the day. The hydro-distilled aerial parts oils of collected P. spinosa were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results: Fourteen monoterpenoid and nine sesquiterpenoid components were identified, of which the fluctuating constituents were p-cymene, trans-?-ocimene, ?-citronellol, citronellyl pentanoate, geranyl isovalerate, ?-humulene, caryophyllen oxide, ?-cadinol, and ?-eudesmol. The content of p-cymene in the essential oil in different daily times varied from 0.16 to 4.19%, and the geranyl isovalerate 7.75 -23.99%. Conclusions: Essential oils with different qualities can be obtained according to the harvest time of the plant in a day. PMID:24644437

  20. [Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae employing a mixture of essential oils and thymol].

    PubMed

    Fuselli, S R; García De La Rosa, S B; Gende, L B; Eguaras, M J; Fritz, R

    2006-01-01

    In vitro antimicrobial activity of a mixture of two essential oils and thymol against Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), was evaluated. The essential oils were extracted from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). The third component used, thymol, is the major component of the essential oil of thyme which contains 39.9% of thymol. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth by the tube dilution method and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC) on MYPGP agar were evaluated. Thyme registered MIC values of 150-250 microg/ml and MBC values of 200-300 microg/ml, while the MIC and MBC values obtained for cinnamon were of 50-100 microg/ml and 100-125 microg/ml. Thymol showed similar MIC and MBC values of 100-150 microg/ml. No significant differences between the bacterial strains were detected, but significant differences between essential oils and thymol activity were registered (P<0,01). An inhibitory synergetic effect on AFB was observed reducing MIC and MBC values due to the use of a mixture of 62.5% of thyme, 12.5% of cinnamon and 25% of thymol. PMID:17037257

  1. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    PubMed

    Fra?ková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, V?ra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klou?ek, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0?mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp. PMID:25062020

  2. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review.

    PubMed

    Chaieb, Kamel; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Zmantar, Tarek; Kahla-Nakbi, Amel Ben; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Mahdouani, Kacem; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-06-01

    The essential oil extracted from the dried flower buds of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata L. Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), is used as a topical application to relieve pain and to promote healing and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. The main constituents of the essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The biological activity of Eugenia caryophyllata has been investigated on several microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, Herpes simplex and hepatitis C viruses. In addition to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activity, clove essential oil possesses antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, insect repellent and anaesthetic properties. This short review addresses the chemical composition and biological effects of clove essential oil, and includes new results from GC/MS analysis and a study of its antimicrobial activity against a large number of multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from dialysis biomaterials. PMID:17380552

  3. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of some essential oils evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Idaomar, M; El-Hamss, R; Bakkali, F; Mezzoug, N; Zhiri, A; Baudoux, D; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Liemans, V; Alonso-Moraga, A

    2002-01-15

    Essential oils extracted from the three medicinal plants; Helichrysum italicum, Ledum groenlandicum and Ravensara aromatica, together with their mixture were tested for their genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities against urethane, a well-known promutagen. We have adopted the somatic mutations and recombination test (SMART) in the wings of Drosophila melanogaster. Three days old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers mwh and flr, were treated by essential oil and/or urethane. A negative control corresponding to solvent was also used. Our results do not show any significant effect of the oils tested but they reduce the mutation ratio resulting from urethane. The mixture of the three oils at equal volume seems to be the most effective. The antimutagenic effect of these oils could be explained by the interaction of their constituents with cytochrome P-450 activation system leading to a reduction of the formation of the active metabolite. The effect could also be attributed to certain molecules that are involved in these oils. PMID:11719090

  4. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Gihan S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Methods Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. Results All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. Conclusion The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients’ well-being. PMID:26170621

  5. Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2010-02-01

    Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

  6. Essential Oils and Chromosome Numbers From Italian Achillea Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Maffei; Franco Chialva; Arnaldo Codignola

    1989-01-01

    Essential oils of five Achillea species, A. ptarmica, A. erba-rotta, A. moschata, A. nana and A. nobilis, growing spontaneously in the Northwest Italian Alps were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenols were identified. Camphor and 1,8 cineole were the major constituents of A. erba-rotta, whereas germacrene D was particularly abundant in A. ptarmica and A. nobilis.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of polysaccharide films containing essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Sánchez-González; Maite Cháfer; Manuel Hernández; Amparo Chiralt; Chelo González-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial films were prepared by incorporating different concentrations of bergamot (BO), lemon (LO) and tea tree (TTO) essential oils (EO), into chitosan (CH) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) films. Their antibacterial effectiveness against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was studied at 10 °C during a storage period of 12 days. HPMC-EO and CH-EO composite films present a significant antimicrobial activity against

  8. Antiphytoviral activity of essential oil from endemic species Teucrium arduini.

    PubMed

    Dunki?, Valerija; Bezi?, Nada; Vuko, Elma

    2011-09-01

    The essential oil of Teucrium arduini L. was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (43.8%) of which beta-caryophyllene (19.9%) being the major compound, followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (19.6%) of which caryophyllene-oxide (14.6%) was dominant. When applied to plants of Chenopodium amaranticolor and Ch. quinoa for two successive days prior inoculation, the oil was effective in reducing lesion numbers on plants infected with Tobacco mosaic virus (25.7%) and Cucumber mosaic virus (21.9%). The main components of oil, beta-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed potent antiviral activity against CMV, but weak activity against TMV infection. PMID:21941920

  9. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

  10. Phototoxicity of essential oils intended for cosmetic use.

    PubMed

    Kejlová, Kristina; Jírová, Dagmar; Bendová, Hana; Gajdoš, Petr; Kolá?ová, Hana

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study, linked-up with a previous study on bergamot oils, was the evaluation of phototoxic potential of essential oils (orange, lemon and Litsea cubeba), used as cosmetic ingredients. The applied tiered testing strategy included chemical analysis of the substances (by means of capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), in vitro 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test and EpiDerm™ skin phototoxicity test. In order to clarify the situation in man, the highest non-phototoxic/non-cytotoxic concentrations and concentrations 10 x lower (safety factor 10) were tested xin vivo by means of human skin photopatch test in a limited group of human volunteers. The study revealed, that phototoxicity of the essential oils was dependent on the content of photoactive components and the solvent used. The highest non-phototoxic concentrations obtained by the skin model assay proved to be a useful starting point for subsequent confirmatory human photopatch test aimed to identify safe concentration for human use. However, the highest non-phototoxic concentration obtained in the skin model assay cannot be applied directly for human practice (3 of 8 tested oils evoked a phototoxic reaction). A safety factor of 10 should be applied for extrapolation of experimental data from the skin model assay to man. PMID:20688147

  11. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500–1000–2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08–0.12–0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600–1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

  12. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08-0.12-0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

  13. Composition, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and oleoresins obtained from black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunita; Das, S S; Singh, G; Schuff, Carola; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, César A N

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), ?-thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200 ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg GAE?per g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as 11.47 ± 0.05, 10.88 ± 0.9, 9.68 ± 0.06, and 8.33 ± 0.01, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24689064

  14. Composition, In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Obtained from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunita; Das, S. S.; Singh, G.; Schuff, Carola; de Lampasona, Marina P.; Catalán, César A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the major components in black cumin essential oils which were thymoquinone (37.6%) followed by p-cymene (31.2%), ?-thujene (5.6%), thymohydroquinone (3.4%), and longifolene (2.0%), whereas the oleoresins extracted in different solvents contain linoleic acid as a major component. The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200?ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. The total phenol contents (gallic acid equivalents, mg?GAE?per?g) in black cumin essential oil, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and n-hexane oleoresins were calculated as 11.47 ± 0.05, 10.88 ± 0.9, 9.68 ± 0.06, and 8.33 ± 0.01, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteau method. The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24689064

  15. EVALUATION OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AS NATURAL POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils with fungicidal activities were identified in vitro; these were oregano, thyme, lemongrass, and cilantro. Essential oil components in those plants with antimicrobial activity were carvacrol, thymol, citral, and trans-2-decenal, respectively. Vapors of thyme, oregano and lemongrass, ...

  16. Antioxidant-Essential Oil Gel as a Treatment for Gingivitis in Orthodontic Patients 

    E-print Network

    Martin, Benjamin John

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment effect of an antioxidant-essential oil gel on orthodontic patients with generalized gingivitis. The gel contains the essential oils menthol and thymol, and the antioxidants ferulic acid...

  17. Extraction and utilization of breadfruit seed oil ( Treculia africana)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. E. Ajiwe; C. A. Okeke; H. U. Agbo

    1995-01-01

    Oil was extracted from crushed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds by Soxhlet. The yield of the oil was 20·83 ± 0·57%. Tests showed the oil to be a semi-drying oil which is unsaturated, with a high saponification value, acidic and requires purification. The oil could be used for making soap, hair shampoo and alkyd resin.

  18. Chemical composition, intraspecies variation and seasonal variation in essential oils of Calendula arvensis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Paolini; Toussaint Barboni; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Nassim Djabou; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil composition of Calendula arvensis was established for the first time using GC and GC\\/MS. Eighty-five essential oil components were identified, which accounted for 90.3g\\/100g of essential oil. The oil contained a high concentration of sesquiterpenes, of which ?-cadinene and ?-cadinol were the main components. The chemical composition of 25 Corsican C. arvensis oils was analyzed to determine

  19. Sampling gaseous compounds from essential oils evaporation by solid phase microextraction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Lai, Chin-Hsing

    2014-12-01

    Needle trap samplers (NTS) are packed with 80-100 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles to extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study compared extraction efficiency between an NTS and a commercially available 100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane-solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME) fiber sampler used to sample gaseous products in heated tea tree essential oil in different evaporation modes, which were evaporated respectively by free convection inside a glass evaporation dish at 27 °C, by evaporation diffuser at 60 °C, and by thermal ceramic wicks at 100 °C. The experimental results indicated that the NTS performed better than the SPME fiber samplers and that the NTS primarily adsorbed 5.7 ng ethylbenzene, 5.8 ng m/p-xylenes, 11.1 ng 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 12.4 ng 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 9.99 ng 1,4-diethylbenzene when thermal ceramic wicks were used to evaporate the tea tree essential oil during a 1-hr evaporation period. The experiment also indicated that the temperature used to heat the essential oils should be as low as possible to minimize irritant VOC by-products. If the evaporation temperature does not exceed 100 °C, the concentrations of main by-products trimethylbenzene and diethylbenzene are much lower than the threshold limit values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

  20. Evaluation of antiviral activity of essential oil of Trachyspermum Ammi against Japanese encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Chaurvedi, Pratibha; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Japanese encephalitis is a leading form of viral encephalitis, prevalent mostly in South Eastern Asia caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is transmitted by the mosquitoes of the Culex sp. The disease affects children and results in 50% result in permanent neuropsychiatric disorder. There arises a need to develop a safe, affordable, and potent anti-viral agent against JEV. This study aimed to assess the antiviral activity of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi: Umbellifereae) essential oil against JEV. Materials and Methods: Ajwain oil was extracted by distillation method and in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. JEV titer was determined by plaque assay and in vitro antiviral activity of ajwain oil was quantified by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results: Cytotoxic concentration of the oil was found to be 1 mg/ml by MTT assay. The titer of the virus pool was found to be 50× 107 PFU/ml. we observed 80% and 40% virus inhibition in 0.5mg/ml of ajwain oil by PRNT method in preexposure treatment and postexposure treatment (antiviral activity), respectively. Conclusion: Our data indicate ajwain oil has potential in vitro antiviral activity against JEV. Further, the active biomolecule will be purified and evaluated for anti-JEV activity and also to scale up for in vivo trial to evaluate the efficacy of ajwain oil in future. PMID:26130938

  1. PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AND PARTICLE FILMS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT ON TOMATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of three different plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of tomato spotted wilt and flower thrips in field grown tomatoes. The three plant essential oils tested were geraniol, lemon grass oil, and tea tree oil, and were applied at 250 ppm twic...

  2. The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. O. Okoh; A. A. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

    2007-01-01

    The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and

  3. Essential oil content and composition in commercially available dill cultivars in comparison to caraway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Bailer; Thomas Aichinger; Gerald Hackl; Karl de Hueber; Michael Dachler

    2001-01-01

    In field tests carried out over several years, 26 accessions of dill were compared to four annual and seven biennial caraway varieties concerning seed harvest yield, essential oil content and composition. Essential oil contents and carvone ratio in the essential oil are similar in caraway and dill, so harvest yield figures are crucial whether dill can be regarded as an

  4. Adams et al. 146/Journal of Essential Oil Research Vol. 19, March/April 2007

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    Adams et al. 146/Journal of Essential Oil Research Vol. 19, March/April 2007 Received: May 2006, 91768, USA Abstract Re-examination of the leaf essential oils of the one-seeded, serrate leaf junipers var. arizonica, Juniperus an- gosturana, Juniperus monosperma, Cupessaceae, essential oil composition

  5. Phytologia (August 2011) 93(2) 245 GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OILS

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    Phytologia (August 2011) 93(2) 245 GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OILS OF JUNIPERUS deserts. Phytologia 93(2): 245-259 (August 1, 2011). KEY WORDS: Juniperus californica, leaf essential oils(2)246 To date, no comprehensive geographic study of the leaf essential oil of J. californica has been published

  6. Plant essential oils and formamidines as insecticides/ acaricides: what are the molecular targets?

    E-print Network

    Plant essential oils and formamidines as insecticides/ acaricides: what are the molecular targets to combat Varroa mites. Nowadays, mainly plant essential oils and organic acids are applied because they are safer and impose less unfavorable effects on the environment. Essential oils contain mixtures of mostly

  7. Vol. 19, May/June 2007 Journal of Essential Oil Research/215 Received: July 2005

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    R. rosea Vol. 19, May/June 2007 Journal of Essential Oil Research/215 Received: July 2005 Revised: April 2006 Accepted: May 2006 Comparative Study of the Essential Oil of Rhodiola rosea L. from Mongolia The essential oil of the rhizomes of Mongolian Rhodiola rosea L. was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty

  8. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil from Artemisia glabella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Seidakhmetova; A. A. Beisenbaeva; G. A. Atazhanova; E. M. Suleimenov; R. N. Pak; A. T. Kulyyasov; S. M. Adekenov

    2002-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of various organic compounds, most of which possess an isoprenoid structure. Data in the literature are indicative of the high biological activity of essential oils, which makes possible the use of these substances in medicine and pharmacology [1, 2]. The chemical and pharmacological properties of an essential oil isolated from wormwood species Artemisia glabella Kar.

  9. 140/Journal of Essential Oil Research Vol. 22, March/April 2010 Menut et al.

    E-print Network

    140/Journal of Essential Oil Research Vol. 22, March/April 2010 Menut et al. lene (10 activity of these essential oils could be observed according the DPPH method; finally, considering the lack.B. Verlag, Hamburg, Germany (1998). 13. R.P. Adams, Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas

  10. Comparison of Essential Oils from Three Plants for Enhancement of Antimicrobial Activity of Nitrofurantoin against Enterobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatemeh Rafii; Ahmad R. Shahverdi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Piperitone from plant essential oils enhancesbactericidal activities of nitrofurantoin and furazolidone against bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, the essential oils of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)were screened for augmentation of nitrofurantoin activity and the most active components were determined. Method: The effects of essential oils and their components

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Plectranthus neochilus against Cariogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Crevelin, Eduardo José; Caixeta, Soraya Carolina; Dias, Herbert Júnior; Groppo, Milton; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller

    2015-01-01

    This work used the broth microdilution method to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We assessed the antimicrobial activity of this oil in terms of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). PN-EO displayed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 250??g/mL) and Streptococcus salivarus (MIC = 250??g/mL), significant activity against Streptococcus sobrinus (MIC = 62.5??g/mL), Streptococcus sanguinis (MIC = 62.5??g/mL), Streptococcus mitis (MIC = 31.25??g/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (MIC = 31.25??g/mL), and interesting activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 3.9??g/mL). GC-FID and GC-MS helped to identify thirty-one compounds in PN-EO; ?-pinene (1, 14.1%), ?-pinene (2, 7.1%), trans-caryophyllene (3, 29.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (4, 12.8%) were the major chemical constituents of this essential oil. When tested alone, compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were inactive (MIC > 4000??g/mL) against all the microorganisms. These results suggested that the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Plectranthus neochilus displays promising activity against most of the evaluated cariogenic bacteria, especially S. mutans. PMID:26161115

  12. Chemical constituents and activities of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans against cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Du, Shu-Shan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Long

    2014-09-01

    Essential oil extracted from nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) by hydrodistillation was subjected to GC/MS and GC analysis. A total of 27 constituents were identified, of which eugenol (19.9%), methylisoeugenol (16.8%), methyleugenol (16.7%), sabinene (11.8%), and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%) were the major components. The essential oil was tested against Lasioderma serricorne for insecticidal and repellent activity, the LD50 value at the end of 24?h exposure period was 19.3??g/adult. Six active compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. They were identified as eugenol (1), methyleugenol (2), methylisoeugenol (3), elemicin (4), myristicin (5), and safrole (6). Among these isolates, 4 showed the strongest contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with an LD50 value of 9.8??g/adult. Repellency of crude oil and active compounds were also determined. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were strongly repellent against the cigarette beetle and exhibited the same level of repellency compared with the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of M. fragrans and its active constituents have potential for development as natural insecticides and repellents to control L. serricorne. PMID:25238085

  13. Comparative larvicidal activity of essential oils from three medicinal plants against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Flávia P; Freitas, Silvério P; Lemos, Gloria C S; Vieira, Ivo J C; Gravina, Geraldo A; Lemos, Francisco J A

    2010-11-01

    This work aimed at comparing larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from the dried leaves of Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis against Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae were observed for 4?h and at 24?h according to a completely randomized design with three replications and the following concentrations [?l/ml]: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and controls were distilled water, and commercial standard citral, camphor, eucalyptol, ?-pinene, and ?-myrcene. The essential oil of C. citratus had the lowest LC?? (0.28) and LC?? (0.56) values, followed by that of A. speciosa (0.94 and 1.2, resp.) and of R. officinalis (1.18 and 1.67, resp.), and only the commercial standards citral and ?-pinene were larvicidal. PMID:21072779

  14. Chemical compositions of essential oils from Xyloselinum vietnamense and X. selinum leonidii.

    PubMed

    Tran, Huy Thai; Nguyen, Sinh Khang; Nguyen, Thi Hien; Tran, Minh Hoi; Nguyen, Tien Dat

    2012-10-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves and stems of Xyloselinum vietnamense and X. leonidii, two new species belonging to the family Apiaceae, were analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in both species were sabinene, alpha- and beta-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, (Z)-beta-ocimene, and terpinen-4-ol. The monoterpene sabinene was most abundant in the leaves of X. vietnamense (75.0%). These compounds might be considered as chemotaxonomic markers of Xyloselinum species. In the DPPH radical scavenging assay, all four essential oils showed moderate activity, while the water extracts exhibited stronger effects. The strong DPPH scavenging activity of the water residues of X. vietnamens and X. leonidii might be due to their phenolic components. This paper is the first report on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of X. vietnamens and X. leonidii. PMID:23162914

  15. Deacidifying rice bran oil by solvent extraction and membrane technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kale; S. P. R. Katikaneni; M. Cheryan

    1999-01-01

    Crude rice bran oil containing 16.5% free fatty acids (FFA) was deacidified by extracting with methanol. At the optimal ratio\\u000a of 1.8:1 methanol\\/oil by weight, the concentration of FFA in the crude rice bran oil was reduced to 3.7%. A second extraction\\u000a at 1:1 ratio reduced FFA in the oil to 0.33%. The FFA in the methanol extract was recovered

  16. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    PubMed

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. PMID:24721259

  17. 27 CFR 20.119 - Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. 20...preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. This...containing not less than 10% essential oils by volume made with a...

  18. 27 CFR 20.119 - Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. 20...preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. This...containing not less than 10% essential oils by volume made with a...

  19. 27 CFR 20.119 - Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. 20...preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. This...containing not less than 10% essential oils by volume made with a...

  20. Luminescence and fluorescence of essential oils. Fluorescence imaging in vivo of wild chamomile oil.

    PubMed

    Boschi, F; Fontanella, M; Calderan, L; Sbarbati, A

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils are currently of great importance to pharmaceutical companies, cosmetics producers and manufacturers of veterinary products. They are found in perfumes, creams, bath products, and household cleaning substances, and are used for flavouring food and drinks. It is well known that some of them act on the respiratory apparatus. The increasing interest in optical imaging techniques and the development of related technologies have made possible the investigation of the optical properties of several compounds. Luminescent properties of essential oils have not been extensively investigated. We evaluated the luminescent and fluorescent emissions of several essential oils, in order to detect them in living organisms by exploiting their optical properties. Some fluorescent emission data were high enough to be detected in dermal treatments. Consequently, we demonstrated how the fluorescent signal can be monitored for at least three hours on the skin of living mice treated with wild chamomile oil. The results encourage development of this technique to investigate the properties of drugs and cosmetics containing essential oils. PMID:22193298

  1. Chemical composition and phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from intact and fallen leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora.

    PubMed

    Batish, Daizy R; Singh, Harminder P; Setia, Nidhi; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder K

    2006-01-01

    A total of 23 volatile constituents was identified and characterized by GC and GC-MS in the volatile essential oil extracted from intact (juvenile and adult) and fallen (senescent and leaf litter) leaves of lemon-scented eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.). The leaves differed in their pigment, water and protein content, and C/N ratio. The oils were, in general, monoterpenoid in nature with 18 monoterpenes and 5 sesquiterpenes. However, a great variability in the amount of essential oils and their individual constituents was observed in different leaf tissues. The amount was maximum in the senescent leaves collected from the floor of the tree closely followed by that from juvenile leaves. In all, 19 constituents were identified in oil from juvenile and senescent leaves compared to 23 in adult leaves and 20 in leaf litter, respectively. Citronellal, a characteristic monoterpene of the oil reported hitherto was found to be more (77-78%) in the juvenile and senescent leaves compared to 48 and 54%, respectively, in the adult leaves and leaf litter. In the adult leaves, however, the content of citronellol--another important monoterpene-- was very high (21.9%) compared to other leaf types (7.8-12.2%). Essential oil and its two major monoterpenes viz. citronellal and citronellol were tested for their phytotoxicity against two weeds (Amaranthus viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli) and two crops (Triticum aestivum and Oryza sativa) under laboratory conditions. A difference in the phytotoxicity, measured in terms of seedling length and dry weight, of oil from different leaves and major monoterpenes was observed. Oil from adult leaves was found to be most phytotoxic although it occurs in smaller amount (on unit weight basis). The different toxicity of different oil types was due to the relative amount of individual monoterpenes present in the oil, their solubility and interactive action. The study concludes that oil from senescent and juvenile leaves being rich in citronellal could be used as commercial source of citronellal whereas that from adult leaves for weed management programmes as it was the most phytotoxic. PMID:16989303

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Thymus Syriacus Boiss Essential Oil and Its Components against Some Syrian Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Swied, Ghayath; Oda, Adnan; Al Hallab, Laila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the medical discoveries of different medicines and advanced ways of treatment, statistics have shown that the number of patients is increasing. This may be due to chemical drugs used in healthcare, agriculture, and diets. This soaring demand in medicines urges us to look for natural sources such as aromatic plants and essential oils, which are rich in efficient compounds. Methods: Extraction of essential oils was performed using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Identification was achieved using the GC-FID technique. Confirmation was made using the GC-MS technique, and isolation was done using a preparative HPLC, equipped with an aliquots collector. The microdilution broth susceptibility assay was utilized to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Our in vitro study demonstrated the antibacterial activity of the Thymus syriacus Boiss essential oil and its components against the tested isolates at levels between 0.375 and 50 µl/ml. The main components of the T. syriacus essential oil were carvacrol, ?-terpinene, and ß–caryophyllene. MIC90 values for the T. syriacus essential oil against the gram-negative organisms varied between 3.125 and 12.5 µl/ml. The most effective components against the gram-negative bacteria were thymol, carvacrol, dihydro-carvon, and linalool respectively. Conclusions: The T. syriacus essential oil and some of its components exhibited very good inhibitory effects against Syrian gram-negative isolates. PMID:24031109

  3. Compositional analysis and in vitro protective activity against oxidative stress of essential oils from egyptian plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-09-01

    The Sinai desert in Egypt contains great variability in plants extensively used for traditional medicines such as Achillea fragrantissima, Chiliadenus montanus, Mentha longifolia and Haplophyllum tuberculatum. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts have been analyzed. Subsequently, their potential protective activity against oxidative stress has been evaluated, employing H2O2 as oxidant inductor and astrocytes as the cell model. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the compounds identified in A. fragrantissima and M. longifolia samples were oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, whereas for H. tuberculatum they were monoterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds, and for C. montanus oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes predominated. The in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties, using ORAC assay, revealed that M. longifolia essential oil possessed the highest scavenging activity against peroxyl radicals, following by H. tuberculatum, A. fragrantissima and C. montanus. Under oxidative stress conditions, M. longifolia and H. tuberculatum essential oils were the only ones that protected human astrocytoma U373-MG cells against H2O2 damage. Both essential oils prevented cell death and inhibited ROS production caused by H2O2. M. longifolia essential oil was the most active, suggesting an interesting prevention role in those CNS disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25918816

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of five essential oils against oral pathogens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Thosar, Nilima; Basak, Silpi; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Rajurkar, Monali

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens and to find out the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities by detecting MIC and MBC/MFC of five essential oils such as tea tree oil, lavender oil, thyme oil, peppermint oil and eugenol oil were evaluated against four common oral pathogens by broth dilution method. The strains used for the study were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Results: Out of five essential oils, eugenol oil, peppermint oil, tea tree oil exhibited significant inhibitory effect with mean MIC of 0.62 ± 0.45, 9.00 ± 15.34, 17.12 ± 31.25 subsequently. Mean MBC/MFC for tea tree oil was 17.12 ± 31.25, for lavender oil 151.00 ± 241.82, for thyme oil 22.00 ± 12.00, for peppermint oil 9.75 ± 14.88 and for eugenol oil 0.62 ± 0.45. E. fecalis exhibited low degree of sensitivity compared with all essential oils. Conclusion: Peppermint, tea tree and thyme oil can act as an effective intracanal antiseptic solution against oral pathogens. PMID:24966732

  5. Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is a health problem. Essential oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and have been screened as potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. Terpenes and terpenoids are components derived from EOs. Some of these EOs show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Carvacrol has specific effects on S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Perilla oil suppresses expression of ?-toxin, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin. Geraniol shows good activity in modulating drug resistance in several gram-negative species. EOs could act as biopreservatives, reducing or eliminating pathogenic bacteria and increasing the overall quality of animal and vegetable food products. Although clinical studies are scarce, the uses of EOs for topical administration and as penetration enhancers for antiseptics are promising. Little information exists for oral administration. PMID:21903378

  6. Composition and antimicrobial activity of Equisetum arvense L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Radulovi?, Niko; Stojanovi?, Gordana; Pali?, Radosav

    2006-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the sterile stems of Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) were investigated for the first time using GC, GC/MS and (13)C-NMR. Twenty-five compounds were identified. Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (18.34%), cis-geranyl acetone (13.74%), thymol (12.09%) and trans-phytol (10.06%) were the major constituents. A disk diffusion method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this oil against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis; fungi: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). The 1:10 dilution of the essential oil of Equisetum arvense L. was shown to possess a broad spectrum of a very strong antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. PMID:16397851

  7. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was highly susceptible to all the other essential oils at the diagnostic dose. Conclusions C. citratus, E. tereticornis, E. citriodora, C. ambrosioides and C. schoenanthus are potential promising plant sources for alternative compounds to pyrethroids, for the control of the Anopheles malaria vector in Benin. The efficacy of their essential oils is possibly based on their chemical compositions in which major and/or minor compounds have reported insecticidal activities on various pests and disease vectors such as Anopheles. PMID:24298981

  8. Essential Oils of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Airidas Dapkevicius; Teris A. van Beek

    1996-01-01

    The essential oil of fennel leaves, flowers, fruits and stems was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty constituents were identified, which constituted 98.3% of the total integrated area of the detected GC peaks. The concentration of the main compound (E)-anethole varied from 50.1% in fruits to 73.6% in stems. Limonene (1.5–20.7%), fenchone (3.6–15.9%), ?-pinene (1.9–19.5%) and ?-phellandrene (2.4–8.8%) were

  9. Kinetics of distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe juniper ( Juniperus communis L.) berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetomir Ž. Milojevi?; Tamara D. Stojanovi?; Radosav Pali?; Miodrag L. Lazi?; Vlada B. Veljkovi?

    2008-01-01

    The distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe berries of Juniperus communis L. (juniper oil) was studied at different hydrodistillation rates. The distillation of juniper consisted of an initial, fast oil distillation followed by a slow oil distillation. Based on this mechanism, the kinetics of juniper oil distillation were described using a two-parameter model of unsteady-state diffusion through the plant

  10. Dynamic extraction of spearmint oil components by using supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.H.; Hong, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of various extraction conditions on the dynamic extraction of the essential oil components carvone and limonene from spearmint leaves using SC-CO{sub 2} were investigated. The extraction rate increased with increasing pressure or decreasing temperature. an increase of the CO{sub 2} flow rate increased the extraction rate but decreased the solvent efficiency of CO{sub 2}. Ground leaf samples with a smaller particle size showed an enhanced initial extraction rate for carvone as compared to larger particle size leaf samples. The use of an ethanol modifier did not enhance the extraction rate but did cause the coextraction of pigment and waxy substances.

  11. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis. PMID:17976968

  12. SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION PROCESSING OF HIGH-OIL CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sequential Extraction Process (SEP), a process that uses ethanol to fractionate corn, was evaluated as an approach to recover oil and other co-products from high-oil corn (HOC). Oil and protein recoveries, ethanol-drying capability, and oil and protein properties were compared with those of nor...

  13. Effect of lavender essential oil on LPS-stimulated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei-Yu; Liao, May-Hua; Wang, Yang-Kao; Huang, Yung-Sheng; Wen, Hsiao-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Lavender essential oil (LEO) is one the most favorite and widely used essential oils in aromatherapy. Many studies have demonstrated its functions in calming, assisting sleep, reducing pain and muscular spasms and its antiseptic function. To date, however, the mechanism of LEO on inflammation response is not well understood. In this study, we examined the effect of LEO on 5 ?g/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation reaction in human monocyte THP-1 cells. We found treatment of 0.1% LEO significantly increased cell viability and inhibited the IL-1? and superoxide anion generation in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Treatment with LEO down-regulated both LPS-induced protein levels of phospho-NF-?B and membrane Toll-like receptor 4. To determine whether the chaperone protein was involved in the reaction, we determined the levels of Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70). Our results showed that LEO increased HSP70 expression in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells, suggesting that the LEO inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory effect might be associated with the expression of HSP70. PMID:22809036

  14. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-11

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone--12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone--14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays. PMID:24956490

  15. Investigation of the chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship of essential oils by chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Miladinovi?, Dragoljub L; Ili?, Budimir S; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Nikoli?, Nikola D; Miladinovi?, Ljiljana C; Cvetkovi?, Olga G

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and Calamintha nepeta (Lamiaceae) Savi subsp. nepeta var. subisodonda (Borb.) Hayek essential oils on five different bacteria were estimated. Laboratory control strain and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media were researched by broth microdilution method, with an emphasis on a chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95%) and p-cymene (18.34%). Linalool acetate (38.23%) and ?-linalool (35.01%) were main compounds in lavender oil. C. nepeta essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of piperitone oxide (59.07%) and limonene (9.05%). Essential oils have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Classification and comparison of essential oils on the basis of their chemical composition and antibacterial activity were made by utilization of appropriate chemometric methods. The chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierachical cluster analysis (HCA) separated essential oils into two groups and two sub-groups. Thyme essential oil forms separate chemical HCA group and exhibits highest antibacterial activity, similar to tetracycline. Essential oils of lavender and C. nepeta in the same chemical HCA group were classified in different groups, within antibacterial PCA and HCA analyses. Lavender oil exhibits higher antibacterial ability in comparison with C. nepeta essential oil, probably based on the concept of synergistic activity of essential oil components. PMID:22389175

  16. Determination of the effect of plant essential oils obtained by supercritical fluid extraction on the growth and viability of Listeria monocytogenes in broth and food systems using flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muñoz; L. Guevara; A. Palop; J. Tabera; P. S. Fernández

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of oregano, rosemary and laurel extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were investigated by examining their influence on the growth and viability of Listeria monocytogenes in laboratory medium and broccoli juice at 30 and 8°C. Important decreases in the L. monocytogenes population were shown in presence of all the extracts obtained from rosemary and one oregano extract.

  17. Essential oil from lemon peels inhibit key enzymes linked to neurodegenerative conditions and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from lemon (Citrus limoni) peels on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography. Antioxidant properties of the oil and inhibition of pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenate were also assessed. The essential oil inhibited AChE and BChE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. GC analysis revealed the presence of sabinene, limonene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, neral, geranial, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, ?-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalyl acetate and ?-caryophyllene. Furthermore, the essential oil exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by ferric reducing property, Fe(2+)-chelation and radicals [DPPH, ABTS, OH, NO] scavenging abilities. The inhibition of AChE and BChE activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:24599102

  18. Comparative essential oil composition of aerial parts of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss. from Southern Zagros, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Gholam Abbas; Naseri, Mahmood; Hatami, Ahmad; Jafari, Efat

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of leaves and flowers of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss., an endemic medicinal shrub, were extracted by using hydrodistillation method and analysed using GC and GC-MS. A total of 43 and 44 compounds were identified in the essential oils from the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum, respectively. The major chemical constituents of leaves oil were borneol (27.9%), bornyl acetate (18.4%), 1,8-cineol (17.5%), ?-terpineol (5.3%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (3.3%), camphene (2.7%) and terpinene-4-ol (1.9%), while the main components of the flower oil were isobornyl-2-methyl butanoate (41.1%), trans-linalyl oxide acetate (11.9%), 1,8-cineole (7.7%), thymol (4.2%), linalool (3.9%), camphor (2.9%), isobornyl propanoate (2.9%), ?-terpineol (2.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.0%). Major qualitative and quantitative variations for some main chemical compounds among different aerial parts of T. dumosum were identified. High contents of borneol, bornyl acetate, 1,8-cineol and linalool in the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum show its potential for use in the food and perfumery industry. PMID:25370611

  19. Study on essential oils from four species of Zhishi with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Citrus fruits are widely used as food and or for medicinal purposes, and they contain a host of active substances that contribute to health. The immature fruits of Citrus sinensis Osbeck and its cultivars (CS), C. junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (CJ), C. aurantium L. and its cultivars (CA) and Poncirus trifoliate Raf. (PT) are the most commonly used medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine, called Zhishi. And their mature fruits can be used as food. Results In this study, the essential oils of four different Zhishi species were extracted by steam distillation and detected using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 39 volatiles from the four species were tentatively identified. The limonene was the most abundant amongst the four species. Principal component analysis (PCA) of essential oils showed a clear separation of volatiles among CS, CJ and PT. However, CA could not be separated from these three species. Additionally, the volatiles accounting for the variations among the widely separated species were characterized through their corresponding loading weight. Conclusion Sesquiterpenes were identified as characteristic markers for PT. The content of some monoterpenes could be as taxonomic markers between CS and CJ. This work is of great importance for the evaluation and authentication of Zhishi samples through essential oils. PMID:24708882

  20. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the consequences of our actions, and we saw for ourselves how we are polluting and killing the environment. Releasing excess nutrients into our waterways is creating a destructive chain reaction, but if we monitor our output of pollution, we can minimize the amount of damage we do to algae, organisms, and the environment in general.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deqiang; Yuan, Yi; Jiang, Ling; Tai, Yuling; Yang, Xiumei; Hu, Fang; Xie, Zhongwen

    2013-03-01

    Echinacea purpurea L. is a medicinal plant originally from North America. It has become a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide because it contains various biologically active compounds. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from E. purpurea in both mice and rats. The extract was obtained from flower of E. purpurea by steam distillation. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in vivo by using different animal models such as xylene-induced mouse ear edema, egg-white-induced rat paw edema, and cotton-induced granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation in mice. The serial dosages were used in vivo: the low dosage, the medium dosage and the high dosage. The low, medium and high dosages of extracts produced inhibitions of 39.24%, 47.22% and 44.79% respectively in the ear edema induced by xylene when compare with the control group. Only the high dosage group showed statistically significant inhibition (48.51%) of paw edema formation induced three hours by egg white compared with the control group (P<0.01). Moreover, the granulation formation was also significantly reduced the most by 28.52% in the high dose groups compared with the control group (P <0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-? in the blood were reduced in the treated groups. The essential oils from extracts of E. purpurea have anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:23455214

  2. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from five endemic conifers of New Caledonia on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hue, Thomas; Hnawia, Edouard; Lesaffre, Leïla; Menut, Chantal; Nour, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from endemic conifers of New Caledonia in the context of the development of natural alternatives. Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from resin and heartwood of five endemic conifers of New Caledonia (Araucaria columnaris, Agathis moorei, Agathis ovata, Callitris sulcata, and Neocallitropsis pancheri) was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using the Larval Packal Test bioassay. A first screening with 5% dilute solution was carried out and the oils with 100% of mortality at this rate were diluted until no activity was shown. The heartwood oils of the two Cupressaceae were the most active with LC50 value of 0.65% for C. sulcata and 0.55% for N. pancheri while resin oil of A. columnaris (LC50=1.62%) was the most active of the Araucariaceae family. Negative control (ethanol) was not toxic to the larvae. The chemical composition of essential oil from resin of A. columnaris was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil was characterized by high level of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes and was composed mainly of aromadendrene (23.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (16.0%). In order to compare different plant resources in a sustainable program of natural acaricide, an "essential oil efficiency EOE" can be measured as the ratio between the yield of extraction and LC50 value. This study shows that A. columnaris (EOE=2.36) and N. pancheri (EOE=3.51) could provide valuable and effective natural acaricides for control of the cattle tick R. microplus. PMID:23371495

  3. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:24252340

  4. Chemical composition of essential oil of Senecio coincyi, an endemic species of the Central Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Arrabal, Carlos; Martínez García, Felipe; Paz Arraiza, María; Guerrero García, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil has been studied of leaves of Senecio coincyi Rouy, an endemic species of Spain restricted to a very small area of the Central Iberian Peninsula. Samples from five locations were obtained by hydrodistillation and extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compound was 1-tridecene (28.1 +/- 8.5%). The presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons (1-undecene, 1-dodecene and 1-tridecene) seems to indicate a chemotaxonomic relationship between Senecio coincyi and S. congestus. PMID:21366061

  5. Antinociceptive effects, acute toxicity and chemical composition of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Emad; Vafaei Saiah, Gholamreza; Hasannejad, Hamideh; Ghaderi, Adel; Ghaderi, Shahla; Hamidian, Gholamreza; Mahmoudi, Razzagh; Eshgi, Davoud; Zangisheh, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and its essential oil have been traditionally used to treat many conditions and symptoms such as premenstrual problems, mastalgia, inflammation, sexual dysfunction, and pain. In this study, the effects of essential oil extracted from Vitex agnus-castus (EOVAC) leaves were investigated in three behavioral models of nociception in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Chemical composition of EOVAC was analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also its possible toxicity was determined in mice. Analgesic effect of EOVAC was determined using tail immersion test, formalin test, and acetic acid-induced visceral pain in rats. Results: EOVAC (s.c.) and morphine (i.p.) significantly (p<0.05) reduced pain responses in both formalin and tail immersion tests. In the study of evolved mechanisms, pretreatment with naloxone or atropine significantly (p <0.05) reversed the essential oil-induced analgesia in both formalin and tail immersion tests. Moreover, EOVAC and Piroxicam produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition in the acetic acid-induced writhing response. EOVAC did not show any mortality even at high dose (5 g/kg, p.o.) of administration in toxicity test. Moreover, according to GC-MS results, major components of the EOVAC were ?-pinene (14.83%), limonene (10.29%), ?-caryophyllene (6.9%), sabinene (5.27%), and ?-farnesene (5.9%). Conclusions: These results suggest that endogenous opioidergic system as well as muscarinergic receptors of cholinergic system may be involve in the antinociceptive activity of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil in these models of pain in rats.

  6. Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina A. Maggiore; Adriana A. Albanese; Liesel B. Gende; Martín J. Eguaras; Guillermo M. Denegri; María Celina Elissondo

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of Mentha piperita and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Echinococcus granulosus and to compare the effectiveness of both oils according to the exposure time and concentration. Although both treatments\\u000a had a protoscolicidal effect, M. pulegium had a considerably stronger effect than M. piperita. Essential oil of M.

  7. Comparison of the Pharmacological and Antimicrobial Action of Commercial Plant Essential Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lis-Balchin; S. Hart; S. G. Deans; E. Eaglesham

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacology and antimicrobial action of selected commercial, plant essential oils was studied to relate bioactivity with the chemical components. Spasmogenic action induced by oils on Guinea-pig ileum in vitro was related to a high terpene content, mainly the pinenes, ?-cymene, and limonene. Many of the essential oils that induced spasmogenic activity were also strong antibacterial agents. A correlation was

  8. Nutritional quality and essential oil compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn.) tissue and seed.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R; Olosunde, O O; Adegbite, J A; Omolola, O A

    2014-10-01

    Nutritional quality and essential oil compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn.) tissue and seed were determined. Oil was extracted from the seed using standard methods while the fatty acids of the oil, chemical and anti-nutritional properties of defatted seed flour were determined. Total fat yield of the seed flour was 12.20%. Defatted seed flour had higher crude fibre (36.92%), carbohydrate (40.07%) and ash (8.17%) contents. Major mineral contents were potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium. The tissue contain appreciable amount of vitamin C (8.10 mg/100 g). Oleic acid (42.59%) was the major fatty acid in the seed oil and the total unsaturated fatty acid was 62.38%. The seed oil had higher acid and saponification values and low iodine value. Oxalate (11.09 mg/100 g) content was the major anti-nutrient in the defatted seed flour. Defatted T. danielli seed flour serves as good source of dietary fibre and energy. PMID:24799240

  9. Antileishmanial activity of an essential oil from the leaves and flowers of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O; Santin, A C; Yamaguchi, M U; Cortez, L E R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Dias-Filho, B P; Nakamura, C V

    2010-09-01

    An essential oil was recently extracted from the leaves and flowers of yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and tested for in-vitro activity against Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages (i.e. the J774G8 cell line). The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) against L. amazonensis promastigotes was 7.8 ?g/ml whereas the survival of amastigotes of this pathogen, within peritoneal murine macrophages, was halved by treatment with the oil at 6.5 ?g/ml. The mean value for the median cytotoxic concentration of the oil, measured against adherent (uninfected) J774G8 macrophages, was 72.0 ?g/ml (i.e. 9.2 and 11.0 times higher, respectively, than the IC(50) against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the oil caused morphological changes in the treated parasites, including alterations in their shape and size. In transmission electron microscopy, promastigotes treated with the oil (at the IC(50) of 7.8 ?g/ml) showed various ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the flagellar membrane, abnormal membrane structures, rupture of the plasma membrane, atypical vacuoles, myelin-like figures, and vesicles that resembled autophagic vacuoles. PMID:20863436

  10. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 ?g/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 ?g/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy observed in this study is attributed to both major and minor compounds of the essential oils. PMID:24885613

  11. Extraction of the volatile oil from Carum carvi of Tunisia and Lithuania by supercritical carbon dioxide: chemical composition and antiulcerogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Baananou, Sameh; Bagdonaite, Edita; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Boughattas, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the essential oil prepared from Carum carvi seeds exhibits antiulcerogenic activity. Its volatile oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analysed by GC-MS to monitor their composition. The chemical analysis revealed that the essential oils extracted under SFE conditions had high carvone and limonene contents. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated by the HCl/ethanol method, which causes injury to the gastric mucosa. Three treated groups received the essential oil (100-300 mg/kg). The reference group received omeprazole (30 mg/kg) and the control group received NaCl. After 30 min, all groups were treated with HCl/EtOH for gastric ulcer induction. The results show C. carvi essential oil enhanced a significant inhibition of 47%, 81% and 88%, respectively, for three doses of essential oil used, which was similar to that induced by omeprazole (95%) (p < 0.005). PMID:23495832

  12. Chemical Composition, Modulatory Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil the Hyptis martiusii Benth by Direct and Gaseous Contact

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Allan Demetrius Leite; Galvao Rodrigue, Fabiola Fernandes; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; da Costa, Jose Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that species of the genus Hyptis, have promising antimicrobial and antifungal effects. Objectives: Identify of chemical constituents of essential oil from leaves of Hyptis martiusii and evaluate its effect against bacterial strains by direct and gaseous contact. Materials and Methods: Essential oil was extracted from leaves of Hyptis martiusii Benth using hydro-distillation, and its composition was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical analysis showed that there was a predominance of sesquiterpenes. The leaf essential oil was screened for its minimal inhibitory concentration and modulatory effect of aminoglycoside by the direct (MIC) and gaseous (MID) micro-dilution assays for various pathogenic microorganisms. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of all of the tested bacteria (MIC < 512 ?g/mL) except S. aureus (SA358) multidrug resistant (MRSA) by direct contact. Results: Twenty-four compounds representing 92.13% of the essential oil of leaves were characterized; ? -3-carene (6.88%), 1, 8-cineole (7.01%), trans-caryophyllene (9.21%), Cariophyllene oxide (7.47%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.61%) were found as the major components. Modulatory aminoglycoside effect, by direct contact, was showed antagonistic relationship with antimicrobial activity. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of all of the tested bacteria in 50% and 25% of oil concentration and demonstrated synergistic interactions can be attributed to the constituting the oil compounds. Conclusions: These results show that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:25237640

  13. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    PubMed Central

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1?:?1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1?:?1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

  14. Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects. PMID:25233584

  15. Phytologia (January 2014) 96(1)28 The leaf essential oil of Juniperus formosana (Taiwan) compared

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    Phytologia (January 2014) 96(1)28 The leaf essential oil of Juniperus formosana (Taiwan) compared of Juniperus formosana, J. jackii and J. mairei are presented. The volatile leaf oil of J. formosana (Taiwan, including sibirene, that is rare in Juniperus leaf oils. Each of these 3 species have a unique oil

  16. Vol. 22, January/February 2010 Journal of Essential Oil Research/23 J. communis

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    2007 Revised: January 2008 Accepted: July 2008 The Leaf Essential Oils of Juniperus communis L Hemisphere. The oil of Juniperus communis var. jackii had the most distinct oil and contained moderate with several diterpenes including isoabienol. Juniperus communis var. charlottensis oil had a very high

  17. Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng of Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yentema, Onadja; Alioune, Ouedraogo; Abdoul Dorosso, Samate

    Essential oils have a significant role in the society where they are variously used in fields such as medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, chemical and food-processing industries. This justifies interest which they cause and thus systematic studies are undertaken on aromatic species, allowing without any doubt their use advisedly. This study concerns the characterization of the essential oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus of Burkina Faso, extracted by drive with the water vapor in a distillation operation. The analysis of the chemical composition is carried out by Gas Chromatography. It shows that the 16 made up ones identified account for 65. 2% of the essential oil composition. These compounds belong to the two classes regularly met in essential oils: the mono ones and sesquiterpenes. However, proportion of monoterpenes (53. 2%) is higher than that of sesquiterpenes (12%). Among the identified compounds two monoterpenes (the piperitone and ?-2-carene) remain the principal components in the essential oil. Then the authors determine the density d = 0.9057 by double weighing, the optical activity ? = +28.175 by polarimetry and the refractive index n = 1.465 by an interferometric method which they describe. Cymbopogon schoenanthus is an aromatic plant of the family of Poaceae very often used in traditional pharmacopoeia for internal as well as external treatments.

  18. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Mentha spicata L. subsp. Spicata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. ?arer; S. Ya?mur Toprak; B. Otlu; R. Durmaz

    2011-01-01

    The air-dried aerial parts of M.spicata L. subsp. spicata, which were collected from eastern Turkey, were subjected to hydrodistillation and the essential oil was obtained in a yield of 3.24% (v\\/w). The oil was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-seven constituents, accounting for more than 95.3% of the total oil composition, were identified. The main compounds of the essential oil

  19. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L. Grown in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Éva B. Héthelyi; Kornél Korány; Bertalan Galambosi; János Domokos; János Pálinkás

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil of Rhodiola rosea L., from rhizomes cultivated in Finland was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS methods in Hungary. The air-dried rhizomes contained 0.04% essential oil. Thirteen components which were characterized in the oil were mainly monoterpenoid (84.3%). Myrtenol (36.9%), trans-pinocarveol (16.1%), geraniol (12.7%) and dihydrocumin alcohol (12.1%) were the most abundant volatiles detected in the oil. Myrtenol,

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil from Seeds of Carum carvi and Its Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaripa Begum; M Nazrul; Islam Bhuiyan; Jasim Uddin Chowdhury; M Nuzmul Hoque; M Nural Anwar

    2008-01-01

    The essential oil of Carum carvi L. seeds was screened for its antimicrobial activity against ten pathogenic bacteria and six phytopathogenic fungi. The essential oil showed promising inhibitory activity against all the test bacteria, even at 2 µ µµ µµl\\/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 100-300 ppm) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 200-400 ppm) values of essential oil were determined.

  1. Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen-Sung Cheng; Hui-Ting Chang; Shang-Tzen Chang; Kun-Hsien Tsai; Wei-June Chen

    2003-01-01

    The bioactivity of 14 essential oils from five plants has been studied using the brine shrimp lethality test and the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. All essential oils screened had LC50 values smaller than 200 ?g\\/ml, showing significant lethality against brine shrimp. In addition, nine of the 14 essential oils tested showed toxicity against the fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae in 24

  2. Seed Yields and Essential Oil of Northern-Grown Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Argañosa; F. W. Sosulski; A. E. Slikard

    1998-01-01

    Cultivars of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) were grown at several locations in Western Canada in 1994, 1995, and 1996 for analysis of seed weights, essential oil content of seed, and percent linalool in the essential oil. The six large-seed selections had 1000-seed weights of 9.2 to 9.9 g, 0.83 to 0.90 percent essential oil, and 60.7 to 62.5 percent linalool

  3. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Tsong Lin; Chi-Jung Chen; Ting-Yu Lin; Judia Chen Tung; Sheng-Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC–MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were ?-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), ?-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory

  4. Skin regeneration effect and chemical composition of essential oil from Artemisia Montana.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi-So; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2014-11-01

    Artemisia montana Pampan (Compositae) (AMP) contains various compounds, including phenolic acids, alkaloids, and essential oil. It has been widely used in oriental medicine due to a variety of biological effects. However, the biological activity of the essential oil from AMP (AMPEO) on skin has not been investigated. In the present study, AMPEO was evaluated for its composition and its effect on cellular events (migration and proliferation) related to skin regeneration using normal human keratinocytes (HaCats). AMPEO, which was extracted by steam distillation, contained 42 components. AMPEO increased proliferation in HaCats in a dose-dependent manner (EC 50, 8.5 ng/mL) and did not affect migration. AMPEO also enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK 1/2 and induced the synthesis of type IV collagen, but not type I collagen in HaCats. In addition, AMPEO promoted wound closure in the dorsal side skin of rat tail. These results demonstrated that AMPEO extracted by steam distillation induced proliferation and synthesis of type IV collagen in human skin keratinocytes, and may thereby exert positive effects on skin regeneration and wound healing in human skin. PMID:25532296

  5. Method of extracting oil and by-products from oil shale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Busey

    1971-01-01

    Oil and by-products are extracted from oil shale by drilling a hole into the shale bed and heating the shale in its bed. Steam and oxygen or air mixtures provide self-sustaining heating that draws oil from the shale in the form of vapor and mist. As the oil is removed, the heat and subsequent water gas reaction changes the hard

  6. Chemical composition and possible in vitro antigermination activity of three Hypericum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Marandino, Aurelio; De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; Milella, Luigi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    The essential oils of Hypericum perforatum, H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum, growing in Southern Italy, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In the three oils, 111 compounds in all were identified: 53 for the oil of H. hircinum (93.7% of the total oil), 55 for H. perforatum (96.5% of the total oil) and 63 for H. perfoliatum (98.7% of the total oil). The major fraction of the essential oils of H. perforatum and H. hircinum was represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the monoterpene alpha-pinene, and the phenol thymol were the most abundant compounds in the essential oil of H. perfoliatum. The oils were evaluated for their potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativum. The germination of this latter was significantly inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum, at the highest doses tested, whereas radicle elongation of garden cress was significantly inhibited by the essential oils of H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum. The radicle elongation of radish was inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum to a major extent and by H. perforatum and perfoliatum in a minor measure. PMID:22224300

  7. Anti-biofilm properties of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil against periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Gursoy, Mervi; Gursoy, Orhan Vedat; Cakmakci, Lutfu; Könönen, Eija; Uitto, Veli-Jukka

    2009-08-01

    Essential oils of several plants are widely used in ethnomedicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited data exist on their use in connection to periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacterial growth inhibiting and anti-biofilm effects of Satureja hortensis L. (summer savory), Salvia fruticosa M. (sage), Lavandula stoechas L. (lavender), Myrtus communis L., and Juniperus communis L. (juniper) essential oils. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) with the agar dilution method, and anti-biofilm effects by the microplate biofilm assay. The toxicity of each essential oil was tested on cultured keratinocytes. Of the 5 essential oils, S. hortensis L. essential oil had the strongest growth inhibition effect. Subinhibitory dose of S. hortensis L. essential oil had anti-biofilm effects only against Prevotella nigrescens. Essential oils did not inhibit keratinocyte viability at the concentrations of 1 and 5 microl/ml, however at the concentration of 5 microl/ml epithelial cells detached from the culture well bottom. The present findings suggest that S. hortensis L. essential oil inhibits the growth of periodontal bacteria in the concentration that is safe on keratinocytes, however, in the subinhibitory concentration its anti-biofilm effect is limited. PMID:19285147

  8. Rate of the vegetable oil extraction with supercritical CO 2—III. Extraction from sea buckthorn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bártlová; H. Sovová

    1996-01-01

    Oil from the seed and pulp of sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) was extracted with carbon dioxide at pressures 9.6–27 MPa and temperatures 25–60°C. Influence of extraction conditions on solubility and mass transfer rate was studied. No marked changes in composition of extracted oil in the course of extraction were observed. Experimental extraction curves were evaluated using a model

  9. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum suave Essential Oils against Uropathogens Isolated from Patients in Selected Hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tibyangye, Julius; Okech, Matilda Angela; Nyabayo, Josephat Maniga; Nakavuma, Jessica Lukanga

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine antibacterial activity of Ocimum suave essential oils against bacterial uropathogens. Study Design A cross sectional and experimental study. Place and Duration of Study Six selected hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda between June 2012 and July 2013. Methodology Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and inoculated on Cystine Lysine Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24hrs to 48hrs. The O. suave essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation of leaves for 4hrs using a Clevenger apparatus. The oil was collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) and kept at 4°C till further use. The antimicrobial activity of O. suave essential oils against isolates was determined by agar well method. The MIC of O. suave essential oil extract was carried out by microbroth dilution method. Results Of the three hundred (300) midstream urine samples collected, 67(22.33%) had significant bacterial growth. Escherichia coli is the most common isolate (61.19%, n = 41). The essential oil from O. suave showed activity against isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. feacalis, M. morganii, Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species and P. aeruginosa with mean zone of inhibition (ZI) ranging from 10–22 mm. The essential oils had no inhibitory activity on Acinetobacter species. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for O. suave essential oils ranged from 0.78 to 22 ?g/ml. This study showed that O. suave essential oils had MIC value of 0.78 ?g/ml against S. aureus and MIC values ranging from 3 to 22 ?g/ml against the other tested isolates. Conclusion The most common uropathogen was E. coli (61.19% n = 41). O. suave essential oils exhibited antibacterial activity against majority of the uropathogens, except Acinetobacter species, mean ZI of 10–22 mm and MIC of 0.78 – 22 ?g/ml.

  10. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepa; Pal, Anirban; Chanotiya, C S; Mishra, Dhirendra; Pandey, K N

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1-92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8-2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2-1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0-2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2-0.4%), (Z)-?-ocimene (0.2-0.4%), elemicin (0.2-0.3%), linalool (0.1-0.9%) and kessane (t-0.2%) were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the main fraction of Origanum vulgare essential oil attaining 90.5% of the total oil composition. p-Cymene (10.3%) was the major component of the monoterpene hydrocarbon fraction while thymol (53.2%) and carvacrol (3.9%) were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes among the 33 identified constituents. Cinnamomum tamala leaf oil contained (E)-cinnamaldehyde as the principal component. Quantitative variations in (Z)-cinnamaldehyde (5.8-7.1%), linalool (6.4-8.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (4.7-5.2%) were significant. The antifungal activity of the hydro-distilled essential oils of A. calamus, O. vulgare and C. tamala were evaluated against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Disc diffusion method was used for the determination of the inhibitory effect. O. vulgare essential oil exhibited the highest activity. Moreover, all three essential oils inhibit the growth of A. flavus and A. niger. PMID:21707253

  11. Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

    2014-01-01

    UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. PMID:24372191

  12. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree Oil) against Pathogenic Fungi in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nenoff; U.-F. Haustein; W. Brandt

    1996-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of tea oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, has been evaluated against 26 strains of various dermatophyte species, 54 yeasts, among them 32 strains of Candida albicans and other Candida sp. as well as 22 different Malassezia furfur strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tea tree oil were measured by agar dilution technique. Tea

  13. Antibacterial activity of Chamomilla recutita oil extract against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Kvetnaya, Asya S

    2008-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of an oil extract of Chamomilla recutita flowers against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was evaluated by the agar dilution method using Colombia agar with 10% sheep blood, an inoculum of McFarland 0.5 and incubation in an anaerobic atmosphere at 37 degrees C for 3 days. The oil extract was prepared by olive oil extraction of Chamomilla recutita flowers using rotary pulsation. The MIC(90) (minimal inhibitory concentration) and MIC(50) were 125 mg/mL and 62.5 mg/mL, respectively. It was shown that the Chamomilla recutita oil extract inhibited the production of urease by H. pylori. In addition, it was found that the morphological and fermentative properties of H. pylori were affected by application of the Chamomilla recutita oil extract. PMID:17724768

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of oil from millet bran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Devittori; D. Gumy; A. Kusy; L. Colarow; C. Bertoli; P. Lambelet

    2000-01-01

    Proso millet bran [Panicum miliaceum (L.)], variety Dakota White, was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) to yield crude oil. The effects of operating parameters (pressure, temperature, and specific solvent flow) and of features\\u000a of the raw material (moisture content and particle size) on oil extraction were investigated. Complete de-oiling of ground\\u000a millet bran pellets was achieved under 300 bar

  15. AQUEOUS ENZYMATIC OIL EXTRACTION: A "GREEN" BIOPROCESS TO OBTAIN OIL FROM CORN GERM AND OTHER OIL-RICH PLANT MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new bioprocesses are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive oil in ...

  16. Composition and antiviral activity of the essential oils of Eryngium alpinum and E. amethystinum.

    PubMed

    Dunki?, Valerija; Vuko, Elma; Bezi?, Nada; Kremer, Dario; Ruš?i?, Mirko

    2013-10-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Croatian Eryngium alpinum L. and E. amethystinum L. were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The main components identified were the sesquiterpene ?-caryophyllene (19.7%) in the oil of E. amethystinum and the oxygenated sesquiterpene caryophyllene oxide (21.6%) in the oil of E. alpinum. Overall, 32 and 35 constituents were detected in the essential oils of the aerial parts of E. alpinum and E. amethystinum, respectively, representing 92.4 and 93.1% of the total oil compositions. The essential oils of both Eryngium species were proved to reduce the number of lesions in the local host Chenopodium quinoa infected with cucumber mosaic virus and an associated satellite. This is the first investigation of antiphytoviral activity of essential oils of Eryngium species. PMID:24130032

  17. Comparative Study of the Essential Oil of Rhodiola rosea L. from Mongolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanduin Shatar; Robert P. Adams; Wilfried Koenig

    2007-01-01

    The essential oil of the rhizomes of Mongolian Rhodiola rosea L. was investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-six constituents were identified in the oil. The main components in the oil were geraniol (32.3%), myrtenol (15.7%), octanol (13.7%), trans-pinocarveol (11.6%), trans-myrtanol (3.2%), isopinocamphone (2.8%) and piperitone (1.2%). Comparisons are made with Rhodiola rosea rhizome oil from Finland and Norway and oils

  18. The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Evandri; L. Battinelli; C. Daniele; S. Mastrangelo; P. Bolle; G. Mazzanti

    2005-01-01

    Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are

  19. ? ? ? ? ? Pinene chemotype of leaf (needle) essential oils of Juniperus communis L. growing wild in Vilnius district

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Butkienë; Ona Nivinskienë

    The chemical composition of seven leaf (needle) essential oils produced by individual plants of J. communis growing wild in Vilnius district was determined by GC and GC\\/MS. ? -Pinene dominated in all oils (38.5- 59.9%). The second main compound in six oils was ?-phellandrene (4.1- 11.4%) and ? -cadinol in one oil (8.7%). The third major constituent in four oils

  20. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from Salvia sclarea plants regenerated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ku?ma, Lukasz; Kalemba, Danuta; Rózalski, Marek; Rózalska, Barbara; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Krajewska, Urszula; Wysoki?ska, Halina

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of dried aerial parts of Salvia sclarea L. plants, regenerated in vitro and reproduced from seeds, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils from in vitro and in vivo plants were compared in respect to their chemical composition as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The chemical profiles of both oils were very similar, although the yield of essential oil from in vitro plants was lower (0.1%, v/w) than the oil yield isolated from in vivo S. sclarea plants (0.2%, v/w). Both oils showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. The oil from in vitro regenerated plants of S. sclarea exhibited stronger cytotoxic action against NALM-6 cell lines in comparison with the essential oil from in vivo plants. PMID:19384275

  1. Evaluation of Clausena anisata essential oil from Cameroon for controlling food spoilage fungi and its potential use as an antiradical agent.

    PubMed

    Yaouba, Aoudou; Tatsadjieu, Léopold Ngoune; Dongmo, Pierre Michel Jazet; Etoa, François Xavier; Mbofung, Carl Moses Fontum; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam; Menut, Chantal

    2011-09-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine the chemical composition, antifungal and antiradical activities of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. F. ex Benth (from Cameroon) against Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC and GC/MS. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oil while the antiradical activity of the essential oil was studied by the DPPH (diphenyl picryl hydrazyl) method. The main components obtained were E-ocimenone (15.1%), Z-ocimenone (11.5%), gamma-terpinene (11.4%) and germacrene D (10.9%). After 10 days of incubation on essential oil supplemented medium, the growth of A. flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme were totally inhibited by 4, 5, 5 and 5 mg/mL of C. anisata essential oil, respectively. The antiradical activity of C. anisata essential oil (SC50 = 5.1 g/L) was less than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), which was used as the reference compound (SC50 = 0.007 g/L). Results obtained in the present study indicate the possibility of exploiting C. anisata essential oil to fight strains of A. flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme responsible for biodeterioration of stored food products. PMID:21941917

  2. Essential Oil of the Fruits of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gopal R. Mallavarapu; Srinivasaiyer Ramesh

    2000-01-01

    The fruit oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume grown in Bangalore was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-nine constituents representing 94.5% of the oil were identified. The main constituents of the oil were ?-pinene (11.2%), ?-caryophyllene (11.0%), ?-cadinene (13.6%) and ?-muurolol (9.8%). The composition of the oil in the present study is different from the earlier report on the oil wherein

  3. Essential oil composition, phenolic content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of cultivated Satureja rechingeri Jamzad at different phenological stages.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Ardalan

    2015-03-01

    Satureja rechingeri is a rare endemic and endangered species found in Iran. Its propagation, variations in essential oil and phenolic content, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities at different phenological stages are reported in this study. The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 47 compounds were identified in the essential oils of S. rechingeri at different phenological stages. The major components of all oils were carvacrol (83.6%-90.4%), p-cymene (0.8%-2.9%) and ?-terpinene (0.6%-2.4%). The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Total phenols varied from 35.5 to 37.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (dw), and IC50 values in the radical scavenging assay ranged from 46.2 to 50.2 mg/mL, while those in the FRAP assay were between 49.6 and 52.5 ?M quercetin equivalents/g dw. By the disc diffusion method and by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the essentials oils of the various phenological stages were found to have high activities against four medically important pathogens. PMID:25924231

  4. The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P.; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH. PMID:25242961

  5. Essential Oil Composition of Six Lomatium Species Attractive to Indra Swallowtail Butterfly (Papilio indra): Principal Component Analysis Against Essential Oil Composition of Lomatium dissectum var. multifidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip S. Beauchamp; Eric Chea; Jeannie G. Dimaano; Vasu Dev; Bill Ly; A. E. Miranda; Wayne H. Whaley

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil compositions of the upper parts of six Lomatium species, Lomatium brandegei, Lomatium eastwoodiae, Lomatium graveolens, Lomatium howelii, Lomatium junceum and Lomatium parryi, were determined by comparing the reported GC, GC\\/MS data of the oil components as well as by comparing the GC\\/MS retention times and the mass spectra of several other components with authentic samples. The Indra

  6. Artemisia arborescens - essential oil of the Pacific Northwest: a high-chamazulene, low-thujone essential oil with potential skin-care applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Pappas; Sylla Sheppard-Hanger

    Introduction to the Artemisia family: Artemisia is a fairly large genus within the family of the Asteraceae (Compositae), with 200 individual species known, which are usually found in dry areas. They are invariably found as small fragrant shrubs or herbs and most yield essential oils. Some of these oils have found uses in perfumery and medicine (as, for example, vermifuges,

  7. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

    2013-03-01

    Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

  8. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products.

    PubMed

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  9. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  10. Trypanocidal and antileukaemic effects of the essential oils of Hagenia abyssinica, Leonotis ocymifolia, Moringa stenopetala, and their main individual constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nibret; M. Wink

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils from three Ethiopian medicinal plants; Hagenia abyssinica (Rosaceae), Leonotis ocymifolia (Lamiaceae), and Moringa stenopetala (Moringaceae) were investigated for their chemical composition, trypanocidal, and cytotoxic activities. Twenty components were identified from the essential oil of H. abyssinica female flowers, ledol (58.57%) being the principal volatile oil component. Sixty-eight components were identified from the essential oil of L. ocymifolia aerial

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Seven Essential Oils From Iranian Aromatic Plants Against Common Causes of Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ghadiri, Pooria; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Moein, Mohammad Reza; Mehriar, Peiman; Bahrani, Farideh; Golzar, Tahereh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Fani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections. Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results: The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens. PMID:25793100

  12. Behavioral effects of plant essential oils on Ceratitis capitata males – risk versus reward

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, these roles include male-targeted attractants for traps and aromatherapy exposure for increased mating success. Essential oils that affect C. capitata behavior may be from either host or non-host pl...

  13. Essential oil composition of Hypericum L. species from Southeastern Serbia and their chemotaxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrija Smelcerovic; Michael Spiteller; Axel Patrick Ligon; Zaklina Smelcerovic; Nils Raabe

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of nine species of Hypericum (Hypericum barbatum, Hypericum hirsutum, Hypericum linarioides, Hypericum maculatum, Hypericum olympicum, Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum richeri, Hypericum rumeliacum and Hypericum tetrapterum), collected from different locations in Southeast Serbia, were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oils investigated were characterized by a high content of

  14. Enantiomeric distribution of some linalool containing essential oils and their biological activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enantiomeric composition of linalool was determined in 42 essential oils using chiral columns. Essential oils were analyzed by multidimentional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a non-chiral and chiral FSC column combination with modified '-cyclodextrine (Lipodex E) as the chiral statio...

  15. Effects of Cultivation Systems on the Growth, and Essential Oil Content and Composition of Valerian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Jalal Tabatabaei

    2008-01-01

    The growth and essential oil production of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. var. common) growing in aeroponic, floating, growing media (a perlite and vermiculite mix), and soil systems were accessed by measuring biomass production and essential oil content and composition. The highest fresh weight of both leaves (802 g plant) and roots (364.5 g plant) was obtained in the floating media

  16. Intraspecific chemical variability of the leaf essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Rezzi; Carlos Cavaleiro; Ange Bighelli; Ligia Salgueiro; António Proença da Cunha; Joseph Casanova

    2001-01-01

    The composition of 50 samples of essential oil of individual plants of Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata from Corsica was investigated by GC, GC–MS and 13C NMR. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinyl acetate, ?-3-carene, myrcene and ?-phellandrene were found to be the main constituents. The results were submitted to cluster analysis and discriminant analysis which allowed two groups of essential oils to be

  17. Essential oil changes in capsules of carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides (Lam.) Pers.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Rodrigues-das-Dôres

    Essential oil changes in capsules of carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides (Lam.) Pers.). Essential oil changes in capsules (PEC) and rude powder (PBC) of dry powder from 'carqueja' Baccharis genistelloides (Lam.) Pers, Asteraceae, was evaluated along 320 days of storage. The powder was encapsulated in colorless gelatinous capsules, number zero, stored in white bottles, colorless the rude powder was maintained in amber

  18. Ovicidal activity of essential oils from five plants against two stored-product insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?. Tunç; B. M. Berger; F. Erler; F. Da?l?

    2000-01-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapours distilled from anise Pimpinella anisum, cumin Cuminum cyminum, eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis, oregano Origanum syriacum var. bevanii and rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis were tested against eggs of two stored-product insects, the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella. The exposure to vapours of essential oils from anise and cumin resulted

  19. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Valero; M. C. Salmerón

    2003-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils from aromatic plants against the strain INRA L2104 of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus grown in carrot broth at 16 °C was studied. The quantity needed by the essential oils of nutmeg, mint, clove, oregano, cinnamon, sassafras, sage, thyme or rosemary to produce 14–1110% relative extension of the lag phase was determined. Total

  20. Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Ruberto; Maria T Baratta

    2000-01-01

    About 100 pure components of essential oils have been tested for their antioxidant effectiveness. The main classes of compounds, namely monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, benzene derivatives, and non isoprenoid components comprising alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, which are the most common constituents of essential oils, have been analysed. Two model systems for the antioxidant efficacy have been used;

  1. Impedance measurements to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lamiaceae and Compositae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilena Marino; Carla Bersani; Giuseppe Comi

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of essential oils from sage, mint, hyssop, camomile and oregano were tested for their inhibitory effects against nine strains of Gram-negative bacteria and six strains of Gram-positive bacteria. Three principles were used in describing the antimicrobial effects of the essential oils: the overall antimicrobial activity determined by use of an impedometric method, the bactericidal effect determined as

  2. Temperature Dependence of Solubility of Light Fullerenes in Some Essential Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin N. Semenov; Nikolay A. Charykov; Viktor I. Namazbaev; Nikolay I. Alekseyev; Ekaterina G. Gruzinskaya; Viktor N. Postnov; Olga A. Krokhina

    2011-01-01

    Polythermal solubility of individual light fullerenes (C60, C70) and industrial fullerene mixture (60% ?60, 39% ?70, 1% ?76–90) in some essential oils (e.g., essential oil of coriander, cypress, hazel, carnation, cade (leafage), cade (wood), cedar) is investigated. Temperature dependences of solubility are presented and characterized.

  3. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  4. Spice-Derived Essential Oils: Effective Antifungal and Possible Therapeutic Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vilas A. Kamble; Sahadeo D. Patil

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils derived from 20 spices were investigated for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida blanki, Candida cylindracea, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the disc diffusion method. The sensitivity of fungi to various essential oils was compared with standard ketoconazole and an activity index (AI) was determined. Inhibitory patterns varied with the

  5. Composition of the essential oils of four medicinal plants from Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roser Vila

    2003-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils from leaves of Lepechinia mutica, Satureja glabrata, Mintho- stachys mollis and Myrcianthes rhopaloides, four species used in traditional medicine in Loja (Ecuador), was inves- tigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were the main group of constituents in the essential oil of L. mutica, especially ? -phellandrene (30%), whereas oxygenated monoterpenes predominated in the

  6. Infraspecific taxonomy and essential oil chemotypes in sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée J. Grayer; Geoffrey C. Kite; Fiona J. Goldstone; Sarah E. Bryan; Alan Paton; Eli Putievsky

    1996-01-01

    Essential oil compositions of fresh and freeze-dried leaves were determined for 16 accessions of Ocimum basilicum belonging to different varieties to see whether they could be used as infraspecific taxonomic characters. One accession of O. x citriodorum was also studied. Some 30 monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified, the major components (more than 20% of the total essential oil composition

  7. Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tohidpour; M. Sattari; R. Omidbaigi; A. Yadegar; J. Nazemi

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils (EOs) have been investigated through several observations and clinical studies which purpose them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance problem. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial effect of two traditional plants essential oils, Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus against clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

  8. Antiherpevirus activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil and inhibition of lateral diffusion in Vero cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Saddi; Adriana Sanna; Filippo Cottiglia; Lorenza Chisu; Laura Casu; Leonardo Bonsignore; Alessandro De Logu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New prophylactic and therapeutic tools are needed for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections. Several essential oils have shown to possess antiviral activity in vitro against a wide spectrum of viruses. AIM: The present study was assess to investigate the activities of the essential oil obtained from leaves of Artemisia arborescens against HSV-1 and HSV-2 METHODS: The cytotoxicity

  9. Anticonvulsant activity and chemical composition of Artemisia dracunculus L. essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Sayyah; Leila Nadjafnia; Mohammad Kamalinejad

    2004-01-01

    Artemisia dracunculus L. (Asteraceae) has been used orally as an antiepileptic remedy in Iranian folkloric medicine. The anticonvulsant potential and composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the plant were assessed in this study. The essential oil exerted dose- and time-dependent antiseizure activity in both maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole models of experimental seizures with ED50

  10. Essential oil constituents of different organs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Facanali; S. P. Brazil

    Essential oil constituents of different organs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare). The fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.var. vulgare) is an annual herbaceous plant, whose seeds are very used in the homemade medicine and pharmaceutical industry. The fennel seeds produce yellow-clear aromatic essential oil, used in the production of several licorous drinks and of perfumery, with action carminative and stimulant. Therefore,

  11. Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Naho; Sekimoto, Yuka; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. Methods Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1?3)-?-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule) assay. Results The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity Conclusion Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema. PMID:15813994

  12. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Essential Oils from Melissa officinalis ( Labiatae Family) and Pellargonium ssp. ( Geraniaceae Family)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia C. Toma; Ioan B. Pancan; Marius Chiri??; Florina M. Vata; Alina D. Zamfir

    In the present work we report upon the development of a novel methodology based on electrospray (ESI) high capacity ion trap\\u000a (HCT) multistage mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS), for assessing the composition and structure of essential volatile oils. The method\\u000a was particularly applied to a native terpenoid mixture extracted from Melissa officinalis and different species of Pellargonium genus. Optimized ESI HCT MS

  13. Variation in the composition of the essential oils, phenolic compounds and mineral elements of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kati Helmja; Merike Vaher; Tõnu Püssa; Anne Orav; Anu Viitak; Tuuli Levandi; Mihkel Kaljurand

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the chemical composition of the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. collected in three habitations in Estonia was carried out. An analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionisation detection established the main components of the essential oils. The phenolic compounds both in ethanol and water extracts of the plant were analysed using liquid chromatography–mass

  14. Characterization of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Kiselev, W. P.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Schutova, A. G.; Gonsharova, L. W.; Spiridowish, E. W.; Bovdey, N. A.; Kiselev, P. A.; Gaidukevich, O. A.

    2010-07-01

    The composition of essential oil from Agastache rugosa (Fish. et Mey) O.Kuntze was studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Essential oil was isolated from the aerial part of plants growing in the Central Botanical Garden of the NAS of Belarus during flowering and fruiting. The oil chemical composition was found to depend little on the sampling time. It was shown that NMR spectroscopy could be successfully used to both monitor the content of the hepatotoxic substance (pulegone) and characterize the quality and authenticity of essential oils.

  15. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), ?- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P?oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3?±?0.9 ?g/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids. PMID:24426060

  16. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Anredera cordifolia grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucéia Fátima; de Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 19 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil; hydrocarbons were the main constituents (67.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. At 1.25 microg/mL and 0.625 microg/mL, the oil significantly promoted the germination of S. arvensis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230514

  17. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Gül, Süleyman; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Akpulat, H A?kin; Aksu, Pinar

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-?-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells. PMID:22310841

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Nemati, Mahboob; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity and volatile compositions of two Heracleum species (Apiaceae) including Heracleum transcaucasicum and Heracleum anisactis roots Essential Oil (EO) were investigated. Methods: The volatile compositions of EOs were analyzed by GC/Mass spectroscopy. To detect the antioxidant activity of essential oils TLC-bioautography and DPPH radical scavenging assay by spectrophotometry was performed. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of two essential oils were studied and compared against four pathogenic bacteria by agar disc diffusion method and MIC values of the EOs were determined using the broth dilution method. Results: Myristicin was the dominant component in both EOs. It was identified as 96.87% and 95.15% of the essential oil composition of H. transcaucasicum and H. anisactis roots, respectively. The TLC-bioautography showed antioxidant spots in both EOs and IC50 of H. anisactis and H. transcaucasicum EO was found to be 54 ?g × ml (-1) and 77 ?g × ml (-1), respectively. Regarding the antimicrobial assay, H. anisactis EO exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria and also Escherichia coli, whereas the essential oil from H. transcaucasicum was inactive. Conclusion: Based on the results from this study, both tested EOs mainly consist of myristicin. Despite the presence of myristicin with known antibacterial property, the EO from H. transcacausicum showed no antibacterial activity. Thus it is supposed that the biological activity of plants is remarkably linked to the extracts’ chemical profile and intercomponents’ synergistic or antagonistic effect could play a crucial role in bioactivity of EOs and other plant extracts. PMID:25035849

  19. Sensitivity of heat-stressed yeasts to essential oils of plants.

    PubMed

    Conner, D E; Beuchat, L R

    1984-02-01

    Eight strains of yeasts (Candida lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hansenula anomala, Kloeckera apiculata, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Torulopsis glabrata) were examined for changes in sensitivity to eight essential oils of plants (allspice, cinnamon, clove, garlic, onion, oregano, savory, and thyme) after being sublethally heat stressed. With the exception of garlic oil for all test yeasts, onion oil for S. cerevisiae, and oregano oil for R. rubra, the essential oils at concentrations of up to 200 ppm in recovery media did not interfere with colony formation by unheated cells. However, some oils, at concentrations as low as 25 ppm in recovery media, reduced populations of sublethally heat-stressed cells compared to populations recovered in media containing no test oils. This demonstrates that the yeasts were either metabolically or structurally damaged as a result of being exposed to elevated temperatures and that essential oils prohibited repair of injury. The size (diameter) of colonies produced on oil-supplemented recovery agar by heat-stressed cells was reduced compared to that observed on unsupplemented agar. Pigment production by heated R. rubra was inhibited by oils of oregano, savory, and thyme, but enhanced by garlic and onion oils. The influence of essential oils on survival of yeasts in thermally processed foods and in the enumeration of stressed cells in these foods should not be minimized. PMID:6712207

  20. Sensitivity of heat-stressed yeasts to essential oils of plants.

    PubMed Central

    Conner, D E; Beuchat, L R

    1984-01-01

    Eight strains of yeasts (Candida lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hansenula anomala, Kloeckera apiculata, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Torulopsis glabrata) were examined for changes in sensitivity to eight essential oils of plants (allspice, cinnamon, clove, garlic, onion, oregano, savory, and thyme) after being sublethally heat stressed. With the exception of garlic oil for all test yeasts, onion oil for S. cerevisiae, and oregano oil for R. rubra, the essential oils at concentrations of up to 200 ppm in recovery media did not interfere with colony formation by unheated cells. However, some oils, at concentrations as low as 25 ppm in recovery media, reduced populations of sublethally heat-stressed cells compared to populations recovered in media containing no test oils. This demonstrates that the yeasts were either metabolically or structurally damaged as a result of being exposed to elevated temperatures and that essential oils prohibited repair of injury. The size (diameter) of colonies produced on oil-supplemented recovery agar by heat-stressed cells was reduced compared to that observed on unsupplemented agar. Pigment production by heated R. rubra was inhibited by oils of oregano, savory, and thyme, but enhanced by garlic and onion oils. The influence of essential oils on survival of yeasts in thermally processed foods and in the enumeration of stressed cells in these foods should not be minimized. PMID:6712207

  1. Composition of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Cuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Victor Fuentes

    1999-01-01

    The essential oil of dried herb of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Cuba was subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 28 constituents separated, 17 were identified (88% of the oil composition). The oil consisted mainly of neral (29–9%) and geranial (41.0%).

  2. Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).

    PubMed

    Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

    2013-03-01

    The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

  3. Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob., A New Source of Essential Oil from Northeast India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Choudhury; R. S. Singh; Anil C. Ghosh; Piet A. Leclercq

    1996-01-01

    The essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation of the fresh fruits of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob. have been analyzed for the first time. The oils of green (unripe) and black (ripe) fruits of this species contained more than 40 and 30 compounds, of which 28 (90%) and 22 (98%) constituents could be identified respectively by GC\\/MS. Both the oils were

  4. Pharmacological activities and applications of Salvia sclarea and Salvia desoleana essential oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra T. Peana; Mario D. L. Moretti

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacological properties of S. sclarea and S. desoleana oils are discussed in relation to their chemical composition. After systemic administration, these oils had a depressant action on the CNS in mice and a hydrocholeretic effect in rats. Otherstudies demonstrated also a good anti-inflammatory activity in rats as well as a peripheral analgesic action in mice. These essential oils possess invitro

  5. Effects of variation in Eucalyptus essential oil yield on insect growth and grazing damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Morrow; Laurel R. Fox

    1980-01-01

    Levels of insect attack and yields of leaf essential oils in Eucalyptus vary widely within and among species. We tested the hypotheses that 1) metabolic cost of oil detoxification increases with increasing oil yield, resulting in lower herbivore growth rates and, consequently, 2) in lower herbivore damage to plants. Distribution of insect damage, eggs, immature insects and adults and feeding

  6. Antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of essential oils of edible Thai plants.

    PubMed

    Saeio, K; Chaiyana, W; Okonogi, S

    2011-06-01

    This work was undertaken to explore antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of twenty essential oils of edible Thai plants. Antityrosinase activity against mushroom tyrosinase was examined by means of the dopachrome method using L-dopa as an enzymatic substrate. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus had the highest level of antityrosinase activity, followed by that of Ocimum canum with enzymatic inhibition of 69 ± 4 and 66 ± 3%. GC-MS revealed that geranial and neral were the two most abundant components of their chemical compositions. Antioxidant activity was gauged by the free radical scavenging activity test and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. The essential oil of Ocimum sanctum had the highest level of antioxidant activity, followed by the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum. These results led to the conclusions that the essential oils of edible Thai plants exhibit important biological activities and are a promising choice as natural active ingredients because of their antityrosinase and antioxidant activities. PMID:22466244

  7. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepa Bisht; Anirban Pal; C. S. Chanotiya; Dhirendra Mishra; K. N. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography\\/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1–92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8–2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2–1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0–2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2–0.4%), (Z)-?-ocimene

  8. Constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from Trachelospermum jasminoides flowers.

    PubMed

    Pansanit, Acharavadee; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2014-12-01

    The present work reports the chemical compositions, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from T jasminoides flowers collected from two different geographical areas, Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai, Thailand. The essential oil of T. jasminoides from the Chiang Rai area had 99 compounds representing 97.9% of the total oil composition, with E-nerolidol and ?-phellandrene as the major constituents. In contrast, the essential oil of T. jasminoides collected from the Chiang Mai area contained 93 components representing 94.8% of the total oil, with trans-linalool oxide and citronellol as the major compounds. Flower oils of T. jasminoides exhibited greater antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. Both oils displayed antioxidant activities. PMID:25632487

  9. Chemical composition and antiphytoviral activity of essential oil of Micromeria graeca.

    PubMed

    Vuko, Elma; Dunki?, Valerija; Bezi?, Nada; Rusci?, Mirko; Kremer, Dario

    2012-09-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the essential oils of Micromeria graeca (L.) Rchb from Vis and Komiza on the island of Vis (Croatia) showed them to have a similar chemical composition. The oxygenated sesquiterpene alpha-bisabolol was a major component of both oils with percentages of 13.9% in the oil from Vis and 15.5% in the oil from Komiza. A comparison of the mean number of lesions on the essential oil-treated Chenopodium quinoa plants infected with satellite-associated cucumber mosaic virus (satCMV) with the corresponding control showed that the oil from Vis caused delay in the development and reduction of the number of lesions by 59.3%. The essential oil of M. graeca from Komiza was not effective in the reduction of satCMV infection. PMID:23074916

  10. Environmental monitoring based on NMR analysis of the composition of essential oil from Canadian spruce needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Matveichuk, S. V.; Kiselev, V. P.; Lamotkin, S. A.; Vladykina, D. S.

    2012-07-01

    We have used 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy to analyze the chemical composition of essential oil from needles of Canadian spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) grown in different regions of the Republic of Belarus. We consider the change in the composition of the oil depending on the area where the spruce was grown. We suggest using spruce needle essential oil as a biological indicator for environmental conditions in the area.

  11. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis Essential Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radosav Pali?; Gordana Stojanovi?; Tanja Naskovi?; Novica Ranelovi?

    2003-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils of Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The main compounds of the A. crithmifolia essential oil were camphor (27.6%), 1,8-cineole (26.5%) and trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (18.8%), while the most abundant compounds in the A. nobilis oil were ?-thujone (25.7%), artemisia ketone (14.8%), borneol (9.9%) and camphor (8.2%). The antibacterial activity

  12. Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants used in Brazil against epec and etec Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Delarmelina; G. M. Figueira

    Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants used in brazil against epec and etec escherichia coli . Essential oils obtained from leaves of 28 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against anti- enteropathogenic (EPEC) and anti-enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Escherichia coli. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined. Among

  13. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Cristina Teixeira Duarte; Ewerton Eduardo Leme; Camila Delarmelina; Andressa Almeida Soares; Glyn Mara Figueira; Adilson Sartoratto

    2007-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from leaves of 29 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against 13 different Escherichia coli serotypes. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum, presenting strong activity (MIC between 100 and 500?g\\/mL)

  14. The fungicidal terpenoids and essential oil from Litsea cubeba in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Jiazheng; Qimei, Luobu; Yan, Xiaojing; Zhao, Junxia; Yuan, Huizhu; Qin, Zhaohai; Wang, Mingan

    2010-01-01

    A new C? monoterpenoid acid (litseacubebic acid, 1) and a known monoterpene lactone (6R)-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-2-octen-6-olide (2), along with three known compounds--vanillic acid (3), trans-3,4,5-trimethoxylcinnamyl alcohol (4), and oxonantenine (5)--were isolated with bioassay-guided purification from the fruit extract of Litsea cubeba collected in Tibet. The structure of 1 was elucidated by MS, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOE spectral data as 2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2E,4E-hepta-2,4-diene acid. Additionally 33 compounds were identified from the essential oil of L. cubeba. The preliminary bioassay results showed that 1 and 2 have good fungicidal activities against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Thanatephorus cucumeris, Pseudocer-cospora musae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides at the concentration of 588 and 272 ?M, and the essential oil has good fungicidal activities against T. cucumeris and S. sclerotiorum, with IC?? values of 115.58 and 151.25 ?g/mL, repectively. PMID:20944522

  15. Essential oils and isolated compounds from Lippia alba leaves and flowers: antimicrobial activity and osteoclast apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Juiz, Paulo José Lima; Lucchese, Angelica Maria; Gambari, Roberto; Piva, Roberta; Penolazzi, Letizia; Di Ciano, Martina; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Silva, Franceli; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, essential oils extracted from the leaves and flowers of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. (L. alba) were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity and their effects on osteoclasts. The periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans; ATCC 43717), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum; ATCC 25586) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis); ATCC 33277) were used in antimicrobial activity assays for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), whereas Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis; ATCC 25285) was used as the control microorganism. Osteoclast (OC) apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay and Fas receptor expression was detected by immunocytochemistry. The analysis of antimicrobial activity revealed that P. gingivalis had the lowest MIC values, whereas A. actinomycetemcomitans had the highest. L. alba essential oils were found to be toxic to human cells, although the compounds, carvone, limonene and citral, were non-toxic and induced apoptosis in the OCs. This study demonstrates that L. alba has potential biotechnological application in dentistry. In fact periodontal disease has a multifactorial etiology, and the immune response to microbial challenge leads to osteoclast activation and the resorption of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss. PMID:25384405

  16. UTILIZACIÓN DE ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LEMONGRASS (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) COMO REPELENTE DE Diuraphis noxia KURDJ. (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) EN TRIGO. Use of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) essential oil as a repellent of Diuraphis noxia Kurdj. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Ricci; Susana Padín; Jorge Ringuelet; Andrea Kahan

    A B S T R A C T The use of natural products such as essential oils and plant extracts is an alternative for integrated pest management (IPM). The objective of this work was to evaluate the repellent effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) essential oil on the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurdj.) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants.

  17. Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, Massimiliano; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Bertoni, Simona; Bruni, Renato; Impicciatore, Mariannina; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2007-09-01

    In a previous screening work, Foeniculum vulgare essential oil emerged from a pool of 24 essential oils for its antiplatelet properties and its ability to destabilize the retraction of the coagulum. In the present work the main component of the oil, anethole, tested in guinea pig plasma was as potent as fennel oil in inhibiting arachidonic acid-, collagen-, ADP- and U46619-induced aggregation (IC(50) from 4 to 147 microg ml(-1)). It also prevented thrombin-induced clot retraction at concentrations similar to fennel oil. The essential oil and anethole, tested in rat aorta with or without endothelium, displayed comparable NO-independent vasorelaxant activity at antiplatelet concentrations which have been proved to be free from cytotoxic effects in vitro. In vivo, both F. vulgare essential oil and anethole orally administered in a subacute treatment to mice (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) for 5 days) showed significant antithrombotic activity preventing the paralysis induced by collagen-epinephrine intravenous injection (70% and 83% protection, respectively). At the antithrombotic dosage they were free from prohemorrhagic side effect at variance with acetylsalicylic acid used as reference drug. Furthermore, both F. vulgare essential oil and anethole (100 mg kg(-1) oral administration) provided significant protection toward ethanol induced gastric lesions in rats. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for F. vulgare essential oil, and its main component anethole, a safe antithrombotic activity that seems due to their broad spectrum antiplatelet activity, clot destabilizing effect and vasorelaxant action. PMID:17709257

  18. Chemical and biological evaluation of the essential oils of different Melaleuca species.

    PubMed

    Farag, R S; Shalaby, A S; El-Baroty, G A; Ibrahim, N A; Ali, M A; Hassan, E M

    2004-01-01

    The essential oils of the fresh leaves of M. ericifolia, M. leucadendron, M. armillaris and M. styphelioides were isolated by a hydrodistillation method and analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. The essential oil of M. ericifolia contained methyl eugenol (96.84%) as a major constituent, whereas M. leucadendron was rich in 1,8-cineole (64.30%). The essential oil of M. armillaris was rich in 1,8-cineole (33.93%) followed by terpinen-4-ol (18.79%), whereas M. styphelioides was rich in caryophyllene oxide (43.78%) and (-) spathulenol (9.65%). The essential oils of these species possessed antimicrobial and antifungal activities. M. ericifolia exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against Bacillus subtiles and Aspergillus niger. The antiviral activities of the essential oils against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were studied in African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) by a plaque reduction assay. The volatile oil of M. armillaris was more effective as a virucidal (up to 99%) than that of M. leucadendron (92%) and M. ericifolia (91.5%). The effects of the essential oils on the antioxidant system status in carbon tetrachloride treated animals were studied. The essential oil of M. armillaris exhibited a marked antioxidant effect, it improved vitamin E, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase parameters so it can be used as a free radical suppressor. PMID:14750197

  19. A New Source of Elemol Rich Essential Oil and Existence of Multicellular Oil Glands in Leaves of the Dioscorea Species

    PubMed Central

    Odimegwu, Joy I.; Odukoya, Olukemi; Yadav, Ritesh K.; Chanotiya, C. S.; Ogbonnia, Steve; Sangwan, Neelam S.

    2013-01-01

    Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent's diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are ?-terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, ?-farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin. PMID:24453926

  20. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Vannacci, Alfredo; Bilia, Anna Rita; Gori, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris) to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF), and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris) were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients), suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections. PMID:24701243

  1. Chemotypification of Astrantia major L. (Apiaceae): essential-oil and lignan profiles of fruits.

    PubMed

    Radulovi?, Niko S; Mladenovi?, Marko Z; Ethor?evi?, Nevenka D

    2012-07-01

    The fruit essential oils of two populations of Astrantia major L. (Apiaceae, subfamily Saniculoideae) were analyzed in detail by GC and GC/MS analyses. Seventy-six constituents identified accounted for 92.7-94.0% of the oils. The two oils differed significantly: the wild-growing population from Serbia contained zingiberene (47.9%), ?-bisabolene (9.7%), and ?-sesquiphellandrene (7.9%), while the one from Poland (botanical gardens) was sesquiterpene-poor with the major contributors oleic acid (38.6%), nonacosane (15.4%), and linoleic acid (5.1%). Motivated by the unresolved taxonomical relations between the Saniculoideae and Apioideae subfamilies, we performed multivariate statistical analyses on the compositional data of these A. major samples, and additional 14 Saniculoideae and 31 Apioideae taxa. This allowed us to assess the chemotaxonomical usefulness of such chemical data in differentiating taxa from these two Apiaceae subfamilies and to corroborate the existence of at least two A. major chemotypes. Diethyl ether extracts of the two samples of A. major fruits yielded seven diaryltetrahydrofurofurano lignans. Except for eudesmin that has been found for the first time in a Saniculoideae taxon, all other lignans (magnolin, epimagnolins A and B, epieudesmin, yangambin, and epiyangambin) are new for the entire plant family Apiaceae. The lignan profiles also supported the existence of two separate A. major chemotypes. PMID:22782878

  2. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Pesavento, Giovanna; Barnabei, Martina; Calonico, Carmela; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Flamini, Guido; Gori, Luigi; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris) to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF), and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris) were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients), suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections. PMID:24701243

  3. Terminating red imported fire ants using Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen-Sung Cheng; Ju-Yun Liu; Chun-Ya Lin; Yen-Ray Hsui; Mei-Chun Lu; Wen-Jer Wu; Shang-Tzen Chang

    2008-01-01

    Eleven compounds from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaf essential oil were identified by GC–MS and the dominant constituent was trans-cinnamaldehyde (79.85%). The toxicity of leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde were then determined to study their effectiveness in controlling the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results of the toxicity tests indicated that both the indigenous cinnamon leaf essential

  4. Chemical study and antimalarial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Melaleuca armillaris (Sol Ex Gateau) Sm essential oil.

    PubMed

    Chabir, Naziha; Romdhane, Mehrez; Valentin, Alexis; Moukarzel, Béatrice; Marzoug, Hajer Naceur Ben; Brahim, Nadia Ben; Mars, Mohamed; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition (by using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, an antioxidant [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl] [DPPH] radical-scavenging assay, and a 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate [ABTS] radical cation-scavenging assay) and the antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil extracted from leaves of Melaleuca armillaris. Thirty-two components representing more than 98% of the total composition of the essential oil were identified. The main components were 1,8-cineole (85.8%), camphene (5.05%), and ?-pinene (1.95%). The antioxidant activity by ABTS assay showed a mean (± standard deviation) 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 247.3 ± 3.9 mg/L, and the DPPH assay yielded an IC(50) value of 2183.6 ± 44.3 mg/L. The antimalarial study indicated that the essential oil had mild activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum FcB1 strain (IC(50), 27 ± 2 mg/L). The cytotoxic activity of this essential oil was tested against MCF7 human breast cancer cells and was found to be high (IC(50), 12 ± 1 mg/L). PMID:21476932

  5. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, ?-pinene, ?-terpineol, ?-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder. PMID:25893282

  6. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. PMID:22888805

  7. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa. PMID:14971685

  8. Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review.

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50<100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rutaceae. The most active essential oils exhibited effective concentrations comparable with the dosage recommended for the use of temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058

  9. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Equisetum palustre L. and Equisetum telmateia Ehrh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesna Milovanovi?; Niko Radulovi?; Violeta Miti?; Radosav Pali?; Gordana Stojanovi?

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of dry sterile stems of Equisetum palustre L. and Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. from Serbia were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. In total, one hundred ninety-five compounds were identified in the both oils, 103 in E. palustre and 171 in E. telmateia oil, accounting for more than 95.3% and 98.0% of the total oils, respectively.

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Piper capense essential oil against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josphat C. Matasyoh; Euty M. Wathuta; Samuel T. Kariuki; Regina Chepkorir

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil from Kenyan Piper capense (Piperaceae) was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and evaluated for larvicidal activity against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. The oil consisted mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons which accounted for 43.9% of the oil. The major sesquiterpenes were ?-cadinene (16.82%), ?-bisabolene (5.65%), and bicyclogermacrene (3.30%). The oil also had appreciable amounts of monoterpene

  11. Essential Oils of Salvia sclarea L. Produced from Plants Grown in Southern Uzbekistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kh. K. Dzumayev; I. A. Tsibulskaya; I. G. Zenkevich; K. G. Tkachenko; I. F. Satzyperova

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils obtained from different parts of both wild and cultivated forms of Salvia sclarea L. were investigated by both GC and GC\\/MS. The principal components of the oils were linalool (22–32%) and linalyl acetate (25–51%). It was found that the oil composition was not influenced by the part of the plant from which oil was

  12. Composition of Essential Oils from Two Varieties of Thymbra spicata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tümen; N. Ermin; T. Özek; M. Kürkçüoglu; K. H. C. Baser

    1994-01-01

    The essential oils from two varieties of Thymbra spicata var. spicata and var. intricata (endemic in Turkey) obtained by hydrodistillation were studied by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-one compounds which made up 95.66–99.99% of the oil were identified. The major component in all the oils but one was carvacrol (49.19–76.86%). Thymol (50.71%) was the main component in the oil of one

  13. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saadia S. Zrira; Bachir B. Benjilali; Mohamed M. Fechtal; Hubert H. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The essential oils of 27 Eucalyptus species of Moroccan origin have been examined using GC and GC\\/MS. Forty constituents were identified in the oils, although full chemical characterization of each oil was not achieved. Fifteen of the 27 species investigated were found to possess an oil rich in 1,8-cineole (>40%). In four species, E. globulus, E. melliodora, E. siderophloia and

  14. Comparative Study of the Essential Oils of Three Achillea Species from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jaimand; M. B. Rezaee

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the oils from flowers of three Iranian Achillea species (A. tenuifolia Lam, A. biebersteinii Afan., A. filipendulina Lam.) were collected during the flowering period. The essential oils obtained by steam distillation. The percentage of all three oils were 0.20% v\\/w calculated on the dry weight, analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS, all three oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes.

  15. Chemical variability of Artemisia herba-alba Asso essential oils from East Morocco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Paolini; El Mokhtar El Ouariachi; Abdelhamid Bouyanzer; Belkheir Hammouti; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Jean Costa; Alain Muselli

    2010-01-01

    Chemical compositions of 16 Artemisia herba-alba oil samples harvested in eight East Moroccan locations were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. Chemical variability of the A. herba-alba oils is also discussed using statistical analysis. Detailed analysis of the essential oils led to the identification of 52\\u000a components amounting to 80.5–98.6 % of the total oil. The investigated chemical compositions showed significant

  16. Sedative effects of vapor inhalation of the essential oil of Microtoena patchoulii and its related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken ItoMichiho Ito; Michiho Ito

    2011-01-01

    Microtoena patchoulii (Labiatae) is a perennial herb that grows in southern China. In the present study, the sedative activity of the essential oil of the\\u000a leaves was evaluated using mice when the volatile oil was administered by inhalation. The inhalation of the oil by mice significantly\\u000a reduced the spontaneous motor activity. Fractionation of the oil revealed that the main constituents

  17. Antiplasmodial Activity of Cochlospermum planchonii and C. tinctorium Tubercle Essential Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françise Benoit-Vical; Alexis Valentin; Michèle Mallié; Jean-Marie Bessière

    2001-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from the tubercles of Cochlospermum tinctorium (Hook.) and C. planchonii A. Rich (Coehlospermaceae-Bixaceae) were prepared by hydrodistillation. The oils components were characterized by GC and GC\\/MS. The oils were then tested for in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The P. falciparum strains used were FcBl-Columbia (chloroquine-resistant) and a Nigerian strain (chloroquine-sensitive). The oil concentrations inducing 50%

  18. Constituents of the essential oil of the Cinnamomum cassia stem bark and the Biological Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongwon Choi; Kyung-Tae Lee; Hyeon Ka; Won-Tae Jung; Hyun-Ju Jung; Hee-Juhn Park

    2001-01-01

    GC-MS analysis on the essential oil (CC-oil) ofCinnamomum cassia stem bark led to the identification of cinnamaldehyde (CNA,1), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (2-CNA), coumarin (2), and cinnamyl acetate. The major volatile flavor in CC-oil was found to be 2-CNA. Coumarin was first isolated from this\\u000a plant by phytochemical isolation and spectroscopic analysis. CNA and CC-oil showed potent cytotoxicity, which was effectively\\u000a prevented by

  19. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume ( Lauraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Unlu; Emel Ergene; Gulhan Vardar Unlu; Hulya Sivas Zeytinoglu; Nilufer Vural

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against

  20. Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf and twig essential oils of Litsea akoensis from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chen-Lung; Lin, Chai-Yi; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Su, Yu-Chang

    2011-06-01

    This study analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oils in the leaves and twigs of Litsea akoensis to determine composition and yield. Seventy-one and 40 compounds were identified in the leaf and twig oils, respectively. The main components of leaf oil were limonene (18.5%), thymol (10.1%), p-cymene (9.6%), beta-caryophyllene (8.9%), and carvacrol (8.2%). The main components of twig oil were beta-phellandrene (43.7%) and trans-beta-ocimene (10.4%). The results demonstrated that leaf oil had excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, superior to those of twig oil. PMID:21815435