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1

System identification for essential oil extraction system: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new avenue for research by presenting the gap between the essential oil extraction technique studies and the system identification studies. In the essential oil extraction research, temperature plays an important role in producing the essential oils. Numerous published articles in this area have highlighted several temperature settings and their effects on the extraction. In spite of

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

2009-01-01

2

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from Thymbra spicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from the leaves of Thymbra spicata L. were extracted using subcritical water. The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 °C), pressures (20, 60, and 90 bar) and flow rates (1, 2, and 3 ml min?1) were investigated. The components of essential oils of Thymbra spicata were removed from the aqueous extract by C18 solid phase

Mustafa. Z. Ozel; Fahrettin Gogus; Alistair C. Lewis

2003-01-01

3

Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

2014-07-01

4

Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves (needles) of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extraction method. Podophyllotoxin was obtained from the leaves following steam distillation of the

Archana J. Gawde; Charles L. Cantrell; Valtcho D. Zheljazkov

2009-01-01

5

Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa.  

PubMed

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction and hydrodistillation (HD) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the trunks and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa. The optimal extraction conditions for the oil yield within the experimental range of variables examined were temperature 50 degrees C, pressure 12 MPa, carbon dioxide flow rate 40 mL/min and extraction time 90 min. The maximum measured extraction yield was 2.9%. Entrainer solvents, such as methanol in water, had no additional effect on the extraction of essential oils. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were alpha-terpinyl acetate (>10.9%), 1-muurolol (>13.2%) and elemol (>8.1%). Sesquiterpenoids formed the major class of compounds present. PMID:20420328

Jin, Yinzhe; Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung-Ho

2010-03-01

6

Proposed Models for Subcritical Water Extraction of Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms that control the extraction rate of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Z. multiflora) with subcritical water (SW) were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent (i.e. partitioning thermodynamics) or by the rates of

M. Khajenoori; A. Haghighi Asl; F. Hormozi

2009-01-01

7

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2013-04-01

8

21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2012-04-01

9

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2012-04-01

10

21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2011-04-01

11

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2011-04-01

12

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2010-04-01

13

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2014-04-01

14

21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2010-04-01

15

21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2014-04-01

16

21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts...Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...

2013-04-01

17

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:10438227

Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

1999-06-01

18

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

19

The chemical composition of the essential oil and the antibacterial activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of Teucrium montanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and the in vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oil and me- thanol extract of Teucrium montanum. The inhibitory effects of the essential oil and the methanol extracts of Teucrium montanum were tested against thirteen bacterial species using the disc-diffusion method. GC\\/MS analyses revealed that the essential

SLOBODAN SUKDOLAK; Tanja Milosevic; Slavica Solujic

2008-01-01

20

Microwave Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil From Cymbopogon Flexuosus (Steud.) Wats.: A Parametric and Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave assisted extraction was employed for efficient and rapid extraction of essential oil from leaves of Cymbopogon flexuosus (Steud.) Wats. (lemongrass). Parametric study was carried out to examine the effect of various parameters like solid loading, volume of water, rehydration time, extraction time, and power on yield and composition of essential oil. Hydrodistillation was performed for comparative analysis. Kinetic modelling

Meghal A. Desai; Jigisha Parikh

2012-01-01

21

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia tomentosa Miller (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts (prepared by using solvents of varying polarity) of Salvia tomentosa (Miller). The essential oil was particularly found to possess strong antimicrobial activity while other non-polar extracts and subfractions showed moderate activities while polar extracts remained almost inactive. GC and GC\\/MS

Bektas Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Atalay Sokmen; Munevver Sokmen; Moschos Polissiou

2005-01-01

22

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracts of various onions ( Allium cepa) and garlic ( Allium sativum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activity of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500ml\\/l) of essential oil extracts of three type of onions (green, yellow and red) and garlic against two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmomella Enteritidis, and three fungi, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium cyclopium and Fusarium oxysporum, was investigated. The essential oil (EO) extracts of these Allium plants (garlic and onions) exhibited marked antibacterial

N. Benkeblia

2004-01-01

23

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising

Firas A. Al-Bayati

2008-01-01

24

A supercritical tuneable process for the selective extraction of fats and essential oil from coriander seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective supercritical CO2 extraction process has been developed in order to extract selectively the vegetal oil and the essential oil from coriander seeds in a consecutive way by tuning experimental conditions. A 4-step process has been set up: (i) seeds preparation by grinding and sieving, (ii) extraction by supercritical CO2 and (iii; iv) selective separation in two separators with

Houcine Mhemdi; Elisabeth Rodier; Nabil Kechaou; Jacques Fages

2011-01-01

25

Extraction of Essential Oil from Nigella sativa Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Study of Antibacterial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of N. sativa essential oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction by carbon dioxide was investigated against Gram Positive and Gram negative strains, isolated from clinical specimens. Best conditions for Black cumin oil extraction are obtained at 400 bar, 40°C and a solvent flow rate of 25 g min -1 . The seed extracts were prepared by supercritical

Nagi A. Alhaj; Mariana N. Shamsudin; Hana F. Zamri; Rasedee Abdullah

2008-01-01

26

The analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings--a critical review.  

PubMed

A critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. Where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. Particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory conditions. At the same time, the margin of error of these methods has been determined. The individual seasoning extracts were assessed according to the following criteria: (1) essential oil--cardamom, laurel leaves, cloves, origanum (marjoram), sage, and thyme; (2) essential oil and nonvolatile lipids--dillseed, coriander, caraway, mace, nutmeg, pimento (allspice), and celery seed; (3) essential oil and/or pungent ingredients--capsicum, ginger, and pepper; (4) essential oil and/or coloring matter--turmeric (curcuma) and paprika; (5) essential oil and other components--garlic, onion, and cinnamon. PMID:336288

Salzer, U J

1977-01-01

27

In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae), and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which

Atiqur Rahman; Zakia Sultana Shanta; M. A. Rashid; Tanzima Parvin; Shajia Afrin; Mst Khodeza Khatun; M. A. Sattar

28

Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oils is one of the most widely discussed applications in the supercritical fluid literature. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of the analytical, processing and modeling aspects has never been attempted. This is partly due to the difficulties involved in isolating essential oils from the other products which supercritical CO2 can dissolve. Moreover, only a limited number

Ernesto Reverchon

1997-01-01

29

EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING OF THE CYMBOPOGON WINTERIANUS ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTION BY STEAM DISTILLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is classified as one of the main world producers of essential oils and citronella essential oil, used as natural repellent, representing a significant parcel of the national production. To increase the Brazilian participation in the international market it is necessary an improvement in the extraction technology to obtain the products with international standard of quality. Therefore, this work has

R. M. F. VARGAS; E. CASSEL; C. C. DE SOUZA

2006-01-01

30

Model Reference Adaptive Controller to regulate steam temperature in distillation process for essential oil extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simulated Model Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC) and its application to regulate steam temperature in distillation process for essential oil extraction system. Steam temperature is one of the most significant parameters that can influence the composition of essential oil yield in terms of quality and quantity. Due to parameter variations and changes in operation conditions during distillation,

Nurhani Kasuan; Mohd Nasir Taib; Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman

2011-01-01

31

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Studies of Vitex negundo Linn. Extracts  

PubMed Central

Essential oils from fresh leaves, flowers and dried fruits of Vitex negundo were obtained by hydrodistillation. Using Soxhlet extractor five successive extracts from dried and powdered leaves were also taken. The chemical constituents of essential oil of leaves, flowers and dried fruits were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS techniques. Main constituents identified in leaves oil were ?-guaiene, carryophyllene epoxide and ethyl-hexadecenoate; in flowers oil - ?-selinene, germacren-4-ol, carryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol while fruit oil showed ?-selinene, ?-cedrene, germacrene D and hexadecanoic acid as the main constituents. ?-Caryophyllene was only the constituent identified as common to all three oils. ?-Guaiene and guaia-3,7-diene were identified as common constituents in leaf and dried fruit oil while leaf and flower oils showed p -cymene, valencene, caryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol as common constituent. All the essential oils and successive extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. Each of the essential oils and extracts were found to give promising results against B. subtilis and E. coli. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. Fruits and leaves oil were found to be most active against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Only flowers oil was found to be active against P. aeruginosa. PMID:20046787

Khokra, S. L.; Prakash, O.; Jain, S.; Aneja, K. R.; Dhingra, Yogita

2008-01-01

32

Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Valeriana jatamansi Roots  

PubMed Central

Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, ?-vatirenene, ?-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, ?-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, ?-guaiene, and ?-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity. PMID:24804225

Thusoo, Sakshima; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika

2014-01-01

33

Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of Teucrium montanum  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of essential oil and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Teucrium montanum. The inhibitory effects of essential oil and methanol extracts of T. montanum were tested against 13 bacterial and three fungal species by using disc-diffusion method. GC/MS analyses revealed that essential oil contains mainly ?-cadinene (17.19%), ?-selinene (8.16%) ?-calacorene (4.97%), 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-naphthalene (4.91%), caryophyllene (4.35%), copaene (4.23%), torreyol (3.91%), 4-terpineol (3.90%), cadina-1,4-diene (3.39%), ?-sesquiphellandrene (3.34%), ?-cadinol (3.12%) and ?-curcumene (3.18%). The essential oil has antibacterial as well as antifungal effect. PMID:18227926

Milosevic, Tanja; Sukdolak, Slobodan; Solujic, Slavica

2007-01-01

34

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves  

PubMed Central

This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: ?-pinene (32.32%), ?-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), ?-caryophyllene (4.36%), and ?-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

2013-01-01

35

Chemical composition of volatiles in Sardinian myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils from leaves and berries collected in different places in Sardinia (Italy) was studied. A simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used to isolate volatile compounds from myrtle alcoholic extracts followed by GC and GC-MS analysis allowing the detection of 24 compounds. The volatile fraction was characterized by the terpenes fraction corresponding to that of the essential oils and by a fatty acid ethyl esters fraction. The variation during extraction of the volatile fraction in alcoholic extracts of berries and leaves was evaluated. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were on average 0.52 +/- 0.03% (v/w dried weight) and 0.02 +/- 0.00% for leaves and berries, respectively. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and a total of 27 components were detected, accounting for 90.6-98.7% of the total essential oil composition. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds in the essential oils were alpha-pinene (30.0 and 28.5%), 1,8-cineole (28.8 and 15.3%), and limonene (17.5 and 24.1%) in leaves and berries, respectively, and were characterized by the lack of myrtenyl acetate. PMID:16478269

Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Barra, Andrea; Angioni, Alberto; Sarritzu, Erika; Pirisi, Filippo M

2006-02-22

36

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

37

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

38

Contact and fumigant activities of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils against Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol extracts from 30 aromatic medicinal plant species and five plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against Lasioderma serricorne (F.) adults using direct contact application and fumigation methods. Responses varied with plant material and exposure time. Good insecticidal activity against L. serricorne adults was achieved with extracts of Agastache rugosa whole plant, Cinnamomum cassia bark, Illicium verum

Soon-Il Kim; Chan Park; Myung-Hee Ohh; Hyung-Chan Cho; Young-Joon Ahn

2003-01-01

39

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydrodistillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, hydro-distillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from three aromatic herbs: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), garden

Marie E Lucchesi; Farid Chemat; Jacqueline Smadja

2004-01-01

40

[Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li].  

PubMed

Essential oil from Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li. was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide and a two-stage fractional separation system. The experiment was carried out under 306K-333K and 10-30 MPa. The influence of the process parameters were discussed. The GC-MS method was applied to analyze the components of these oils obtained by SFE. The result by SFE was better than that by stream distillation. PMID:12856468

Li, Tianxiang; Wang, Jingkang

2003-03-01

41

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta cataria.  

PubMed

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is an important medicinal herb belonging to the mint family, Lamiaceae. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Nepeta cataria, and its essential oil composition were investigated. The essential oil, which has 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (70.4%), 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (6.0%), thymol (2.3%), and 4aalpha,7alpha, 7abeta3-nepetalactone (2.5%), as main components, exhibited activity against eleven bacteria, and twelve fungi and a yeast, C. albicans; with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values ranging from 12.50 to 250 microl/ml; the methanol extract showed weaker activity. The samples were also subjected to a screening for their possible antioxidant activities by using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. In DPPH assay, the extract showed slight antioxidant activity whereas the essential oil remained inactive. In the latter case, both the extract and the essential oil exerted weak activity having inhibiton ratios of linoleic acid oxidation at 16.4% and 27.0%, respectively. The weak antioxidative nature of the extract could be attributed to the low phenolic content, estimated as gallic acid equivalent at 22.6 +/- 2.07 microg/ml or 2.26%. In both systems, antioxidant capacity of BHT was determined in parallel experiments. PMID:19469289

Adiguzel, Ahmet; Ozer, Hakan; Sokmen, Munevver; Gulluce, Medine; Sokmen, Atalay; Kilic, Hamdullah; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baris, Ozlem

2009-01-01

42

Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of plant volatile components has increased during two last decades due to the expected advantages of the supercritical extraction process. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a rapid, selective and convenient method for sample preparation prior to the analysis of compounds in the volatile product of plant matrices. Also, SFE

Seied Mahdi Pourmortazavi; Seiedeh Somayyeh Hajimirsadeghi

2007-01-01

43

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on\\/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization

L Gámiz-Gracia; M. D Luque de Castro

2000-01-01

44

Comparison of continuous subcritical water extraction and hydrodistillation of marjoram essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous subcritical water extraction (CSWE) and hydrodistillation were compared for the extraction of essential oil from marjoram leaves. Ground marjoram leaves (0.4 g) were subjected to dynamic extraction with water at 50 bar, 150°C and 2 ml\\/min for 15 min. Hydrodistillation was performed treating 140 g of marjoram leaves with 1000 ml of water for 3 h. When CSWE was

M. M Jiménez-Carmona; J. L Ubera; M. D Luque de Castro

1999-01-01

45

Microwave Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil From Cymbopogon Flexuosus(Steud.) Wats.: A Parametric and Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave assisted extraction was employed for efficient and rapid extraction of essential oil from leaves of Cymbopogon flexuosus(Steud.) Wats. (lemongrass). Parametric study was carried out to examine the effect of various parameters like solid loading, volume of water, rehydration time, extraction time and power on yield and composition of essential oil. Hydrodistillation was performed for comparative analysis. Kinetic modelling of

Meghal A. Desai; Jigisha Parikh

2012-01-01

46

Antioxidant activities of rosemary ( Rosmarinus Officinalis L .) extract, blackseed ( Nigella sativa L .) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity

Naciye Erkan; Guler Ayranci; Erol Ayranci

2008-01-01

47

Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Four commonly used spices plants in Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effect using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay. Essential oils and various extracts of Heracleum persicum, Nigella arvensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Zingiber officinale were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. All of the tested fractions have exhibited more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Essential oils of H. persicum and C. zeylanicum have shown the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 0.007 and 0.03 microg/ml respectively. None of aqueous extracts showed significant cytotoxicity. The analysis of the essential oil of H. persicum showed the hexyl butyrate and octyl acetate as the main compounds. These results suggest some limitation for using of these spices in diet. Furthermore, these plants could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which might be studied in more details. PMID:19553182

Sharififar, Fariba; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan; Dehghan-Nudehe, Gholamreza; Ameri, Alieh; Alishahi, Fahimeh; Pourhemati, Amin

2009-07-01

48

The analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings ? A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. Where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. Particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory

Thomas E. Furia

1977-01-01

49

Assessment of Pruned NNARX Network for Steam Distillation Essential Oil Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the pruning performance of the Neural Network AutoRegressive with eXogenous (NNARX) network in modelling the steam distillation essential oil extraction. The model order will be selected based on Lipschitz criterion. In the model training, the unregularised models are utilised. The number of hidden neuron and iteration are fixed before the training session. The networks are pruned by

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Nazurah Tajjudin; Mazidah Tajjudin; Mohd Nasir Taib

50

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

51

Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

2007-01-01

52

Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes.  

PubMed

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is a subshrub from the Lamiaceae family with plants that are rich in essential oils and antioxidative phenolic substances. Twelve accessions originating from southern France and the variety 'Deutscher Winter' were grown in an experimental field in eastern Austria. Leaf samples from these plants as well as from a commercial thyme rich in thymol were analyzed for their essential oil and the antioxidative potential in various extracts. The assays for antioxidative activity were the total phenolics according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method, DPPH decoloration, and Fe(3+) reduction (FRAP). Both extraction techniques used, in the water bath at 40 degrees C and in the ultrasonic bath at room temperature, proved to be efficient. The best results were obtained with 60% ethanol as extractant. In the comparison of the different accessions the less active and the most active of these extracts differed by factors of 2.1 and 2.6 in the total phenolics and FRAP assay, respectively, and by factors 1.5-2.0 in the DPPH assay. Rosmarinic acid accounted for 22-55% of the antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extracts. Essential oils with high proportions of the phenolic components thymol and/or carvacrol showed the highest antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts from the residues after distillation were considerably lower in antioxidant activity than the respective extracts from the dried leaves. Extracts with CH2Cl2 in the ultrasonic bath contained volatiles in proportions close to the essential oil but displayed very low antioxidant activity. PMID:18656929

Chizzola, Remigius; Michitsch, Hanneliese; Franz, Chlodwig

2008-08-27

53

Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil composition of the leaves of Viola odorata L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, was extracted by hydro distillation–solvent extraction method and analysed using GC–MS technique. The analysis revealed the presence of 25 identified compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil with butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%) being the two main components. Several components were identified for the first

Maryam Akhbari; Hossein Batooli; Fereshteh Jookar Kashi

2012-01-01

54

Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil composition of the leaves of Viola odorata L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, was extracted by hydro distillation–solvent extraction method and analysed using GC–MS technique. The analysis revealed the presence of 25 identified compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil with butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%) being the two main components. Several components were identified for the first

Maryam Akhbari; Hossein Batooli; Fereshteh Jookar Kashi

2011-01-01

55

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and Extract of Hypericum elongatum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HOFARIGHUN, RAEE flower, thousand eyes wort are popular names for Hypericum sp in Persian language mostly called H. perforatum. It has been used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antimigraine, antiepileptic and cholagouge. Tisane of these plants in red wine was used as snake bite and burning remedy. The volatile constituents, obtained from air-dried aerial parts of fruiting Hypericum elongatum were analyzed by GC/MS method. Thirty four components of about 96.50% of total oil were identified. Pinene (80.43%), Terpinene (4.23%) and Pinene <ß>(2.59%) were the principal components (87.16%). The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and anti-yeast activities by using disc diffusion method. Screening of the antimicrobials was investigated on Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112, Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1114, Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 8043), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli PTCC 1338, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1047, Salmonella typhi PTCC 1609), yeasts (Candida albicans ATCC 14053, Candida kefyr ATCC 3826) and fungi (Aspergillus niger PLM 1140, Aspergillus fumigatus PLM 712). The MIC of essential oil also was identified. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil against all of the microorganisms was observed, except Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. In spite of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract against bacteria, there was no antimicrobial activity against fungi and yeasts. A survey of the literature revealed no reports dealing with chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activity of Hypericum elongatum.

Ghasemi, Younes; Khalaj, Amir; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Khosravi, Ahmad Reza; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein

56

Comparison of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oils produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Eucalyptus cinerea is reported to possess a higher 1,8-cineole content than other Eucalyptus species. Variations in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of E. cinerea oil produced by hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques and a comparison between glycoside-bound and free volatile constituents produced by HD have been studied. It was found that HD produced higher oil (free volatiles) content (3.1%) as compared with SCE (1.1%), whereas bound volatiles constituted only about 0.4%. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the oil samples revealed significant difference in their chemical composition. The essential oil (free volatiles) produced by HD contained 1,8-cineole (85.1%) as the major constituent, followed by a-terpineol (7.2%) and limonene (4.4%). In the bound volatile fraction produced by HD, 1,8 cineole (20.6%), alpha-terpineol (7.6%), p-cymene (6.3%), and limonene (4.5%) were found as major constituents. The extract produced by SCE was dominated by 1,8-cineole (70.4%), a-terpineol (8.6%), globulol (3.1%), aromadendrene (2%), citronellal (1.7%), viridiflorol (1.3%), phytol (1.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1%). Although HD produced higher oil yields, SCE produced better extract in terms of the number of components detected. PMID:21366057

Mann, Tavleen S; Kiran Babu, Garikapati D; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

2011-01-01

57

Improved solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from dried Cuminum cyminum L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a recently developed green technique which is performed in atmospheric conditions without adding any solvent or water. SFME has already been applied to extraction of essential oil from fresh plant materials or dried materials prior moistened. The essential oil is evaporated by the in situ water in the plant materials. In this paper, it was

Ziming Wang; Lan Ding; Tiechun Li; Xin Zhou; Lu Wang; Hanqi Zhang; Li Liu; Ying Li; Zhihong Liu; Hongju Wang; Hong Zeng; Hui He

2006-01-01

58

Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC–MS, and the major components of these oils were

K. M. Knio; J. Usta; S. Dagher; H. Zournajian; S. Kreydiyyeh

2008-01-01

59

In vitro antimicrobial and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia cedronella Boiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and various extracts obtained from Salvia cedronella Boiss have been evaluated for their possible in vitro antimicrobial and antiviral capacities. The GC-EIMS analysis of the essential oil was resulted in detection of 92 components representing 96.1% of the oil. Major components were 1,8- cineole, ? ? ? ?-pinene, caryophyllene oxide and sabinene. In the case of antimicrobial

Ahmet Alim; Ismihan Goze; Hamdi Murat Goze; Bektas Tepe; Julia Serkedjieva

60

Composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Schisandra chinensis obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) for extraction of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis essential oil was examined; the composition and antioxidant activities and antibacterial activities of the essential oil were assessed in vitro. An orthogonal experiment (L9 (3)4) was applied to optimize the extraction process. The optimum conditions were: extraction time, 45 min; microwave power, 800 W; diameter of powder particles, 0.25 mm;

Xiaoqiang Chen; Ying Zhang; Yuangang Zu; Yujie Fu; Wei Wang

2011-01-01

61

Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO? extraction and hydro-distillation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO?) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO? extraction in optimum conditions were ?-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), ?-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and ?-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were ?-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), ?-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and ?-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO? and hydro-distillation showed an EC?? of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively. PMID:24607131

Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

2014-04-01

62

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques.  

PubMed

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). The proposed extraction method has been compared with both hydrodistillation and dichloromethane manual extraction. Better results have been obtained with the proposed method in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:18967949

Gámiz-Gracia, L; Luque de Castro, M D

2000-05-01

63

Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract.  

PubMed

This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53-76%) and seeds (51-95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300 mg kg(-1) dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of gastric lesions (91% and 95%, respectively) which was similar to that induced by omeprazole (94%). Essential oil and aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts of A. graveolens were tested to determine their antibacterial activity using the paper disc-diffusion method, the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration. Essential oil of A. graveolens was strongly inhibitory against Escherichia coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The chemical composition of the volatile oil was investigated by gas chromatography analysis. The major components identified were ?-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, ?-thuyene, ?-pinene, ?-phellendrene, p-cymene, ?-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene. PMID:22934666

Baananou, Sameh; Bouftira, Ibtissem; Mahmoud, Amor; Boukef, Kamel; Marongiu, Bruno; Boughattas, Naceur A

2013-01-01

64

Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC-MS, and the major components of these oils were found to be thymol, sabinene, carvacrol, anethole, and linalool, respectively. Mosquito larvicidal assays were conducted to evaluate the LC(50) and LC(90) after 24 and 48h of the essential oils and their major constituents. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (LC(50): 15-156ppm) against Oc. caspius fourth instars, with the most potent oil being thyme inflorescence extract, followed by parsley seed oil, aniseed oil, and then coriander fruit oil. Toxicity of each oil major constituent was also estimated and compared to a reported larvicidal compound, eugenol. PMID:17368893

Knio, K M; Usta, J; Dagher, S; Zournajian, H; Kreydiyyeh, S

2008-03-01

65

Insecticidal effects of essential oils. A study of the effects of essential oils extracted from eleven Greek aromatic plants on Drosophila auraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from eleven aromatic plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (common in the Greek flora) were examined upon three different developmental stages ofDrosophila auraria. All of the EOs examined exhibited insecticidal effects, either by preventing egg hatching, or by causing the death of larvae and adult flies. In several cases, malformation and\\/or prohibition of

I. Konstantopoulou; L. Vassilopoulou; P. Mavragani-Tsipidou; Z. G. Scouras

1992-01-01

66

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were compared with those of the essential oils extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. While MAHD at 660 W required half as much time as HD needed, similar antibacterial efficacies were found from the essential oils obtained by the two extraction methods on two food pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacterium, and Escherchia coli, a gram negative bacterium). Also, as it was the case with the essential oils extracted by HD, that of MAHD indicated greater influence on S. aureus than on E. coli. The compositions of the extracted essential oils were also studied using GC-MS analysis. The same components with negligible differences in their quantities were found in the extracted essential oils using the two methods outlined above. Overall, to reduce the extraction time, MAHD can be applied at higher microwave levels without any compromise in the antibacterial properties of the essential oils extracted. PMID:24031778

Rezvanpanah, Shila; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi

2011-01-01

67

Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (?-esterase and ?-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are ?-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-?-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

2012-01-01

68

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

2012-01-01

69

Bioactivities of the Various Extracts and Essential Oils of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L., as well as the content of its essential oil. The activities of essential oils were tested against a wide range of human-, plant-, and food-borne microorganisms. A total of 55 microbial organisms belonging

Atalay SÖKMEN; Münevver SÖKMEN; Moschos POLISSIOU; Julia SERKEDJIEVA

70

Spasmolytic activity of essential oil and various extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. on ileum contractions.  

PubMed

Traditional herbal medicines such as Ferula gummosa Boiss. have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of essential oil, hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts of Ferula gummosa and two of its components, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, on isolated rat ileum contractions induced by KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO) and hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts all inhibited the response to 80 mM KCl in a concentration-dependent manner and attenuated the maximum attainable response of the ACh concentration-response curve. Although the effect of etheric extract on ACh contractions was less than that of petrolic extract, the overall order of effectiveness on the weight basis was the etheric, petrolic, methanolic, and hydro-alcoholic extracts, and the essential oil, respectively. A mixture of etheric and petrolic extracts together had a similar effect on KCl response to etheric extract was used alone. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene both exhibited inhibitory effect on the contraction of rat ileum, but the inhibitory effect of beta-pinene on KCl contraction was more pronounced. The inhibitory effect of a mixture of these two compounds was, however, less than the sum of their separate effects. When a mixture of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene together were examined on the ileum, without presence of the spasmogen, they initially caused contraction of the tissue, while neither of them used alone caused a noticeable contraction of the ileum. This study shows that Ferula gummosa essential oil and its various extracts are relaxant of rat isolated ileum and that at least part of their inhibitory effect is due to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene components. As the inhibition of contractile over-activity of the ileum is the basis of the treatment of some gastero-intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, Ferula gummosa may have clinical benefits for treatment of this condition. PMID:11695880

Sadraei, H; Asghari, G R; Hajhashemi, V; Kolagar, A; Ebrahimi, M

2001-09-01

71

The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of endemic Thymus spathulifolius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of essential oil and methanol extracts from a unique and endemic plant, Thymus spathulifolius (Hausskn. and Velen.). The antimicrobial test results showed that the essential oil of T. spathulifolius strongly inhibited the growth of test microorganisms studied, except for 4 fungi species while polar and non-polar

Atalay Sokmen; Medine Gulluce; H Askin Akpulat; Dimitra Daferera; Bektas Tepe; Moschos Polissiou; Münevver Sokmen; Fikrettin Sahin

2004-01-01

72

Solvent free microwave extraction of Elletaria cardamomum L.: A multivariate study of a new technique for the extraction of essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of cardamom essential oil (Elletaria cardamomum L.) was studied. A multivariate study based on a central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of the solvent-free microwave extraction of cardamom seed. The yield and the composition of the essential oils from the dry cardamom seeds obtained

Marie E. Lucchesi; Jacqueline Smadja; Steven Bradshaw; Willem Louw; Farid Chemat

2007-01-01

73

The Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Alcoholic extract of Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. ssp. nana Syme) was investigated by means of gas chromatography. This analysis was compared with that of an aqueous alcoholic extract of the juniper berries of similar origin. The qualitative composition of the oil and the alcoholic extract was found to be very similar. The major

A. Proença da Cunha; Odete L. R. Roque

1989-01-01

74

Chemical compositions, antifungal and antioxidant activities of essential oil and various extracts of Melodorum fruticosum L. flowers.  

PubMed

This research presents the chemical composition antifungal and antioxidant activities of essential oils and various extracts from Melodorum fruticosum flowers. The essential oil composition of M. fruticosum flowers were investigated by GC-MS with 88 identified volatile constituents. Phenyl butanone, linalool, benzyl alcohol, alpha-cadinol, globulol and viridiflorol were found to be the major components, respectively. The dichloromethane extract played a major role as a remarkable fungicide according to their inhibition action against all tested pathogens followed by hexane extract, essential oil and methanol extract, respectively, along with their respective MIC values ranging from 125 to 1000 microg/ml. The dichloromethane extracts were also evaluated to be superior to all extracts tested with an IC(50) value of 87.6 microg/ml whereas other extracts showed their IC(50) values ranging from 100.13 to 194.50 microg/ml. PMID:20621150

Pripdeevech, Patcharee; Chukeatirote, Ekachai

2010-10-01

75

Chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus loxophleba.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus loxophleba Benth. subsp. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of E. loxophleba was analysed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil were found to be 1,8-cineole (39.4%), methyl amyl acetate (19.8%) and aromadendrene (10%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different test systems namely DPPH and ?-carotene/linoleic acid. In the DPPH system, the highest radical-scavenging activity was shown by the polar subfraction of the methanol extract (15.2?±?1.7?µg?mL?¹). Also, in the second case, the inhibition capacity (%) of the polar subfraction (94.1?±?1.3) was found to be stronger. In addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the polar subfraction (273.0?±?2.6?µg?mg?¹) and nonpolar subfraction (146.3?±?2.5?µg?mg?¹) were determined. PMID:21985447

Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Farhad; Batooli, Hossein

2012-01-01

76

Development of Microwave System for Extraction of Essential Oils from Mesua ferrea L. leaves and Jasminum sambac flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave extraction system (MES) was developed for the extraction of essential oils from Mesua ferrea L. leaves and Jasminum sambac flowers. The performance of MES was compared with the conventional extraction method (CEM) for dry distillation (DD), wet distillation (WD), hydro distillation (HD) and steam distillation (SD) in terms of rapidity, quality and quantity of yield and its efficiency.

Rudy Nurdin; Nurshahidah Osman; Kaida Khalid

2006-01-01

77

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of Tragopogon graminifolius, a medicinal herb from Iran.  

PubMed

Tragopogon graminifolius DC., family Compositae, is widely consumed as a green vegetable in the west of Iran and for the treatment of gastrointestinal and hepatic ailments. In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oil from T. graminifolius aerial parts was evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Moreover, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and various extracts of T. graminifolius were determined. Fifty-eight compounds representing 87.2% of the essential oil were identified. The main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (22.0%), beta-caryophyllene (7.5%), heneicosane (6.6%), and nonanal (5.2%). The essential oil demonstrated the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.6 +/- 8.8 ug/mL) and the 80% ethanolic extract the highest ferric reducing antioxidant activity (908.2 +/- 79.5 mmol Fe2+ ion/g extract). The total phenolic content of the 80% ethanolic extract from the aerial parts was the highest (560.7 +/- 18.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent). In the antimicrobial test, Shigella dysenteriae was the most vulnerable microorganism, followed by Proteus vulgaris, and the essential oil exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among the samples. The results indicated that the essential oil and extracts of T. graminifolius could be consumed as a natural herbal preservative or complementary supplement in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24660479

Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Rahimi, Roja; Attar, Farideh; Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Khanavi, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

78

Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

2012-11-01

79

Antioxidant and antilisterial effect of seed essential oil and organic extracts from Zizyphus jujuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodistilled volatile oil from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba was analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty three compounds representing 91.59% of the total oil was identified. The oil and organic extracts revealed a great potential of antilisterial effect against all five strains of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, 19116, 19118, 19166 and 15313. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable

Sharif M. Al-Reza; Vivek K. Bajpai; Sun Chul Kang

2009-01-01

80

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and extracts of Saurauia lantsangensis hu root.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and n-hexane (HEE), chloroform (CHE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and methanol (MEE) extracts, respectively, from the root of Saurauia lantsangensis Hu were investigated. The GC-MS analysis revealed 39 compounds representing 96.41% of the oil containing T-muurolol (13.85%), acetophenone (7.46%), alpha-cadinol (6.26%), methyl palmitate (5.36%), n-hexadecanoic acid (4.31%), torreyol (3.69%), and isospathulenol (3.48%) as major components. Antioxidant activities determined by three various testing systems, i.e., DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, and reducing power assay, increased in the order: HEE < CHE < oil < MEE < EAE. CHE, EAE, MEE and oil exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect determined as the diameter of zones of inhibition (13.3-16.2, 16.5-20.4, 13.5-16.6, and 16.5-22.7 mm), respectively, along with their respective MIC values (500-1000, 125-500, 250-500, and 250-500 microg/ml) against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), and a yeast (Hansenula anomala). PMID:22888533

Zhu, Liang; Zhu, Si-ming; Tian, Ying-juan

2012-01-01

81

Chemistry and Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Extracted From the Seeds of Tomer (Zanthoxylum Armatum DC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum DC, on hydrodistillation, yielded 1.2% of the essential oil. The oleoresins were extracted by Soxhlet extractor using ethanol, ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 38 components of which linalool (62%) and limonene (18.1%) were the major components. The major components of oleoresins were linoleic acid,

G Singh; I. P. S. Kapoor; Pratibha Singh; Carola S. de Heluani; Marina P. de Lampasona; Cesar A. N. Catalan

2011-01-01

82

Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques

2012-01-01

83

Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques

2011-01-01

84

Determination of the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extracts of Echinophora platyloba DC.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Echinophora platyloba from Iran. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/MS (mass spectrometry; MS) analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 29 compounds, which comprised 97.4% of the oil. The main constituents were found to be: (Z)-?-ocimene (26.7%), ?-3-carene (16.2%) and limonene (6.6%). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the methanolic extracts from E. platyloba were evaluated using three different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ?-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching and reducing power assays. In the DPPH system, the highest radical-scavenging activity was shown by the polar sub-fraction of methanol extract (71.2 ± 1.11 µg mL(-1)). Also in the second case, the relative inhibition capacity (%) of the essential oil (68.0 ± 1.14%) was found to be the stronger one. In addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the polar sub-fractions of methanolic extract (67.5 ± 0.48 µg mg(-1)), nonpolar sub-fractions of methanol extract (35.3 ± 0.12) and the oil (83.3 ± 0.24 µg mg(-1)) were determined. PMID:21644173

Gholivand, M B; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, M; Mehraban, E; Niasari, M; Batooli, H

2011-10-01

85

Small-Scale Steam Distillation Plant for Cymbopogon Nardus Essential Oil Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the extraction result and quality analysis of Cymbopogon Nardus leaves using a small-scale steam distillation plant. The extraction plant was successfully developed and interfaced to a computer for monitoring and control purposes. The plant performance was analyzed in terms of its efficiency and the quality of the oil produced. The oil quality was assessed by means of

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Hamazul Azhar Hamzah; Mazidah Tajjudin; Mohd Nasir Taib

86

In-vitro assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oil of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to the complexity of the antioxidant materials and their mechanism of actions, it is obvious that no single testing method is capable of providing a comprehensive picture of the antioxidant profile. The essential oil of the Thymus specie may still possess other important activities in traditional medicine, it can be used in the treatment of fever and cough. This essential oil may also have an anticancer activity. Methods The essential oils aerial parts hydrodistilled from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were characterised by GC/MS analysis and the methanolic extracts were chemically characterized by HPLC method. The essence of thyme was evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Result The Terpinen-4-ol are the principal class of metabolites (33.34%) among which 1.8-cineole (19.96%) and camphor (19.20%) predominate. In this study, quantitative values of antioxidant activity of crude methanolic extracts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis were investigated. The essential oils was screened for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteridis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes) by well diffusion method and agar dilution method (MIC). All the essences were found to inhibit the growth of both gram (+) and gram (?) bacteria organisms tested. These activities were correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds in active fractions. HPLC confirmed presence of phenolic compounds in methanol extracts. Conclusion Methanol extracts and essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis, were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The technique for measuring antioxidant activity, which was developed using DPPH, ABTS and ?-carotene bleaching, produced results as found in established literatures. The present results indicate clearly that methanol extracts and essential oils from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants, also their essential oil have an antibacterial effect. PMID:25022197

2014-01-01

87

Continuous subcritical water extraction as a useful tool for isolation of edible essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for extraction of oregano oil based on the use of subcritical water is proposed. Ground oregano (ca. 1.8 g accurately weighed) was extracted with water at 2.0 MPa, 125 °C and 1 ml min?1 for 24 min. The extracted compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 4 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionisation (GC-FID)

Rogelio Soto Ayala; M. D Luque de Castro

2001-01-01

88

Hepatoprotetive, Cardioprotective and Nephroprotective Actions of Essential Oil Extract of Artemisia sieberi in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study is to evaluate the potential mechanism of antidiabetic action of the essential oil of Artemisia sieberi and its effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Extraction of the essential oil from aerial parts of A. sieberi was preformed by hydrodistillation. Fifty rats were divided into five groups. Groups I and II normal rats given 1 mL/day of dimethyl sulfoxide and 80 mg/kg BW of this oil extract, respectively. Groups III, IV and V diabetic rats given 1 mL/day of dimethyl sulfoxide, oil extract (80 mg/kg BW) and metformin (14.2 mg/kg BW), respectively. Several hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Oral administration of the extract resulted in a significant reduction in the mean values of blood glucose, glucagon, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, ESR, urea, uric acid, creatinine accompanied by an increase in the mean values of the total protein, albumin, insulin, HDL-C, neutrophile count and PCV in diabetic rats. No significant changes in these parameters were found in the control group. The effects produced by this extract were closely similar to a standard antidiabetic drug, metformin. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the essential oil extract of A. sieberi appears to exhibit cardioprotective, nephroprotective and hepatoprotective activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24250557

Irshaid, Fawzi; Mansi, Kamal; Bani-Khaled, Ahmad; Aburjia, Talal

2012-01-01

89

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2013-01-01

90

Acaricidal properties of Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) essential oils obtained by three methods of extraction.  

PubMed

Essential oils of Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. were extracted by three methods, a microwave assisted process (MAP), distillation in water (DW) and direct steam distillation (DSD), and tested for their relative toxicity as contact acaricides to the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. All three extracts of A. absinthium and of T. vulgare were lethal to the spider mite but to variable degrees. The LC50 obtained from the DSD oil of A. absinthium was significantly lower (0.04 mg/cm2) than that of the MAP (0.13 mg/cm2) and DW (0.13 mg/cm2) oil of this plant species. DSD and DW extracts of T. vulgare were more toxic (75.6 and 60.4% mite mortality, respectively, at 4% concentration) to the spider mite than the MAP extract (16.7% mite mortality at 4% concentration). Chromatographic analysis indicated differences in composition between the more toxic DSD oil of A. absinthium and the other two extracts of this plant, indicating that a sesquiterpene (C15H24) compound present in the DSD oil and absent in the other two may enhance the toxicity of the DSD oil. Chemical analysis of the T. vulgare extracts indicated that beta-thujone is by far the major compound of the oil (>87.6%) and probably contributes significantly to the acaricidal activity of the oil. PMID:11233109

Chiasson, H; Bélanger, A; Bostanian, N; Vincent, C; Poliquin, A

2001-02-01

91

Control of phytopathogenic fungi by the essential oil and methanolic extracts of Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of the essential oil and methanolic extracts of Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P. was evaluated for controlling the growth of some important phytopathogenic fungi. The hydrodistilled essential\\u000a oil was analysed by GC-MS. Thirty one compounds representing 95.3% of the total oil were identified, of which ?-caryophyllene\\u000a (24.0%), ?-humulene (14.5%), 1,8-cineole (9.0%), eugenol (7.2%), globulol (7.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.2%), ?-cadinene

Atiqur Rahman; M. Amzad Hossain; Sun Chul Kang

2010-01-01

92

Method for removing essential oils and antioxidants from extract products of lamiaceae species using rolled film evaporation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An increase in specific antioxidant activity of extracts from rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) is obtained by the use of a blend of tetrafluoroethane and an organic solvent in the extraction process. A blend of tetrafluoroethane, acetone and methanol improves total yield. A tetrafluoroethane and acetone blend has higher efficacy but comparatively lower yields. The methods yield a liquid and oily antioxidant extract that is readily mixed with a liquid product such as soybean oil for addition to animal feeds and human food. The methods simultaneously yield pharmaceutical-grade essential oils in high yields.

2002-09-17

93

Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)  

PubMed Central

Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (?)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (?)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively. PMID:25203255

Cantrell, Charles L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Carvalho, Camila R.; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Rosa, Luiz H.

2014-01-01

94

Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract, essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The dichloromethane-methanol extract, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Nepeta parnassica, and the isolated 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone were evaluated for their repellent effect against the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards and Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskål. The chemical analysis of N. parnassica essential oil, dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (87 %), revealed 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (36.8%), 1,8-cineole (25.5%), and 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (11.1%) as the major constituents. The results of the insect bioassays showed that the essential oil and the dichloromethane-methanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Culex pipiens for up to 2 h post application. The isolated 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone showed very high mosquito repellency for periods of at least 2 h against both species. PMID:24449446

Gkinis, G; Michaelakis, A; Koliopoulos, G; Ioannou, E; Tzakou, O; Roussis, V

2014-03-01

95

Arthropod repellency, especially tick ( Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were

H. Tunón; W. Thorsell; A. Mikiver; I. Malander

2006-01-01

96

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. The goal of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of R. officinalis collected from three different regions at four different time intervals of the year against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus feacalis,

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. E. Hames Kocabas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan; T. Ozek; K. H. C. Baser

2007-01-01

97

Biological activity of essential oils and their constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in the field of biologically active, essential oils is reviewed. Essential oil extraction methods that are covered include cold pressing, extraction with other essential oils, steam distillation, solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and solid phase extraction. Separation methods for the isolation of individual constituents that are covered include GC, LC, and distillation. Biological activities of essential oils and

Andrew T. Lupo; John W. Chinn; Raphael K. L. Kang

2000-01-01

98

Antidiabetic Potentials of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl.  

PubMed

Abstract This study was aimed at assessing the potential of essential oil from the leaf of Hoslundia opposita in the treatment of diabetes. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomized into two groups; nondiabetic and diabetic groups, each with four subgroups. Animals in the diabetic group were induced with diabetes using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate, 160?mg/kg body weight (b. wt.). The rats were treated with 110 and 220?mg/kg b. wt. of the essential oil. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for 4 days. In the nondiabetic condition, there was no effect of the oil on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in rats. In diabetic rats, the oil caused a significant reduction in FBG levels. Treatment with 110?mg/kg b. wt. of the oil reduced FBG almost to the normoglycemic level by day 4 and the overall glucose excursion during a 3-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test approached the baseline level at 120?min. Also, hepatic glycogen was significantly higher, while the glucose concentrations were lower in the diabetic-treated group when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Histological examinations revealed a mildly distorted architecture of the pancreatic islets ?-cells of diabetic rats treated with the oil, while those of the untreated rats were severely degenerated. Overall, the in vivo antihyperglycemic activity of the essential oil may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25137031

Akolade, Jubril Olayinka; Usman, Lamidi Ajao; Okereke, Omoaruemike Ebele; Muhammad, Nasir Olarewaju

2014-10-01

99

Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis L. roots cultivated in Iran. Comparative analysis between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation.  

PubMed

The composition of essential oil extracted from Valeriana officinalis L. roots growing wild in Iran was studied by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. Forty-seven components representing 89.3% and 35 constituents varying from 86.1% to 95.1% of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 were identified, respectively. The major components in the extracted oil from supercritical CO2 were isovaleric acid (18.7-41.8%), valerenic acid (8.2-11.8%), acetoxyvaleranone (5.6-9.6%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (4.5-6.5%), bornyl acetate (2.3-7.7%) and valerenol (3.7-5.2%), whereas by hydrodistillation were bornyl acetate (11.6%), valerenic acid (8.0%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (7.9%) and acetoxyvaleranone (7.6%). The analysis of the extracts was performed by capillary GC and GC/MS. PMID:18164718

Safaralie, Asghar; Fatemi, Shohreh; Sefidkon, Fatemeh

2008-02-01

100

Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rosa damascena Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Essential Oil in Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Extracts obtained from the petals of Rosa damascena (Rosaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases. In this study the hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of the plant were investigated for its possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The extract was administered at the doses (p.o.) of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg and the doses of essential oil were 100, 200 and 400 ?L/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing response, formalin-induced paw licking time in the early and late phases and light tail flick test were used in mice to assess analgesic activity. For evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect carrageenan-induced paw edema served as a valid animal model in rats. The extract significantly attenuated the writhing responses induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and also showed potent analgesic effect in both phases of formalin test but not in light tail flick test. In addition, the higher dose of the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. Essential oil of the plant at all administered doses failed to show any analgesic or anti-inflammatory effect in above mentioned tests. These results provide support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena in relieving inflammatory pain, and insight into the development of new agents for treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:24363723

Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hajiloo, Mohammad

2010-01-01

101

Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.  

PubMed

Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be ?-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-?-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium. PMID:23027699

Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2013-08-01

102

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of tow cultivated mint species ( Mentha longifolia and Mentha pulegium ) used in the Tunisian folkloric medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of two cultivated mint species (M. longifolia and M. pulegium), as well as the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of Mentha longifolia and Mentha pulegium were compared. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil identified 41 compounds constituting 96.66 and 96.13% of the total

Hafedh Hajlaoui; Najla Trabelsi; Emira Noumi; Mejdi Snoussi; Hanen Fallah; Riadh Ksouri; Amina Bakhrouf

2009-01-01

103

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

Herman, Anna

2014-09-01

104

Characterization of steam volatiles in the essential oil of black currant buds and the antioxidant properties of different bud extracts.  

PubMed

Currently essential oil from black currant ( Ribes nigrum L.) buds is mainly used as a valuable perfumery ingredient. This study reports more comprehensive characterization of dormant buds of various black currant ( Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars which are grown in Northern European countries. Essential oils were isolated from the buds by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and GC--olfactometry (GC-O). The most abundant compounds in black currant bud essential oil were sabinene, delta-3-carene, and terpinolene. The most frequent descriptors of the essential oil components assessed by GC-O were "woody", "terpene", "fruity", "sweet", "citrus", "herbaceous", "pine", "green", "oily", "herbal", and "musty". The residues obtained after hydrodistillation were separated into liquid and solid fractions. The solid fraction was dried and extracted with acetone (AE), while the liquid fraction (water extract) was divided in two parts, one of which was spray-dried (SDWF extracts) and the other freeze-dried (FDWF extract). In addition, a portion of whole frozen buds was extracted with methanol (ME). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of black currant bud extracts varied in a wide range; in the DPPH * reaction system FDWF at the applied concentration scavenged 43-79%; SDWF, 54-80%; AE, 16-36%; ME, 42-60% of radicals; while in the ABTS *+ reaction system the RSC was 39-72, 38-53, 1-5, and 30-49%, respectively. The total amount of phenolic compounds expressed in gallic acid equivalents in FDWF varied in the range of 132-192 mg/g; in SDWF, 140-209 mg/g; in AE, 49-107 mg/g; and in ME extracts, 111-180 mg/g. PMID:18412360

Dvaranauskaite, Asta; Venskutonis, Petras R; Raynaud, Christine; Talou, Thierry; Viskelis, Pranas; Dambrauskiene, Edita

2008-05-14

105

Chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Carapa guianensis collected from Venezuelan Guayana and the antimicrobial activity of the oil and crude extracts.  

PubMed

The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae) leaves was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, which made up 93.7% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bicyclogermacrene (28.5%), alpha-humulene (17.2%), germacrene B (11.9%), and trans-beta-caryophyllene (9.9%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, as well as the crude extracts of the leaves obtained by refluxing the dried leaves with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol, was determined using the disc diffusion assay. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was only found for the essential oil and the methanolic extract, at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 400 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL. PMID:24427961

Meccia, Gina; Quintero, Patricia; Rojas, Luis B; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Velasco, Judith; Diaz, Tulia; Diaz, Clara; Velásquez, Jesús; Toro, Maria

2013-11-01

106

Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of the essential oils and crude extracts of Merremia borneensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydro distilled essential leaves and stems oils of Merremia borneensis were analysed by GC–MS. Sixty-nine compounds representing 96.81% and 89.89% of the leaves and stems oils, respectively, were identified, of which chloromethyl propanoate (3.29% and 3.54%), methylcyclopropanemethanol (1.29% and 1.03%), oxirane (1.41% and 1.05%), 1-penten-3-ol (1.33% and 1.12%), 1-(2-propenyloxy)-heptane (3.44% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), l-octen-3-ol (1.56% and

M. Amzad Hossain; Muhammad Dawood Shaha; Senty Vun Sanga; Mahyar Sakarib

107

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of the various extracts of Tanacetum sonbolii Mozaff. (Asteraceae) from Iran.  

PubMed

This study is designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and antioxidant activities of the different extracts of Tanacetum sonbolii Mozaff. from Iran for the first time. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and its gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses resulted in the identification of 26 components, representing 96.5% of the oil. The major components were characterised to be ?-cadinol (35.3%), globulol (20.1%) and 1,8-cineole (8.6%). Antioxidant activities of the various extracts of the plant were determined by two different test systems; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid. Also, their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined. DPPH radical-scavenging activities of test samples followed the order water?>?chloroform?>?ethyl acetate?>?butanol?>?BHT?>?methanol. Moreover, the ethyl acetate extract showed better ?-carotene bleaching capacity than the other extracts and the amount of total phenolics was very high in ethyl acetate extract. PMID:22115413

Firozy, Masoumeh; Talebpour, Zahra; Sonboli, Ali

2012-01-01

108

Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Essential oils and Related Compounds from Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).  

PubMed

The volatile oil of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) obtained from the fruits by soxhlet-dynamic headspace (S-DHS), solvent extraction (SE), steam distillation (SD), hydrodistillation (HYD) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The SC-CO2 offered a higher yield (4.5%, w/w) than the other used techniques. Among the identified constituents, linalool was the main compound whatever the employed extraction procedure in contrast to the remaining components which varied according to the isolation technique showing a strong effect of the method used on the composition of these minor compounds. SC-CO2 as compared to the other extraction techniques revealed its high efficiency in addition to the integrity saving of coriander fruit volatiles. Statistical analysis showed that all the detected and identified compounds were highly (P > 0.001) affected by the extraction technique used except the a-terpineol which appear stable. On the other hand, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed on the determination of one group represented by SC-CO2, S-DHS and HYD suggesting a similar essential oil composition. Obtained results show that, in Tunisian coriander essential oil, linalool was the main compound. PMID:24061362

Msaada, Kamel; Taârit, Mouna Ben; Hosni, Karim; Nidhal, Salem; Tammar, Sonia; Bettaieb, Iness; Hammami, Mohamed; Limam, Férid; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-12-01

109

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of different extracts of Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Meyer and Nepeta saccharata Bunge.  

PubMed

Aerial parts essential oil of Nepeta betonicifolia and N. saccharata were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-three and eighteen components represented 97.9% and 98.2% of the total oils identified, respectively. Main compounds of the oil of N. betonicifolia were 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (42.0%), germacrene D (6.0%), triplal (5.2%), 1-nor-bourbonanone (4.0%) and 1,8-cineole (3.2%). The principal constituents of the essential oil of N. saccharata were found to be 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (66.9%), germacrene D (12.9%), sabinene (6.5%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.3%). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of methanol extracts and chloroform, butanol and water subfractions of aerial parts of N. betonicifolia and N. saccharata were evaluated by using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS assays. TPC of each extract was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau. The antioxidant activity of the butanolic subfractions of both plants was higher than other extracts examined. PMID:21995833

Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Khaligh, Pooneh; Mirzajani, Fateme

2012-01-01

110

Comparison of models for supercritical fluid extraction of seed and essential oils in relation to the mass-transfer rate  

SciTech Connect

A general dimensionless model was developed for a sensitivity analysis of the supercritical extraction process of vegetable oils and essential oils. Two dimensionless parameters, {Gamma}, a dimensionless partition coefficient, and {Theta}, a dimensionless characteristic time, appeared as the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of the extraction process. Some limiting values of these two parameters within the general model yielded simpler models which are often used in the literature. The numerical solutions of both the complete model and the simpler cases were compared to assess the range of relevance of the simpler models in terms of {Gamma} and {Theta} values. These results were compared with the experimental data found in the literature to assess the correctness of the assumption used to model supercritical fluid extraction in single cases. The implications of this analysis on the development of scale-up procedures were also discussed.

Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E. [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

1996-10-01

111

Analysis and the potential applications of essential oil and leaf extracts of Silene armeria L. to control food spoilage and food-borne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from the floral parts of Silene armeria L. by hydrodistillation and to test the efficacy of essential oil and the various leaf extracts against a diverse range of\\u000a microorganisms comprising food spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The chemical composition of essential oil was\\u000a analyzed by

Vivek K. Bajpai; Nguyen Thi Dung; O. Jun Kwon; Sun Chul Kang

2008-01-01

112

Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Teucrium orientale (L.) subsp. taylori (Boiss.) Rech. f.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium orientale subsp. taylori. The GC and GC–MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in determination of 40 components representing 96.4% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were linalool (28.6%), caryophyllene oxide (15.6%), 1,8-cineol (4.5%), ?-pinene (8.7%), 3-octanol (9.5%), ?-caryophyllene (7.3%), and germacrene-D (4.1%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different tests, namely DPPH and ?-carotene- linoleic acid assay. In DPPH system, the weakest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the non-polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (237.40 ± 2.1 ?g/mL). Antioxidant activity of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract was superior to all samples tested, showing an EC50 value of 61.45 ± 0.5 ?g/ mL. The inhibition capacity (%) of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (95.21% ± 1.3) was found to be the strongest and almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (94.9% ± 1.1). The amount of the total phenolics was the highest in the polar subfraction, i.e. 370 ?g/mg of the dry extract (37%). A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics of the extracts. PMID:24381607

Amiri, Hamzeh

2010-01-01

113

Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.  

PubMed

Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, ?-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 ?g/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD). PMID:25115624

Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

2014-12-01

114

Chemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil and ethanol extract from the stem of Aglaia odorata Lour.  

PubMed

The stem-derived essential oil of Aglaia odorata Lour. was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type system. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the oil revealed the identification of 39 compounds, representing 76.4% of the oil; germacrene D (20.3%), ?-humulene (17.1%), ?-himachalene (12.7%) and ?-caryophyllene (10.2%) were the major components. Ar-turmerone (1) and eichlerialactone (2) were isolated from the stem oil and ethanolic stem extract of this plant species, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the oil and ethanol extract were tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as well as three rice fungal pathogens Bipolaris oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani using broth microdilution method. The oil and 1 exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three rice pathogens tested, whereas 2 exhibited good antibacterial activity against both the Gram-positive pathogens tested. PMID:24934340

Joycharat, Nantiya; Thammavong, Sonesay; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Plodpai, Patimaporn; Mitsuwan, Watcharapong; Limsuwan, Surasak; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

2014-12-01

115

Inhibitory parameters of the essential oil and various extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu to reduce food spoilage and food-borne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and various solvent extracts isolated from the floral cone of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu and to test their efficacy against a diverse range of organisms comprising food spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation was analysed by

Vivek K. Bajpai; Atiqur Rahman; Ung Kyu Choi; Sun Joo Youn; Sun Chul Kang

2007-01-01

116

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidant and properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare plants. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare was analyzed by a GC\\/MS system. A total 62 constituents were identified. Caryophyllene and spathulenol were found to be the main constituents,

F ?ahin; M Güllüce; D Daferera; A Sökmen; M Sökmen; M Polissiou; G Agar; H Özer

2004-01-01

117

Antioxidant and relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala jacquem  

PubMed Central

Background The current work is an attempt to know about additional chemical profile of Artemisia macrocephala. Antioxidant activity is performed as the plant is reported to contain flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity in general. Relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract is performed to know in which fraction(s) the relaxant constituents concentrate as we have already reported that its crude methanol has relaxant activity. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil is also performed as the plant is rich with essential oil. Methods Phytochemical profile of the plant is performed. Free radical scavenging activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Relaxation activity tests of fractions and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala were performed on sections of rabbits’ jejunum. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of plant extracts and its essential oil. Results We detected carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins in A. macrocephala. At concentration 0.005 mg/ml, free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 121.5 ± 2.02% of ascorbic acid. n- hexane fraction relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Essential oil relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.8 ± 0.034 mg/ml. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions relaxed both spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions suggesting its possible mode through calcium channels. Constructing calcium chloride curves, the test fractions showed a right shift in the EC50. Essential oil at concentration 0.1 mg/ml produced right shift with EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.08 ± 0.08 vs. control with EC50 -2.47 ± 0.07. The curve resembled the curves of verapamil, which caused a right shift at 0.1 ?M, with EC50 -1.7 ±0.07 vs. control EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.45 ± 0.06. Conclusions Crude methanol and its fractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol) are rich sources of antioxidant constituents. The relaxing constituents following calcium channel blocking mechanisms are more concentrated in n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions that warrant isolation. PMID:23642022

2013-01-01

118

Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6?g/100?g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50?g/100?g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07?g/100?g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and ?-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching ?-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts. PMID:24224115

Iqbal, Tahseen; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain

2013-01-01

119

Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6?g/100?g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50?g/100?g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07?g/100?g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and ? -caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching ? -carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts. PMID:24224115

Iqbal, Tahseen; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain

2013-01-01

120

Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

2013-01-01

121

Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS  

PubMed Central

The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

122

GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.  

PubMed

This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be ? -caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)- ? -farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including ? -carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In ? -carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700?nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0?mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98? ? g gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 ? g quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

2013-01-01

123

GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.  

PubMed Central

This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be ?-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-?-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including ?-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700?nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0?mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98??g gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 ?g quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

2013-01-01

124

Effects of solvent-free microwave extraction on the chemical composition of essential oil of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi compared with the conventional production method.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Calamintha nepeta has been obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and by classical hydrodistillation (HD). A comparative qualitative-quantitative study on the composition of the oils was carried out. A total of 38 compounds, constituting 97.6% of the oil, were identified in the oil obtained by SFME, whereas 46 compounds, representing 95.4% of the oil, were characterized in the HD oil. SFME-distilled oil is richer in lightly oxygenated monoterpenes (LOM) than HD oil. It also has a higher amount of sesquiterpenes and a lower quantity of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. HD oil seems to be affected by chemical changes more than SFME oil. PMID:18266294

Riela, Serena; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Rosselli, Sergio; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Senatore, Felice

2008-04-01

125

Chemical composition and inhibitory parameters of essential oil and extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the floral parts of Nandina domestica Thunb. by hydrodistillation, and to test the efficacy of essential oil and various organic extracts against a panel of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19166, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1916, S. aureus

Vivek K. Bajpai; Atiqur Rahman; Sun Chul Kang

2008-01-01

126

Bioactivity of the essential oil extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa Hook f. et Thomas against the grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic, repellent and feeding deterrent activities of the essential oil extracted from Evodia rutaecarpa Hook f. et Thomas, were evaluated against Sitophilus zeamais adults and Tribolium castaneum larvae and adults. Contact toxicity assayed by topical application showed that S. zeamais adults were significantly more susceptible (LD50=0.043 ?g\\/mg body wt) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LD50=0.118 ?g\\/mg body wt)

Z. L. Liu; S. H. Ho

1999-01-01

127

Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the

D. E. Cross; R. M. Mcdevitt; T. Acamovic

2011-01-01

128

Insecticide activity of Mediterranean essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapours of essential oils, extracted from 12 Mediterranean plants of the families Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae and Apiaceae, were assayed for insecticide activity against the aphid pests Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Different doses were applied, starting from 2 µl\\/l air and halving the dose until no activity was registered. Anise, fennel and basil essential oils resulted in high mortality,

Maria Cristina Digilio; Emilia Mancini; Emanuela Voto; Vincenzo De Feo

2008-01-01

129

Extraction of the essential oil from endemic Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis with two different methods: comparison of the oil composition and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis by two different extraction methods, i.e., hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), were examined. This endemic Origanum species had shown very good antibacterial activity. The composition of the O. bilgeri EOs obtained by SFME and HD was investigated by GC/MS analysis. The main components of the oils obtained by both methods were carvacrol (90.20-84.30%), p-cymene (3.40-5.85%), ?-terpinene (0.47-1.20%), and thymol (0.69-1.08%). The EO isolation by SFME offered many important advantages, including a higher extraction yield, a shorter extraction time, and a higher content of the active component carvacrol. The carvacrol-rich oils obtained by both HD and SFME showed a good antibacterial activity. The largest inhibition zones were observed for the O. bilgeri EO obtained by SFME. Our study suggests that O. bilgeri EO has the potential to be used as preventative against bacterial contamination in many foods, instead of the common synthetic antimicrobial products. PMID:22782881

Sözmen, Fazli; Uysal, Burcu; Köse, Elif Odaba?; Akta?, Ozgür; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Oksal, Birsen S

2012-07-01

130

Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl\\/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53–76%) and seeds (51–95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300?mg?kg dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of

Sameh Baananou; Ibtissem Bouftira; Amor Mahmoud; Kamel Boukef; Bruno Marongiu; Naceur A. Boughattas

2012-01-01

131

SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativum L.) SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SWE) is a technique based on the use of water as an extractant, at temperatures between 100 and 374 ºC and at a pressure high enough to maintain the liquid state. As the temperature of liquid water is raised under pressure, the polarity decreases and it can be used as an extraction solvent for a wide range

Norashikin Saim; Rozita Osman

132

Chemical composition and anti-fungal properties of the essential oil and crude extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oil isolated from the floral cone of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC–MS. It was determined that 59 compounds, which represented 97.06% of total oil, were present in the oil. The oil contains mainly ?-pinene (29.54%), caryophyllene oxide (4.49%), ?-thujene (8.63%), bornylene (8.63%), totarol (5.28%), ?-caryophyllene (4.40%), ?-3-carene (3.19%), 2-?-pinene

Vivek K. Bajpai; Atiqur Rahman; Sun Chul Kang

2007-01-01

133

Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.  

PubMed

Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

2008-01-01

134

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum Grown in North-Western Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ?-fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ?-phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ?-pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ?-fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH•, reducing power and chelating ability on Fe2+ ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

Tiku, A. K.; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V. K.

2013-01-01

135

Solvent-free microwave extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oils from endemic Origanum husnucanbaseri H. Duman, Aytaç & A. Duran: comparison of antibacterial activity and contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils (EOs) obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) from endemic Origanum husnucanbaseri H. Duman, Aytaç & A. Duran were investigated using the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry system. The main constituents of both oils obtained from SFME and HD from O. husnucanbaseri are borneol (15.2–12.8%), ?-terpineol (12.3–10.8%) and trans-sabinene hydrate (11.8–9.92%). The EO obtained from SFME contained

Burcu Uysal; Fazli Sozmen; Elif Odabas Kose; I. Gokhan Deniz; Birsen S. Oksal

2010-01-01

136

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?–pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

Mojarrab, M.; Delazar, A.; Esnaashari, S.; Afshar, F. Heshmati

2013-01-01

137

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?-pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

Mojarrab, M; Delazar, A; Esnaashari, S; Afshar, F Heshmati

2013-01-01

138

Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. using Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts of two plants including fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. have been studied with brine shrimp test. There is only one report about cytotoxicity of H. sphondylium in literature and so H. persicum has been used as second selection. At first

Mohammad Hassan Moshafi; Fariba Sharififar; Gholam-Reza Dehghan; Alieh Ameri

2009-01-01

139

Evaluation of antileishmanial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from plants issued from the leishmaniasis-endemic region of Sned (Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we tested 10 essential oils (EOs) extracted from 10 plants issued from Sned region (Tunisia) to evaluate both their leishmanicidal effects against Leishmania major and L. infantum, and their cytotoxicity against murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (ATCC, TIB-71). The antioxidant activity was also monitored by the DDPH method, while the chemical composition of active EO was

S. Ben Hadj Ahmed; R. M. Sghaier; F. Guesmi; B. Kaabi; M. Mejri; H. Attia; D. Laouini; I. Smaali

2011-01-01

140

Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) seed essential oil and alcoholic extract on the morphology, capsule expression and urease activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuminum cyminum L., commonly known as cumin, is a plant with a considerable reputation. The aim of this work was to study the activity of cumin seed essential oil and alcoholic extract against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and clinical K. pneumoniae isolates by evaluating the effect of subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) on cell morphology, capsule expression and urease activity. Growth

Safoura Derakhshan; Morteza Sattari; Mohsen Bigdeli

2008-01-01

141

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of supercritical extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare growing wild in Lithuania.  

PubMed

This article reports the results concerning the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile oil obtained from the aerial parts of Tanacetum vulgare, collected in Lithuania, by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 at 90 bar and 40 °C and by hydrodistillation (HD). GC-MS and GC-FID analysis revealed that the oils mainly consisted of 1,8-cineole, trans-thujone, cis-chrysanthenol, borneol and myrtenol. Oils obtained by HD displayed, with respect to the SFE volatile oil, a higher amount of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. The hydrodistilled oil was particularly active against dermatophyte strains and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.16-0.64 ?L/mL. The oil revealed a significant inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in Candida albicans at sub-inhibitory concentrations. At the concentration of 1/16 MIC, the inhibition of filamentation was more than 80% in comparison to untreated control cells. PMID:25055158

Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Bagdonaite, Edita; Maxia, Andrea; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Porcedda, Silvia

2014-11-01

142

Anthelmintic activity of crude extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of ?-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 ?g/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 ?g/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 ?g/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 ?g/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

2014-01-01

143

Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of ?-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200??g/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50??g/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200??g/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100??g/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antonio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josue; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A.

2014-01-01

144

"In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.  

PubMed

One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), ?-pinene (8.4%), and ?-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry. PMID:22526656

Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

2012-08-01

145

Lavender essential oil: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender essential oil is popular as a complementary medicine in its own right and as an additive to many over the counter complementary medicine and cosmetic products ' \\\\ Indeed, products derived from the popular garden herb Lavender (Lavandula spp.) have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more 'recent ' addition, the essential oils derived from

Heather M. A. Cavanagh; Jenny M. Wilkinson

2005-01-01

146

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines.  

PubMed

Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil from 17 Thai medicinal plants on human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell lines using MTT assay were investigated. An amount of 1 x 10(4)cells/well of KB cell line and 1 x 10(5) cells/well of P388 cell line were treated with the oil samples at different concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 4.962 mg/ml. In KB cell line, Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf oil showed the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0379 mg/ml (4.37 times more potent than vincristine) whereas Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil gave the highest anti-proliferative activity with the IC(50) value of 0.0362 mg/ml (12.7 times less potent than 5-FU) in P388 cell line. The results demonstrated the potential of essential oil from Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment. PMID:15979235

Manosroi, Jiradej; Dhumtanom, Pongsathorn; Manosroi, Aranya

2006-04-01

147

Thermodynamic and kinetic models for the extraction of essential oil from savory and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil with hot (subcritical) water and supercritical CO2.  

PubMed

Mechanisms that control the extraction rates of essential oil from savory (Satureja hortensis) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from historically-contaminated soil with hot water and supercritical carbon dioxide were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow-rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent (i.e. partitioning thermodynamics, or the "elution" step) or by the rate of analyte desorption from the matrix (i.e. kinetics, or the "initial desorption" step). Two simple models were applied to describe the extraction profiles obtained with hot water and with supercritical CO2: (1) a model based solely on the thermodynamic distribution coefficient KD, which assumes that analyte desorption from the matrix is rapid compared to elution. and (2) a two-site kinetic model which assumes that the extraction rate is limited by the analyte desorption rate from the matrix, and is not limited by the thermodynamic (KD) partitioning that occurs during elution. For hot water extraction, the thermodynamic elution of analytes from the matrix was the prevailing mechanism as evidenced by the fact that extraction rates increased proportionally with the hot water flow-rate. This was also confirmed by the fact that simple removal calculations based on a single KD (for each essential oil compound) gave good fits to experimental data for flow-rates from 0.25 to 4 ml/min. In contrast, supercritical CO2 extraction showed only minimal dependence on flow-rate, and the simple KD model could only describe the initial 20-50% of the extraction. However, a simple two-site kinetic model gave a good fit for all CO2 flow-rates tested. The results of these investigations demonstrated that very simple models can be used to determine and describe extractions which are limited primarily by partitioning thermodynamics, or primarily by desorption kinetics. Furthermore, these results show that the time required for the recovery of essential oil from savory with hot water can be minimized by increasing flow-rate, with little change in the total volume of water required. In contrast, raising the flow-rate of supercritical CO2 has little effect on the mass of essential oils recovered per unit of time, indicating that optimal recovery of these compounds with supercritical CO2 (amount recovered for the lowest amount of CO2) requires longer extraction times rather than faster flow-rates. PMID:12458758

Kubátová, Alena; Jansen, Boris; Vaudoisot, Jean-François; Hawthorne, Steven B

2002-10-25

148

Chemical composition and anti-fungal properties of the essential oils and crude extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrodistilled essential leaves and stems oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth were analysed by GC–MS\\/MS. Sixty nine compounds representing 97.6 and 97.4% of the total leaves and stems oils, respectively were identified, of which ?-caryophyllene (24.0 and 35.1%), ?-humulene (14.2 and 18.4%), ?-elemene (11.1 and 8.5%), 1-octen-3-ol (8.2 and 7.0%), ?-bourbonene (3.4 and 3.0%), ?-pinene (2.1 and 1.7%), caryophyllene oxide

M. Amzad Hossain; Zhari Ismail; Atiqur Rahman; Sun Chul Kang

2008-01-01

149

Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L.  

PubMed

Volatile concentrates from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus were isolated by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9.0 MPa and 50 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.5 kg/h. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9.0 MPa and 45 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.6 kg/h. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage. The SFE myrrh oil had a yield, Y, of 3.2%. Its main components, identified and quantified by GC/MS, were furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, 34.9%; lindestrene, 12.9%; curzerene, 8.5%; and germacrone, 5.8%. The essential oils from the same starting material by hydrodistillation, HD, (Y = 2.8%) and by steam distillation, SD, (Y = 0.4%) were quite similar to the SFE extract. The main components of the SFE oil of A. calamus (Y = 3.5%) were acorenone, 13.4%; iso-acorone, 11.6%; (Z)-sesquilavandulol, 11.0%; dehydroxy isocalamendiol, 7.7%; and beta-asarone, 5.5%. The comparison with hydrodistilled (Y = 1.8%) and steam distilled (Y = 1.0%) oils revealed large differences in the content of iso-acorone and crypto-acorone. PMID:16190653

Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Scorciapino, Andrea

2005-10-01

150

Characterization of Aromatherapy Massage Oils Prepared from Virgin Coconut Oil and Some Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize aromatherapy massage oils prepared from virgin coconut oil (VCO) and some essential\\u000a oils. VCO extracted from fresh coconut endosperm by a centrifugation method, which was the most effective method to prepare\\u000a VCO, was composed mainly of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic acid. Three essential oils (lemon, eucalyptus and\\u000a lavender oils) at

Sarunyoo Songkro; Anusak Sirikatitham; Supreedee Sungkarak; Khemmarat Buaking; Juraithip Wungsintaweekul; Duangkhae Maneenuan; Kwunchit Oungbho

2010-01-01

151

Tea, Spices and Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils in 1985 were a record $106.6 million, nearly 16 percent greater than the previous year's shipments of $92.1 million. This increase largely reflects higher prices for lemon oil, which were more than double 1984 levels. Export...

1986-01-01

152

Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils had antibacterial activity in the three assays, suggesting that they would be good candidates for testing in clinical trials. The observed antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves suggests a mechanistic explanation for the efficacy of a mixture of coriander, lemon balm and mint extracts against IBS in a published clinical trial. PMID:24283351

2013-01-01

153

Biological effects of essential oils – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components.

F. Bakkali; S. Averbeck; D. Averbeck; M. Idaomar

2008-01-01

154

Moldicidal properties of seven essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils.

Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen

155

[Antioxidant properties of essential oils].  

PubMed

By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

2009-01-01

156

Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

2009-01-01

157

CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;  

E-print Network

CHEM­333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils; Experiments A, C, D and below research laboratory procedure, but it is invaluable when it is useful, as in extraction of essential oils the oils from either caraway, cinnamon, clove, or cumin (see below) and prepare a derivative of the main

Taber, Douglass

158

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Algerian Foeniculum vulgare seed essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of three extraction parameters (soaking time, extraction time and the ratio of solid to liquid) on the yield and chemical composition of Foeniculum vulgare seeds essential oils. The bioactivity of the essential oil extracted for the optimum extraction parameters was assessed against Culex pipiens mosquito. F. vulgare essential oil composition included

Safia Zoubiri; Aoumeur Baaliouamer; Nabila Seba; Nesrine Chamouni

159

Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (?). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR. PMID:22907873

Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

2012-10-01

160

Antifungal and herbicidal properties of essential oils and n-hexane extracts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor., Achillea biebersteinii Afan. and n-hexane extracts obtained from the flowers of A. gypsicola and A. biebersteinii Afan. was analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Camphor (40.17–23.56%, respectively), 1,8-cineole (22.01–38.09%, respectively), piperitone (11.29–0.37%, respectively), borneol (9.50–5.88%, respectively) and ?-terpineol (1.56–5.15%, respectively) were found to be

Saban Kordali; Ahmet Cakir; Tulay Aytas Akcin; Ebru Mete; Adnan Akcin; Tuba Aydin; Hamdullah Kilic

2009-01-01

161

Mosquitoes, malaria and essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocidal (insect repellent) preparations used against mosquito bites to prevent infection are reviewed, comparing the use of essential oils and natural aromatic materials with various synthetic topical agents. A synopsis of malaria prevention strategies and insecticidal toxicity is also discussed, in the light of emergent mosquito resistance to synthetic chemical pesticides.The use of natural products for use as anti-malarials is

T. Burfield; S.-L. Reekie

2005-01-01

162

Rapid analysis of the essential oils from dried Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. by improved solvent-free microwave extraction with three types of microwave-absorption medium.  

PubMed

A new method of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials has been studied. By adding a microwave-absorption medium (MAM) to a reactor, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was improved and can be used to extract essential oils from dried plant material without pretreatment. With a microwave irradiation power of 85 W it took only approximately 30 min to extract the essential oils completely. The whole extraction process is simple, rapid, and economical. Three types of MAM, iron carbonyl powder (ICP), graphite powder (GP), and activated carbon powder (ACP), and two types of dried plant material, Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc., were studied. The results were compared with those obtained by use of conventional SFME, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD), and conventional hydrodistillation (HD), and the conclusion drawn was that improved SFME was a feasible means of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials, because there were few differences between the composition of the essential oils extracted by improved SFME and by the other methods. PMID:17047940

Wang, Ziming; Wang, Lu; Li, Tiechun; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Lan; Yu, Yong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi

2006-11-01

163

Comparative Evaluation of SFE and Steam Distillation Methods on the Yield and Composition of Essential Oil Extracted from Spearmint (Mentha spicata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was optimized to obtain high quality mint oil. The effect of oven and freeze drying techniques on the quality of mint oil was investigated. The flavor principles in the SFE extract were compared with those obtained by a conventional steam distillation method. Then highest extraction yield was obtained at SFE conditions (50°C and 350

Madduri V. Rao; Baboucarr Jobe

2007-01-01

164

Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (?-caryophyllene, ?-humulene,

Saulo Luis da Silva; Patrícia Maria Figueiredo; Tomomasa Yano

2007-01-01

165

REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS IN THAILAND AGAINST FOUR MOSQUITO VECTORS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) AND OVlPOSlTlON DETERRENT EFFECTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTl (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated and reported repellent effects of essential oils from Thai plants against 4 mosquito vectors: Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions using human volunteers. The essent~al oils were ex- tracted from 18 plant species, belonging to 11 families, and the oils were then prepared as 10% solution in absolute ethanol

Apiwat Tawatsin; Preecha Asavadachanukorn; Usavadee Thavara; Prapai Wongsinkongman; Pranee Chavalit-tumrong; Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon; Mir S Mulla; Narumon Komalamisra

2006-01-01

166

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and various extracts of Salvia sahendica in different phenological stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

on dry weight of plant were in the order full flowering (1.1%)> fruiting set (0.6%)> floral budding (0.5%)> and vegetative (0.3%). A total number of 35, 35, 32, and 32 compounds, representing 99.8%, 99.9%, 98.4%, and 98.5% of the total oils, were identified, respectively. The results are listed in Table 1 along with the retention indices of the identified compounds,

P. Salehi; A. Sonboli; S. N. Ebrahimi; M. Yousefzadi

2007-01-01

167

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils Extracted by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation From the Flowers of Two Plumeria Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) was applied to obtain essential oils from the fresh flowers ofPlumeria rubra Linn (PRL) andPlumeria rubra Linn var. acutifolia (PRLA) cultivated in China, which were subsequently analyzed via gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The essential oils were assessed for their antimicrobial activity. A variation of the chemical composition attributed to

Yanqing Liu; Hongwu Wang; Shoulian Wei; Zijun Yan

2012-01-01

168

Anaerobic utilization of essential oils bydenitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant volatile organic compounds are a major carbonsource in nature. We studied the degradability ofthese substances by anaerobic microorganisms inenrichment cultures with representative essential oilsas organic substrates and nitrate as electronacceptor. Lemon and pine needle oil supportedmicrobial growth in the presence of pure oil, whereasparsley seed, camphor, sage, fennel, and mint oilsupported growth only when the essential oils weredissolved in

Jens Harder; Udo Heyen

2000-01-01

169

Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.  

PubMed

Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. PMID:15187434

Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2004-06-01

170

Essential Oil Composition of Three Grindelia Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Grindelia humilis Hook et Arn (G.H.), G. robusta Nutt (G.R.) and G. squarrosa Dun F. (G.S.), were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Sixty-nine components were identified in the oil of G, humilis, representing 89.9% of the oil, while 56 components in the oil of G. robusta, and 68 components in the oil of G. squarrosa were identified representing

A. M. El-Shamy; S. S. El-Hawary; A. O. El-Shabrawy; H. M. El-Hefnawy; H. Glasl

2000-01-01

171

Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol  

PubMed Central

Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

2011-01-01

172

Repellent activity of selected essential oils against Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin

W. Choochote; U. Chaithong; K. Kamsuk; A. Jitpakdi; P. Tippawangkosol; B. Tuetun; D. Champakaew; B. Pitasawat

2007-01-01

173

Examination of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Xenobiotic-Inducing Potential of Broccoli Extract and Various Essential Oils during a Mild DSS-Induced Colitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Phytogenic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our study aimed to evaluate possible protective and curative effects of broccoli extract (BE) and of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), thyme (To), and rosemary (Ro) in a rat model with a mild dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Therefore Wistar rats were fed a diet without an additive (Con) or diets with the addition of BE, Cuo, To, and Ro during the whole experiment. Pretreatment with Ro, Cuo, and To increased the expression of the tight junction protein Cldn3. All additives reduced mRNA of VCAM-1 which plays a crucial role in the first state of inflammatory response. Only Ro pretreatment affected the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO1, GPx2, and of glutathione-S-transferases. All additives counteracted the DSS-induced rise in COX2 and VCAM-1 expression. Colonic IL-10 was increased by Cuo, To, and Ro. During the recovery phase DSS pretreatment increased NF?B, VCAM-1, and MCP-1: This response was counter-regulated by all additives. We conclude that the phytogenic additives tested have a promising anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and a particular role in the prevention of IBD. PMID:23533793

Blum, Nicole Michaela; Mueller, Andreas Stefan

2013-01-01

174

Antimicrobial properties of essential oil constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the microbiological inhibitory data on substances that are mainly found in essential oils, reveals that only a small number of substances are able to inhibit bacteria, moulds, dermatophytes and yeasts in a concentration up to 250 ppm. The essential oil components are: cinnamic aldehyde, 2-heptenal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal, nonanal, decanal, citral, geraniol, chavicol, thymol, carvacrol, ?- and

Alexander Pauli

2001-01-01

175

Recovery of Flavoring Components from Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process may be applied to any essential oil from which it is desired to isolate the flavoring components having an aldehyde or ketone structure, for example, lemon, orange, lime, citronella, rose, strawberry and other oils. The oil is reacted with a h...

W. L. Stanley, R. M. Ikeda, S. H. Vannier, L. A. Rolle

1965-01-01

176

Essential oils—their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and effect on intestinal cell viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate possible harmful effects of four commonly used essential oils and their major components on intestinal cells. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts against enteroinvasive Escherichia coli was dose dependent. However, doses of essential oils with the ability

Fabian Dušan; Sabol Marián; Domaracká Katarína; Buj?áková Dobroslava

2006-01-01

177

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character

Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

178

Effect of Essential Oils on the Growth of Fusarium verticillioides and Fumonisin Contamination in Corn  

E-print Network

Effect of Essential Oils on the Growth of Fusarium verticillioides and Fumonisin Contamination Research of Benin, P.O. Box 128, Porto-Novo, Benin; Laboratory of Pharmacognosis and Essential Oil, Faculty, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from local

179

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria  

E-print Network

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from-Industrielles'', 17042 La Rochelle, France Abstract: Essential oils of thyme (Thymus numidicus (Poiret)) from Algeria.5 minutes of extraction were tested using the filter paper method. Analysis of the essential oil made

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

Lotus (Nelumbo nuficera) flower essential oil increased melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the essential oil from lotus flower extract, including petals and stamens, was assessed with re- gard to its effects on melanogenesis in human mela- nocytes. The lotus flower essential oil was shown to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lotus flower essential oil induced the expression of tyrosinase, microphthal- mia-associated transcription factor

Songhee Jeon; Nan-Hyung Kim; Byung-Soo Koo; Ji-Young Kim; Ai-Young Lee

2009-01-01

181

Composition of the essential oil of Lepidium meyenii (Walp).  

PubMed

The essential oil profile of maca (Lepidium meyenii) obtained from Lima, Peru, was examined. Steam distillates of the aerial parts of L. meyenii were continuously extracted with pentane and the pentane extracts analyzed by GC/MS. Retention indices and mass spectral data were used to identify 53 oil components. Phenyl acetonitrile (85.9%), benzaldehyde (3.1%), and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile (2.1%) were the major components of the steam distilled oil. The oil of L. meyenii was tested for phytotoxic, cyanobactericidal, and antitermite activity. The oil was selectively toxic towards the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata compared to the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, with complete growth inhibition at 100 microg/ml. Mortality of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, was numerically, but not significantly, higher when held on filter paper treated with maca oil. At 1% (w/w), maca oil also appeared to act as a feeding deterrent to termites. Several minor components of the essential oil of maca including 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and benzylthiocyanate were significantly active against the Formosan termite. This is the first report on the essential oil composition of L. meyenii. PMID:12169308

Tellez, Mario R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kobaisy, Mozaina; Schrader, Kevin K; Dayan, Franck E; Osbrink, Weste

2002-09-01

182

Antimicrobial activity of two essential oils.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro for possible application to reduce the content of microorganisms in the air of animal houses. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. were screened against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the active essential oils was tested using broth dilution assay. The essential oils concentrations ranged from 0.1-50.0%. The combined effects of essential oils were tested for Malaleuca alternifolia L. and Cymbopogon citrarus L. concentrations ranged from 0.005-50.0%. The oils showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0.1-0.5% of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. reduced total microorganisms count of Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was also revealed for Cymbopogon citrarus L. with bactericidal concentrations of 0.8% for Escherichia coli, 5.0% for Enterococcus faecium, 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal concentrations of Malaleuca alternifolia L. were 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus and Malaleuca alternifolia may be a promising alternative of air disinfection in animal houses. PMID:21739934

Mickien?, R?ta; Bakutis, Bronius; Baliukonien?, Violeta

2011-06-01

183

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

184

Autumn essential oils of Greek oregano  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum plants collected in late autumn from six localities of three distinct geographic areas of Greece were analysed by means of GC and GC-mass spectrometry. A high quantitative variation was found in the amount of the four main components; ?-terpinene ranged from 0.6 to 3.6% of the total essential oil, p-cymeme from 17.3

Stella Kokkini; Regina Karousou; Antonia Dardioti; Nikos Krigas; Tom Lanaras

1997-01-01

185

Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Giardia lamblia and on the modulation of the interaction of these parasites by peritoneal mouse macrophage. The essential oil (2 mg\\/ml) and\\u000a its purified substances demonstrated antigiardial activity. Linalool (300 ?g\\/ml), however, was able to kill 100% parasites\\u000a after 1 h of incubation, which demonstrates its high antigiardial potential. Pretreatment

Igor de Almeida; Daniela Sales Alviano; Danielle Pereira Vieira; Péricles Barreto Alves; Arie Fitzgerald Blank; Angela Hampshire C. S. Lopes; Celuta Sales Alviano; Maria do Socorro S. Rosa

2007-01-01

186

Repellent activity of essential oils: a review.  

PubMed

Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment. PMID:19729299

Nerio, Luz Stella; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena

2010-01-01

187

Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus (family Myrtaceae), an Australian native, represented by around 700 species is a genus of tall, evergreen and magnificent trees cultivated world over for its oil, gum, pulp, timber, medicine and aesthetic value. Among the various wood and non-wood products, essential oil found in its foliage is the most important one and finds extensive use in food, perfumery and pharmaceutical

Daizy R. Batish; Harminder Pal Singh; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Shalinder Kaur

2008-01-01

188

Essential Oil Composition of Hypericum perforatum L. from Cultivated Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is the most commercially important species within the genus Hypericum. A wild strain was cultivated at Pothiwasa (2200 m), Uttarakhand, India. Aerial parts were collected (the upper two-thirds) during the flowering phenophase and used to extract the essential oil by means of a Clevenger-type apparatus. Forty compounds constituting 91.0% of the total volatile oil were identified

R. S. Chauhan; R. K. Vashistha; M. C. Nautiyal; A. Tava; R. Cecotti

2011-01-01

189

Essential oil composition of Vismia macrophylla leaves (Guttiferae).  

PubMed

The essential oil from Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Guttiferae) leaves, extracted by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC/MS. The oil obtained (yield 0.11%) contained twenty-eight compounds, which were identified from their retention indices and by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base. The major components were beta-caryophyllene (20.1%), germacrene D (11.6%) and beta-elemene (7.0%). PMID:21366052

Rojas, Janne; Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

2011-01-01

190

Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop.  

PubMed

The focus of the present study was on the influence of season on yield, chemical composition, antioxidant and antifungal activities of Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil. The present study involved only one of the eight Omani basil varieties. The hydro-distilled essential oil yields were computed to be 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.1% in the winter, spring and summer seasons, respectively. The major components identified were L- linalool (26.5-56.3%), geraniol (12.1-16.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.5-15.1%), p-allylanisole (0.2-13.8%) and DL-limonene (0.2-10.4%). A noteworthy extra component was beta- farnesene, which was exclusively detected in the oil extracted during winter and spring at 6.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The essential oil composition over the different seasons was quite idiosyncratic, in which the principal components of one season were either trivial or totally absent in another. The essential oil extracted in spring exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (except DPPH scavenging ability) in comparison with the oils from other seasons. The basil oil was tested against pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus stolonifer using a disc diffusion method, and by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Surprisingly high antifungal values were found highlighting the potential of Omani basil as a preservative in the food and medical industries. PMID:22164790

Al-Maskri, Ahmed Yahya; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Masoud Yahya; Abraham, Alfie Susan; Al-sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Mantheri, Omar

2011-10-01

191

Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves and different tissues of Cryptomeria japonica against pathogenic Legionella pneumophila at 42°C. Ten kinds of EOs were extracted by water distillation and their chemical constituents were quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). The results showed that cinnamon leaf EO possessed

Ching-Wen Chang; Wei-Lung Chang; Shang-Tzen Chang; Sen-Sung Cheng

2008-01-01

192

Antibacterial activity of essential oils from palmarosa, evening primrose, lavender and tuberose.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

Lodhia, M H; Bhatt, K R; Thaker, V S

2009-03-01

193

Effect of some leaf essential oil phenotypes from coastal redwood on growth of its predominant endophytic fungus, Pleuroplaconema sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to assess the effect of four foliar essential oil phenotypes from a coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) population on isolates ofPleuroplaconema sp., its ubiquitous endophytic fungus. Isolates were exposed to essential oils extracted from their trees of origin and from other trees. The hypotheses tested were: (1) redwood leaf essential oils extracted from distinct trees would have a

Francisco J. Espinosa-García; Jean H. Langenheim

1991-01-01

194

The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal™ (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed

V. Edwards-Jones; R. Buck; S. G. Shawcross; M. M. Dawson; K. Dunn

2004-01-01

195

Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25 degrees C at the following different concentrations of the essential oil (from 0.0 to 30mug/mL). The essential oil inhibited fungal growth to different extents depending on the concentration, and completely inhibited aflatoxin production at concentrations above 0.10microg/mL. The analysis of the oil by GC/MS showed that its main components are precocene II (46.35%), precocene I (42.78%), cumarine (5.01%) and Trans-caryophyllene (3.02%). Comparison by transmission electron microscopy of the fungal cells, control and those incubated with different concentrations of essential oil, showed ultra-structural changes which were concentration dependent of the essential oil of A. conyzoides. Such ultra-structural changes were more evident in the endomembrane system, affecting mainly the mitochondria. Degradation was also observed in both surrounding fibrils. The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis. PMID:19906457

Nogueira, Juliana H C; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Galleti, Silvia R; Facanali, Roseane; Marques, Márcia O M; Felício, Joana D

2010-01-31

196

Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of essential oils and their flavor and fragrance components have been known since ancient times. Essential oils are a mixture of numerous compounds characterized by an essence of aromatic plants. Currently, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important, in particular for the pharmaceutical, food, household and cosmetic industries. Essential oils have been known

Hamdy A. E. Shaaban; Ahmed H. El-Ghorab; Takayuki Shibamoto

2012-01-01

197

Tick repellent substances in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare.  

PubMed

The repellent effect of the essential oils of flower heads of the aromatic plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae), originating from Sweden, was tested against host-seeking nymphs of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation (SD) and by using an online solvent extraction separation setup. Further fractionations of the SD oils were obtained by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel. The volatiles of the essential oils and the fractions that exhibited strong tick repellency (90-100%) were collected by solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses of the oils show that the populations of T. vulgare from Uppsala and Stockholm may represent different chemotypes, but that they exhibited similar tick repellency. Main volatiles detected from oils of T. vulgare collected at Uppsala were alpha-pinene (27%), beta-pinene (11%), pinocamphone (11%), 1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-4-carboxaldehyde (11%), and 1,8-cineole (10%). In the sample collected in Stockholm, the main components were beta-thujone (39%) and camphor (23%) followed by alpha-thujone (11%) and 1,8-cineole (8%). When constituents in the oils, e.g., alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, alpha+beta-thujone, 1,8-cineol, verbenol, and verbenone, were tested separately (each diluted 0.5%, vol:vol), 64-72% tick repellency was obtained. PMID:18283947

Pålsson, Katinka; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Baeckström, Peter; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2008-01-01

198

Repellent activity of essential oils: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource.

Luz Stella Nerio; Jesus Olivero-Verbel; Elena Stashenko

2010-01-01

199

Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl4 administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that

H. Özbek; S. U?ra?; H. Dülger; ?. Bayram; ?. Tuncer; G. Öztürk; A. Öztürk

2003-01-01

200

Essential Oils of Seven Brazilian Baccharis Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the habitat and areas where seven Baccharis species (B. caprariaefolia female and male, B. dracunculifolia female and male, B. erioclada female and male, B. myriocephala, B. platipoda, B. tridentata, B. vincaefolia) are grown, is presented. The essential oils of the aerial parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and examined by GC and GC\\/MS. The major constituents were: B.

V. L. Ferracini; L. C. Paraiba; H. F. Leitão Filho; A. G. da Silva; L. R. Nascimento; A. J. Marsaioli

1995-01-01

201

Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties ( Cannabis sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w\\/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were

Lorenzo Nissen; Alessandro Zatta; Ilaria Stefanini; Silvia Grandi; Barbara Sgorbati; Bruno Biavati; Andrea Monti

2010-01-01

202

Chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimocrobial activity of essential oil of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pogostemon paniculatus (Willd.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), was analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen compounds constituting 85.36% of the total oil were identified in the oil. Patchouli alcohol (30.65%), ?-guaiene (10.67%), ?-guaiene (9.09%), caryophyllene (8.64%), eicosene (5.27%) were the major constituents present. The essential oil was analysed for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion

Godbole Manoj; Shiragambi Hanumantagouda Manohar; Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy

2011-01-01

203

Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

GC-MS analysis of essential oil obtained from the seed of Foeniculum vulgare showed the presence of 31 components containing 95.2% of the total amount and the major component was trans-anethole (70.1%). The analysis of ethanolic and methanolic seed extracts showed the presence of nine components including linoleic acid (56%), palmitic acid (5.6%) and oleic acid (5.2%). The antimicrobial activity of

Muhammad Gulfraz; Sajid Mehmood; Nasir Minhas; Nyla Jabeen; Rehana Kausar; Kokab Jabeen; Gulshan Arshad

204

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of several essential oils from Hypericum species from Tunisia.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from some Tunisian Hypericum species and their larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae were evaluated. The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the aerial plant parts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred and thirty-four compounds were identified, ranging between 85.1 and 95.4 % of the oil's composition. The components were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, non-terpenic hydrocarbons, and others. The larvicidal activity of the essential oils was evaluated using a method recommended by WHO. Larvicidal tests revealed that essential oils from the Hypericum species have a significant larvicidal activity against C. pipiens, with LC(50) ranging between 102.82 and 194.70 ppm. The most powerful essential oils against these larvae were Hypericum tomentosum and Hypericum humifusum samples, followed by the essential oil of Hypericum perforatum. PMID:23180126

Rouis, Zyed; Laamari, Ali; Abid, Nabil; Elaissi, Ameur; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido; Aouni, Mahjoub

2013-02-01

205

Characteristic odor components of essential oil from Scutellaria laeteviolacea.  

PubMed

The essential oils from aerial parts of Scutellaria laeteviolacea was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The characteristic odor components were also detected in the oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, 100 components (accounting for 99.11 %) of S. laeteviolacea, were identified. The major components of S. laeteviolacea oil were found to be 1-octen-3-ol (27.72 %), germacrene D (21.67 %),and ?-caryophyllene (9.18 %). The GC-O and AEDA results showed that 1-octen-3-ol, germacrene D, germacrene B, and ?-caryophyllene were the most characteristic odor components of the oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the unique flavor of this plant. PMID:23357818

Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nomura, Machi; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Mori, Kiyoshige

2013-01-01

206

The artemisia L. Genus: a review of bioactive essential oils.  

PubMed

Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000-2011). PMID:22388966

Abad, María José; Bedoya, Luis Miguel; Apaza, Luis; Bermejo, Paulina

2012-01-01

207

Variations in insecticidal activity and chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal effects of the essential oils extracted from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica at different ages (58, 42, and 26 years old) against 2 mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, were studied. The analysis of major constituents of these essential oils was also investigated. Results obtained from the larvicidal tests, using essential oil from the leaves of 58-year-old

Sen-Sung Cheng; Meng-Thong Chua; Ed-Haun Chang; Chin-Gi Huang; Wei-June Chen; Shang-Tzen Chang

2009-01-01

208

Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi

Veena Prajapati; A. K. Tripathi; K. K. Aggarwal; S. P. S. Khanuja

2005-01-01

209

Determination of new retention indices for quick identification of essential oils compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical methods of chromatographic identification of compounds were based on calculation of retention indices by using different stationary phases.The aim of the work was to differentiate essential oils extracted from different plant species by identification of some of their major compounds. The method of identification was based on the calculation of new retention indices of essential oils compounds fractionated

Marie-France Hérent; Véronique De Bie; Bernard Tilquin

2007-01-01

210

Antibacterial Activity of Essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum on Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effect of Ocimum gratissimum extracted from aromatic plant was investigated against Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4a. Agar well diffusion and tube dilution methods were used and the data recorded demonstrated antibacterial activity of the essential oil Eos against the test bacteria. The bacteria was grown at 370C in a chemically defined or a complex medium, containing essential oil obtained

T. I. Mbata; A. Saikia

211

Antibacterial activities of a new combination of essential oils against marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activities of essential oils and herbal extracts have been demonstrated against a range of bacterial species.\\u000a In this study, the antibacterial effects of a new combination of essential oils from the herbs Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Eucalyptus globulus and Mentha piperita were assayed against common bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) and fifteen novel marine

Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; George Wilson; David Raftos; Seyed Saeed Mirzargar; Reza Omidbaigi

2011-01-01

212

Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Thai Spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and the antioxidant power of the essential oils from spice plants commonly used in Thai food. Fresh samples of eleven different plant species were extracted and the essential oil of each was obtained by hydrodistillation. The tyrosinase inhibitory test was performed by using mushroom tyrosinase. The inhibitory power

Kiattisak Saeio; Songwut Yotsawimonwat; Siriporn Okonogi

213

Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.  

PubMed

White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:24006802

Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

2013-01-01

214

Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils and headspace of 14 different clones of Agastache foeniculum were obtained by hydrodistillation and by purging the plant material with nitrogen gas, respectively. The constituents of both the oils and headspace were analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Over 50 compounds were detected in oils isolated by the two extraction procedures. Only ten constituents, however, accounted for more

G. Mazza; F. A. Kiehn

1992-01-01

215

Antimicrobial Screening of the Essential Oil of Some Herbal Plants from Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The essential oil from ten herbal plants namely Momordica charantia, Ocimum gratissimum, Senna alata, Phyllantus reticulata, Dissotis rotundifolia, Gossypium hirsutum, Boerhaavia diffusa, Sida acuta, Paullinia pinnata and Senna podocarpa were extracted using hydro-distillation process. The oils were characterised based on their colour and UV spectroscopy. Five out of the ten oils were screened against Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus megaterium,

I. A. Ajayi; S. G. Jonathan; A. Adewuyi; R. A. Oderinde

216

Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon nervatus inflorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of essential oil of dried inflorescence of Cymbopogon nervatus was investigated. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of tested bacteria except for Salmonella typhi. The maximum activity was against Shigella dysenteriae and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

H. H. EL-Kamali; M. A. Hamza; M. Y. EL-Amir

2005-01-01

217

Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 ?l/cm² essential oil and 3.144 ?l/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC?? = 0.118 ?l/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC?? = 0.044 ?l/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD?? = 0.137 ?l/g) than the essential oil alone (LD?? = 0.193 ?l/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F? insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans. PMID:22410230

Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

2012-03-01

218

The essential oil of the leaves of Citrus limonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give the results of an investigation of the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from the leaves of the Meyer lemon. The leaves were collected in the period of the forced dormancy of plants growing in Sukhumi. The amount of essential oil in the leaves was 0.32%. The components of the essential oil were identified

N. A. Kekelidze; I. I. Dzhanikashvili

1982-01-01

219

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR RELATED BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from selected aromatic species (Citrus hystrix, C. aurantifolia, Pogostemon cablin, Ocimum tenuiflorum and O. citriodorum) obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. Majority of the essential oils were made up of mixtures of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and a number of phenylpropanoids. Essential oils that are rich in monoterpenoid constituent were those obtained from the leaves and

M. A. Nor Azah; M. Z. Zaridah; J. Abd; A. Abu; Z. Mohd. Faridz; A. Rohani

220

Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oils of Some Iranian Citrus Peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been efforts to overcome the problem in treatment of cancer using medicinal plants. It has been shown that Citrus essential oil of contains different terpens with antitumor activities. In this study we sought to determine the cytotoxicity of essential oils of Iranian Citrus limon (L.), C. medica (L.), C. sinsensis (L.) peels on cancer cell lines. Essential oils

Ramesh Monajemi; Shahrbanoo Oryan; Ali Haeri-Roohani; Alireza Ghannadi; Abbas Jafariane

221

Anti-Oxidative Abilities of Essential Oils from Atractylodes ovata Rhizome  

PubMed Central

The rhizome of Atractylodes ovata De Candolle is rich in essential oils, which are usually removed by processing. In this study, anti-oxidative abilities of essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata rhizome were explored, and the influence of processing on the anti-oxidative abilities was examined. Essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata were extracted by boiling water and steam distillation, respectively. Quality of these two A. ovata samples was controlled by HPLC and GC-MS system, and anti-oxidative abilities were then evaluated. Results showed that surface color of A. ovata turned to brown and chemical components were changed by processing. Contents of both atractylon and atractylenolide II decreased in the essential oils, but only the contents of atractylon decreased by processing. Atractylenolide III increased in both A. ovata samples. However, A. ovata essential oils displayed stronger anti-oxidative abilities than aqueous extracts in DPPH-scavenging, TBH-induced lipid peroxidation and catalase activity assays. Moreover, the bioactivity of essential oils from raw A. ovata was stronger than oils from processed A. ovata. On the other hand, cytotoxicity of A. ovata essential oils was stronger than that of aqueous extracts, and was more sensitive on H9C2 cell than NIH-3T3 and WI-38 cells. In contrast, stir-frying processing method increased cytotoxicity of essential oils, but the cytotoxicity was ameliorated when processed with assistant substances. The results suggested that phytochemical components and bioactivity of A. ovata were changed after processing and the essential oils from raw A. ovata showed better anti-oxidative and fewer cytotoxicity effects. PMID:21799672

Wang, Kun-Teng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chou, Duen-Suey; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

2011-01-01

222

Acaricidal efficacy of Origanum onites L. essential oil against Rhipicephalus turanicus (Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils that were extracted by steam distillation from Origanum onites L. from northwest Turkey were analyzed using an Agilent GC-MSD system. Carvacrol was the major component (64.3%) of the oil.\\u000a Both pure commercial carvacrol and essential oil at concentrations of 1.5%, 3.2%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100% (v\\/v) were tested for their effects against engorging Rhipicephalus turanicus, which

Sevki Coskun; Oya Girisgin; Mine Kürkcüoglu; Hulusi Malyer; Ahmet Onur Girisgin; Nese K?r?mer; Kemal Hüsnü Baser

2008-01-01

223

Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Origanum Hypericifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endemic oregano's, Origanum hypericifolium O. Schwartz and P.H. Davis, essential oil was extracted to exert its biological activity in vitro. Fifteen components in its extracts performed by hydro distillation. The major components in the fruit and flower volatiles of O. hypericifolium were p-cymene (34.33 g\\/100 g oil), carvacrol (21.76 g\\/100 g oil), thymol (19.54 g\\/100 g) and ?-terpinene (13.91 g\\/100

Ijlal Ocak; Ali Çelik; M. Zafer Özel; Elif Korcan; Muhsin Konuk

2012-01-01

224

Antifungal activity and chemical composition of Essential oil of Origanum hypericifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endemic oregano's, Origanum hypericifolium O. Schwartz and P.H. Davis, essential oil was extracted to exert its biological activity in vitro. Twenty six components in its extracts performed by hydro distillation and DTD techniques were identified. The major components in the leaf volatiles of O. hypericifolium were p-cymene (42.94-44.14 g\\/100 g oil), carvacrol (22.38-31.74 g\\/100 g oil) and ?-terpinene (5.31-8.35 g\\/100

Ijlal Ocak; Ali Çelik; M. Zafer Özel; Elif Korcan; Muhsin Konuk

2010-01-01

225

Direct enantiomeric analysis of Mentha essential oils.  

PubMed

A rapid and fully automated screening of chiral compounds in essential oils, aimed to the selection of natural sources of pure enantiomers of limonene and carvone, is performed by using on-line coupled reversed phase liquid chromatography with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (RPLC-GC-MS). Essential oils obtained from Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita were analysed by direct injection into RPLC. The reported procedure includes fractionation and clean-up in RPLC, selection of the fraction to be transferred from RPLC to GC, trapping and concentration of the target compounds in the interface, thermal desorption and, finally, enantiomeric resolution and identification of chiral compounds by GC-MS. The presence of (S)-limonene and (R)-carvone as the unique enantiomeric forms existing for both compounds could be unambiguously established by transferring different volume fractions from RPLC to GC. Data obtained demonstrate high separation efficiency and well tunable selectivity in the on-line coupled RPLC-GC-MS analysis of chiral compounds. PMID:23768391

Barba, Carmen; Santa-María, Guillermo; Herraiz, Marta; Martínez, Rosa M

2013-11-01

226

The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

2014-01-01

227

Essential oils analysis. I. Evaluation of essential oils composition using both GC and MS fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical nature of essential oils makes them suitable for analysis using a gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Mass spectra (MS) libraries can not be used as unique and absolute criteria for the identification of chromatogram peaks. The wide variety of MS of the libraries, recorded in different conditions, can lead us to erroneous results. In order to increase the

R. Oprean; M. Tamas; R. Sandulescu; L. Roman

1998-01-01

228

Characteristic chemical components of the essential oil from white kwao krua (Pueraria mirifica).  

PubMed

The components of the essential oil from the roots of Pueraria mirifica were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-two components, representing 88.5% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS. The main component of the oil was 2-pentylfuran, followed by hexanal and hexadecanol. With regard to the odor components from the essential oil of P. mirifica as determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis, it was revealed that phenylacetaldehyde and (2E)-nonenal imparted the green odor of the oil, and geraniol contributed to the sweet odor. PMID:23470445

Yagi, Nobuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

229

The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius from Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was extracted using the hydrodistillation method. The oil yield obtained was 0.65%. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the major constituents of the essential oil were sabinene, ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, ?-pinene, terpinene-4-ol, trans-?-ocimene and myrcene. Using the hole-plate diffusion testing

M. Gundidza; N. Gweru; M. L. Magwa; V. Mmbengwa; A. Samie

2009-01-01

230

Application of PLE for the determination of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.  

PubMed

Essential plants, due to their long presence in human history, their status in culinary arts, their use in medicine and perfume manufacture, belong to frequently examined stock materials in scientific and industrial laboratories. Because of a large number of freshly cut, dried or frozen plant samples requiring the determination of essential oil amount and composition, a fast, safe, simple, efficient and highly automatic sample preparation method is needed. Five sample preparation methods (steam distillation, extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus, supercritical fluid extraction, solid phase microextraction and pressurized liquid extraction) used for the isolation of aroma-active components from Thymus vulgaris L. are compared in the paper. The methods are mainly discussed with regard to the recovery of components which typically exist in essential oil isolated by steam distillation. According to the obtained data, PLE is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil from the thyme herb. Although co-extraction of non-volatile ingredients is the main drawback of this method, it is characterized by the highest yield of essential oil components and the shortest extraction time required. Moreover, the relative peak amounts of essential components revealed by PLE are comparable with those obtained by steam distillation, which is recognized as standard sample preparation method for the analysis of essential oils in aromatic plants. PMID:18656673

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota; Mardarowicz, Marek; Gawdzik, Jan

2008-08-15

231

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia annua essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Artemisia annua aerial parts, consisting of camphor (44%), germacrene D (16%), trans-pinocarveol (11%), ?-selinene (9%), ?-caryophyllene (9%) and artemisia ketone (3%), was screened for its antimicrobial activity. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of tested Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus hirae and both tested fungi. This oil has shown an antioxidant activity equivalent to 18% of the

Fabien Juteau; Veronique Masotti; Jean Marie Bessière; Michel Dherbomez; Josette Viano

2002-01-01

232

Essential Oil Composition of Aloysia gratissima From Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Aloysia gratissima essential oil from leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus. The essential oil composition was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The major compounds were identified representing 94.7% of the oil. The most abundant compounds were isopinocamphone (cis-3-pinanone) (25.4%), limonene (15.1%), and guaiol (12.7%).

Graziella Trovati; Gilberto O. Chierice; Edgar A. Sanches; Mario S. Galhiane

2009-01-01

233

Immunotoxicity activity from various essential oils of Angelica genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC??) value of 43.12?ppm and an LC?? value of 65.23?ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21506693

Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

2012-02-01

234

Chemical and biological studies of Ribes nigrum L. buds essential oil.  

PubMed

Ribes nigrum buds are used in medicine for the diuretic and antiseptic properties of their volatile compounds. We present in this paper comparative data concerning the chemical composition of Ribes nigrum buds essential oils obtained from three blackcurrant varieties. Essential oils were isolated by steam distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The Ribes nigrum essential oils (extracted from all three varieties) exhibited similar and large antibacterial spectrum, acting against Acinetobacter (A.) baumanii, Escherichia (E.) coli, Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginoasa and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, as proved by the very low MIC values observed for the respective strains. The subinhibitory concentrations of the essential oils induced a decrease in the bacterial ability to colonize the inert substratum for A. baumanii, E. coli and S. aureus, demonstrating that besides the bactericidal activity, the Ribes nigrum essential oils also exhibit anti-pathogenic potential. PMID:19706967

Oprea, Eliza; Radulescu, Valeria; Balotescu, Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Bucur, Marcela; Mladin, Paulina; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

2008-01-01

235

In vitro cytotoxic activity guided essential oil composition of flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) was fractioned by chromatography. Forty-three constituents were characterized with the help of GC, GC-MS and other spectroscopic techniques. The essential oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono- and sesqui-terpenes. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil and its fractions was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) based assay against two cancer cell types viz. C-6 (rat glioma cells) and CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells). The essential oil and its fractions showed promising cytotoxicity against both cell lines. The highest activity (95.6+/-0.6%) was show by the essential oil on the C-6 cell line at a concentration of 400 microg/mL, which was comparable with that of the standard drug vinblastin. PMID:25026731

Mann, Tavleen S; Agnihotri, Vijai K; Kumar, Dharmesh; Pal, Probir K; Koundal, Rajkesh; Kumar, Ashish; Padwad, Yogendra S

2014-05-01

236

Antimicrobial Effects of Essential Oils on Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 73 essential oils tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae R36A (an unencapsulated strain) with a paper disk diffusion assay, three oils were highly inhibitory, fifteen moderately inhibitory and the remainder weakly or non-inhibitory. Three oils from each group were selected and tested with a broth assay in which each oil was added to growing cultures of S. pneumoniae

Diane Horne; Mitchel Holm; Craig Oberg; Sue Chao; D. Gary. Young

2001-01-01

237

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

238

Seasonal Variation in Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) Essential Oil Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) oils produced from the leaves and the flowering tops obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction were compared. Seasonal changes in wormwood oil were also studied. Analyses of oils produced from plants collected at 3-month intervals, showed similar patterns in composition of both leaves and flowering tops as well as small quantitative differences in the oil

Amaia Ariño; Inés Arberas; Gustavo Renobales; Silvia Arriaga; Juan B. Domínguez

1999-01-01

239

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.  

PubMed

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

2014-11-01

240

Fumigant toxicity of essential oils against four major stored-product insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopteransRhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, andSitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most

Eli Shaaya; Uzi Ravid; Nachman Paster; Benjamin Juven; Uzi Zisman; Vladimir Pissarev

1991-01-01

241

Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl4 and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC–MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl4 and isooctane

Gurdip Singh; I. P. S. Kapoor; Pratibha Singh; Carola S. de Heluani; Marina P. de Lampasona; Cesar A. N. Catalan

2008-01-01

242

Commercial opportunities for pesticides based on plant essential oils in agriculture, industry and consumer products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of intensive research on plant natural products and insect-plant chemical interactions over the past three decades,\\u000a only two new types of botanical insecticides have been commercialized with any success in the past 15 years, those based on\\u000a neem seed extracts (azadirachtin), and those based on plant essential oils. Certain plant essential oils, obtained through\\u000a steam distillation and rich in

Murray B. Isman; Saber Miresmailli; Cristina Machial

2011-01-01

243

[Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].  

PubMed

Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors. PMID:21250485

Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito

2010-12-01

244

Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.  

PubMed

Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) is a fruit most knowledgeable for its essential oil (BEO) used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders and cancer pain though the rational basis for such applications awaits to be discovered. The behavioural and EEG spectrum power effects of BEO correlate well with its exocytotic and carrier-mediated release of discrete amino acids endowed with neurotransmitter function in the mammalian hippocampus supporting the deduction that BEO is able to interfere with normal and pathological synaptic plasticity. The observed neuroprotection in the course of experimental brain ischemia and pain does support this view. In conclusion, the data yielded so far contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this phytocomplex on nerve tissue under normal and pathological experimental conditions and provide a rational basis for the practical use of BEO in complementary medicine. The opening of a wide venue for future research and translation into clinical settings is also envisaged. PMID:20093169

Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Amantea, Diana; Russo, Rossella; Berliocchi, Laura; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

2010-09-01

245

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

246

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants were evaluated in vitro and in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1,000 mul/liter. At this concentration, most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Essential oils of Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha rotundifolia, and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. These oils and those from Origanum vulgare, O. syriacum, and Coridothymus capitatus mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the root galling of cucumber seedlings in pot experiments. The main components of these essential oils were tested for their nematicidal activity. Carvacrol, t-anethole, thymol, and (+)-carvone immobilized the juveniles and inhibited hatching at >125 mul/liter in vitro. Most of these components mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 75 and 150 mg/kg reduced root galling of cucumber seedlings. In 3-liter pot experiments, nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides. PMID:18944489

Oka, Y; Nacar, S; Putievsky, E; Ravid, U; Yaniv, Z; Spiegel, Y

2000-07-01

247

Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of some essential oils against Ephestia kuehniella.  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of some essential oils extracted from aromatic plants (savory, Satureja thymbra L.; Turkish oregano, Origanum onites L.; myrtle, Myrtus communis L.; marjoram, Origanum majorana L.; laurel, Laurus nobilis L.; lemon, Citrus limon L.; sticky goosefoot, Chenopodium botrys L.; and tansy, Tanecetum armenum [DC.] Suchultz Bip.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fumigant toxicity of volatile compounds was tested against Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), eggs and adults. Percentage of mortality and longevity of E. kuehniella adults were estimated after essential oil treatments. LC50 and LC99 values were determined for each exposure time for each essential oil. Marjoram and lemon oils were the most effective of all the essential oils tested. The major components were linalool, 1.8-cineole, citral, 2-(4a.8-dimethyl-1.2.3.4.4a.5.6.7-octahydro-naphthalen-2-yl)-prop-2-en-l-ol, and p-cymene for marjoram, laurel, lemon, goosefoot, and tansy, respectively. The LC50 and LC99 values were estimated as 3.27 and 5.13 microl liter(-1) air for marjoram and 4.05 and 5.57 microl liter(-1) air for lemon essential oils at the longest exposure time. Decreasing longevity effect of marjoram and lemon was more prominent compared with other essential oils. We suggest that essential oils obtained from certain aromatic plants have potential as fumigants for stored product pests. PMID:21882685

Karabörklü, Salih; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Yilmaz, Semih; Akbulut, Mikail

2011-08-01

248

Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil).  

PubMed

Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree. It is one of the most widely used floral oils in perfumery. In this study chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of neroli oil are investigated. The essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. Flowers (Neroli oil) cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. About 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by (E)-nerolidol (17.5%), alpha-terpineol (14%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and (E, E)-farnesol (8%). Antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar-well-diffusion method against 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. Neroli oil exhibited a marked antibacterial activity especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Neroli oil exhibited a very strong antifungal activity compared with the standard antibiotic (Nystatin) as evidenced by their inhibition zones. Antioxidant activity determined by ABTS assay showed IC50 values of 672 mg L(-1). Finally, this study may be considered as the first report on the biological properties of this essential oil. The results of this study have provided a starting point for the investigations to exploit new natural substances present in the essential oil of C. aurantium L. flowers. PMID:24163946

Ammar, A Haj; Bouajila, J; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Romdhane, M; Zagrouba, F

2012-11-01

249

Shelf life of meat from lambs given essential oil-free rosemary extract containing carnosic acid plus carnosol at 200 or 400 mg kg?¹.  

PubMed

The use of dietary rosemary extract (DRE) at low doses is proposed as a nutritional strategy to improve meat preservation. Lamb diet was supplemented with 0, 200 or 400mg DRE (containing carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w) per kg feed during the fattening stage. Meat quality was evaluated in lamb fillets packed under protective atmosphere and kept in retail conditions for up to 14 days. The effects of diet and storage time were determined on different physical-chemical (L*a*b* color, pH, TBARS, protein oxidation and volatiles from lipid oxidation), microbial (total viable and psychrophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeasts) and sensory (appearance and odor) characteristics of the meat. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of DRE on meat were demonstrated. DRE delayed lean and fat discoloration, lipid oxidation, odor deterioration and microbial spoilage, extending the shelf life time of fillets from around 9 to 13 days. Both DRE doses provided similar shelf life extension. PMID:24412737

Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Jordán, María José; Bañón, Sancho

2014-04-01

250

Composition of the Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum.  

PubMed

AGASTACHE FOENICULUM contains 0.1-0.3% essential oil and the main components are limonene, beta-caryophyllene, methylchavicol, and germacrene B (92% altogether). In addition 35 components, each accounting for less than 1% of the total essential oil, were identified. PMID:17262428

Nykänen, I; Holm, Y; Hiltunen, R

1989-06-01

251

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

252

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Lower in 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poor global economic conditions, high interest rates, and a strong dollar, U.S. trade in essential oils in 1982 declined in both volume and value from a year earlier. U.S. exports of specified essential oils in 1982 totaled 8,715 tons valued at $86.9 mill...

1983-01-01

253

U.S. Essential Oil Exports Increase Moderately in 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. exported 9,396 metric tons of essential oils valued at $86 million in 1981, up from 1980 exports of 8,514 tons valued at $85 million. Both domestic and foreign users of essential oils are tending to maintain low inventories because of high intere...

G. Patty

1982-01-01

254

Effect of a Diffused Essential Oil Blend on Bacterial Bioaerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thieves, a commercial blend of five essential oils, was tested for its antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosols. An aerosol suspension of each bacterial culture was sprayed into a 0.4 m enclosed fume hood previously sterilized by ultraviolet light. Thieves essential oil blend was then diffused into the hood for a given time. Depositional sampling

Sue C. Chao; D. Gary Young; Craig J. Oberg

1998-01-01

255

Plant Pathology Antiviral properties of essential oils of  

E-print Network

anisum against PVX, TMV and TRSV. Materials and Methods The cultures of different viruses, i.e. PVX, TMV of the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Pimpinella anisum L. has been tested against PVX (potato Chenopodium ama!a!!icolo!. Both the essential oils totally inhibit the formation of local lesions at a concen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

256

Chemotaxonomic characterisation of essential oil plants by vibrational spectroscopy measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from basil (Ocimum sp.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and oregano (Origanum sp.) were analysed rapidly and non-destructively applying different vibrational spectroscopic methods (ATR-IR, NIR and Raman spectroscopy). Whereas NIR spectroscopic data can be interpreted only by application of chemometric algorithms, IR and Raman spectra obtained from the essential oils present characteristic key

Hartwig Schulz; Malgorzata Baranska; Hans-Hermann Belz; Petra Rösch; Marion A Strehle; Jürgen Popp

2004-01-01

257

Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4?? for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. PMID:23897978

Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

2014-12-01

258

Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.  

SciTech Connect

The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2003-08-01

259

Composition of the essential oil of Genista tricuspidata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to determine the composition of the essential oil of the endemic species Genista tricuspidata. The average oil yield of this species is found to be 0.32% based on fresh weight. The compounds identified in this oil and their relative proportions are listed upon their elution and are given in Table 1. Seventy-seven compounds were characterized, representing

T. Lograda; A. N. Chaker; J. C. Chalchat; M. Ramdani; G. Figueredo

2011-01-01

260

Essential Oil Composition from Oleogum Resin of Soqotraen Commiphora kua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major constituents of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the oleogum resin of Commiphora kua Vollesen were identified by GC-MS. Sixteen constituents were detected from the essential oil, which constituted about (90.5%) of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were ?- cadinol (33.0%), ?- cadinene (22.5%), ?-cadinene (17.0%), isocaryophyllene (3.7%), allo-aromadendrene (2.8%), ?-muurolene (2.7%), and ?-humulene

Nasser A. Awadh Ali; Martina Wurster; Norbert Arnold

261

Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

262

Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves and different tissues of Cryptomeria japonica against pathogenic Legionella pneumophila at 42 degrees C. Ten kinds of EOs were extracted by water distillation and their chemical constituents were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that cinnamon leaf EO possessed stronger anti-L. pneumophila activity than C. japonica EO. In particular, the highest bactericidal effect was noted in contact with C. osmophloeum leaf EO of cinnamaldehyde type (characterized by its major constituent of cinnamaldehyde accounting for 91.3% of EO), regardless of contacted cell concentration (2 and 4 log CFU ml(-1)) or exposure time (10 and 60 min). Cinnamaldehyde is responsible for anti-L. pneumophila activity based on the results of antimicrobial testing and statistical analysis. Stepwise regression analyses show that EO concentration is the most significant factor affecting the bioactivity of EO. It is concluded that C. osmophloeum leaf oil of cinnamaldehyde type and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, possess strong anti-L. pneumophila activities, and have the great potential to be used as an antibacterial agent to control legionellosis associated with hot tubs and spa facilities widely used in homes and resorts. PMID:17659763

Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wei-Lung; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Sen-Sung

2008-01-01

263

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamoclija, Jasmina; Sokovic, Marina; Tesevic, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-01-01

264

Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.  

PubMed

Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations. PMID:17883004

Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

2007-07-01

265

Potential of the bush mint, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil for personal protection against mosquito biting.  

PubMed

We studied the potential of the essential oil extract from the bush mint, Hyptis suaveolens, for use against mosquito biting under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the repellency of various concentrations (1-6%) of the essential oil was assessed against Anopheles gambiae, based on a 15-min landing and biting on treated forearms of volunteers. In the laboratory, the percentage of mosquitoes landing on the forearm was 42, 33, 23, 23, 9, and 2 for 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% essential oil concentration, respectively; and 92 and 91 for the solvent (isopropanol) and untreated control, respectively. The percentage of mosquitoes taking a blood meal was 22, 12, 13, 12, 5, and 3 for 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% essential oil, respectively; and 52 and 51 for the solvent and control, respectively. In the field, the 6% essential oil repelled all mosquitoes immediately postapplication; this activity declined to 75% after 5 h. The repellent action of the 8% essential oil concentration was higher, 97% after 5 h. Based on these data, the essential oil of H. suaveolens appears to be a good candidate for use in the integrated management of mosquito vectors of disease. PMID:22533079

Abagli, Ayaba Z; Alavo, Thiery B C; Avlessi, Félicien; Moudachirou, Mansourou

2012-03-01

266

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-10-01

267

Synergistic repellent and irritant effect of combined essential oils on Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to a single essential oil and to a mixture of two or three essential oils using an excito-repellency test chamber. Mixtures were prepared from essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba (LC), Litsea salicifolia (LS), and Melaleuca leucadendron (ML). In general, the mixture of essential oils produced a much stronger escape response by Ae. aegypti, regardless of the test conditions. No significant difference in escape responses was seen when the mixture of oils was compared with a standard commercial product containing DEET. Greater contact irritancy was seen from mixed oils of LC and LS than with other mixed oils. Mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% showed the highest synergistic action (65.5% escaped) compared to that with unmixed oil alone at the same concentration (LC/20% and LS=32.2%). In addition, mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% demonstrated the highest non-contact repellency (62.7%) and showed a greater effect than the use of LC (20%) or LS (20.3%) alone. We conclude that mixtures of two essential oils show potential as active ingredients for mosquito repellents. PMID:25424258

Noosidum, Atirach; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

2014-12-01

268

Antimicrobial Effect of Some Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon-balm (Melissa officinalis L.), juniper berry (Juniperus communis L.), lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Analyses of the oils by GC-FID and GC\\/MS revealed that the major constituents of these oils were linalool (23.1%) and linalyl acetate (23.1%)

Flora V. Romeo; Serena De Luca; Amalia Piscopo; Marco Poiana

2008-01-01

269

Essential Oil Composition of Agastache foeniculum Cultivated in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation from the herb of Agastache foeniculum Pursh. cultivated in Iran. The oil content was 1.87% w\\/w based on dry weight. The oil was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-six components were identified. Methyl chavicol constituted 87.5% of the oil. Other major components were limonene (2.4%), 1,8-cineole (2.0%) and globulol (1.4%).

R. Omidbaigi; F. Sefidkon

2003-01-01

270

Efficacy of Several Essential Oils as Culex and Aedes Repellents  

Microsoft Academic Search

D EET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is an effective repellent. However, it may be toxic to some users, so that an effective DEET substitute needs to be found. Essential oils, eg, eucalyptus, clove, and citronella oils, are safer. This study aimed to compare which of these oils was most effective, to determine whether these oils (as DEET substitutes) might be acceptable as standard

Susy Tjahjani

2008-01-01

271

Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Achillea chrysocoma Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Achillea chrysocoma Friv. was investigated for composition and antibacterial activity. Twenty-eight identified compounds constituted 91.5% of the oil. The main compounds of the oil were borneol (10.1%), terpinen-4-ol (9.2%), cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (8.2%) and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (7.9%). Antibacterial tests showed pronounced activity of the oil against Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Nebojsa Simic; Radosav Palic; Vlatka Vajs; Slobodan Milosavljevic; Dejan Djokovic

2000-01-01

272

Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition, antifungal activity, and insecticidal activity.  

PubMed

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were determined to be thymol methyl ether (=methyl thymol) (36.3%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (20.8%) and myrcene (15.7%). Antifungal activity of the essential oil was weak against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides in direct bioautography assay. The E. capillifolium oil showed promising repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, whereas the oil exhibited moderate activity against the mosquito's first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Topical applications of the oil showed no activity against the blood-feeding female adults of A. aegypti. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil showed a linear dose response between adult lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides) mortality and increasing oil concentration in an adulticidal activity bioassay. The dog-fennel oil was more potent than the conventional insecticide malathion. In conclusion, these combined results showed Eupatorium capillifolium oil is a promising novel source of a biological insecticide with multiple modes of action. PMID:20922999

Tabanca, Nurhayat; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Becnel, James J; Sampson, Blair; Werle, Chris; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Blythe, Eugene K; Pounders, Cecil; Wedge, David E

2010-09-01

273

Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.  

PubMed

In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods. PMID:12870766

Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

2003-07-01

274

Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Ocimum basilicum L., popularly known as sweet basil, is a Lamiaceae species whose essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids. The contents of these compounds can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors such as infections caused by viruses. The main goal of this research was an investigation of the effects of viral infection on the essential oil profile of common basil. Seeds of O. basilicum L. cv. Genovese were sowed and kept in a greenhouse. Plants presenting two pairs of leaves above the cotyledons were inoculated with an unidentified virus isolated from a field plant showing chlorotic yellow spots and foliar deformation. Essential oils of healthy and infected plants were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS. Changes in essential oil composition due to viral infection were observed. Methyleugenol and p-cresol,2,6-di-tert-butyl were the main constituents. However, methyleugenol contents were significantly decreased in infected plants. PMID:21922932

Nagai, Alice; Duarte, Ligia M L; Santos, Déborah Y A C

2011-08-01

275

Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from Lindera obtusiloba Blume against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The leaves of Lindera obtusiloba Blume var. obtusiloba were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of L. obtusiloba. The L. obtusiloba essential oil yield was 4.23%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were ?-copaene (31.42%), ?-caryophyllene (32.11%), ?-humulene (4.12%), ?-farnesene (4.15%), ?- cadinene (3.21%) and Nerolidol (6.84%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 24.32?ppm and an LC(90) value of 36.42?ppm. PMID:20477554

Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In

2011-03-01

276

Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh  

PubMed Central

The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. PMID:24082356

Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N.

2013-01-01

277

Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh.  

PubMed

The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. PMID:24082356

Siddiqui, M Z; Thomas, M; Prasad, N

2013-05-01

278

Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates. It comprises introducing the emulsion into vessel in an extraction system, pressurizing the vessel with a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon is in the liquified state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, maintaining the pressure for a period of time sufficient to

S. C. Paspek; C. P. Eppig

1991-01-01

279

Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).  

PubMed

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used. PMID:24005011

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

2013-01-01

280

Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components  

PubMed Central

Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

2012-01-01

281

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium growing wild in Iran.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to investigate the composition of essential oil of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) growing wild in Iran. The wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area between Deylaman and Asiabar villages, at Alborz altitudes in Guilan province in September 2005. Aerial parts were dried at shade (room temperature) for several days and their essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that essential oil yield was 1.3%. Twenty eight components representing 93.3% of the oil were identified, which were mostly monoterpenes. beta-pinene and beta-thujone were the main components, which their contents were 23.8 and 18.6% respectively. The largest part of the essential oil was formed by hydrocarbon monoterpenes (47.8%). The results proved that chemotype of the studied wormwood essential oil was specific and different from other wormwood essential oil chemotypes, which have been reported so far. PMID:18814663

Rezaeinodehi, A; Khangholi, S

2008-03-15

282

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

2012-01-01

283

Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats.  

PubMed

Essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. In the present study, the essential oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which is commercially used in soap, toothpaste and cosmetics, was extracted. Essential oil extracted from C. obtusa contains several types of terpenes, which have been shown to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil in vivo and in vitro following the induction of inflammation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats. While LPS induced an inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs), these levels were reduced when essential oil was pre-administered. Additionally, the mechanism of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil was investigated by measuring the mRNA expression of inflammation?associated genes. LPS treatment significantly induced the expression of transforming growth factor ? (TNF?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rats, while C. obtusa essential oil inhibited this effect. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. obtusa essential oil exerts anti?inflammatory effects by regulating the production of PGE2 and TNF? gene expression through the COX-2 pathway. These findings suggest that C. obtusa essential oil may constitute a novel source of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23652412

An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Hong-Seok; Choi, In-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jin; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2013-07-01

284

Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.  

PubMed

The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

2013-12-01

285

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Seseli globiferum essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli globiferum Vis. obtained by hydrodistillation with Clevenger-type apparatus was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified, representing 99.4% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were sabinene (38.0%), alpha-pinene (21.2%) and beta-phellandrene (13.5%). The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the isolated essential oil were determined using the broth microdilution method against seven bacterial species: Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterobacter cloacae (clinical isolates), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Micrococcus flavus (ATCC 10240) and three fungal species: Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730), Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061) and Penicillium funiculosum (ATCC 36839). The essential oil showed activity against bacteria P. aeruginosa, followed by M flavus, L. monocytigenes and E. coli, and all investigated fungal species. PMID:21922927

Jana?kovi?, Peda; Sokovi?, Marina; Vujisi?, Ljubodrag; Vajs, Vlatka; Vuckovi?, Ivan; Krivosej, Zoran; Marin, Petar D

2011-08-01

286

Essential oil composition of leaves of Stachys yemenensis obtained by supercritical CO?.  

PubMed

This article reports the composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Stachys yemenensis. The essential oil was extracted by supercritical CO? (90 bar; 40 °C) and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of the sample were ?-phellandrene (13.9%), ?-phellandrene (11.7%), elemol (12.0%), spathulenol (6.7%), ?-eudesmol (5.0%), ?-eudesmol (4.75%) and squalene (4.8%). On the exhausted matrix, deprived of the volatiles, we carried out a high-pressure (250 bar) treatment for the extraction of squalene (49.7%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils has been assayed by using the broth dilution method on two American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, and two clinical strains, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. PMID:21104527

Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Molicotti, Paola; Zanetti, Stefania

2010-11-01

287

In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. METHODS:: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the

Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan; Manickkam Jayakumar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

2006-01-01

288

Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)  

PubMed Central

The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

Crockett, Sara L.

2010-01-01

289

INFLUENCE OF SOME PHENYLUREA CYTOKININS ON SPEARMINT ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The influence of phenylurea cytokinins DROPP and 4PU-30 on essential oil composition (GC analysis) of cineole-type spearmint cultivar CS-87 was studied. Increase of the major components 1,8-cineole (with 13.8- 22.5%) and p-cymene (with 13 -16.5%) and nearly double decrease of carvac- rol and thymol was observed. Since these alterations affected insignificantly the essential oil quality we recommend application of

Tatyana Stoeva; Lyubomir Iliev

1997-01-01

290

Variability of the Essential Oil of Viola etrusca  

PubMed Central

Essential oils obtained from different populations of Viola etrusca from Italy have been analysed to verify the phenotypic discontinuity observed in a previous study. All of the essential oils contained methyl salicylate as a main constituent. However, multivariate analysis showed differences among some populations, in particular between northern and southern ones. Results suggest that this species could be undergoing a slow schizogenetic differentiation process due to its genetic isolation. PMID:12588729

FLAMINI, GUIDO; CIONI, PIER LUIGI; MORELLI, IVANO

2003-01-01

291

Gastroprotective effect of essential oil from Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastroprotective activity of the essential oil from the bark of Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) was assessed in three different models of experimentally induced gastric ulcer in mice. At oral dose of 100 mg\\/kg the essential oil reduced gastric lesions induced by hypothermic restraint stress and HCl\\/ethanol significantly. In the HCl\\/ethanol model a dose-dependent gastroprotective effect was found. Moreover, significant

C. A Hiruma-Lima; J. S Gracioso; J. A Rodr??guez; M Haun; D. S Nunes; A. R. M Souza Brito

2000-01-01

292

Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

293

Supercritical fluid extraction of celery seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of oil from milled celery seeds, using CO2 as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of the process parameters — pressure and temperature of extraction, particle size of celery seeds and flow rate of CO2 — on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments. The results indicated a significant increase

I. Papamichail; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2000-01-01

294

Essential oil composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss. from Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the essential oil content and composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss., a rare species spread in flora of Turkey. The samples were collected during the fructifying period of the plant from Erzincan, Turkey, at an altitude of 2430 m, in 2010. Essential oils were obtained from different parts of the plant such as fruits and herbal parts with Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Essential oil contents of the plant material were 0.38 ± 0.015%, 0.23 ± 0.012% and 0.21 ± 0.015% from fruits, herbal parts with fruits and herbal parts without fruits, respectively. Composition of essential oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of the herbal parts of the plant was dominated by fatty alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 73.10% and 24.64%, respectively. Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) was identified as a major component of essential oil with an average content of 73.10%. PMID:24601748

Avci, Ay?e Betül; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Özçelik, Hasan

2014-01-01

295

Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus  

PubMed Central

The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

2013-01-01

296

Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Xylopia aethiopica (Dun) A. Rich. (Annonaceae) Fruit Essential Oil from Togo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil extracted (4.4% in yield) from air-dried fruits of Xylopia aethiopica harvested in Togo was investigated for percentage composition and in vitro cytotoxicity. The chemical composition of the essential oil was examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified representing 89.9% of total oil. The major constituents were ?-pinene (23.6%), ?-pinene (11%), sabinene (9.8%), germacrene D (8.3%) and

Koffi Koba; Komla Sanda; Christine Raynaud; Catherine Guyon; Jean-Pierre Chaumont; Laurence Nicod

2008-01-01

297

Investigation of the Essential Oil of Erigeron acris L. Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from Erigeron acris L. obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS techniques. Over 60 compounds were identified, representing 92.6% of the total components. The major constituents of the oil were monoterpenoid hydrocarbons [limonene, ?-pinene, (E)-?-ocimene] and sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons [?-muurolen, germacrene D, (E)-?-farnesene].

Jolanta Nazaruk; Jan Gudej; Teresa Majda; Jozef Góra

2006-01-01

298

Anticancer activity of an essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus was studied for its in vitro cytotoxicity against twelve human cancer cell lines. The in vivo anticancer activity of the oil was also studied using both solid and ascitic Ehrlich and Sarcoma-180 tumor models in mice. In addition, the morphological changes in tumor cells were studied to ascertain the

Parduman R. Sharma; Dilip M. Mondhe; Shanmugavel Muthiah; Harish C. Pal; Ashok K. Shahi; Ajit K. Saxena; Ghulam N. Qazi

2009-01-01

299

Antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil (EO) of Lippia gracilis Schauer over fungi and heliconia endophytic bacteria was evaluated. For the fungi Geotrichum candidum; Trichoderma viride; Torula herbarum; Paecillomyces sp.; Fusicoccum sp.; P. aeruginens ; Curvularia lunata ; Aspergillus nidulans ; A. flavus ; and A. niger mycelial discs were inoculated in PDA medium with oil (0; 420; 440 ;

Cynthia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Terezinha Rangel Camara; Rosa L. R. Mariano; Lilia Willadino

2006-01-01

300

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Chrysocoma ciliata L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chrysocoma ciliata L. is one of the South African medicinal plants used for the management of pains, stomach and menstrual disorders by the people of the Eastern Cape. The essential oil extracted from the leaves of the plant through hydrodistillation yielded 1.20% (volume\\/fresh weight). A total of 37 compounds were identified, constituting 85.28% of the total oil composition. The major

A. J. Afolayan; A. O. T. Ashafa

301

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Achillea millefolium L. Isolated by Different Distillation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea millefolium L. isolated by different distillation methods was studied. Samples were hydrodistilled with Clevenger-type (HD), simultaneous micro-distillation-extraction (SMDE), and microwave (MAHD) apparatus. The yields were 0.46% ± 0.03 for the HD and 0.48% ± 0.03 for the MAHD (v\\/w, volume\\/dry weight). The oils were analyzed by GC and

Carlo I. G. Tuberoso; Adam Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

302

Effects of essential oil of Croton zehntneri, and of anethole and estragole on skeletal muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (CzEO) yield a mixture of substances in which the major components are anethole and estragole. The action of CzEO and of pure anethole and estragole (at 0.05–1.0 mg\\/ml) were studied in muscle preparations of the toad and rat. All three oils blocked twitches evoked by nerve stimulation. In the rat diaphragm direct

Aline Alice C. Albuquerque; Albert Lee Sorenson; JoséHenrique Leal-Cardoso

1995-01-01

303

Allelopathic effect of Schinus molle essential oils on wheat germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses of the essential\\u000a oils of leaves and fruits of the ornamental Shinus molle L. were reported and their allelopathic effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative differences between fruit and leaf oils were observed. Both oils were rich\\u000a in monoterpene hydrocarbons and the major constituents

Nesrine Zahed; Karim Hosni; Nadia Ben Brahim; Monem Kallel; Houcine Sebei

2010-01-01

304

Seasonal Variation in the Essential Oil of Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth. was determined by GC\\/MS analysis. The oil obtained from fresh flowering tops of 1 year and 2 consecutive year was found to possess compositional differences in the percentage of chemical constituents. The GC-mass data of the oil revealed the presence of a new sesquiterpene alcohol ixiocephol (23.4%) and T-cadinol

R. B. Agarwal; V. D. Rangari

2005-01-01

305

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical analysis of the Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. herb essential oil was performed using GC-FID and GC\\/MS. Fifty-one compounds (90.2% of the total oil) were identified. The oil was characterized by a high amount of sesquiterpenes (81.1%), with germacrene D (14.8%), viridiflorol (10.6%), caryophyllene oxide (10.5%), and ?-caryophyllene (9.4%) being the main components. The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the

Silvana Petrovi?; Milica Pavlovi?; Olga Tzakou; Maria Couladis; Marina Milenkovi?; Dragana Vu?i?evi?; Marjan Niketi?

2009-01-01

306

40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

307

40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

308

40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

309

40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

310

Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon parkeri stapf. essential oil on some important phytopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

The genus Cymbopogon that belongs to the Poaceae (Graminae) has some important aromatic species whit remarkable commercial value. Essential oils from different species of the Cymbopogon are used in the perfumery, cosmetic and soap industries and some of them have antifungal and insecticide activity. In this study, antifungal activity of C. parkeri essential oil on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia orizea and Fusarium oxysporum, three important phytopathogenic fungi, was investigated. The essential oil was extracted from the air-dried parts in flowering stage by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus, and Growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia orizea, Fusarium oxysporum for 15, 30, 75,150, 300 and 600 microl L(-1) dosage of the essential oil in PDA was examined in vitro by media mixed method and was compared with control. Antifungal activity was determined in terms of growth inhibitory concentration for 50% growth inhibitory (EC50 microI L(-1)) and inhibition percentage of some dosages was obtained. The results showed that concentration of 600 microl L(-1) of the essential oil completely inhibits the growth of all tested fungi. EC50 for Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia orizea, Fusarium oxysporum were counted 39.82, 72.00 and 43.63 microl L(-1) respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil has strong fungi state activity. PMID:17390842

Hajieghrari, B; Mohammadi, M R; Hadian, D

2006-01-01

311

Microwave-assisted isolation of essential oils from Nepeta crispa and N. racemosa and comparisons with the conventional method.  

PubMed

In this study microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) has been compared with the conventional method of hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oils from two Iranian Lamiaceae species: Nepeta crispa Willd and N. racemosa Lam. The essential oils extracted by MAHD for 40 min were quantitatively and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 3.5 h. The MAHD method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs in terms of time, energy and plant material. PMID:23285819

Daryasari, Ameneh Porgham; Soleimani, Mojtaba; Ghorbani, Azam; Kheiri, Homayon; Daryasarie, Mohammad Porgham

2012-11-01

312

Antibacterial Activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopatho- genic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as

Pietro Lo Cantore; Nicola S. Iacobellis; Adriana De Marco; Francesco Capasso; Felice Senatore

2004-01-01

313

Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

Bellik, Yuva

2014-01-01

314

Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapors of essential oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (E. gunnii, E. tereticornis, E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. cinerea, E. saligna, E. sideroxylon, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. viminalis and the hybrids E. grandis×E. tereticornis and E. grandis×E. camaldulensis) and their major components were found to be toxic to Aedes aegypti adults, the

Alejandro Lucia; Susana Licastro; Eduardo Zerba; Paola Gonzalez Audino; Hector Masuh

2009-01-01

315

Potential allelopathic activity of Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet is a widespread Mediterranean Lamiacea. Essential oils from S. italica flowerheads and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation and then tested for their potential allelopathic activity against Raphanus sativus L. (Magnoliophyta) and the moss Tortula muralis (Hedw.) (Bryophyta), two organisms already tested for allelopathy, and against two bryophytes growing in the same environment as S.

A. Basile; R. C. Cobianchi; D. Rigano; F. Senatore; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; B. Conte; S. Sorbo

2011-01-01

316

Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants.  

PubMed

This study examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq. The essential oils of myrtle and parsley seed contained ?-pinene (36.08% and 22.89%, respectively) as main constituents. Trans-Anethole was the major compound found in fennel and aniseed oils (66.98% and 93.51%, respectively). The dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene (76.63%). Diallyl disulphide was identified as the major component in garlic oil (36.51%). Antiradical activity was higher in garlic oil (76.63%) and lower in myrtle oil (39.23%). The results may suggest that some essential oils from Iraq possess compounds with antiradical activity, and these oils can be used as natural antioxidants in food applications. PMID:21827329

Kiralan, Mustafa; Bayrak, Ali; Abdulaziz, Omar Fawzi; Ozbucak, Tu?ba

2012-01-01

317

The essential oil of Bupleurum fruticosum L. from Corsica: a comprehensive study.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis of Bupleurum fruticosum oil was carried out by combination of GC (RI), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR analyses. After fractionation by column chromatography, 34 components accounting for 97.8% of the oils were identified. The main component was beta-phellandrene (67.7%), followed by sabinene (9.3%), and limonene (5.6%). The evolution of the chemical composition according to the stages of development of the plant was investigated as well as the composition of leaf, twig, and flower oils. A solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of aerial parts was carried out and the composition of the extract compared with that of the essential oil. Finally, 57 oil samples isolated from aerial parts of individual plants, collected all around Corsica, were analyzed, and the data were submitted to statistical analysis. Although the contents of the main components varied, only one group emerged, accompanied with some atypical compositions. PMID:20020456

Liu, Kai; Lota, Marie Laure; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

2009-12-01

318

Chemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum maculatum Crantz essential oil.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum maculatum Crantz were determined. In total, 109?compounds were identified, with germacrene D (21.5%), nonane (6.5%), (E)-?-farnesene (5.3%), ?-cadinene (4.5%), and ledol (4.4%) as the main constituents. The chemical compositions of this oil and of four previously studied H. maculatum oils were compared using multivariate statistical analyses, viz., agglomerative hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses. Based on the results, the interrelationship among the hitherto studied H. maculatum oil samples, including the oil characterized here, was discussed. The study of the antimicrobial potential of the oil against five bacterial and two fungal strains showed that the oil had mainly moderate antimicrobial effects. PMID:24443434

Ethor?evi?, Aleksandra S; Lazarevi?, Jelena S; Petrovi?, Goran M; Zlatkovi?, Bojan K; Soluji?, Slavica R

2014-01-01

319

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

PubMed Central

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

2011-01-01

320

Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as "biocides" is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides), the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%-42%), linalool (<0.1%-56%), a-pinene (3%-17%), b-pinene (4%-31%), and (E)-nerolidol (0.1%-20%). Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration. PMID:23579997

Sakhanokho, Hamidou F; Sampson, Blair J; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Demirci, Betul; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M; Becnel, James J; Chen, Jian; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Spiers, James M

2013-01-01

321

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

322

Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi  

PubMed Central

Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p?=?0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid. PMID:24885682

2014-01-01

323

[Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].  

PubMed

The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

2014-01-01

324

Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Heracleum thomsonii (Clarke) from the cold desert of the western Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile oil composition of hydro-distilled (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) essential oil of freshly collected aerial parts of Heracleum thomsonii (Umbeliferae) from the western Himalayas was studied by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results revealed qualitative and quantitative dissimilarity in the composition of hydro-distilled and SC-CO2 extracted oils. Nineteen constituents, which accounted for 89.32% of total constituents in HD oil, represented

Shailja Guleria; Rikki Saini; Vikas Jaitak; V. K. Kaul; Brij Lal; Praveen Rahi; Arvind Gulati; Bikram Singh

2011-01-01

325

[Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].  

PubMed

Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil. PMID:17396950

Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

1982-10-01

326

Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates comprising the steps of: (A) introducing the emulsion into a vessel, (B) pressurizing the vessel by adding a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon in the vessel is in the liquefied state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, (C) maintaining the pressure for

S. C. Paspek; C. P. Eppig

1989-01-01

327

Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates comprising the steps of: (A) introducing the emulsion into a vessel, (B) pressurizing the vessel by adding a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon in the vessel is in the liquefied state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, (C) maintaining the pressure for

S. C. Paspek; C. P. Eppig

1988-01-01

328

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur Variety  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety grown in Pakistan was extracted by hydro-distillation. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 25 constituents, out of which nine chemical constituents were identified. The eucalyptol (10.27%) was the major component of the essential oil. ?-pinene (1.50%), ?-phellandrene (2.49%), ?-pinene (3.57%), limonene (2.73%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (1.76%), ascaridole epoxide (1.452%), 2-methylisoborneol (2.92%), 5-isopropyl-6-methyl-hepta-3, dien-2-ol (2.07%) were also present in considerable quantity. The antimicrobial properties of leaves of Curcuma longa were tested by disc diffusion method against various human pathogens, including eight fungal and five bacterial strains. Essential oil showed maximum resistance against Fusarium miniformes MAY 3629 followed by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 whereas; it exhibited least resistance against Fusarium oxysporium ATCC 48122. The results of the antimicrobial assay revealed that essential oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested organisms. PMID:23901173

Parveen, Z.; Nawaz, S.; Siddique, S.; Shahzad, K.

2013-01-01

329

Activity of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) essential oils against the grain storage pest Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent, toxic and feeding deterrent properties against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and adults. A topical application assay was employed for the contact toxicity study and filter paper impregnation for the fumigant assay. A treated diet was also used to evaluate the repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay for the feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. The essential oil of the leaves contained mainly monoterpenoids, with alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and camphene predominant, whereas that from the fruits contained mainly alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and beta-myrcene. The leaf essential oil showed repellent effects, whereas that from the fruit was an attractant. Both oils produced mortality against larvae in topical and fumigant bioassays, but fumigant toxicity was not found against adults. Moreover, both essential oils produced some alterations in nutritional index. These results show that the essential oils from S. areira could be applicable to the management of populations of Tribolium castaneum. PMID:21815433

Descamps, Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa, Carolina; Ferrero, Adriana A

2011-06-01

330

Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation  

PubMed Central

The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5–20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25–5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6–41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates. PMID:23577212

Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, Jose Paulo; Goncalves, Maria Jose; Salgueiro, Ligia; Canhoto, Cristina

2013-01-01

331

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), ?-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-?-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range. PMID:25050318

Rajendran, Mini Priya; Pallaiyan, Blessed Beautlin; Selvaraj, Nija

2014-01-01

332

Characterization of Isopropanol Extracted Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of crushed seeds and grains of fourteen vegetables-Zea mays, Penisettum americanum, Sorghum bicolor, Citrullus lanatus, Citrullus coloncythis, Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis, Sesame indica, Theobroma cacao, Arachis hypogea, Butyrospermum paradoxum, Telefaria occidentalis, Mangifera indica and Irvingia gabonensis were extracted for their oils using isopropanol as solvent. The oils obtained were characterized by determining their physicochemical properties. The results obtained were:

F. O. Oyedeji; R. A. Oderinde

2006-01-01

333

Response of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to potential insecticide derived from essential oil of Mentha arvensis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Mentha arvensis L. was extracted by water distillation method and the insecticidal properties of M. arvensis were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The oil showed repellency and toxicity against T. castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The result revealed that this essential oil strongly repels T. castaneum and S. oryzae even at low concentration, but

Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra; S. P. Tripathi; C. P. M. Tripathi

2012-01-01

334

Tocopherol, carotene, phenolic contents and antibacterial properties of rose essential oil, hydrosol and absolute.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and total phenolic contents of Rosa damascena Mill. flower extracts (absolute, essential oil and hydrosol) were investigated. The chemical compositions of these extracts were analysed by GC-MS. Phenylethyl alcohol (78.38%) was found to be the main constituent of rose absolute, while citrenellol and geraniol were the major compounds (>55%) of rose essential oil and hydrosol. Tocopherol and carotene levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The levels of beta carotene (422.3+/-35.6 ppm), alpha tocopherol (2397.1+/-72.5 ppm) and gamma tocopherol (343.1+/-28.4 ppm) of rose absolute were found to be higher than that of essential oil and hydrosol. Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 5.2 to 2134.3 GAE/mg L(-1). Rose absolute and essential oil contained high levels of phenolics and demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472) and Erwinia carotovora (ATCC 39048) strains. PMID:19688375

Ulusoy, Seyhan; Bo?gelmez-Tinaz, Gülgün; Seçilmi?-Canbay, Hale

2009-11-01

335

Essential and Fixed Oils of Kansas Plants  

E-print Network

contain the O i l . , U. S. D., 1666. 809. Arctium ' lappa- L. Burdock. Thss. Bonaldson, A. J . P., 1890, 123 ob­ tained by extracting with petroleum benzine 8.6^ of a l i g h t yellow fixed o i l . U. S. B. 689. Root y i e l d s also .065/£ v o l a... 060 Anagallis arvensie P. 50 512 Anethol 50 512 Anise, O i l of 30 694 Anthemis cotula L. 41 1772 Arachidic Acid - 79 809 Arc turn lappa L. 4o 695 Artemes^a absinthium L,-— — — — — 42 1131 Asarol £lcohol 67 1131 Asarum canadensis L...

Wellington, Earl J.

1908-01-01

336

Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2010-11-01

337

Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

For many years, the battle between humans and the multitudes of infection and disease causing pathogens continues. Emerging at the battlefield as some of the most significant challenges to human health are bacterial resistance and its rapid rise. These have become a major concern in global public health invigorating the need for new antimicrobial compounds. A rational approach to deal with antibiotic resistance problems requires detailed knowledge of the different biological and non-biological factors that affect the rate and extent of resistance development. Combination therapy combining conventional antibiotics and essential oils is currently blooming and represents a potential area for future investigations. This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals may shed light on the development of new pharmacological regimes in combating antibiotic resistance. This review consolidated and described the observed synergistic outcome between essential oils and antibiotics, and highlighted the possibilities of essential oils as the potential resistance modifying agent. PMID:24627729

Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Yiap, Beow Chin; Ping, Hu Cai; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

2014-01-01

338

Melissa officinalis L. essential oil: antitumoral and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. This paper focuses on the analysis of the chemical composition and the biological activities of M. officinalis essential oil obtained under controlled harvesting and drying conditions. An in-vitro cytotoxicity assay using MTT indicated that this oil was very effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562) and a mouse cell line (B16F10). This oil possessed antioxidant activity, as evidenced by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). These results pointed to the potential use of M. officinalis essential oil as an antitumoral agent. PMID:15142347

de Sousa, Allyne Carvalho; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2004-05-01

339

Chemical composition and biological activity of Salvia verbenaca essential oil.  

PubMed

Salvia verbenaca L. (syn. S. minore) is a perennial herb known in the traditional medicine of Sicily as "spaccapetri" and is used to resolve cases of kidney stones, chewing the fresh leaves or in decoction. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of S. verbenaca collected in Piano Battaglia (Sicily) on July 2009, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oil was strongly characterized by fatty acids (39.5%) and carbonylic compounds (21.2%), with hexadecanoic acid (23.1%), (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid (11.1%) and benzaldehyde (7.3%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil against some microorganisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the broth dilution method was determined. The oil exhibited a good activity as inhibitor of growth of Gram + bacteria. PMID:21834249

Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice

2011-07-01

340

Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO. PMID:20838809

Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

2011-01-01

341

The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felicio; Medeiros, Rosalia Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

2013-01-01

342

Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).  

PubMed

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO. PMID:20025215

Funk, Janet L; Frye, Jennifer B; Oyarzo, Janice N; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N

2010-01-27

343

Composition and antioxidant activities of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in Soybean oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes was studied in soybean oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activitiey of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in soybean oil during the storage period. The essential oil obtained from Pulicaria gnaphalodes by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/Mass. Fifty-eight compounds representing 90.7% of total was identified. Main ingredient in the oil were involved ? -Pinene (30.2%), 1,8-Cineole (12.1%), Beta-Citronellol (9.6%), Mertenol (6.6%), ?-Terpineol (6.1%), 4-Terpineol (5.9%) and Chrysanthenone (2.9%). Different concentrations (0.200, 400 and 800 ppm) of essential oil and ? hydroxyl toluene (BHT; 100 and 200 ppm) was added to soybean oil and incubated for 35 days at 65°C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbitoric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels were measured every week during the time period of the study. Moreover, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was determined using 1,1 diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time using ANOVA test. Results revealed that DPPH ?-carotene-linolic acid assay findings on the P. gnaphalodes essential oil were lower than these of synthetic antioxidant, BHT. Moreover, during the incubation time, P. gnaphalodes essential oil lowered PVs and TBARs levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). According to our results essential oil was less effective than synthetic antioxidant. Therefore it may be used as a food flavor, natural antioxidant and a preventive agent for many diseases caused by free radicals. PMID:25015444

Shariatifar, Nabi; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Shamse-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Misagi, Ali; Akhonzade, Afshin; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein

2014-07-01

344

Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of the Morinda lucida essential oil against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 ?g/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 ?g/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 ?g/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 ?g/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 ?g/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and ?-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and ?-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

Owolabi, Moses S; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Ogundajo, Akintayo L; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Flamini, Guido; Yusuff, Olaniyi K; Allen, Kirk; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

2014-01-01

345

Composition of the essential oil of Pogostemon travancoricus var. travancoricus.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Pogostemon travancoricus Bedd. var. travancoricus collected from the Agasthyamalai region of Tamil Nadu, India was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major components of the oil were bicyclogermacrene (16.0%), cis-calamenene (6.3%), germacrene B (11.1%), spathulenol (7.6%), viridiflorol (5.8%), alpha-cadinol (4.2%) and pogostone (9.9%). PMID:22428255

Murugan, Ramar; Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao

2012-01-01

346

Composition of Essential Oil of Artemisia campestris L. from Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil yield from the aerial parts of A. campestris was 0.2% (mL\\/g dried plant). The oil was analyzed using GC and GC\\/MS and 38 compounds were identified. The principal components were sesquiterpene alcohols: spathulenol (9.2%) and 4-hydroxy-9-epi-?-caryophyllene (3.0%); and monoterpene hydrocarbons: ?-pinene (9.1%), ?-pinene (3.4%), limonene (2.5%) and germacrene D (3.3%).

Jean-Claude Chalchat; Patrick Cabassu; S. D. Petrovic; Z. A. Maksimovic; M. S. Gorunovic

2003-01-01

347

Optimization of biosurfactant-mediated oil extraction from oil sludge.  

PubMed

Oil extraction from oil sludge with biosurfactant formulas was optimized by a Taguchi orthogonal array design of L16 (4(5)) with five main factors, including biosurfactant type (surfactin, lichenysin, rhamnolipid and emulsan), biosurfactant concentration, pH, salinity and solvent. Oil recoveries obtained with the sixteen batch washing experiments with the selected levels of each factor were processed with Design Expert/SPSS and a specific combination of factors with a predicted oil recovery of 76.81% was obtained. The predicted optimal biosurfactant formula of 2.0g/L rhamnolipid, pH 12.0, 10g/L NaCl, and 5.0g/L n-butanol were validated by a washing experiment that yielded an oil recovery of 74.55%, which was 27.28% higher than the grand average oil recovery of the whole experiment design. Based on the optimum biosurfactant formula, the oil extraction process followed first-order kinetics as the washing rate constant and final oil recovery increased with temperature. These results will be informative and meaningful for the design of oil sludge treatment in industrial application. PMID:22325902

Zheng, Chenggang; Wang, Manman; Wang, Yongli; Huang, Zhiyong

2012-04-01

348

Phytochemical characterization of essential oil from Ocimum selloi.  

PubMed

Ocimum selloi Benth, a native plant of Brazil, has medicinal uses as anti-diarrheic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory product. The yield of essential oils of the inflorescences, containing flowers and seeds, was 0.6%, and the yield of leaves, collected in two different seasons, was 0.25% (June 2000) and 0.20% (January 2001), respectively. The essential oils of the inflorescences and leaves presented as major constituents trans-anethol (41.34%, 45.42%, 58.59%) and methyl chavicol (27.10%, 24.14%, 29.96%). PMID:11960186

Moraes, Lilia A S; Facanali, Roselaine; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M; Lin, Chau Ming; Meireles, M Angela A

2002-03-01

349

Repellency and toxicity of essential oils from the leaves and bark of Laurelia sempervirens and Drimys winteri against Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on the repellent activity, as well as contact and fumigant toxicity, of four essential oils extracted from the leaves and bark of Laurelia sempervirens and Drimys winteri against an important stored-product insect pest: the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The four oils tested had a very strong repellent activity towards T. castaneum when tested in a filter

Nelson Zapata; Guy Smagghe

2010-01-01

350

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had\\u000a insecticidal activity,

Barbara Conti; Angelo Canale; Alessandra Bertoli; Francesca Gozzini; Luisa Pistelli

2010-01-01

351

Phytologia (August 2010) 92(2)256 THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JUNIPERUS ZANONII AND  

E-print Network

Phytologia (August 2010) 92(2)256 THE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JUNIPERUS ZANONII AND COMPARISIONS on the composition of the leaf essential oil of Juniperus zanonii is presented and the oil compared to the oils, J. m. f. orizabensis, J. saltillensis, leaf essential oil composition, Cupressaceae, terpenes. #12

Adams, Robert P.

352

Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara  

PubMed Central

The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC, 85.0 pg/ml) and which presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. PMID:12760864

Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonca-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padron, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.

2003-01-01

353

Larvicidal activity of major essential oils from stems of Allium monanthum Maxim. against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The stems of Allium monanthum were extracted, and the major essential oil composition and larvicidal effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed that the essential oils of A. monanthum stems. The A. monanthum essential oil yield was 4.25%, and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that its major constituents were dimethyl trisulfide (23.21%), dimethyl tetrasulfide (11.24%) and methlyl propyl trisulfide (8.21%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 23.14 ppm and an LC(90) value of 36.31 ppm. Also, dimethyl trisulfide (?95.0%), dimethyl tetrasulfide (?95.0%) and methlyl propyl trisulfide (?95.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Methlyl propyl trisulfide (?95.0%) has good activity with an LC(50) value of 19.38 ppm. Also, the above indicates that other major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21417962

Moon, Hyung-In

2011-12-01

354

Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), ?-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and ?-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23?ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24?ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (?98.0%), ?-phellandrene (?95.0%), fenchone (?98.0%), (E)-anethole (?99.0%), myrcene (?99.0%), and ?-pinene (?99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (?98.0%) and (E)-anethole (?99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11?ppm and 102.41?ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21077804

Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

2011-09-01

355

Repellent activity of selected plant essential oils against the malarial fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. In this study, essential oils extracted by steam distillation from leaves of five plant species Centella asiatica L., Ipomoea cairica L., Momordica charantia L., Psidium guajava L. and Tridax procumbens L. were evaluated for their topical repellency effects against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi in mosquito cages. All essential oils were tested at three different concentrations (2, 4 and 6%). Of these, the essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens exhibited relatively high repellency effect (>300 minutes at 6% concentration), followed by C. asiatica and P. guajava which showed less effective (< 150 minutes at 6 % concentration). However, the ethanol applied arm served as control provided maximum 8.0 minutes repellency in this study. In general, clear dose-response relationships were established in all essential oils, with the highest concentration of 6% provided high repellency effect. The results obtained from this study suggest that essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens are promising as repellents at 6% concentration against An. stephensi and could be useful in the search for new natural repellent compounds. PMID:18209711

Rajkumar, S; Jebanesan, A

2007-12-01

356

Essential Oil from Myrcia ovata: Chemical Composition, Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Mice.  

PubMed

The leaves of Myrcia ovata, popularly known as "laranjinha do mato", are frequently used as an infusion in folk medicine. The essential oil obtained from these leaves is rich in citral, a mixture of neral and geranial isomers, known for its analgesic effect. Male Swiss mice (20-22?g) were tested in models of acute pain (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, tail flick, and formalin tests) and acute inflammation (paw oedema and air pouch tests) as well as in a model for evaluation of spontaneous motor performance (open-field test). The essential oil from M. ovata was administered orally at doses of 50-300?mg/kg. In addition, water, vehicle, morphine (5.01?mg/kg for evaluation of pain and motor performance), acetyl salicylic acid (200?mg/kg in the formalin test), and dexamethasone (2.25?mg/kg for evaluation of oedema formation, leukocyte extravasation, and quantification of cytokines) were administered. The essential oil showed a significant effect at doses of 200 and 300?mg/kg in the acute pain and acute inflammation tests. The effect of the essential oil was reduced by pretreatment with naloxone. The essential oil did not induce motor impairment. The extract was not toxic after oral administration (LD50?>?3000?mg/kg). These data provide initial evidence that the traditional use of M. ovata can be effective in reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25295670

Dos Santos, Gabriela Carmelinda Martins; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Gonçalves, Gabriela Mastrangelo; de Sousa, Leôncio Mesquita; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Marinho, Bruno Guimarães

2014-11-01

357

Review article Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa jacobsoni  

E-print Network

Review article Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in honey bee colonies - Essential oils and essential oil components offer an attractive alternative to synthetic acaricides (mainly monoterpenes) are the main components of essential oils, comprising about 90 % of the total. More

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Antifungal and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana from Spain.  

PubMed

The essential oils extracted from the young stems and leaves of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A.Murray) Parl. have been analysed by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. A total of 66 compounds were identified representing around the 99% of the total oil. The oil was richer in monoterpenes than in sesquiterpenes. The only main component was limonene with a percentage composition of 77.7%. The rest of compounds that contribute to the fragrance had percentage composition lower that the 3.0%: p-cymen-7-ol (3.0%), myrcene (2.4%), camphor (2.1%), delta-elemene (1.6%), oplopanonyl acetate (1.6%), methyl perillate (1.3%), terpinen-4-ol (1.0%) and beta-oplopenone 1.0%. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of this oil was also tested against different microorganisms. The only fungus tested, Candida albicans, was very sensitive to the treatment with an inhibition halos of 20mm. The oil was more effective with the Gram (+) than with Gram (-) bacteria. The inhibition halos were 12mm, 12-13mm and 12-13mm for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus respectively. We report new data of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of this species. The essential oil of C. lawsoniana could be considered as a good natural antibacterial and antifungal agent. PMID:23157017

Palá-Paúl, Jesús; Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Granda, Elena; Soria, Ana-Cristina

2012-10-01

359

Temperature effects on essential oil composition of citronella selections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle] selections indigenous to Sri Lanka were grown for 90 days at 27\\/21° or 32\\/27°C daylnight temperatures in controlled\\u000a environments. Leaves were harvested and oil extracted by steam distillation. Analysis for chemical constituents was carried\\u000a out by gas liquid chromatography. Growing temperatures affected oil composition with the response to temperature differing\\u000a among selections. The commercially

H. M. W. Herath; E. E. Iruthayathas; D. P. Ormrod

1979-01-01

360

Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and ?-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

Mahboubi, M.; Kazempour, N.

2012-01-01

361

Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and ?-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

2012-07-01

362

The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ?-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

363

Essential oil yield and composition reflect browsing damage of junipers.  

PubMed

The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores. PMID:19009322

Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos

2008-12-01

364

Repellent activity of some essential oils against Simulium species in India.  

PubMed

Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) on the human volunteers against Simulium (blackflies) in three locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blackflies preferred biting legs (> 79%) as compared to hand and face with profound biting activity during 1000-1100 h (> 23%) and 1500 - 1600 h (> 28%). The essential oil extracted from Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides provided > 2 h protection at 5% concentration and > 5 h protection at 10% concentration in all the three testing locations. The repellency of Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides essential oils after 6 h application was > 50% at 5% concentration and > 90% at 10% concentration. The study provides evidence for the potential of these essential oils in developing new repellents against blackflies. PMID:22943569

Hazarika, S; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, R K; Singh, Lokendera

2012-01-01

365

Essential oils: Toxicity and antimicrobial properties. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic properties of essential oils, and the use of essential oils in preventing development of microbes. These essential oils are derived from plants and other living organisms. Citations included cover the toxicological testing of essential oils, and the identification and testing of essential oils and their components for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. (Contains a minimum of 81 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

366

Characterization of Essential Oils from Helichrysum odoratissimum Using Different Drying Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helichrysum odoratissimum is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. The essential oil from the herb was extracted and characterized for the first time using different drying methods. The oils isolated from fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried aerial parts of the plant yielded 0.28, 0.46, 0.33 and 0.36%, respectively. The fresh leaf oil was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main constituents as p-menthone (35.4%), pulegone (34.2%) and 1, 8-cineole (13.0%). The dried plant oils had limonene (31.6-22.6%), µ-caryophyllene (13.0-12.0%) and µ-pinene (10.0-7.7%) as their major constituents. Generally, the yield and chemical profile of H. odoratissimum were affected by the drying methods utilized. There were noteworthy chemical alterations in the major components of the essential oils using different methods of drying. The compounds pulegone and menthone were reported as potentially harmful compounds, hence their substantial reduction in the dried oils as compared to the fresh leaf oil is noteworthy as it aids reduction of toxicity in the oils.

Asekun, O. T.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

367

Antimicrobial activity of six constituents of essential oil from Salvia.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of three Salvia species, i.e. S. santolinifolia, S. hydrangea and S. mirzayanii, essential oils were investigated. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of plants and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents of aforementioned species were alpha-pinene (72.4%), beta-pinene (6.6%) and limonene (5.3%); beta-caryophyllene (25.1%), 1,8-cineol (15.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.5%); alpha-terpinenyl acetate (22.6%), 1,8-cineol (21.2%) and linalool (8.9%), respectively. Bioassays exhibited that the property of the oil of S. myrzayanii was superior to others. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Salvia species may well be due to the presence of synergy between six tested compounds (linalool, 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene and limonene) and other constituents of the oils with various degrees of antimicrobial activity. Among these, linalool and 1,8-cineol had the highest antimicrobial activity. PMID:16729570

Sonboli, Ali; Babakhani, Babak; Mehrabian, Ahmad Reza

2006-01-01

368

The Essential Oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae) were examined by GC\\/MS and found to be very similar. The major components were isomenthone (12.8%, 11.2%), citronellol (11.6%, 15.4%), geraniol (15.9%, 16.7%) and methyl eugenol (11.2%, 10.6%) respectively.

Maria Lis-Balchin

1993-01-01

369

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Increases in 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports and imports of essential oils were up sharply in 1983, reflecting a stronger global economy and a replenishing of depleted inventories. Despite a strong dollar, exports increased to $93.1 million, 7% greater than 1982 shipments. Orange and le...

1984-01-01

370

Biotransformation of constituents of essential oils by germinating wheat seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat seeds, when exposed to essential oils, are able to metabolise certain monoterpenes. The actual amounts of the compounds and their derivatives in the endosperm and embryo of wheat seeds, after exposure to the monoterpenes were determined. Neral and geranial, which are the constituents of citral, are reduced and oxidised to the corresponding alcohols and acids. Similarly citronellal, pulegone and

Nativ Dudai; Olga Larkov; Eli Putievsky; Henri R Lerner; Uzi Ravid; Efraim Lewinsohn; Alfred M Mayer

2000-01-01

371

The use of essential oils in animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - The potential of essential oils (EO) in animal nutrition is discussed with some selected examples obtained with the blends produced by CRINA SA. Synergistic effects of EO on endogenous enzyme production and on microbial flora are used to increase animal performances. In ruminants, blends can be created that significantly reduce rumen ammonia production and increase protein by-pass. In

R. Losa

372

Case History of Infected Eczema Treated with Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following case history details a treatment with essential oils of an infected eczematous lesion over the author's own right calf. The use of tea tree, lemon, bergamot, lavender and niaouli resulted in demonstrable healing after six days. Lavender and tea tree had an immediate effect on itchiness. Detailed and controlled studies are required to confirm the role of these

C. Blamey

373

Effect of Eucalyptus Essential Oil on Respiratory Bacteria and Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was determined for 120 isolates of Streptococcus\\u000a pyogenes, 20 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 40 isolates of S. agalactiae, 20 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 40 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 30 isolates of H. parainfluenzae, 10 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two viruses, a strain of adenovirus and a strain

Claudio Cermelli; Anna Fabio; Giuliana Fabio; Paola Quaglio

2008-01-01

374

Chemical constituents and larvicidal property of the essential oil of Blumea mollis (D. Don) Merr. against Culex quinquefasciatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from the leaves of Blumea mollis was extracted and the chemical constituents and the larvicidal against Culex quinquefasciatus effects studied. The analyses of gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) revealed that the leaf essential\\u000a oil of B. mollis contained 39 compounds, and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (19.43%), ?-elemene (12.19%), copaene (10.93%),\\u000a estragole (10.81%),

Annadurai Senthilkumar; Krishnan Kannathasan; Venugopalan Venkatesalu

2008-01-01

375

Chemical composition of essential oil and headspace-solid microextracts from fruits of Myrica gale L. and antifungal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and the volatile compounds of Myrica gale fruits were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatile compounds were detected using two different fibres for headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), Carboxen\\/PDMS and PDMS. Sixty two compounds were identified, which represented more than 90% of the total extracts. Major components of fruit essential oil are ?-pinene

J. Popovici; C. Bertrand; E. Bagnarol; M. P. Fernandez; G. Comte

2008-01-01

376

Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil  

PubMed Central

Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC50 value of 900 ?g/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer. PMID:25002797

Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Phirdaous, Abbas; Azura, Amid

2014-01-01

377

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from Artemisia feddei.  

PubMed

The chemical components of the essential oil from Artemisia feddei LEV. et VNT. were analyzed using GC-MS. Ninety-nine compounds, accounting for 96.23% of the extracted essential oil, were identified. The main oil compounds were 1,8-cineole (16.86%), chamazulene (9.04%), alpha-terpineol (8.18%), alpha-phellandrene (5.78%), alpha-thujone (5.51%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (5.07%), borneol (5.08%), beta- caryophyllene (4.71%), camphor (4.04%), and terpinen-4-ol (3.04%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and some of its compounds was tested against 15 different genera of oral bacteria. The essential oil from A. feddei had a considerable inhibitory effect on all the obligate anaerobic bacteria tested (MICs, 0.025 to 0.05 mg/ml; MBCs, 0.025 to 0.1mg/ml), whereas the major compounds demonstrated different degrees of growth inhibition. PMID:18167456

Cha, Jeong-Dan; Jung, Eun-Kyung; Kil, Bong-Seop; Lee, Kyung-Yeol

2007-12-01

378

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saidani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

379

The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

380

Anticandidal activity of the essential oil of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh.  

PubMed

Hydrodistallation of the aerial parts of Nepeta transcaucasica Grossh. (Lamiaceae), collected in A?r?, Do?ubayaz?t Province, afforded an essential oil that was characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. Twenty-seven compounds, representing 97.69% of the total oil composition, were identified, and 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (1; 39%), 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (2; 28%), and germacrene D (3; 15%) constituted the major components. The anticandidal effects of the oil were evaluated against seven Candida strains by using the broth microdilution method. The oil showed good inhibitory effects against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.09 and 0.375 mg/ml, respectively. PMID:22083927

I?can, Gökalp; Köse, Y Bülent; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can

2011-11-01

381

Essential-oil diversity of three Calamintha species from Greece.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the essential-oil composition of the Calamintha officinalis-nepeta complex in Greece and to clarify the main patterns of its variation. The oils obtained from 22 wild-growing populations of C. glandulosa, C. nepeta, and C. menthifolia were studied. They could be classified into two different chemotypes, which correspond to the main biosynthetic routes of the C(3)-oxygenated p-menthane compounds. Chemotype I includes oils rich in trans-piperitone oxide, cis-piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide, while Chemotype II comprises oils rich in pulegone and menthone or menthone and isomenthone. Within both chemotypes, quantitative fluctuations of the main components were observed. Comparison with published data showed that the presence of Chemotype II has not been observed before in C. menthifolia, while Chemotype I has been reported in C. nepeta plants from Greece for the first time. PMID:22782882

Karousou, Regina; Hanlidou, Effie; Lazari, Diamando

2012-07-01

382

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and ?-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), ?-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

2010-03-01

383

Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens.  

PubMed

The leaves of Apium graveolens were extracted and the essential oil composition, immunotoxicity effects, and antioxidant activity were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of A. graveolens leaves. Twenty-eight components, representing 73.72% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are 4-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1-imidazolyl)-valerophenone (19.90%), 1-dodecanol (16.55%), 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester (4.93%), ethyl 4,4-D2-N-hexyl ether (4.11%), 3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-phenyl-1-heptadecyn-3-ol (3.28%), 1,4-methano-1H-indene, octahydro-4-methyl-8-methylene-7-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1?,3??,4?,7?,7??)]- (2.99%), 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-(3?-t-butyl)benzodioxepine (2.56%), Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (2.53%), 9H-pyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrrolo[2,1-?]phthalazine-9, 11(10H)-dione, 10-ethyl-8-phenyl (2.07%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC(50) value of 59.32?ppm and an LC(90) value of 127.69?ppm. The essential oil from the A. graveolens leaves was investigated for scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity and the results demonstrate that the essential oil from the A. graveolens has potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation process. The above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils and also as natural antioxidant. PMID:21740094

Nagella, Praveen; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Chung, Ill-Min

2012-04-01

384

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

385

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-01-01

386

Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 ?g/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 ?g/mL and 7.1 ?g/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 ?g/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 ?g/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 ?g/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 ?g/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (?g/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation. PMID:21151471

Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

2010-01-01

387

The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

2014-12-01

388

GC\\/MS and GC\\/FTIR Analysis of the Essential Oil of Celery Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steam-distilled essential oil first extracted with 1,1,2-tri-chloro-l,2,2-trifluorethane (CFC-113) from celery seeds (Apium graveolensL.) has been separated by distillation and column chromatography. It was then subjected to analysis with GC\\/MS and GC\\/FTIR. More than 50 compounds could be detected, 27 of which have been identified.

Cu Jian-Qin; Zhang Zheng-Ju; Pu Fan; Francis Perineau; Michel Delmas; Antoine Gaset

1990-01-01

389

Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of edible films to release antimicrobial constituents in food packaging is a form of active packaging. Antimicrobial properties of spice extracts are well known, however their application to edible films is limited. In this study, antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films containing 1.0–4.0% (wt\\/vol) ratios of oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils were tested against Escherichia

A. C. Seydim; G. Sarikus

2006-01-01

390

Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Citrus extracts, particularly bergamot essential oil (BEO) and its fractions, have been found to exhibit anticancer efficacy. However, the poor water solubility, low stability and limited bioavailability have prevented the use of BEO in cancer therapy. To overcome such drawbacks, we formulated BEO liposomes that improved the water solubility of the phytocomponents and increased their anticancer activity in vitro against human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The results warrant further investigation of BEO liposomes for in vivo applications. PMID:24099646

Celia, Christian; Trapasso, Elena; Locatelli, Marcello; Navarra, Michele; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Wolfram, Joy; Carafa, Maria; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Britti, Domenico; Di Marzio, Luisa; Paolino, Donatella

2013-12-01

391

Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent\\u000a mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search\\u000a for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against\\u000a Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted

Raquel M. Gleiser; Maria A. Bonino; Julio A. Zygadlo

2011-01-01

392

Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

2010-01-01

393

Antifungal effect of the essential oil of Thymus broussonetii Boiss endogenous species of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal effects of the essential oil of Thymus broussonetii Boiss (EOT), an endemic plant in Morocco against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and the dermatophytes. EOT was extracted by steam distillation. A suspension of up to 500?µL of C. albicans at a concentration of 10?CFU?mL and A. fumigatus at a concentration of

B. Bellete; H. Rabérin; P. Flori; S. El Akssi; R. Tran Manh Sung; M. Taourirte; J. Hafid

2011-01-01

394

Antifungal effect of the essential oil of Thymus broussonetii Boiss endogenous species of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal effects of the essential oil of Thymus broussonetii Boiss (EOT), an endemic plant in Morocco against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and the dermatophytes. EOT was extracted by steam distillation. A suspension of up to 500?µL of C. albicans at a concentration of 10?CFU?mL and A. fumigatus at a concentration of

B. Bellete; H. Rabérin; P. Flori; S. El Akssi; R. Tran Manh Sung; M. Taourirte; J. Hafid

2012-01-01

395

Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugs.  

PubMed

This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-?-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells. PMID:22953886

Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Cavaleiro, C; Canhoto, J; Vaz, S; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

2012-12-01

396

Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The essential oils from fresh aerial parts of Monticalia greenmaniana (Hieron) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) collected in March, were analyzed by GC/MS. Oil yields (w/v) of 0.1% (flowers), 0.07%, (stems) and 0.1% (leaves) were obtained by hydrodistillation. Thirteen, sixteen and eighteen components, respectively, were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base. The major components of the flower and stem oils were 1-nonane (38.8% flowers; 33.5% stems), alpha-pinene (29.0% flowers; 14.8% stems) and germacrene D (15.6% flowers; 18.6% stems). However, in the leaf oil, germacrene D was observed at 50.7%, followed by beta-cedrene at 8.4%. The leaf essential oil showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against the important human pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 25955) with MIC values ranging from 75 to 6000 ppm. PMID:22474970

Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rojas-Fermin, Luís; Lucena, María; Buitrago, Alexis

2012-02-01

397

Antibacterial Potential Assessment of Jasmine Essential Oil Against E. Coli  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 ?l/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis. PMID:20046722

Rath, C. C.; Devi, S.; Dash, S. K.; Mishra, R. K.

2008-01-01

398

Antibacterial potential assessment of jasmine essential oil against e. Coli.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 mul/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis. PMID:20046722

Rath, C C; Devi, S; Dash, S K; Mishra, R K

2008-01-01

399

Composition of essential oils of some senecio species.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oils of Senecio vulgaris, S. jacobaea, S. congestus and S. fuchsii was investigated by means of GLC, CC and GC-MS. The principal constituents differ; S. congestus: 1-tridecene and 1-undecene, S. jacobaea: germacrene D and 1-undecene, S. vulgaris: beta-caryophyllene, alpha-copaene and myrcene, S. fuchsii: anhydro-oplopanone and an unknown sesquiterpene C (15)H (24). In all the oils anhydro-oplopanone is present. The spectra of this compound and of the synthesized anhydro-oplopanols are given. PMID:17401994

van Dooren, B; Bos, R; Tattje, D H

1981-08-01

400

Supercritical fluid extraction of the volatile oil from Santolina chamaecyparissus.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the volatile oil from Santolina chamaecyparissus L. flower heads was performed under different conditions of pressure, temperature, mean particle size and CO(2) flow rate. This oil was compared with the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation (HD). The SFE volatile and essential oils were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The range of the main volatile components obtained with HD and SFE were, respectively: 1,8-cineole (25-30% and 7-48%), camphor (7-9% and 8-14%), borneol (7-8% and 2-11%), terpinen-4-ol (6-7% and 1-4%), terpinolene (1-4% and 1-7%) and isobornyl acetate (1-2% and 1-11%). The chemical composition of the extracts was greatly influenced by the conditions of pressure and temperature used. In fact, it was possible to enrich the sesquiterpene fraction by increasing the pressure from 8 to 9 MPa, while changing the temperature from 50 to 40 degrees C at 9 MPa enriched the volatiles in n-alkanes [corrected]. PMID:19705372

Grosso, Clara; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Burillo, Jesus; Mainar, Ana M; Urieta, José S; Barroso, José G; Coelho, José A; Palavra, António M F

2009-09-01

401

Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

2005-12-28

402

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Heracleum rigens.  

PubMed

The essential oil was extracted from the seeds of Heracleum rigens by hydrodistillation and a total of twenty compounds accounting for 98.5% of the total oil composition were identified. Physicochemical properties and chemical composition of the oil was determined by a combination GC/FID and GC/MS analysis. The major compounds identified were bornyl acetate (51.2%), alpha-pinene (22.6%), limonene (9.62%), octyl acetate (3.94%), rho-cymene (2.85%) and gamma-terpinene (1.93%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was screened by the disc diffusion method against nine pathogenic bacterial strains. Maximum antimicrobial activity was noted against Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtillis. This investigation corroborates the traditional claim of H. rigens as an effective antimicrobial agent. PMID:22908589

Jagannath, Nataraj; Ramakrishnaiah, Hanumanthaiah; Krishna, Venkatarangaiah; Gowda, Prameela Javarayi

2012-07-01

403

Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas other oils resulted in 16-76% egg mortality, the least mortality caused by the A. graveolens oil. These results suggest that these essential oils can be employed in a resistance-management program against A. aegypti. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. PMID:21445613

Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

2011-10-01

404

Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis. PMID:22224295

Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T

2011-11-01

405

The use of essential oils in veterinary ectoparasite control: a review.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of evidence indicating the potential value of essential oils as control agents against a range of arthropod ectoparasites, particularly lice, mites and ticks. Toxicity has been demonstrated following immersion and physical contact with treated surfaces, as well as after exposure to the vapour of these oils; the last of these factors implies that there is a neurotoxic, rather than simply a mechanical, pathway in their mode of action. However, the volatile nature of essential oils suggests that their residual activity is likely to be short-lived. A possible advantage of essential oils over conventional ectoparasite treatments may refer to their reported ovicidal efficacy, although it is unclear whether this results from neurotoxicity or mechanical suffocation. There are many difficulties in comparing the findings of existing studies of essential oil toxicity. One major issue is the wide variation among batches in the relative concentrations of oil constituents. A second issue concerns the fact that many experimental designs make it difficult to confirm that the effect seen is attributable to the oil; in many cases inappropriate controls mean that the effects of the excipient on mortality cannot be distinguished. Hence, it is important that an excipient-only control is always included in these bioassays. Furthermore, in direct contact assays, when attempting to identify the toxicity pathway of the essential oil tested, it is important to include a hydrophobic control. Without this, it is impossible to distinguish simple mechanical effects from neurological or other cellular toxicity. The use of essential oils in the control of veterinary ectoparasites is an area which holds considerable potential for the future and research into their use is still at an early stage. More extensive field trials, the standardization of components, the standardization of extraction, the standardization of good experimental design, mammalian toxicology profiling and excipient development, as well as further investigation into the residual activities and shelf-lives of these oils are all required to allow the full realization of their potential. PMID:24147451

Ellse, L; Wall, R

2014-09-01

406

Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe2+. ?-Pinene, ?-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase than ?-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

2013-01-01

407

Synergy between essential oil components and antibiotics: a review.  

PubMed

With the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the lack of new antibiotics being brought onto the market, alternative strategies need to be found to cope with infections resulting from drug-resistant bacteria. A possible solution may be to combine existing antibiotics with phytochemicals to enhance the efficacy of antibiotics. A group of phytochemicals that is said to have such effects, according to in vitro studies, is essential oils (EOs) and their components. Amongst others, EOs containing carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, eugenol and thymol can have a synergistic effect in combination with antibiotics. Several modes of action have been put forward by which antibiotics and the essential oil components may act synergistically, such as by affecting multiple targets; by physicochemical interactions and inhibiting antibacterial-resistance mechanisms. Many reported assays show additivity or moderate synergism, indicating that EOs may offer possibilities for reducing antibiotic use. PMID:23445470

Langeveld, Wendy T; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Burt, Sara A

2014-02-01

408

The Essential Oil Secretory Structures of Prostanthera ovalifolia (Lamiaceae)  

PubMed Central

The structure of the essential oil secretory tissues of Prostanthera ovalifolia R.Br was investigated using bright? and dark?field optical microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. ovalifolia have glandular trichomes of the peltate type common to many Lamiaceae species. The trichomes consist of a basal cell embedded in the epidermis, a stalk cell with heavily cutinized walls and a 16?celled secretory head, but they differ from those of many previously reported Lamiaceae species in their morphological form defined by the elevated cuticle. The sub?cuticular space contains a mixture of lipid and aqueous phases. Secretory cells have dense cytoplasm with many leucoplasts present. Volatile terpenoids are eliminated from the cytoplasm into the sub?cuticular space, the site of essential oil accumulation, via granulocrine secretion. PMID:12096737

GERSBACH, P. V.

2002-01-01

409

Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ATP was determined. The bacterial strains were treated with two irradiation doses: 1.2 kGy to induce cell damage and 3.5 kGy to cause cell death for L. monocytogenes. A dose of 0.4 kGy to induce cell damages, 1.1 kGy to obtain viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and 1.3 kGy to obtain a lethal dose was also applied on E. coli O157H7. Oregano essential oil was used at 0.020% and 0.025% (w/v), which is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for L. monocytogenes. For E. coli O157H7, a concentration of 0.006% and 0.025% (w/v) which is the minimum inhibitory concentration was applied. The use of essential oils in combination with irradiation has permitted an increase of the bacterial radiosensitization by more than 3.1 times. All treatments had also a significant effect ( p?0.05) on the murein composition, although some muropeptides did not seem to be affected by the treatment. Each treatment influenced differently the relative percentage and number of muropeptides. There was a significant ( p?0.05) correlation between the reduction of intracellular ATP and increase in extracellular ATP following treatment of the cells with oregano oil. The reduction of intracellular ATP was even more important when essential oil was combined with irradiation, but irradiation of L. monocytogenes alone induced a significant decrease ( p?0.05) of the internal ATP without affecting the external ATP.

Lacroix, Monique; Caillet, Stéphane; Shareck, Francois

2009-07-01

410

Immunotoxicity activity from the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds.  

PubMed

The seeds of the Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analysis of the essential oil was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which revealed 33 components, representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components are linalool (55.09%), ?-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, ?,?,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-?-pinene (2.39%), citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%). The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 21.55?ppm and LC(90) value of 38.79?ppm. The above data indicate that the major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti. PMID:22208224

Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Nayeem, Abdul; Nagella, Praveen

2012-06-01

411

Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.  

PubMed

This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4a?, 7?, 7a?-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4a?, 7?, and 7a?-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants. PMID:22434692

Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

2013-07-01

412

Diurnal Variation of Essential of the Oil Components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne. ex Boiss  

PubMed Central

Background: Pycnocycla spinosa Decne. ex Boiss is an aromatic plant which showed relaxant effects on isolated ileum contractions and antidiarrheal activity. Thirty four components have been extracted from P. spinosa essential oil, of which several major constituents were found to show seasonal variation. Objectives: The aim of this work is to evaluate the diurnal variation of its oil constituents during specific hours of the day. Materials and Methods: The Pycnocycla spinosa samples were collected at different times of the day. The hydro-distilled aerial parts oils of collected P. spinosa were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Results: Fourteen monoterpenoid and nine sesquiterpenoid components were identified, of which the fluctuating constituents were p-cymene, trans-?-ocimene, ?-citronellol, citronellyl pentanoate, geranyl isovalerate, ?-humulene, caryophyllen oxide, ?-cadinol, and ?-eudesmol. The content of p-cymene in the essential oil in different daily times varied from 0.16 to 4.19%, and the geranyl isovalerate 7.75 -23.99%. Conclusions: Essential oils with different qualities can be obtained according to the harvest time of the plant in a day. PMID:24644437

Asghari, Gholamreza; Gholamali, Houshfar; Mahmoudi, Zahra; Asghari, Matin

2014-01-01

413

Chemical plants: high-value molecules from essential oils.  

PubMed

As society faces a future of dwindling petrochemical supplies at increasing cost, much attention has been focused on methods to degrade biomass into renewable commodity-chemical building blocks. Reported here is a powerful complementary approach that amplifies the complexity of molecular structures present in plant materials. Essential-oil phenylpropenoids are transformed via acrylate cross-metathesis into potent antioxidants that are widely used in perfumery and cosmetics, and in treating disorders associated with oxidative damage. PMID:23126387

Lummiss, Justin A M; Oliveira, Kelley C; Pranckevicius, Alexandre M T; Santos, Alexandra G; dos Santos, Eduardo N; Fogg, Deryn E

2012-11-21

414

Essential Oil of Artemisia absinthium L. from the Spanish Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several essential oils obtained from Artemisia absinthium L. from four localities in the Spanish Pyrenees were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Two chemotypes were detected; a cis-epoxyocimene type (with more than 50% of this compound) which was predominant in all the populations, and a cis-epoxyocimene + chrysanthenyl acetate type (with 25–65% of cis-epoxyocimene and 15–50% of chrysanthenyl acetate). The distribution of these

Amaia Ariño; Inés Arberas; Gustavo Renobales; Silvia Arriaga; Juan B. Dominguez

1999-01-01

415

Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented.

Sobral, Marianna Vieira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damiao Pergentino

2014-01-01

416

Repellency of essential oil of Piper aduncum against Aedes albopictus in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED50) value was 1.5 microg/cm2 at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 sec (2.1 microg/cm2) and 120 sec (1.8 microg/cm2) of exposure. At 0.4 g, the essential oil gave a high protection (95.2%) against Ae. albopictus bites or landing at 2 h postapplication. The percentage of protection was reduced to 83.3% after 4 h, 64.5% after 6 h, and 51.6% after 8 h postapplication. As a comparison, treatment with 10% deet gave 100% protection against mosquito biting/landing for 4 h postapplication. There was no significant difference in percentage protection reduction between the plant extract and the commercial product deet, respectively (P = 0.739). The essential oil, which was not as good as deet, still gave moderate protection against Ae. albopictus biting even until 4 h postapplication. In conclusion, the P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as a repellent against the dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever vector, Ae. albopictus. PMID:20099591

Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

2009-12-01

417

Bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei from Madagascar: investigation of steam-distillation conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of the distillation time on the yield and chemical composition of the bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei Baill. was investigated. Distillation kinetics were determined for three batches of bark sampled from two sites, i.e., Itampolo (batches IT1 and IT2) and Salary (SAL), located in a region in the south of Madagascar with characteristically large populations of C. grevei. The bark samples were subjected to steam distillation, and the essential oil was collected at 3-h intervals. The total yield (calculated after 14?h of distillation) varied from 0.9 to 1.7%, according to the batch tested. Moreover, the essential oils obtained were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. During the course of the distillation, the relative percentages of the most volatile components (monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons) diminished progressively, whereas the least volatile ones (oxygenated derivatives) increased at a consistent rate. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis (AHC) of the results, performed on 13 principal components, allowed distinguishing three chemical groups, corresponding to the three batches, irrespective of the distillation time. This indicated that the chemical variability currently observed with commercial samples is not mainly linked to the experimental conditions of the extraction process, as the distillation time did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:24591320

Rakotobe, Miarantsoa; Menut, Chantal; Andrianoelisoa, Hanitriniaina Sahondra; Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Tsy, Jean Michel Leong Pock; Rakotoarimanana, Vonjison; Ramavovololona, Perle; Danthu, Pascal

2014-02-01

418

Antibacterial Activities of Plant-Derived Compounds and Essential Oils Toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.  

PubMed

Abstract Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0?mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp. PMID:25062020

Fra?ková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, V?ra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klou?ek, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

2014-10-01

419

Bioactivity and qualitative analysis of some essential oils from Mediterranean plants against stored-product pests: Evaluation of repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and Tenebrio molitor (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) were tested for repellency against Sitophilus zeamais and Cryptolestes ferrugineus adults and Tenebrio molitor larvae. Composition of L. nobilis essential oil included large amounts of monoterpenes, mainly oxygenated derivatives, while in C. bergamia essential oil limonene was the main compound followed by

S. Cosimi; E. Rossi; P. L. Cioni; A. Canale

2009-01-01

420

Antibacterial effects of Myristica fragrans , Zataria multiflora Boiss, Syzygium aromaticum , and Zingiber officinale Rosci essential oils, alone and in combination with nisin on Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant essential oils and their components are perceived to exhibit antimicrobial activities. In this study the antibacterial\\u000a effects of essential oil extracted from Myristica fragrans, Zataria multiflora Boiss, Syzygium aromaticum, and Zingiber officinale Rosci, alone and in combination with nisin, were evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes in brain heart infusion broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) with

Mohammad Rahnama; Mohsen Najimi; Shahraki Ali

421

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the volatile oil and methanol extract of Xenophyllum poposum.  

PubMed

The essential oil and methanol extract of northwestern Argentina medicinal plant Xenophyllum poposum, collected in Catamarca province, were investigated. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil identified 56 compounds accounting for 92.9%. The main components of the oil were delta-cadinene (16.5%), 6-hydroxytremetone (14.7%), epi-alpha-cadinol (12.0%), alpha-cadinol (8.8%), gamma-cadinene (7.5%), 1-epi-cubenol (4.2%) and alpha-muurolene (3.0%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activities against five pathogenic strains as well as antifungal activities against two pathogenic fungi. The methanol extract showed antibacterial activity against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus and two pathogenic fungal strains. The main components isolated from the methanol extract were the antifungal 4-hydroxy-3-(isopenten-2-yl)-acetophenone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and tremetone. 6-Hydroxytremetone showed activity against all the fungal strains and one of the S. aureus strains assayed. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties of the methanol extract and essential oil were determined using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) test. The methanol extract and the essential oil showed, respectively, moderate and weak antioxidant activity when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. PMID:23413577

González, Ana M; Tracanna, María I; Amani, Sara M; Schuff, Carola; Poch, Miguel J; Bach, Horacio; Catalán, César A N

2012-12-01

422

Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability  

PubMed Central

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500–1000–2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08–0.12–0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600–1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability. PMID:24688502

Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto

2013-01-01

423