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1

Bergamot essential oil extraction by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bergamot peel oil is the most valuable essential oil due to its unique fragrance and freshness. The essence finds application in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. However, strong limitations have been imposed on its use since bergamot oil contains several coumarins and psoralens which may be photoactive. Qualitative and quantitative analyses with GC–MS were carried out to evaluate the

A. Figoli; L. Donato; R. Carnevale; R. Tundis; G. A. Statti; F. Menichini; E. Drioli

2006-01-01

2

Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

2014-07-01

3

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from oregano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) in the extraction of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. was examined and the effects of microwave power and extraction time on the yield and composition of the product were investigated. Specific gravity and refractive index of the essential oil and its solubility in alcohol were also examined. Hydrodistillation was performed as control. GC–MS\\/FID

Beste Bayramoglu; Serpil Sahin; Gulum Sumnu

2008-01-01

4

Chemometric analysis and extraction processes of mandarin essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of Italian mandarin essential oils obtained by means of two different extraction procedures is considered here. Capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was applied to the separation of essential oils sampled in the period October 1982–January 1983. The raw data matrix consisted in total of N = 55 observations, representing samples obtained by pressing (n1 = 42)

Barbara Campisi; Giovanni Dugo; Antonella Cotroneo; Luciano Favretto

1995-01-01

5

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 582.50 Section 582...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts that are generally...

2010-04-01

6

21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 582.50 Section 582...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts that are generally...

2009-04-01

7

21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 182.50 Section 182...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts that are generally...

2010-01-01

8

21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. 182.50 Section 182...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices...essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts that are generally...

2009-04-01

9

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:10438227

Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

1999-06-01

10

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oils from orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of orange essential oil was studied using dehydrated orange peel (0.0538 kg H2O kg?1 dm) from naveline cultivars as raw material and CO2 as solvent. The effect of operation conditions was analyzed in a series of experiments at 313 and 323 K and pressures between 1 and 25 MPa. Furthermore, the effect of CO2 flow rate

A. Berna; M BLASCO; S SUBIRATS

1996-01-01

11

Extraction of essential oil and lipids from nutmeg by liquid carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houttuyn) was extracted with liquid carbon dioxide at 90bar and 23.0°C. The seed is rich in essential and fatty oils, with myristicin and myristic acid being the characteristic compounds in each group respectively. Coextraction of essential oil and fatty oil was observed, and extraction curves for each were obtained. Chromatographic analyses of essential and fatty oils were

Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo; Leonel Teixeira Pinto; Ariovaldo Bolzan; Adelamar Ferreira Novais

1999-01-01

12

Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis.  

PubMed

The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of plant volatile components has increased during two last decades due to the expected advantages of the supercritical extraction process. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a rapid, selective and convenient method for sample preparation prior to the analysis of compounds in the volatile product of plant matrices. Also, SFE is a simple, inexpensive, fast, effective and virtually solvent-free sample pretreatment technique. This review provides a detailed and updated discussion of the developments, modes and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is usually performed with pure or modified carbon dioxide, which facilitates off-line collection of extracts and on-line coupling with other analytical methods such as gas, liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography. In this review, we showed that a number of factors influence extraction yields, these being solubility of the solute in the fluid, diffusion through the matrix and collection process. Finally, SFE has been compared with conventional extraction methods in terms of selectivity, rapidity, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:17624357

Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh

2007-09-01

13

Liquid CO 2 extraction of essential oil from Star anise fruits ( Illicium verum H.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil from dried Star anise fruits (Illicium verum H.) was extracted with liquid CO2. The yield and the time of extraction were compared with that of the conventional steam distillation method. Extraction with liquid CO2 yielded 9.8% more essential oil than steam distillation. The anethole contents in oils obtained by the two methods were not significantly different and were

Dang Quoc Tuan; Sarath G. Ilangantileket

1997-01-01

14

The chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Ziziphora persica Bunge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of essential oil and the in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oil and methanol extracts of Ziziphora persica. The inhibitory effects of essential oil and methanol extracts of Ziziphora persica were tested against 98 laboratory strains belonging to 51 bacteria species by using disc-diffusion assay and micro-broth dilution methods, respectively. GC

Suzan Ozturk; Sezai Ercisli

2006-01-01

15

A new process for extraction of essential oil from Citrus peels: Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is drawn to the development of a new and green alternative technique for the extraction of essential oil from citrus peels. The process uses the hydro-diffusion phenomenon generated by microwaves to extract essential oil from the inside to the outside of the biological material and gravity to collect and separate them. The present apparatus permits fast and efficient extraction,

Nabil Bousbia; Maryline Abert Vian; Mohamed A. Ferhat; Brahim Y. Meklati; Farid Chemat

2009-01-01

16

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF NUTMEG ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTION BY LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model based on the shrinking core approach was proposed to represent the nutmeg essential oil extraction with liquid carbon dioxide. The model assumes that the essential oil inside the nutmeg particle is located within a core that shrinks as the extraction is carried out. Concentration profiles along the bed were considered, as well as axial dispersion effects. The

C. B. SPRICIGO; A. BOLZAN; L. T. PINTO

2001-01-01

17

Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) and methanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum seeds were evaluated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oils and methanol extracts revealed promising

Firas A. Al-Bayati

2008-01-01

18

Essential oil composition of Kaffir lime: Comparative analysis between controlled steam distillation and hydrodistillation extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controlled steam distillation process was performed to extract essential oil of Kaffir lime. Water temperature in the process was controlled by ON\\/OFF controller. System performance was quantified based on oil production rate and assessment on the compositions in Kaffir lime leaves and peels respectively. The Kaffir lime essential oil compounds were identified by retention time and percentage area by

N. Kasuan; M. Yunus; M. H. F. Rahiman; S. R. S. Aris; M. N. Taib

2009-01-01

19

Antimicrobial screening of essential oils and extracts of some Humulus lupulus L. cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils as well as solvent extracts of 11 hop cultivars, 1 hop variety and a wild type of hop were screened for their antimicrobial activities using the agar overlay technique. The oils were isolated from the cones of the various hop plants by hydrodistillation, the extracts were obtained by soaking the hop cones in chloroform. The oils and

C. R. Langezaal; A. Chandra; J. J. C. Scheffer

1992-01-01

20

Microwave steam diffusion for extraction of essential oil from orange peel: Kinetic data, extract’s global yield and mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave steam diffusion (MSDf) apparatus for extraction of essential oils from orange peel (by-products) was studied. MSDf has been compared with conventional steam diffusion (SDf). A response surface methodology (RSM) was realised to investigate the influence of process variables by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of orange

Asma Farhat; Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier; Mohamed El Maataoui; Jean-François Maingonnat; Mehrez Romdhane; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

21

Use of essential oils and extracts from spices in meat protection.  

PubMed

The hydro distillation method was used in this study to get essential oils (EOs) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), clove (Eugenia caryohyllata) and Elecampane (Inula helenium L.) and the co-hydro distillation method (addition of fatty acid ethyl esters as extraction cosolvents) to get functional extracts (EFs). The MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and the MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) were determined on five pathogenic strains (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Toxoplasma Gondi). The results showed that essential oils of cumin and clove and their functional extracts are effective on concentrations from 500 mg/L to 750 mg/L. The essential oils with functional extracts were used on meat samples at three different concentrations: 750, 1,500 and 2,250 ?L. The cumin essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 750 ?L, the clove essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 2,250 ?L and the cumin and clove functional extracts got a reduction of 3.6 log UFC/g. By chromatography, eugenol was identified in the clove oil, cuminaldehyde in the cumin oil and the isoalactolactones and alactolactones in the elecampane oil as main compounds on the chemical composition of the essential oils and functional extracts obtained. PMID:24803704

Hernández-Ochoa, L; Aguirre-Prieto, Y B; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Gutierrez-Mendez, N; Salas-Muñoz, E

2014-05-01

22

Essential oils content and antioxidant properties of peel ethanol extract in 18 lemon cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of essential oils and antioxidant activity of peel ethanol extract were analyzed in 18 local lemon cultivars. Essential oils composition was determined by GC\\/FID analysis, and antioxidant activity with the ABTS method. Fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameters, peel thickness, seed number, juice percentage, titratable acidity and juice pH were also determined for each cultivar. The main component in

C. Di Vaio; G. Graziani; A. Gaspari; G. Scaglione; S. Nocerino; A. Ritieni

2010-01-01

23

Antimicrobial activity of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. extracts and essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. are used in traditional Thai and Chinese medicine for the treatment of septic wounds and other infections. In this study, the essential oil, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of these leaves were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities using the disc diffusion assay and agar microdilution method. The essential oil was the most potent,

Uthai Sakee; Sujira Maneerat; T. P. Tim Cushnie; Wanchai De-eknamkul

2011-01-01

24

The chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Ziziphora persica Bunge.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of essential oil and the in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oil and methanol extracts of Ziziphora persica. The inhibitory effects of essential oil and methanol extracts of Ziziphora persica were tested against 98 laboratory strains belonging to 51 bacteria species by using disc-diffusion assay and micro-broth dilution methods, respectively. GC and GC/MS analyses revealed that the essential oil predominantly contains (+)-pulegone (79.33%), limonene (6.78%) and piperitenone (4.2%). The antibacterial test results showed that both methanol extract and in particular essential oil of Ziziphora persica had antibacterial activity against a number of bacteria tested. The lowest MIC values (7.81microg/ml) were obtained with the essential oil of Ziziphora persica against Bacillus dipsauri, Corynebacterium cystitidis and Corynebacterium flavescens. PMID:16529887

Ozturk, Suzan; Ercisli, Sezai

2006-07-19

25

Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Valeriana jatamansi Roots  

PubMed Central

Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, ?-vatirenene, ?-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, ?-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, ?-guaiene, and ?-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity.

Thusoo, Sakshima; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika

2014-01-01

26

Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of Teucrium montanum  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of essential oil and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Teucrium montanum. The inhibitory effects of essential oil and methanol extracts of T. montanum were tested against 13 bacterial and three fungal species by using disc-diffusion method. GC/MS analyses revealed that essential oil contains mainly ?-cadinene (17.19%), ?-selinene (8.16%) ?-calacorene (4.97%), 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-naphthalene (4.91%), caryophyllene (4.35%), copaene (4.23%), torreyol (3.91%), 4-terpineol (3.90%), cadina-1,4-diene (3.39%), ?-sesquiphellandrene (3.34%), ?-cadinol (3.12%) and ?-curcumene (3.18%). The essential oil has antibacterial as well as antifungal effect.

Milosevic, Tanja; Sukdolak, Slobodan; Solujic, Slavica

2007-01-01

27

Extraction of essential oils from lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work lime essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide. In the case of hydrodistillation, the parameters evaluated were e xtraction time and characteristics of t he plant material. In supercritical extraction, the parameters evaluated were temperature, pressure, CO2 flow, extraction time and material characteristics. Considering citral content, the best results for hydrodistillation were obtained with

Ana Cristina Atti-Santos; Marcelo Rossato; Luciana Atti Serafini; Eduardo Cassel; Patrick Moyna

2005-01-01

28

Extraction of the essential oil of thyme and black pepper by superheated steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superheated heated steam was used to extract volatiles from thyme leaves and black pepper fruits. Steam and extracted volatiles are collected in a condenser and essential oils are separated from the collected mixture by solvents and analysed by GC. Results show that the yield of extraction has an asymptotical evolution with time and increase with steam temperature and flow and

Mouin Rouatbi; Albert Duquenoy; Pierre Giampaoli

2007-01-01

29

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves  

PubMed Central

This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: ?-pinene (32.32%), ?-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), ?-caryophyllene (4.36%), and ?-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

2013-01-01

30

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.  

PubMed

This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: ?-pinene (32.32%), ?-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), ?-caryophyllene (4.36%), and ?-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

2013-01-01

31

Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. RESULTS: The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, ?-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and ?-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). CONCLUSION: O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23553824

Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

2013-02-01

32

Control of Aspergillus flavus with essential oil and methanol extract of Satureja hortensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and methanol extract of Satureja hortensis were tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus in vitro on Petri plates and liquid culture, and under storage conditions. The oil showed strong antifungal activity based on the inhibition zone and minimal inhibitory concentration values against the pathogen on Petri plates assays. The very low concentrations of them also reduced

Neslihan Dikbas; Recep Kotan; Fatih Dadasoglu; Fikrettin Sahin

2008-01-01

33

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

34

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

35

Direct Extraction-Separation of Essential Oils from Citrus Peels by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from citrus peels were extracted and separated with CO2 under supercritical conditions in a single process. The peels were placed together with ethanol, as an entraining solvent, inside a high pressure cell filled with carbon dioxide at a pressure < 130 bar and a temperature of 35°C. The extract was fractionated in various pressure ranges after achieving equilibrium,

D. M. Kassim; M. S. Hameed

1989-01-01

36

Antifungal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils and Plant Extracts Against Mycotoxigenic Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock, and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides, that produce two major classes of mycotoxins, aflatoxin, and fumonisin, respectively, on

Kanniah Rajasekaran; Hamidou F. Sakhanokho; Nurhayat Tabanca

2012-01-01

37

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

2012-01-01

38

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus

N. C. C. Silva; L. Barbosa; L. N. Seito; A. Fernandes Junior

2011-01-01

39

Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

In traditional Mexican medicine Cordia curassavica (Jacq) Roemer & Schultes is used to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological disorders in Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, obtained by using Clevenger distillation apparatus, and hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cordia curassavica. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 13 bacteria and five fungal strains. The oil and extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and five fungal strains. Sarcina lutea and Vibrio cholerae were the strains more sensitive to the essential oil effect (MIC=62 microg/mL) and Vibrio cholerae for the hexane extract (MIC=125 microg/mL). Rhyzoctonia solani was the strain more sensitive to the essential oil effect (IC(50)=180 microg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes for the hexane extract (IC(50)=230 microg/mL). The essential oil was examined by GC and GC-MS. A total 11 constituents representing 96.28% of the essential oil were identified: 4-methyl,4-ethenyl-3-(1-methyl ethenyl)-1-(1-methyl methanol)cyclohexane (37.34%), beta-eudesmol (19.21%), spathulenol (11.25%) and cadina 4(5), 10(14) diene (7.93%) were found to be the major components. The present study tends to confirm the use in the folk medicine of Cordia curassavica in gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological diseases. PMID:17140754

Hernandez, Tzasna; Canales, Margarita; Teran, Barbara; Avila, Olivia; Duran, Angel; Garcia, Ana Maria; Hernandez, Hector; Angeles-Lopez, Omar; Fernandez-Araiza, Mario; Avila, Guillermo

2007-04-20

40

Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.  

PubMed

The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemys?aw; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; M?ynarczyk, Andrzej

2013-06-01

41

Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519

Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-08-10

42

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Melissa officinalis: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and ultrasound extraction.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been applied to the extraction of essential oils from Melissa officinalis L. and Laurus nobilis L. The results of SFME were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) of essential oils from dried plant materials. The compositions of the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The essential oil obtained with SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than the oils obtained by conventional methods. The three different extraction methods used showed differences in the compositions and contents of the essential oils. PMID:20184034

Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Buyuktas, Birsen S

2010-01-01

43

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on\\/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization

L Gámiz-Gracia; M. D Luque de Castro

2000-01-01

44

Control of Aspergillus flavus with essential oil and methanol extract of Satureja hortensis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and methanol extract of Satureja hortensis were tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus in vitro on Petri plates and liquid culture, and under storage conditions. The oil showed strong antifungal activity based on the inhibition zone and minimal inhibitory concentration values against the pathogen on Petri plates assays. The very low concentrations of them also reduced wet and dry mycelium weight of pathogen fungus in liquid culture. When the oils at 25, 12.5 and 6.25 microl/mL concentrations were applied to lemon fruits before seven days of pathogen inoculation on storage conditions, the decay on fruits caused by the pathogen could be prevented completely. The results in this study showed that the essential oil of S. hortensis had strong antifungal activity against pathogen fungi tested. So, the essential oil of S. hortensis could be used for management of this pathogen as a potential source of sustainable eco-friendly botanical fungicides. PMID:18455819

Dikbas, Neslihan; Kotan, Recep; Dadasoglu, Fatih; Sahin, Fikrettin

2008-05-31

45

Comparison of chemical composition of Aerva javanica seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. seed essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and dry steam distillation (SD) extracting methods and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty and eighteen components representing 90.5% and 95.6% of the seed essential oil were identified, using hydrodistillation and dry steam distillation, respectively. The major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by HD were heptacosane (25.4%), 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (14.1%), pentacosane (12.1%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentade-canone (7.9%), nonacosane (7.1%), tricosane (3.6%), ?-farnesene (3.5%), dodecanal (2.7%) and octacosane (2.1%). Whereas the major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by SD were heptacosane (41.4%), pentacosane (21.2%), nonacosane (14.8%), tricosane (6.3%), octacosane (4.2%) and tetracosane (3.0%). PMID:23811454

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-07-01

46

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of Citharexylum spinosum flowers from Thailand.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various solvent extracts of Citharexylum spinosum flowers are reported. The chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS with 151 volatile constituents identified. Methyl benzoate, piperitone, maltol, and maple furanone were the major constituents. All extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against eight microorganisms. The flower oil had the greatest antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains (MIC values of 31.2 microg/mL), while the other solvent extracts had MIC values ranging from 31.2 to 1000 microg/mL. The essential oil had the highest antioxidant activity and total phenol content with IC50 values of 62.7 and 107.3 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:25026728

Mar, Ae; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

2014-05-01

47

Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation  

PubMed Central

Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by ?-pinene as against ?-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

2012-01-01

48

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

49

Determination of bactericidal efficacy of essential oil extracted from orange peel on the food contact surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil was extracted from peels of sweet orange fruits by supercritical technique and the resulting compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. After emulsifying with tween-20 in sterile water, the antibacterial efficacy against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, which were inoculated on the surfaces of samples of stainless steel and plastic cutting board pieces, was determined.

Chia-Min Lin; Shane-Rong Sheu; Shu-Chen Hsu; Yung-Hsiang Tsai

2010-01-01

50

OPTIMIZATION OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION FOR ESSENTIAL OILS FROM BITTER ORANGE (VAR.AMARA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of bitter orange essential oil was studied using dehydrated bitter orange peel as raw material and CO2 as solvent. The influence of different operation conditions was analysed in the pressure range from 100 to 300 atm at temperatures 35,45 and 55 °C for a static time of 20 minutes. In these experiments, the duration of dynamic

MIR Heidary

51

Black box modeling of steam distillation essential oil extraction system using ARMAX structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the temperature response of a steam distillation essential oil extraction system with a refilling line is modeled based on data collected using a dedicated acquisition system. The autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) model structure is assumed and the pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS) signal was used to perturb the process. The optimization of ARMAX model structure

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

2007-01-01

52

Evaluation of ARMAX structure for steam distillation essential oil extraction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an essential oil extraction system with a refilling line is modeled based on data collected from a dedicated acquisition system. The ARMAX model structure is assumed and PRBS signal was used to perturb the process. The optimization of ARMAX model structure such as model order criterions is discussed. The model order criterions consist of NSSE, AIC, FPE

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib

53

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Satureja hortensis L . extracts and essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satureja hortensis L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as muscle and bone pain reliever. In the present study, hydroalcoholic extract, polyphenolic fraction and essential oil of the aerial parts of the herb were prepared and evaluated for the analgesic activity using light tail flick, formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Also, the anti-inflammatory effects

Valiollah Hajhashemi; Alireza Ghannadi; Sayed Karim Pezeshkian

2002-01-01

54

The analysis of essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) from seasonings ? A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review of the analytical methods employed for the determination of the relevant components of seasonings is presented. Where the available methods were inadequate, new ones have been devised. Particular emphasis has been placed on those methods of analysis that provide a rapid and sufficiently accurate appraisal of seasoning extracts and essential oils from seasonings under routine control laboratory

Thomas E. Furia

1977-01-01

55

Antimicrobial activity of chitosan-based films including spices’ essential oils and functional extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) and functional extracts (EXs) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), clove (Eugenia caryohyllata), and elecampane (Inula helenium L.) were used as antimicrobial ingredients for the elaboration of edible films. EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation and EXs were obtained by co-hydrodistillation using fatty acid ethyl esters (E6 and E7) as co-solvents. Antimicrobial activities of EOs and EXs were evaluated

L. Hernández-Ochoa; C. A. Macías-Castañeda; G. V. Nevárez-Moorillón; E. Salas-Muñoz; F. Sandoval-Salas

2012-01-01

56

Composition of the Essential Oils and Extracts of Two Populations of Cannabis sativa L. ssp. spontanea from Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and the solvent extract of two populations of Cannabis sativa L. ssp. spontanea growing wild in Austria were analyzed comparatively. In the essential oil, myrcene (31% and 27%, respectively), (E)-?-ocimene (13% and 3%, respectively) and ?-caryophyllene (11% and 16%, respectively) were found, while in the solvent extract the non-hallucinogeneous cannabidiol (77% and 59%, respectively) dominated. The hallucinogeneous

Johannes Novak; Chlodwig Franz

2003-01-01

57

In vitro antimicrobial and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia cedronella Boiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and various extracts obtained from Salvia cedronella Boiss have been evaluated for their possible in vitro antimicrobial and antiviral capacities. The GC-EIMS analysis of the essential oil was resulted in detection of 92 components representing 96.1% of the oil. Major components were 1,8- cineole, ? ? ? ?-pinene, caryophyllene oxide and sabinene. In the case of antimicrobial

Ahmet Alim; Ismihan Goze; Hamdi Murat Goze; Bektas Tepe; Julia Serkedjieva

58

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of the various extracts of Tanacetum sonbolii Mozaff. (Asteraceae) from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and antioxidant activities of the different extracts of Tanacetum sonbolii Mozaff. from Iran for the first time. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and its gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses resulted in the identification of 26 components, representing 96.5% of the oil. The major

Masoumeh Firozy; Zahra Talebpour; Ali Sonboli

2011-01-01

59

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

2003-01-01

60

Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran.  

PubMed

Essential oil composition of the leaves of Viola odorata L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, was extracted by hydro distillation-solvent extraction method and analysed using GC-MS technique. The analysis revealed the presence of 25 identified compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil with butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%) being the two main components. Several components were identified for the first time in this chemotype of V. odorata. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the oil, methanol and chloroform extracts were also evaluated for the first time in this research work. PMID:22011110

Akhbari, Maryam; Batooli, Hossein; Kashi, Fereshteh Jookar

2012-01-01

61

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the essential oils and crude extracts of Euphorbia macrorrhiza.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to examine the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils extracted from Euphorbia macrorrhiza collected from Northwest China. The major constituents of the essential oils of aerial parts and roots of E. macrorrhiza are acorenone B (16.72% and 25.80%), (+)-cycloisosativene (14.94% and 12.40%), 3a-hydroxy-5b-androstane (10.62% and 5.52%), copaene (7.37% and 6.29%), l-calamenene (4.13% and 4.65%) and ?-cedrene (8.40% and 7.98%), respectively. The minor components of them are thymene, ?-terpinene, thymecamphor, ?-cedrene, zingiberene, trans-caryophyllene, ?-chamigrene, curcumene, pentadecane, (-)-?-muurolene, cuparene, ?-cadinene, (Z)-3-heptadecene, 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-2-oxabicyclo(4.4.0)dec-5-en-4-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, ?-elixene and palmitinic acid. The antimicrobial and antitumor activitiy of the E. macrorrhiza essential oil against Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli, Canidia Albicans and Caco-2 cells were evaluated. Among all the tested microorganisms and Caco-2 cells, the essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect on Staphyloccocus aureus (MIC = 2.8 ?g/mL) and Caco-2 cell (IC?? = 11.86 ?g/mL), whereas no effect on Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The data of this study suggested that the E. macrorrhiza essential oils have great potential as a natural medicine for microbial infections and cancers. PMID:22555293

Lin, Jianbo; Dou, Jun; Xu, Jiangling; Aisa, Haji Akber

2012-01-01

62

Antioxidant and lipase inhibitory activities and essential oil composition of pomegranate peel extracts.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oil, antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of various solvent extracts obtained from pomegranate peelTunisian cultivar was evaluated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of the PP essential oil. Nine-teen components were identified and the main compounds were the camphor (60.32%) and the benzaldehyde (20.98%). The phenolic and flavonoids content varied from 0 to 290.10 mg Gallic acid equivalent and from 5.2 to 20.43 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract. The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from pomegranate peel was also investigated using various in vitro assays as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, ?-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays.Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the most potent antioxidant activity in all assays tested followed by water and acetone extracts. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate peelextracts on porcine pancreatic lipase was evaluated and the results showed that ethanol and methanol extracts markedly reduced lipase activity. Generally, the highestlipase activity inhibitory (100%) was observed at a concentration of 1 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation. LC-MS analysis of ethanol extract showed the presence of four components which are cholorogenic acid, mannogalloylhexoside, gallic acid and ellagic acid. Our findings demonstrate that the ethanol extract from pomegranate peel might be a good candidate for furtherinvestigations of new bioactive substances. PMID:24770478

Hadrich, Fatma; Cher, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef Talel; Adel, Sayari

2014-01-01

63

Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO? extraction and hydro-distillation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO?) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO? extraction in optimum conditions were ?-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), ?-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and ?-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were ?-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), ?-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and ?-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO? and hydro-distillation showed an EC?? of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively. PMID:24607131

Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

2014-04-01

64

Continuous subcritical water extraction of medicinal plant essential oil: comparison with conventional techniques.  

PubMed

A subcritical extractor equipped with a three-way inlet valve and an on/off outlet valve has been used for performing subcritical water extractions (SWE) in a continuous manner for the isolation of the essential oil of fennel, a medicinal plant. The target compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by a single extraction with 5 ml hexane, determined by gas-chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). The proposed extraction method has been compared with both hydrodistillation and dichloromethane manual extraction. Better results have been obtained with the proposed method in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:18967949

Gámiz-Gracia, L; Luque de Castro, M D

2000-05-01

65

Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract.  

PubMed

This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53-76%) and seeds (51-95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300 mg kg(-1) dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of gastric lesions (91% and 95%, respectively) which was similar to that induced by omeprazole (94%). Essential oil and aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts of A. graveolens were tested to determine their antibacterial activity using the paper disc-diffusion method, the minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration. Essential oil of A. graveolens was strongly inhibitory against Escherichia coli and moderately inhibitory against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The chemical composition of the volatile oil was investigated by gas chromatography analysis. The major components identified were ?-pinene, camphene, cumene, limonene, ?-thuyene, ?-pinene, ?-phellendrene, p-cymene, ?-terpinene, sabinene and terpinolene. PMID:22934666

Baananou, Sameh; Bouftira, Ibtissem; Mahmoud, Amor; Boukef, Kamel; Marongiu, Bruno; Boughattas, Naceur A

2013-01-01

66

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were compared with those of the essential oils extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. While MAHD at 660 W required half as much time as HD needed, similar antibacterial efficacies were found from the essential oils obtained by the two extraction methods on two food pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacterium, and Escherchia coli, a gram negative bacterium). Also, as it was the case with the essential oils extracted by HD, that of MAHD indicated greater influence on S. aureus than on E. coli. The compositions of the extracted essential oils were also studied using GC-MS analysis. The same components with negligible differences in their quantities were found in the extracted essential oils using the two methods outlined above. Overall, to reduce the extraction time, MAHD can be applied at higher microwave levels without any compromise in the antibacterial properties of the essential oils extracted.

Rezvanpanah, Shila; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi

2011-01-01

67

Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts and essential oils of Myrtus communis L.  

PubMed

Since synthetic antimicrobial agents and food additives can cause a number of adverse effects, there is a growing interest from consumers in ingredients from natural sources. Medicinal plants, such as Myrtus communis L. are a source of new compounds which can be used in both the food industry and for medical purposes, primarily as antimicrobial agents. In this review, the characteristics of myrtle essential oils and extracts are summarized, with particular attention to their chemical composition, biological activities and potential applications. PMID:24291016

Aleksic, Verica; Knezevic, Petar

2014-04-01

68

Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (?-esterase and ?-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are ?-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-?-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae.

Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

2012-01-01

69

Bioactivities of the Various Extracts and Essential Oils of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L., as well as the content of its essential oil. The activities of essential oils were tested against a wide range of human-, plant-, and food-borne microorganisms. A total of 55 microbial organisms belonging

Atalay SÖKMEN; Münevver SÖKMEN; Moschos POLISSIOU; Julia SERKEDJIEVA

70

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

2012-01-01

71

Spasmolytic activity of essential oil and various extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. on ileum contractions.  

PubMed

Traditional herbal medicines such as Ferula gummosa Boiss. have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of essential oil, hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts of Ferula gummosa and two of its components, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, on isolated rat ileum contractions induced by KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO) and hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts all inhibited the response to 80 mM KCl in a concentration-dependent manner and attenuated the maximum attainable response of the ACh concentration-response curve. Although the effect of etheric extract on ACh contractions was less than that of petrolic extract, the overall order of effectiveness on the weight basis was the etheric, petrolic, methanolic, and hydro-alcoholic extracts, and the essential oil, respectively. A mixture of etheric and petrolic extracts together had a similar effect on KCl response to etheric extract was used alone. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene both exhibited inhibitory effect on the contraction of rat ileum, but the inhibitory effect of beta-pinene on KCl contraction was more pronounced. The inhibitory effect of a mixture of these two compounds was, however, less than the sum of their separate effects. When a mixture of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene together were examined on the ileum, without presence of the spasmogen, they initially caused contraction of the tissue, while neither of them used alone caused a noticeable contraction of the ileum. This study shows that Ferula gummosa essential oil and its various extracts are relaxant of rat isolated ileum and that at least part of their inhibitory effect is due to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene components. As the inhibition of contractile over-activity of the ileum is the basis of the treatment of some gastero-intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, Ferula gummosa may have clinical benefits for treatment of this condition. PMID:11695880

Sadraei, H; Asghari, G R; Hajhashemi, V; Kolagar, A; Ebrahimi, M

2001-09-01

72

Improved solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from dried Cuminum cyminum L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a recently developed green technique which is performed in atmospheric conditions without adding any solvent or water. SFME has already been applied to extraction of essential oil from fresh plant materials or dried materials prior moistened. The essential oil is evaporated by the in situ water in the plant materials. In this paper, it was observed that an improved SFME, in which a kind of microwave absorption solid medium, such as carbonyl iron powders (CIP), was added and mixed with the sample, can be applied to extraction of essential oil from the dried plant materials without any pretreatment. Because the microwave absorption capacity of CIP is much better than that of water, the extraction time while using the improved SFME is no more than 30 min using a microwave power of 85 W. Compared to the conventional SFME, the advantages of improved SFME were to speed up the extraction rate and need no pretreatment. Improved SFME has been compared with conventional SFME, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from dried Cuminum cyminum L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. By using GC-MS system the compositions of essential oil extracted by applying four kinds of extraction methods were identified. There was no obvious difference in the quality of essential oils obtained by the four kinds of extraction methods. PMID:16266711

Wang, Ziming; Ding, Lan; Li, Tiechun; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Hanqi; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Hongju; Zeng, Hong; He, Hui

2006-01-13

73

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional hydrodistillation in the extraction of essential oils from mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers.  

PubMed

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) is an advanced hydrodistillation (HD) technique, in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. MAHD and HD methods have been compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in the isolation of essential oils from fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers. MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (75 min against 4 h). The composition of the extracted essential oils was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results indicate that the use of microwave irradiation did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oils. MAHD was also found to be a green technology. PMID:21042260

Wang, Hong-Wu; Liu, Yan-Qing; Wei, Shou-Lian; Yan, Zi-Jun; Lu, Kuan

2010-11-01

74

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Extract and Essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, Population of Guilan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and the purpose of study: Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae) has cooling, soothing, astringent, and anti-inflammatory effects, and has been used in the north of Iran as a cardiotonic agent. The aim of this study was to identify components of R. damascena (cultivated in Guilan Province) extract and essential oil and to study their biological activities. Methods: Essential oil of

Rohani Rankouhi

2009-01-01

75

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oils from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth.  

PubMed

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the aerial parts of Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. was studied. The effect of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier identity, and modifier volume on the SFE of the plant was investigated. The extracts were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and compared with the essential oil obtained from P. atriplicifolia Benth by steam distillation. The supercritical extracts and the steam-distilled products had very different compositions. The main constituents of the oil obtained by steam distillation were 1,8-cineole, limonene, camphor, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, camphene, and alpha-humulene. On the other hand, the major components of SFE extracts were 1,8-cineole, limonene, camphor, beta-caryophyllene, gamma-cadinene, alpha-pinene, and alpha-terpinyl acetate. The results showed that increasing the temperature from 35 to 65 degrees C (at a constant pressure of 100 atm) drastically reduced the number of extracted components. Also, the number of extracted constituents and the percent of main analytes increased when lower pressures were used. Using different modifiers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, and hexane) for the extraction of the plant at low pressure (100 atm) and temperature (35 degrees C) showed that hexane was more selective than the other modifiers. PMID:12926891

Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Seied Ghorban

2003-08-27

76

Antibacterial properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum occurring in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The antibacterial potential of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) was evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves and stems were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-seven compounds representing 94.9 and 96.1% of the total leaf and stem oils, respectively, were identified, of which methyl chavicol (36.7 and 29.9%), gitoxigenin (9.3 and 10.2%), trimethoquinol (10.3 and 8.4%), beta-guaiene (3.7 and 4.1%), aciphyllene (3.4 and 3.0%), alizarin (3.2 and 4.4%), naphthaline (2.2 and 3.8%), (-)-caryophyllene (2.0 and 1.9%), and mequinol (1.6 and 1.8%) were the major compounds. The essential oils (10 microL/disc of 1:5, v/v dilution with methanol) and methanol extracts (300 microg/disc) of O. basilicum displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Bacillius cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, and Salmonella typhi with their respective zones of inhibition of 11.2-21.1 mm and MIC values of 62.5-500 microg/mL. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from O. basilicum may have potential use in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries as antimicrobial agents. PMID:20645791

Hossain, M Amzad; Kabir, M J; Salehuddin, S M; Rahman, S M Mizanur; Das, A K; Singha, Sandip Kumar; Alam, Md Khorshed; Rahman, Atiqur

2010-05-01

77

Antimicrobial activity of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. extracts and essential oil.  

PubMed

Leaves of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. are used in traditional Thai and Chinese medicine for the treatment of septic wounds and other infections. In this study, the essential oil, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of these leaves were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities using the disc diffusion assay and agar microdilution method. The essential oil was the most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 150?µg?mL?¹ against Bacillus cereus and an MIC of 1.2?mg?mL?¹ against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Activity was also detected from the hexane extract against Enterobacter cloacae and S. aureus. Minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations were typically equal to or two-fold higher than the MICs for both extracts, indicating microbicidal activity. The present data show that B. balsamifera extracts have activity against various infectious and toxin-producing microorganisms. This plant's active constituents could potentially be developed for use in the treatment and/or prevention of microbial disease. PMID:21500092

Sakee, Uthai; Maneerat, Sujira; Cushnie, T P Tim; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

2011-11-01

78

Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.  

PubMed

Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22018714

Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

2011-12-01

79

Chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus loxophleba.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus loxophleba Benth. subsp. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of E. loxophleba was analysed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil were found to be 1,8-cineole (39.4%), methyl amyl acetate (19.8%) and aromadendrene (10%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different test systems namely DPPH and ?-carotene/linoleic acid. In the DPPH system, the highest radical-scavenging activity was shown by the polar subfraction of the methanol extract (15.2?±?1.7?µg?mL?¹). Also, in the second case, the inhibition capacity (%) of the polar subfraction (94.1?±?1.3) was found to be stronger. In addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the polar subfraction (273.0?±?2.6?µg?mg?¹) and nonpolar subfraction (146.3?±?2.5?µg?mg?¹) were determined. PMID:21985447

Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Farhad; Batooli, Hossein

2012-01-01

80

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.  

PubMed

Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

2010-09-01

81

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of Tragopogon graminifolius, a medicinal herb from Iran.  

PubMed

Tragopogon graminifolius DC., family Compositae, is widely consumed as a green vegetable in the west of Iran and for the treatment of gastrointestinal and hepatic ailments. In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oil from T. graminifolius aerial parts was evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Moreover, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and various extracts of T. graminifolius were determined. Fifty-eight compounds representing 87.2% of the essential oil were identified. The main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (22.0%), beta-caryophyllene (7.5%), heneicosane (6.6%), and nonanal (5.2%). The essential oil demonstrated the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.6 +/- 8.8 ug/mL) and the 80% ethanolic extract the highest ferric reducing antioxidant activity (908.2 +/- 79.5 mmol Fe2+ ion/g extract). The total phenolic content of the 80% ethanolic extract from the aerial parts was the highest (560.7 +/- 18.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent). In the antimicrobial test, Shigella dysenteriae was the most vulnerable microorganism, followed by Proteus vulgaris, and the essential oil exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among the samples. The results indicated that the essential oil and extracts of T. graminifolius could be consumed as a natural herbal preservative or complementary supplement in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24660479

Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Rahimi, Roja; Attar, Farideh; Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Khanavi, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

82

Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

2012-11-01

83

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.  

PubMed

In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69??mol/?L of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P?essential oils obtained by SFME at different microwave power levels were found to be similar and ranged from 0.72 to 0.84??mol/?L of oil. Essential oils obtained by CH and SFME at different microwave powers inhibited the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, whereas survival of Staphylococcus aureus was not influenced. In addition, oregano oil obtained by SFME at 40% power level did not show any inhibitory effect on E. coli O157:H7. PMID:21314366

Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

2011-06-01

84

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

The essential oil, obtained by using a Clevenger distillation apparatus, and water-soluble (polar) and water-insoluble (nonpolar) subfractions of the methanol extract of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. var. pectinatus were assayed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. No (or slight) antimicrobial activity was observed when the subfractions were tested, whereas the essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. Antioxidant activities of the polar subfraction and the essential oil were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and lipid peroxidation assays. The essential oil, in particular, and the polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS, and 24 compounds, representing 99.6% of the essential oil, were identified: thymol, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and borneol were the main components. An antimicrobial activity test carried out with fractions of the essential oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those fractions containing thymol, in particular, and carvacrol. The activity was, therefore, attributed to the presence of these compounds. Other constituents of the essential oil, such as borneol, gamma-terpinene, and p-cymene, could be also taken into account for their possible synergistic or antagonistic effects. On the other hand, thymol and carvacrol were individually found to possess weaker antioxidant activity than the crude oil itself, indicating that other constituents of the essential oil may contribute to the antioxidant activity observed. In conclusion, the results presented here show that T. pectinatus essential oil could be considered as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant source. PMID:12502386

Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Candan, Ferda; Sökmen, Atalay; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol; Tepe, Bekta?

2003-01-01

85

Antifungal properties of essential oil and crude extracts of Hypericum linarioides Bosse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum linarioides Bosse by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC–MS. It was determined that 74 compounds, which represent 84.1% of total oil, were present in the oil. The oil contains mainly ?-cadinene (6.9%), (Z)-?-farnesene (5.2%), ?-muurolene (5.5%), spathulenol (4.8%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (4.5%) and ?-selinene (4.0%). The oil was

Ahmet Cakir; Saban Kordali; Hamdullah Kilic; Ercan Kaya

2005-01-01

86

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications. PMID:24360439

Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

2014-05-01

87

Antiradical Efficiency of Essential Oils From Plant Seeds Obtained by Supercritical CO2, Soxhlet Extraction and Hydrodistillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of supercritical CO2(SCCO2) extraction conditions (pressure and temperature) on the system performance as well as the antiradical efficiencies of the essential oils from Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds were investigated. Control study with the conventional Soxhlet extraction and hydrodistillation was also conducted to compare the performance of those processes. Antiradical

Mumin Enis Leblebici; Siti Machmudah; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2012-01-01

88

EFFECT OF SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD ON SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION FOR ESSENTIAL OILS FROM BITTER ORANGE (VAR.AMARA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of bitter orange essential oil was studied using dehydrated or fresh bitter orange peel as raw material and CO2 as solvent. The influence of sample preparing (dried or fresh sample) on the Limonene extraction yield was studied. And also, the influence of different operation conditions was analysed in the pressure range from 100 to 300 atm

MIR Heidary

89

Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.  

PubMed

The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT. PMID:20506431

Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

2010-07-01

90

Determination of Essential Oil Composition of Prangos acaulis (DC) Bornm Obtained by Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Fluid Extraction Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition of the essential oil of the Prangos acaulis was extracted by Hydrodistillation (HD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) methods from aerial parts at full flowering stage. Their compositions were identified using GC/MS as the method of analysis. The analyses reveal that samples differ quantitatively and qualitatively. A total of 21 compounds constituting 89.1% of aerial parts oil were in SFE method. The oil obtained by SFE was under condition: pressure 120 bar, temperature 45°C and extraction time 45 min. On the other hand, 26 compounds constituting 98.74% of oil were in HD method. In according to our results, in both extracts, the two compounds present in the biggest quantity were: ?-pinene (13.7 versus 22.87% in the SFE and HD oil, respectively) and 3-ethylidene-2-methyl-1-hexen-4-yne (14.3 versus 21.36%).

Hadavand Mirzaei, Hossein; Hadi Meshkatalsadat, Mohammad; Soheilivand, Saeed

91

Constituents and biological activity of the chloroform extract and essential oil of Cupressus sempervirens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L. was isolated by hydrodistillation and tested against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, showing remarkable antimicrobial\\u000a activity against Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 75%. The antiviral activity of the essential oil was tested against Herpes simplex\\u000a virus type 1 (HSV-1), showing antiviral activity with virucidal percentages of 68.0%

N. A. Ibrahim; H. R. El-Seedi; M. M. D. Mohammed

2009-01-01

92

The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors.

Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

2014-01-01

93

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, alpha-terpineol, beta-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC(50)=1.56 micro g/ml) and exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging effect in the Fe(3+)-EDTA-H(2)O(2) deoxyribose system (IC(50)=2.7 micro g/ml). It also inhibited the nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate (IC(50)=13.5 micro g/ml). The polar phase of the extract showed antioxidant activity. The oil showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium perfringens, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida krusei while water-insoluble parts of the methanolic extracts exhibited slight or no activity. This study confirms that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in vitro. PMID:12860311

Candan, Ferda; Unlu, Mehmet; Tepe, Bekta?; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Sökmen, Atalay; Akpulat, H A?kin

2003-08-01

94

Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract, essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The dichloromethane-methanol extract, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Nepeta parnassica, and the isolated 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone were evaluated for their repellent effect against the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards and Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskål. The chemical analysis of N. parnassica essential oil, dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (87 %), revealed 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (36.8%), 1,8-cineole (25.5%), and 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone (11.1%) as the major constituents. The results of the insect bioassays showed that the essential oil and the dichloromethane-methanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Culex pipiens for up to 2 h post application. The isolated 4a?,7?,7a?-nepetalactone showed very high mosquito repellency for periods of at least 2 h against both species. PMID:24449446

Gkinis, G; Michaelakis, A; Koliopoulos, G; Ioannou, E; Tzakou, O; Roussis, V

2014-03-01

95

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oil from orange peel; effect of the height of the bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the height of the particle bed on the kinetics of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from orange peel is analyzed in this article. Peel of dehydrated oranges of the satsuma and naveline cultivars was used. A series of experiments were designed wherein, for the same conditions, particle height varied widely. These experiments were also carried

A Berna; A Tárrega; M Blasco; S Subirats

2000-01-01

96

The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H A?kin

2004-06-01

97

Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Teucrium orientale (L.) subsp. taylori (Boiss.) Rech. f.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Teucrium orientale subsp. taylori. The GC and GC–MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in determination of 40 components representing 96.4% of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were linalool (28.6%), caryophyllene oxide (15.6%), 1,8-cineol (4.5%), ?-pinene (8.7%), 3-octanol (9.5%), ?-caryophyllene (7.3%), and germacrene-D (4.1%). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by two different tests, namely DPPH and ?-carotene- linoleic acid assay. In DPPH system, the weakest radical scavenging activity was exhibited by the non-polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (237.40 ± 2.1 ?g/mL). Antioxidant activity of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract was superior to all samples tested, showing an EC50 value of 61.45 ± 0.5 ?g/ mL. The inhibition capacity (%) of the polar sub fraction of methanolic extract (95.21% ± 1.3) was found to be the strongest and almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (94.9% ± 1.1). The amount of the total phenolics was the highest in the polar subfraction, i.e. 370 ?g/mg of the dry extract (37%). A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolics of the extracts.

Amiri, Hamzeh

2010-01-01

98

Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.  

PubMed

A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources. PMID:24755113

Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

2014-08-01

99

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

Herman, Anna

2014-09-01

100

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.  

PubMed

Extracts obtained from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as remedies for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. For evaluation of its probable analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, hydroalcoholic extract, polyphenolic fraction and essential oil of the leaves of the herb were prepared and their analgesic effects were studied in mice using formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Carrageenan test in rats was used for assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of above-mentioned fractions. Results showed that while the hydroalcoholic extract (400-1600 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited only the second phase of formalin test, the polyphenolic fraction (800 and 1600 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) suppressed both phases. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, polyphenolic fraction (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) and essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal constrictions. Essential oil at a dose of 200mg/kg also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results of the present study confirm the traditional use of Lavandula angustifolia for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions and calls for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s). PMID:14522434

Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Ghannadi, Alireza; Sharif, Badie

2003-11-01

101

Constituents and biological activity of the essential oil and the aqueous extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. serpyllifolia.  

PubMed

Micromeria fruticosa L Druce subsp. serpyllifolia is a medicinal herb that is widely used as folk medicine in the treatment of abdominal pains, diarrhea, eye infections, heart disorders, elevated blood pressure, colds and wounds. This study aims to investigation the constituents and biological activity of the essential oil and aqueous extract of the plant that had been collected from Nablus. The oil was prepared by hydro-distillation method and analyzed by GC/MS. The oxygenated constituents were prevalent (87.4%) with the pulegone (58.5%) was the major constituents. Antitumor and analgesic activities of the isolated oil and the aqueous extract of M. fruticosa were investigated. Both the oil and the aqueous extract exhibited marked antitumor activities against Human Colon Tumor cells (HCT) and Mammary Carcinoma F7 (MCF7). The oil showed less IC(50s) against both cell lines (10, 12.7 ?g/ml respectively). Also the extract significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing response (p<0.05) and increased hot-plate pain threshold of mice at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg while the oil did not show any analgesic activity on both models. Therefore, we concluded that the aqueous extract of M. fruticosa has a remarkable inhibitory activity in non-inflammatory reactions as well as inflammatory pain. PMID:22713962

Shehab, Naglaa Gamil; Abu-Gharbieh, Eman

2012-07-01

102

Chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Carapa guianensis collected from Venezuelan Guayana and the antimicrobial activity of the oil and crude extracts.  

PubMed

The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae) leaves was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-three components were identified, which made up 93.7% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bicyclogermacrene (28.5%), alpha-humulene (17.2%), germacrene B (11.9%), and trans-beta-caryophyllene (9.9%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, as well as the crude extracts of the leaves obtained by refluxing the dried leaves with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol, was determined using the disc diffusion assay. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was only found for the essential oil and the methanolic extract, at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 400 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL. PMID:24427961

Meccia, Gina; Quintero, Patricia; Rojas, Luis B; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Velasco, Judith; Diaz, Tulia; Diaz, Clara; Velásquez, Jesús; Toro, Maria

2013-11-01

103

Acaricidal activity of 31 essential oils extracted from plants collected in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a worldwide pest, feeding on a large variety of plant families. As its resistance to acaricides spreads rapidly, it is crucial to develop new biological control tactics to manage its populations. In this respect, essential oils may be a good alternative, as they are currently considered minimum-risk pesticides. In this paper, we

Sabrine Attia; Kaouthar L. Grissa; Zeineb G. Ghrabi; Anne C. Mailleux; Georges Lognay; Thierry Hance

2012-01-01

104

Biomolecular characterization of wild sicilian oregano: phytochemical screening of essential oils and extracts, and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of wild Sicilian oregano was made. A total of 57 samples were collected from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. Based on morphological and production characteristics obtained from the 57 samples, cluster analysis was used to divide the samples into homogeneous groups, to identify the best biotypes. All samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying a cascade-extraction protocol and hydrodistillation, to obtain the non volatile components and the essential oils, respectively. The extracts contained thirteen polyphenol derivatives, i.e., four flavanones, seven flavones, and two organic acids. Their qualitative and quantitative characterization was carried out by LC/MS analyses. The essential oils were characterized using a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS analyses; a total of 81 components were identified. The major components of the oils were thymol, p-cymene, and ?-terpinene. Cluster analysis was carried out on both phytochemical profiles and resulted in the division of the oregano samples into different chemical groups. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts was investigated by the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) colorimetric assay, by UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and by determining the O(2)(?-)-scavenging activity. PMID:23495158

Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio; Speciale, Antonio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Pasquale, Andrea; Curcuruto, Giusy; Ruberto, Giuseppe

2013-03-01

105

Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils and various extracts of Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressacees).  

PubMed

GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of essential oils of Juniperus phoenicea resulted in the identification of 30 compounds, representing more than 98% of the total composition. alpha-pinene (55.7% and 80.7%), delta-3-carene (10.7% and 4.5%), and gamma-cadinene (2.9% and 5.1%) were the main components, respectively, in leaves and berries essential oil. Extracts of J. phoenicea were obtained by different extraction solvents: methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane and evaluated composition for polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent 52 to 217 g/kg), tannins (catechin equivalent 6.5 to 60.2 g/kg), antocyanins (cyanidin equivalent 84 to 373 mg/kg), and flavonoids (quercetin equivalent 6.4 to 29.3 g/kg). The samples (essential oils and extracts) were subjected to a screening for their antioxidant activity by using DPPH and ABTS assays; antimicrobial activity was tested with 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 1 yeast, and 2 fungi. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained by the methanolic extract (IC(50)= 6.5 +/- 0.3 mg/L). Flavonoids are likely to contribute to the antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Correlations were studied between chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. PMID:19895482

Ennajar, Monia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Abderraba, Manef; Raies, Aly; Romdhane, Mehrez

2009-09-01

106

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species.  

PubMed

A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-?-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), ?-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of L. multifida oil are carvacrol (65.1%) and ?-bisabolene (24.7%). Lavandula stoechas oil is rich in fenchone (34.3%) and comphor (27.4%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also significantly varied among species. Lavandula coronopifolia exhibits the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.3?mg GAE?g(-1) and 16.3?mg RE?g(-1), respectively), followed by L. multifida (30.8?mg GAE?g(-1) and 12.3?mg RE?g(-1)). Methanolic extracts and essential oils displayed significant antioxidant activities. The level of antioxidant capacity varied according to extracts and species. PMID:22117129

Messaoud, C; Chograni, H; Boussaid, M

2012-11-01

107

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of the various extracts of Tanacetum sonbolii Mozaff. (Asteraceae) from Iran.  

PubMed

This study is designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and antioxidant activities of the different extracts of Tanacetum sonbolii Mozaff. from Iran for the first time. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and its gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses resulted in the identification of 26 components, representing 96.5% of the oil. The major components were characterised to be ?-cadinol (35.3%), globulol (20.1%) and 1,8-cineole (8.6%). Antioxidant activities of the various extracts of the plant were determined by two different test systems; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid. Also, their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined. DPPH radical-scavenging activities of test samples followed the order water?>?chloroform?>?ethyl acetate?>?butanol?>?BHT?>?methanol. Moreover, the ethyl acetate extract showed better ?-carotene bleaching capacity than the other extracts and the amount of total phenolics was very high in ethyl acetate extract. PMID:22115413

Firozy, Masoumeh; Talebpour, Zahra; Sonboli, Ali

2012-01-01

108

Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Essential oils and Related Compounds from Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).  

PubMed

The volatile oil of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) obtained from the fruits by soxhlet-dynamic headspace (S-DHS), solvent extraction (SE), steam distillation (SD), hydrodistillation (HYD) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The SC-CO2 offered a higher yield (4.5%, w/w) than the other used techniques. Among the identified constituents, linalool was the main compound whatever the employed extraction procedure in contrast to the remaining components which varied according to the isolation technique showing a strong effect of the method used on the composition of these minor compounds. SC-CO2 as compared to the other extraction techniques revealed its high efficiency in addition to the integrity saving of coriander fruit volatiles. Statistical analysis showed that all the detected and identified compounds were highly (P > 0.001) affected by the extraction technique used except the a-terpineol which appear stable. On the other hand, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed on the determination of one group represented by SC-CO2, S-DHS and HYD suggesting a similar essential oil composition. Obtained results show that, in Tunisian coriander essential oil, linalool was the main compound. PMID:24061362

Msaada, Kamel; Taârit, Mouna Ben; Hosni, Karim; Nidhal, Salem; Tammar, Sonia; Bettaieb, Iness; Hammami, Mohamed; Limam, Férid; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-12-01

109

Essential oil composition and in vitro biological activity of Achillea millefolium L. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Achillea genus is one of the widely used genera to treat various medical ailments. In this study, gas chromatography (GS) and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the A. millefolium L. Human skin fi broblasts (HSF) viability based on spectrophotometrical 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Neutral Red (NR) methods and morphological analysis was

Roman Paduch; Magdalena Nowak-Kryska; Piotr Niedziela; Martyna Kandefer-Szersze?

110

The effect of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds on human neutrophil functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of essential oil on human neutrophil (HN) functions. The neutrophils were isolated on percoll gradients, counted, and tested for viability using the trypan blue exclusion method. The chemotactic response was based on a multiple blind well assay system. The control movement and chemotactic response of neutrophils to 0.1 µM fMLP were reduced

Rachid Kacem; Zahia Meraihi

2009-01-01

111

Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L. flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay. Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety.

Naemi, Forough; Asghari, Gholamreza; Yousofi, Hossein; Yousefi, Hossein Ali

2014-01-01

112

Microwave extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. using ionic liquid as the microwave absorption medium.  

PubMed

Ionic liquid was used as microwave absorption medium and applied to the extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of the Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. by microwave-assisted extraction. The extraction time is less than 15 min at the microwave power of 440 W. The constituents of essential oils obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydrodistillation. There is no obvious difference in the constituents of essential oils obtained by the two methods. PMID:19764052

Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ziming; Cheng, Jianhua; Sun, Yantao; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Yupu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

2009-10-01

113

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities, antioxidant and properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare plants. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. vulgare was analyzed by a GC\\/MS system. A total 62 constituents were identified. Caryophyllene and spathulenol were found to be the main constituents,

F ?ahin; M Güllüce; D Daferera; A Sökmen; M Sökmen; M Polissiou; G Agar; H Özer

2004-01-01

114

Essential oil composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the oil and various extracts of Ziziphora clinopodioides subsp. rigida (BOISS.) RECH. f. from Iran.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides subsp. rigida (BOISS.) RECH. f. was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty-one constituents accounting to 99.5% of the total oil were identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes (93.3%) were the predominant portion of the oil with pulegone (45.8%), piperitenone (17.4%), p-menth-3-en-8-ol (12.5%) and thymol (8.0%) as the main constituents. Antibacterial activity of the oil and its two main compounds and various extracts of plant were tested against seven Gram-(+) or Gram-(-) bacteria. It was found that the oil and MeOH extract (M) exhibited interesting antibacterial activity. The samples were also subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrazylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The free radical scavenging activity of MeOH extract (M) was superior to all other extracts (IC50=30.7 microg/ml), while the oil was less effective. PMID:16204941

Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Nejad-Ebrahimi, Samad; Yousefzadi, Morteza

2005-10-01

115

Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6?g/100?g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50?g/100?g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07?g/100?g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and ? -caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching ? -carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts. PMID:24224115

Iqbal, Tahseen; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain

2013-01-01

116

Constituents, biological activities and quality control parameters of the crude extract and essential oil from Arracacia tolucensis var. multifida.  

PubMed

Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Arracacia tolucensis var. multifida (Umbelliferae) led to the isolation of isoimperatorin (1), osthol (2), suberosin (3), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) (4), herniarin (5), scoparone (6), umbelliferone (7), dihydroxypeucedanin (8), 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) (9), isoscopoletin (10) and scopoletin (11). The isolates were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and only 1-4 showed significant activity with MIC values of 64, 32, 16 and 128 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil showed moderate in vitro antibacterial activity against representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The volatile oil of Arracacia tolucensis var. multifida was analyzed by GC-MS and found to be composed mainly by 2 and 3. The essential oil (IC(50)=116.4+/-23.2 microg/mL) and the extract (IC(50)=1153.1+/-53.2 microg/mL) of the plant provoked concentration dependent inhibition of the tone and amplitude of the guinea-pig ileum spontaneous contractions; the latter activity was related with the high coumarin content of this species. A suitable (novel and rapid) HPLC method to quantify the major active coumarins of the plant was developed. The method provides also a reproducible fingerprint useful for identity tests of this plant. PMID:17582715

Figueroa, Mario; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, Blanca; Bye, Robert; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel

2007-08-15

117

Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

118

Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

2013-01-01

119

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cupressus sempervirens is a medicinal plant traditional, its dried leaves are used in treatment of stomach pain, diabetes, inflammation, toothache, laryngitis and as contraceptive. Methods The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm and determination chemical contents of the essential oil (Eo) and methanol extract from Mediterranean C. sempervirens L. The chemical composition of a hydrodistilled Eo of C. sempervirens was analyzed by a GC and GC/MS system. Results A total of 20 constituents representing 98.1% of the oil were identified: ?-pinene (48.6%), ?-3-carene (22.1%), limonene (4.6%) and ?-terpinolene (4.5%) were the main components comprising 79.8% of the oil. The antimicrobial test results showed that the methanol extract of C. sempervirens strongly inhibited the growth of the test bacteria studied, except for yeast species while the Eo had moderate antibacterial, but no anti-candida activity. Klebsiella pneumoniae was proven to be the most susceptible against methanol extract. The exposure time of Eo and methanol extract for complete inhibition of cell viability of K. pneumoniae was found to be 250 ?g at 30 min and 500 ?g at 120 min, respectively. The antibiofilm potential of the samples was evaluated using methods of PVC microtiter and eradication on biomaterial. Visual results showed visible biofilm eradication from the surface of intravenous infusion tube at 500 ?g of Eo and methanol extract. Conclusions The results presented here may suggest that the Eo and extracts of C. sempervirens possess antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals.

2014-01-01

120

Chemical composition and evaluation of modulatory of the antibiotic activity from extract and essential oil of Myracrodruon urundeuva.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: The combination of antibiotics with natural products has demonstrated promising synergistic effects in several therapeutic studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of an ethanol extract of Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Anacardiaceae) (aroeira plant) and its essential oil with six antimicrobial drugs against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from clinical isolates. Materials and methods: After identification of the chemical components by GC-MS, the antibacterial activity of the natural products and antibiotics was assessed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the microdilution method and concentrations ranging 8-512??g/mL and 0.0012-2.5?mg/mL, respectively. Assays were performed to test for a possible synergistic action between the plant products and the antimicrobials, using the extract and the oil at a sub-inhibitory concentration (128??g/mL) and antibiotic at concentrations varying between 8 and 512??g/mL. Results: The GC-MS analysis identified the main compound as ?-carene (80.41%). The MIC of the natural products was >1024??g/mL, except against S. aureus ATCC25923. Only the combinations of the natural products with gentamicin, amikacin and clindamycin were effective against S. aureus 358, enhancing the antibiotic activity by reducing the MIC. Conclusions: The extract from aroeira showed a higher antibacterial activity and the oil was more effective in potentiating the activity of conventional antibiotics. PMID:24251788

Figueredo, Fernando G; Lucena, Bruno F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Matias, Edinardo F F; Leite, Nadghia F; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Nogueira, Lavouisier F B; Morais, Edson C; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G

2014-05-01

121

Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS  

PubMed Central

The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.

Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

2012-01-01

122

Antioxidant activity of Ziziphora tenuoir methanolic extracts and comparison of the essential oil in two stages of growth.  

PubMed

Flavonoids, anthocyanins, antioxidant capability, total phenolic, ascorbic acid contents, and essential oils compounds of Ziziphora tenuoir (Lamiaceae) for polar and non-polar subfraction in different stages of growth (pre-flowering and flowering) were evaluated in this work. Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by three testing systems namely DPPH, ?-carotene/linoleic acid, and reducing power assay. In the DPPH system, the highest radical scavenging activity was seen by the nonpolar subfraction of the methanol extract in the flowering stage (IC50 43.17 ± 3.68 ?g·mL(-1)). Large differences in the amount of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, and flavonoids of Z. tenuoir in two stages of growth were detected. The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Z. tenuoir was analyzed by GC/MS and compared in the two stages of growth. The main constituents of the 28 identified compounds in the oil were found to be pulegone (67.34% vs 59.61%), ?-humulene (3.24% vs 3.25%), and limonene (5.06% vs 2.57%) at the flowering and pre-flowering stages, respectively. PMID:25053549

Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Piryaei, Marzieh; Maassoumi, Seyed Mohamad

2014-07-01

123

Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.  

PubMed

Bergamot peel is an underutilized byproduct of the essential oil and juice-processing industry. As with other Citrus peels, it still contains exploitable components, such as pectins and flavonoids. Commercial glycoside hydrolases, specifically a combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, solubilized a high percentage of the material (81.94%). The flavonoid profile of the peel consisted of characteristic Citrus species flavanone rutinosides and neohesperosides derived from naringenin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin. In addition, a number of minor flavanone and flavone glycosides, not found in orange and lemon peels, were identified. The majority of flavonoids were extracted in the two 70% v/v EtOH extractions. Processing this material clearly has economic potential leading to low environmental impact. PMID:16390199

Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Saija, Antonella; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

2006-01-11

124

Inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by essential oil, hydrosol, ground material and extract of summer savory ( Satureja hortensis L.) growing wild in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activities of the essential oil, hydrosol, ground material and extract of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) on mycelial growth of Alternaria mali Roberts and Botrytis cinerea Pers. were determined. All doses of extract inhibited 100% the mycelial growth of both fungi, and exhibited a fungicidal effect. The 15% level of hydrosol and the 1.0% level of ground material

Nuh Boyraz; Musa Özcan

2006-01-01

125

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

126

Extraction of the essential oil from endemic Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis with two different methods: comparison of the oil composition and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Origanum bilgeri P.H.Davis by two different extraction methods, i.e., hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), were examined. This endemic Origanum species had shown very good antibacterial activity. The composition of the O. bilgeri EOs obtained by SFME and HD was investigated by GC/MS analysis. The main components of the oils obtained by both methods were carvacrol (90.20-84.30%), p-cymene (3.40-5.85%), ?-terpinene (0.47-1.20%), and thymol (0.69-1.08%). The EO isolation by SFME offered many important advantages, including a higher extraction yield, a shorter extraction time, and a higher content of the active component carvacrol. The carvacrol-rich oils obtained by both HD and SFME showed a good antibacterial activity. The largest inhibition zones were observed for the O. bilgeri EO obtained by SFME. Our study suggests that O. bilgeri EO has the potential to be used as preventative against bacterial contamination in many foods, instead of the common synthetic antimicrobial products. PMID:22782881

Sözmen, Fazli; Uysal, Burcu; Köse, Elif Odaba?; Akta?, Ozgür; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Oksal, Birsen S

2012-07-01

127

In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts from herbal parts and callus cultures of Origanum acutidens.  

PubMed

The essential oil and various extracts obtained from Origanum acutidens and methanol extracts (MeOH) from callus cultures have been evaluated for their antioxidative, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties. The essential oil exhibited strong antimicrobial activity with a significant inhibitory effect against 27 (77%) of the 35 bacteria, 12 (67%) of the 18 fungi, and a yeast tested and moderate antioxidative capacity in DPPH and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. GC and GC-MS analyses of the oil resulted in the identification of 38 constituents, carvacrol being the main component. The MeOH extracts obtained from herbal parts showed better antioxidative effect than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), whereas callus cultures also exhibited interesting antioxidative patterns. Concerning antiviral activity, none of the extracts inhibited the reproduction of influenza A/Aichi virus in MDCK cells. The MeOH extracts from herbal parts inhibited the reproduction of HSV-1, and also callus cultures exerted slight antiherpetic effect. PMID:15161188

Sökmen, Münevver; Serkedjieva, Julia; Daferera, Dimitra; Gulluce, Medine; Polissiou, Moschos; Tepe, Bektas; Akpulat, H Askin; Sahin, Fikrettin; Sokmen, Atalay

2004-06-01

128

Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens extracts. The antiulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats by the HCl\\/EtOH method. Inhibition of gastric lesions by A. graveolens extracts was dose-dependent for both aerial part (53–76%) and seeds (51–95%). The methanolic extract as well as the aqueous extracts used at 300?mg?kg dose exhibited a highly significant inhibition of

Sameh Baananou; Ibtissem Bouftira; Amor Mahmoud; Kamel Boukef; Bruno Marongiu; Naceur A. Boughattas

2012-01-01

129

SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativum L.) SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SWE) is a technique based on the use of water as an extractant, at temperatures between 100 and 374 ºC and at a pressure high enough to maintain the liquid state. As the temperature of liquid water is raised under pressure, the polarity decreases and it can be used as an extraction solvent for a wide range

Norashikin Saim; Rozita Osman

130

Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils from plants (flowers, herbs , or trees) as therapy to improve ... Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils from plants to support and balance the mind, body, and ...

131

Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.  

PubMed

Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

2008-01-01

132

Kinetic Study of Microwave Extraction of Essential Oil of Nigella sativa L. Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nigella sativa L. is widely cultivated in the Algerian Sahara and primarily used for its health benefits. Extraction experiments were carried out by a microwave energy, performed at atmospheric pressure with a small quantity of water for 10 min. This method enabled a best yield (0.54–0.57%) and a high amount of the volatile fraction with a shorter extraction time and

F. Benkaci-Ali; A. Baaliouamer; B. Y. Meklati

2006-01-01

133

Influence of drying and extraction methods on yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Satureja hortensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial parts of Satureja hortensis, cultivated in Iran (Research Station of Alborz, Karaj), were collected at the full-flowering stage and dried by three different drying methods (sun-drying, shade-drying and oven-drying at 45°C). The essential oils of every treatment were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial parts. In addition, the essential oil of shade-dried sample was obtained by two other

Fatemeh Sefidkon; Khadijeh Abbasi; Gholamreza Bakhshi Khaniki

2006-01-01

134

Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.  

PubMed

A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

Setzer, William N

2009-09-01

135

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils and methanol extracts of three wild Lavandula L. species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of essential oil composition, polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of Lavandula coronopifolia, Lavandula multifida and Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas were reported. Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of oils according to species were shown. Lavandula coronopifolia's oil was characterised by high proportions of trans-?-ocimene (26.9%), carvacrol (18.5%), ?-bisabolene (13.1%) and myrcene (7.5%). The main components of

C. Messaoud; H. Chograni; M. Boussaid

2011-01-01

136

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum Grown in North-Western Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ?-fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ?-phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ?-pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ?-fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH•, reducing power and chelating ability on Fe2+ ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries.

Tiku, A. K.; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V. K.

2013-01-01

137

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil and extracts of Zanthoxylum alatum grown in north-western Himalaya.  

PubMed

The essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves of Zanthoxylum alatum was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fourteen components were identified, and linalool (30.58%), 2-decanone (20.85%), ? -fenchol (9.43%), 2-tridecanone (8.86%), ? -phellandrene (5.99%), Sabinene (4.82%), and ? -pinene (4.11%) were the main components. The EO and methanolic extract of Z. alatum exhibited potent antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Curvularia lunata. The EO also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Further, antimicrobial constituents of the EO were isolated by bioautography and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and identified as ? -fenchol and linalool using GC/MS analysis. In addition to this, the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of EO and methanolic extract/fractions of Z. alatum were also investigated using in vitro assays including scavenging ability against DPPH(•), reducing power and chelating ability on Fe(2+) ions. Our results demonstrate that Z. alatum could be used as a resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds which may find applications in food and pesticide industries. PMID:23781160

Guleria, Sanjay; Tiku, A K; Koul, Apurva; Gupta, Sahil; Singh, Gurjinder; Razdan, V K

2013-01-01

138

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran  

PubMed Central

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?–pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin.

Mojarrab, M.; Delazar, A.; Esnaashari, S.; Afshar, F. Heshmati

2013-01-01

139

Chemical composition and general toxicity of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca Lam. and A. incana (L.) Druce growing in Iran.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the aerial parts of A. armeniaca and A. incana, collected from Arasbaran area (East Azarbaijan province, Iran) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. In total, 16 and 40 constituents were identified and quantified in the oils of A. armeniaca and A. incana representing 80.5% and 84.6% of the oils, respectively. The essential oil of A. armeniaca was mainly composed of non-terpene hydrocarbons (24.8%). The major components of the oil were ?-pinene (10.7%), nonadecane (10.0%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (9.4%), spathulenol (7.8%) and Z-verbenol (5.8%). The essential oil of A. incana was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (41.6%), with camphor (20.4%), 1,8-cineol (10.3%), Z-verbenol (8.7%), ?-thujone (8.3%) and ?-thujone (5.6%), as major components. The essential oils were also subjected to general toxicity assay using brine shrimp lethality method. The toxicity profile of both oils indicated some degree of toxicity in comparison with podophyllotoxin. PMID:24459478

Mojarrab, M; Delazar, A; Esnaashari, S; Afshar, F Heshmati

2013-01-01

140

Effects of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi essential oils and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberis integerrima and Crocus sativus on rat isolated uterus contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous abortion can be a problem in pregnancy. Consumption of some plant material might be a cause, while other plant materials are being used in folk medicine for treatment of this condition. The aim of this study was to look for effects of essential oils of Zataria multiflora and Carum carvi and hydroalcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata, Berberies integerrima and

Hassan Sadraei; Alireza Ghannadi; Maryam Takei-bavani

2003-01-01

141

Chemical investigation of different extracts and essential oil from the tubers of (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus . Correlation with their antiradical and antimutagenic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic potential of aqueous, Total Oligomers Flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts as well as essential\\u000a oil (EO) obtained from tubers ofCyperus rotundus L. was assessed by “Ames assay”, usingSalmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100, and “SOS chromotest” usingEscherichia coli PQ37 strain with and without an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9). None of the different extracts showed a

Soumaya Kilani; Ines Bouhlel; Ribai Ben Ammar; Mohamed BEN SGHAIR; Ines Skandrani; Jihed Boubaker; Amor Mahmoud; Marie-Geneviève Dijoux-Franca; Kamel Ghedira; Leila Chekir-Ghedira

2007-01-01

142

Anthelmintic activity of crude extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of ?-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 ?g/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 ?g/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 ?g/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 ?g/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

2014-01-01

143

Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of ?-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200??g/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50??g/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200??g/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100??g/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antonio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josue; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A.

2014-01-01

144

Ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer-headspace single drop microextraction of essential oil from pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.  

PubMed

The ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HGFT-HS-SDME) was developed for the extraction of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of the constituents in the essential oil. The contents of the constituents from essential oil obtained by the proposed method were found to be more similar to those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) than those obtained by ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME). The heating gas flow was firstly used in the analysis of the essential oil to transfer the analytes from the headspace to the solvent microdrop. The relative standard deviations for determining the five major constituents were in the range from 1.5 to 6.7%. The proposed method is a fast, sensitive, low cost and small sample consumption method for the determination of the volatile and semivolatile constituents in the plant materials. PMID:21652044

Wei, Shigang; Zhang, Huihui; Wang, Yeqiang; Wang, Lu; Li, Xueyuan; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Hanqi; Xu, Xu; Shi, Yuhua

2011-07-22

145

Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed essential oil and alcoholic extract on the morphology, capsule expression and urease activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Cuminum cyminum L., commonly known as cumin, is a plant with a considerable reputation. The aim of this work was to study the activity of cumin seed essential oil and alcoholic extract against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and clinical K. pneumoniae isolates by evaluating the effect of subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) on cell morphology, capsule expression and urease activity. Growth of K. pneumoniae strains exposed to sub-MICs of C. cyminum extracts resulted in cell elongation and repression of capsule expression. Urease activity was decreased. The major constituent of the oil determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was cumin aldehyde. PMID:18715764

Derakhshan, Safoura; Sattari, Morteza; Bigdeli, Mohsen

2008-11-01

146

Seasonal changes in the composition of the essential oil extract of East Mediterranean sage (Salvia libanotica) and its toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Sage (Salvia libanotica) is an East Mediterranean plant, the extract of which is used for the treatment of colds, coughs, and stomach ache. Experimental studies on the toxicity of its oil are scarce despite its wide use in traditional medicine. This study aims to provide data on its acute toxicity and to investigate the relationship between seasonal changes in oil composition and toxicity. The composition of the oil extract from the leaves of this plant was determined at four different times of the year; August (summer), October (fall), January (winter) and April (spring). The toxicity of each fraction was investigated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection into mice. Distillations of oils from plants and GC analyses revealed that the main constituent of sage oil is 1,8-cineole. Other components included ketones such as camphor and alpha,beta-thujone, terpenes such as limonene and alpha,beta-pinene, and alcohols such as borneol and linalool. Major seasonal changes were found in the composition of the oil. Essential oil extracted from plants collected in the winter season (January) contained higher levels of camphor (12.3%), alpha,beta-thujone (1.9%), and camphene (4.8%). The winter extract was found to be the most toxic, (LD(50): 839 mg/kg body weight) and exhibited powerful convulsant properties. This indicates a strong correlation between the contents of camphor, thujones and camphene and the oils' toxicity. The spring extract was the least toxic (LD(50): 1200 mg/kg body weight) and contained lower levels of camphor (7.7%), alpha,beta-thujone (1.3%) and camphene (3.1%). Thus, we recommend that oil extracts of sage marketed for use in certain unconventional medicines be prepared from spring plants. PMID:11478969

Farhat, G N; Affara, N I; Gali-Muhtasib, H U

2001-10-01

147

Lavender essential oil: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender essential oil is popular as a complementary medicine in its own right and as an additive to many over the counter complementary medicine and cosmetic products ' \\\\ Indeed, products derived from the popular garden herb Lavender (Lavandula spp.) have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more 'recent ' addition, the essential oils derived from

Heather M. A. Cavanagh; Jenny M. Wilkinson

2005-01-01

148

Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), ?-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides. PMID:20865426

Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

2011-02-01

149

"In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.  

PubMed

One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), ?-pinene (8.4%), and ?-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry. PMID:22526656

Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

2012-08-01

150

Pressurized fluid extraction of essential oil from Lavandula hybrida using a modified supercritical fluid extractor and a central composite design for optimization.  

PubMed

Essential oil components were extracted from lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) flowers using pressurized fluid extraction. A central composite design was used to optimize the effective extraction variables. The chemical composition of extracted samples was analyzed by a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector column. For achieving 100% extraction yield, the temperature, pressure, extraction time, and the solvent flow rate were adjusted at 90.6°C, 63 bar, 30.4 min, and 0.2 mL/min, respectively. The results showed that pressurized fluid extraction is a practical technique for separation of constituents such as 1,8-cineole (8.1%), linalool (34.1%), linalyl acetate (30.5%), and camphor (7.3%) from lavandin to be applied in the food, fragrance, pharmaceutical, and natural biocides industries. PMID:22740257

Kamali, Hossein; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin

2012-06-01

151

Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 ?l/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration.

Keshavarz, A.; Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Mahzouni, P.

2013-01-01

152

Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals. PMID:22085616

Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

2012-08-01

153

Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and of Acorus calamus L.  

PubMed

Volatile concentrates from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus were isolated by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9.0 MPa and 50 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.5 kg/h. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9.0 MPa and 45 degrees C and at a CO2 flow of 1.6 kg/h. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage. The SFE myrrh oil had a yield, Y, of 3.2%. Its main components, identified and quantified by GC/MS, were furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, 34.9%; lindestrene, 12.9%; curzerene, 8.5%; and germacrone, 5.8%. The essential oils from the same starting material by hydrodistillation, HD, (Y = 2.8%) and by steam distillation, SD, (Y = 0.4%) were quite similar to the SFE extract. The main components of the SFE oil of A. calamus (Y = 3.5%) were acorenone, 13.4%; iso-acorone, 11.6%; (Z)-sesquilavandulol, 11.0%; dehydroxy isocalamendiol, 7.7%; and beta-asarone, 5.5%. The comparison with hydrodistilled (Y = 1.8%) and steam distilled (Y = 1.0%) oils revealed large differences in the content of iso-acorone and crypto-acorone. PMID:16190653

Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Scorciapino, Andrea

2005-10-01

154

Tea, Spices and Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils in 1985 were a record $106.6 million, nearly 16 percent greater than the previous year's shipments of $92.1 million. This increase largely reflects higher prices for lemon oil, which were more than double 1984 levels. Export...

1986-01-01

155

Biological effects of essential oils – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, medicinal and cosmetic applications, especially nowadays in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries. Because of the mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components.

F. Bakkali; S. Averbeck; D. Averbeck; M. Idaomar

2008-01-01

156

Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.  

PubMed

A novel method for analysis of essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. using simultaneous ultrasonic nebulization extraction and headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. Experimental parameters, including the kind of suspended solvent, microdrop volume, sample amount, extraction time, enrichment time and salt concentration were examined and optimized. Compared with hydrodistillation (HD), UNE-HS-SDME provides the advantages of a small amount of sample (50 mg), time-saving (20 min), simplicity, cheapness and low toxicity. In addition, UNE-HS-SDME also provided higher enrichment efficiency and sensitivity compared with stirring extraction (SE)-HS-SDME, ultrasonic assistant extraction (UAE) and UNE. Some constituents in the essential oil, were identified and the detection limits for beta-pinene, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene range from 6.67 pLL(-1) to 14.8 pLL(-1). The results indicated that the UNE-HS-SDME is simple and highly efficient extraction and enrichment technique. PMID:19576388

Wang, Lu; Wang, Ziming; Zhang, Huihui; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi

2009-08-01

157

Oil shale extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from kerogen-containing oil shale by treating the oil shale with gaseous ammonia or a gaseous aliphatic amine prior to or during contact of the oil shale with an organic solvent. The hydrocarbon liquids thus extracted from the oil shale are then recovered from the solvent. The gaseous treatment step will normally take place at a temperature

Baset

1984-01-01

158

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of essential oil from orange peel. Effect of operation conditions on the extract composition 1 Presented at 4th Italian Conference on Supercritical Fluids and their Applications. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of orange essential oil was studied using dehydrated orange peel (0.0538kgH2O\\/kgdm) from naveline cultivars as raw material and CO2 as solvent. The effect of operation conditions was analyzed in a series of experiments at temperatures between 293 and 323K and pressures between 8 and 28MPa. The collected extracts were analyzed and the relative composition of

B. Mira; M. Blasco; A. Berna; S. Subirats

1999-01-01

159

Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (?). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR. PMID:22907873

Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

2012-10-01

160

Oil shale extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from kerogen-containing oil shale by treating the oil shale with gaseous ammonia or a gaseous aliphatic amine prior to or during contact of the oil shale with an organic solvent. The hydrocarbon liquids thus extracted from the oil shale are then recovered from the solvent. The gaseous treatment step will normally take place at a temperature between about 500/sup 0/ F. and about 800/sup 0/ F. and at a pressure between about 200 psig and about 1000 psig. Preferably, the kerogen-containing oil shale will be treated with the ammonia or other gas prior to the extraction step.

Baset, Z.H.

1984-01-31

161

Effect of cultivar on the protection of cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by essential oils and aqueous extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).  

PubMed

Notwithstanding the wide range of biological and pharmacological activities reported for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), many discrepancies are still present in the evaluation of its health-promoting properties. These discordances could be at least in part due to insufficient details of qualitative and quantitative composition, connected to the ample variability of this species. Furthermore, many investigations have been carried out in vitro, with few data available on the effectiveness in biological systems. In this study, the protective effect of essential oils and water-soluble extracts derived from three different cultivars of sweet basil has been evaluated in cultured cardiomyocytes. To verify the effectiveness of supplemented oils/extracts in counteracting oxidative damage, cardiomyocytes were stressed by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate that (a) in vitro antioxidant activity is not predictive of biological activity and (b) basil can yield extracts with substantially different protective effects, in relation to composition and extraction techniques. Variation among different cultivars has also been detected. PMID:18928294

Danesi, Francesca; Elementi, Simona; Neri, Roberta; Maranesi, Magda; D'Antuono, Luigi F; Bordoni, Alessandra

2008-11-12

162

Comparative Physical Examination of Various Citrus Peel Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical parameters of various citrus peel essential oils were determined in this study. Essential oils from the peels of Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's early (C. reticulata, var. tangerine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C. paradisi) and eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted by applying cold expressing method. Eureka lemon had the

MUHAMMAD MUSHTAQ AHMAD; FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM; EHSAN ELAHI BAJWA

2006-01-01

163

Application of Chitosan Films Enriched with Oregano Essential Oil on Bologna – Active Compounds and Sensory Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan films prepared with oregano essential oil were applied on bologna slices. Release of the essential oil compounds during film preparation and application on the meat product and consumer acceptability of bologna enriched with oregano essential oil were tested. Oregano essential oil compounds were quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) after extraction from the filmforming solution, films before and

S. Chi; S. Zivanovic; M. P. Penfield

2006-01-01

164

Cytological Aspects on the Effects of a Nasal Spray Consisting of Standardized Extract of Citrus Lemon and Essential Oils in Allergic Rhinopathy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy.

Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

2012-01-01

165

In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.  

PubMed

In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (P<0.05). In contrast, fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and Candida non-albicans were less susceptible to cinnamon essential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (P<0.05). A relationship between the yeasts' susceptibilities and the chemical composition of the essential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations. PMID:18997851

Pozzatti, Patrícia; Scheid, Liliane Alves; Spader, Tatiana Borba; Atayde, Margareth Linde; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

2008-11-01

166

Eupatorium Capillifolium Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity, and Insecticidal Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistilla...

B. Sampson J. J. Becnel M. Tsilokia N. Tabanca U. R. Bernier

2010-01-01

167

Antioxidant activity of essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) are liquid mixtures of volatile compounds obtained from aromatic plants. Many EOs have antioxidant properties, and the use of EOs as natural antioxidants is a field of growing interest because some synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT are now suspected to be potentially harmful to human health. Addition of EOs to edible products, either by direct mixing or in active packaging and edible coatings, may therefore represent a valid alternative to prevent autoxidation and prolong shelf life. The evaluation of the antioxidant performance of EOs is, however, a crucial issue, because many commonly used "tests" are inappropriate and give contradictory results that may mislead future research. The chemistry explaining EO antioxidant activity is discussed along with an analysis of the potential in food protection. Literature methods to assess EOs' antioxidant performance are critically reviewed. PMID:24156356

Amorati, Riccardo; Foti, Mario C; Valgimigli, Luca

2013-11-20

168

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn.  

PubMed

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex mixture of terpenoids, hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, acid derivatives and ketones. The main component of essential oil was ethyl homovanillate (11.79%) in buds and drimenol (29.42%) in roots. PMID:22574752

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-04-01

169

Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as ?-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), ?-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), ?-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including ?-pinene, ?-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

2013-01-01

170

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of essential oil from rosemary.  

PubMed

Effects of microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD) methods on yield, composition, specific gravity, refractive index, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L were studied. The main aroma compounds of rosemary essential oil were found as 1,8-cineole and camphor. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values for essential oils extracted by MAHD and HD were 1.52 mM/ml oil and 1.95 mM/ml oil, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the oils obtained by MAHD and HD were found as 60.55% and 51.04% respectively. Inhibitory effects of essential oils obtained by two methods on linoleic acid peroxidation were almost the same. Essential oils obtained by two methods inhibited growth of Esherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NRRLE 4463 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A with the same degree. However, inhibitory activity of essential oil obtained by MAHD on Staphylococcus aureus 6538P was stronger than that of obtained by HD (p?

Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagozlu, Nural; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum; Bayramoglu, Beste

2014-06-01

171

Antibacterial activity of Salvia tomentosa essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Salvia tomentosa aerial parts, consisting of 1,8-cineol (17%), ?-caryophyllene (11%), cyclofenchene (10%) and ?-cadinene (6%), was screened for its antimicrobial activity. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

M. Zeki Haznedaroglu; N. Ulku Karabay; Ulvi Zeybek

2001-01-01

172

Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

2010-06-01

173

Effect of essential oils on pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24287491

Nazzaro, Filomena; Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

174

Recovery of Flavoring Components from Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process may be applied to any essential oil from which it is desired to isolate the flavoring components having an aldehyde or ketone structure, for example, lemon, orange, lime, citronella, rose, strawberry and other oils. The oil is reacted with a h...

W. L. Stanley R. M. Ikeda S. H. Vannier L. A. Rolle

1965-01-01

175

In vitro susceptibility of opportunistic Fusarium spp. to essential oils.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from 10 Indian plants were evaluated against five fungi. The plants used for extraction of essential oils were six species of the genus Eucalyptus and Ocimum basilicum, Prosopis cineraria and Derris indica. The fungi used in the experiments were Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, F. pallidoroseum, F. acuminatum and F. chlamydosporum. The susceptibility of the Fusarium species was tested by the paper disc method and the serial dilution technique. The results were compared with the inhibitory effects of miconazole on the fungi. The essential oils extracted from the Eucalyptus species markedly inhibited fungal growth. Prosopis cineraria did not show inhibiting properties. Among the fungi, F. oxysporum proved to be the most resistant species. PMID:10394856

Rai, M K; Qureshi, S; Pandey, A K

1999-04-01

176

Comparison of Essential Oils Compositions of Citrus maxima Merr. Peel Obtained by Cold Press and Vacuum Stream Distillation Methods and of Its Peel and Flower Extract Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Method and Their Antimicrobial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oils and extracts of the fruit peels of pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr. cultivar ‘khao-yai’) were obtained by cold-pressing (CP), vacuum steam distillation (VSD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) and the extract of the flowers was obtained by SC-CO2. The composition of the oils and extracts of the peel and flower were determined by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty, 53

Napaporn Thavanapong; Penpun Wetwitayaklung; Juree Charoenteeraboon

2010-01-01

177

Composition of the essential oil of Lepidium meyenii (Walp).  

PubMed

The essential oil profile of maca (Lepidium meyenii) obtained from Lima, Peru, was examined. Steam distillates of the aerial parts of L. meyenii were continuously extracted with pentane and the pentane extracts analyzed by GC/MS. Retention indices and mass spectral data were used to identify 53 oil components. Phenyl acetonitrile (85.9%), benzaldehyde (3.1%), and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile (2.1%) were the major components of the steam distilled oil. The oil of L. meyenii was tested for phytotoxic, cyanobactericidal, and antitermite activity. The oil was selectively toxic towards the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata compared to the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, with complete growth inhibition at 100 microg/ml. Mortality of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, was numerically, but not significantly, higher when held on filter paper treated with maca oil. At 1% (w/w), maca oil also appeared to act as a feeding deterrent to termites. Several minor components of the essential oil of maca including 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and benzylthiocyanate were significantly active against the Formosan termite. This is the first report on the essential oil composition of L. meyenii. PMID:12169308

Tellez, Mario R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kobaisy, Mozaina; Schrader, Kevin K; Dayan, Franck E; Osbrink, Weste

2002-09-01

178

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Hoslundia opposita.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the leaves of Hoslundia opposite was extracted by hydrodistillation. GC/MS analysis of the volatile oil showed that it contains largely the sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols. The essential oil was tested against eight different bacterial species and one fungal species. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of the essential oil from Hoslundia opposite were determined by using seeded agar plates with wells into which was placed the oil, and flasks of yeast extract and sucrose broth for mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger. After incubation for 24 hours, the diameter of the inhibition zone was measured for the antibacterial tests and after seven days, the dry weight of the mycelia was measured and a percentage of inhibition calculated using controls where no samples were added. The results obtained showed that the essential oil from this plant has significant activity against Aspergillus niger, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Flavobacterium suaveolens. These were most affected by the volatile oil from Hoslundia opposita. PMID:1477878

Gundidza, G M; Deans, S G; Svoboda, K P; Mavi, S

1992-07-01

179

Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.  

PubMed

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition. PMID:23535305

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

2013-01-01

180

Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Giardia lamblia and on the modulation of the interaction of these parasites by peritoneal mouse macrophage. The essential oil (2 mg/ml) and its purified substances demonstrated antigiardial activity. Linalool (300 microg/ml), however, was able to kill 100% parasites after 1 h of incubation, which demonstrates its high antigiardial potential. Pretreatment of peritoneal mouse macrophages with 2 mg/ml essential oil dilution reduced in 79% the association index between these macrophages and G. lamblia, with a concomitant increase by 153% on nitric oxide production by the G. lamblia-ingested macrophages. The protein profiles and proteolitic activity of these parasite trophozoites, previously treated or not with 2 mg/ml essential oil or with the purified fractions, were also determined. After 1 and 2 h of incubation, proteins of lysates and culture supernatants revealed significant differences in bands patterns when compared to controls. Besides, the proteolitic activity, mainly of cysteine proteases, was clearly inhibited by the essential oil (2 mg/ml) and the purified linalool (300 microg/ml). These results suggest that, with G. lamblia, the essential oil from O. basilicum and its purified compounds, specially linalool, have a potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:17342533

de Almeida, Igor; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Vieira, Danielle Pereira; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C S; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S

2007-07-01

181

Mining the essential oils of the Anthemideae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous members of the Anthemideae are important cut-flower and ornamental crops, as well as medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine, the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. These oils and compounds contained within them are used in the pharmaceutical, flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, as people search for alternative and herbal forms

182

Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. PMID:21534488

Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

2010-01-01

183

Repellent activity of selected essential oils against Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin (2.5 h, range=1-2.5 h). Mixtures from pairs of the effective oils possessed slight repellency that ranged from 0-0.5 h. None of the oil combinations repelled A. aegypti for longer than their constituent oil alone. With vanillin added, however, each oil mixture provided improved protection, which was approximately equal to oil on its own. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main component of Z. piperitum fruit oil was limonene (37.99%), with minor amounts of sabinene (13.30%) and beta-myrcene (7.17%). Repellent testing of stored samples of Z. piperitum fruit oil against A. aegypti demonstrated that repellent activity of those kept at -20 degrees C or 4 degrees C was present for a period of at least 3 months. Therefore, the essential oil of Z. piperitum fruit may prove useful in the development of mosquito repellents as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites. PMID:17512681

Choochote, W; Chaithong, U; Kamsuk, K; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Tuetun, B; Champakaew, D; Pitasawat, B

2007-07-01

184

Antibacterial effect of essential oils and interaction with food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effect of essential oils (EOs) derived from Citrus lemon, Juniperus communis, Origanum majorana, and Salvia sclarea, was investigated either alone or in combination, on 2 food related bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli). The influence of food ingredients — hydrolyzed proteins originating from animal and plant (meat extract and soy peptone)\\u000a and sucrose — on the antibacterial effect

Rentsenkhand Tserennadmid; Miklós Takó; László Galgóczy; Tamás Papp; Csaba Vágvölgyi; László Ger?; Judit Krisch

2010-01-01

185

Refined corn oil aromatization by Citrus aurantium peel essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn oil was submitted to dynamic headspace to eliminate volatile compounds remained after refining process. The optimization of extraction parameters leads to an important deodorization after 4h of extraction with residual aroma content of about 0.901?g\\/ml of deodorized corn oil. Different peel quantities and different incubation times were used during this experiment while oil volume, incubator temperature and shaking speed

Iness Jabri Karoui; Wissem Aidi Wannes; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

186

Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25°C at the following different concentrations of the essential

Juliana H. C. Nogueira; Edlayne Gonçalez; Silvia R. Galleti; Roseane Facanali; Márcia O. M. Marques; Joana D. Felício

2010-01-01

187

Antibacterial activity of essential oils from palmarosa, evening primrose, lavender and tuberose.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

Lodhia, M H; Bhatt, K R; Thaker, V S

2009-03-01

188

Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Palmarosa, Evening Primrose, Lavender and Tuberose  

PubMed Central

Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils.

Lodhia, M. H.; Bhatt, K. R.; Thaker, V. S.

2009-01-01

189

Separation of nutmeg essential oil and dense CO 2 with a cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of membrane separation processes to the supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils from vegetable matrices can be an alternative to the reduction of recompression costs derived from the depressurization step necessary for the recovering of the extracts. In this work, a cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane was applied to perform the separation of nutmeg essential oil and dense

Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo; Ariovaldo Bolzan; Ricardo Antonio Francisco Machado; Luiz Henrique Castelan Carlson; José Carlos Cunha Petrus

2001-01-01

190

Antifungal Activity of Three Essential Oils on Growth and Toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicillium viridicatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of eucalyptus, rosemary and mugwort essential oils was evaluated on the mycelial growth and toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. viridicatum. A significant decrease in mycelial dry weight was obtained with the addition of 0.05–2.5% of each of the three essential oils in yeast extract sucrose broth. The inhibition of mycelium growth was tested on malt extract agar,

Mustapha Khaddor; Ahmed Lamarti; Abdelrhafour Tantaoui-Elaraki; Mohammed Ezziyyani; Maria-Emilia Candela Castillo; Alain Badoc

2006-01-01

191

Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism.  

PubMed

During our survey of herbs looking for activity on bone metabolism, we found that the dried leaves of sage strongly inhibit bone resorption. Therefore, we investigated several common herbs rich in essential oils (sage, rosemary, and thyme) and essential oils extracted from these herbs and other plants (oils of sage, rosemary, juniper, pine, dwarf pine, turpentine, and eucalyptus) as well as their monoterpene components (thujone, eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thymol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, bornylacetate as well as menthol) and found that they inhibit bone resorption when added to the food of rats. Pine oil, used as a representative essential oil, protects an osteoporosis model, the aged ovariectomized rat, from bone loss. The monoterpenes borneol, thymol, and camphor are directly inhibitory in the osteoclast resorption pit assay. Nonpolar monoterpenes may require metabolism to be active in vitro, for example, cis-verbenol, a metabolite of alpha-pinene occurring in human urine, inhibits osteoclast activity in contrast to the parent compound. Within 30 min borneol inhibits the formation of actin rings, a characteristic of resorbing osteoclasts indicating cell polarization. Both the in vitro and the in vivo effects of borneol are reversible. Our study demonstrates for the first time that essential oils and monoterpenes are efficient inhibitors of bone resorption in the rat. PMID:12689680

Mühlbauer, R C; Lozano, A; Palacio, S; Reinli, A; Felix, R

2003-04-01

192

Tick repellent substances in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare.  

PubMed

The repellent effect of the essential oils of flower heads of the aromatic plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae), originating from Sweden, was tested against host-seeking nymphs of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation (SD) and by using an online solvent extraction separation setup. Further fractionations of the SD oils were obtained by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel. The volatiles of the essential oils and the fractions that exhibited strong tick repellency (90-100%) were collected by solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses of the oils show that the populations of T. vulgare from Uppsala and Stockholm may represent different chemotypes, but that they exhibited similar tick repellency. Main volatiles detected from oils of T. vulgare collected at Uppsala were alpha-pinene (27%), beta-pinene (11%), pinocamphone (11%), 1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-4-carboxaldehyde (11%), and 1,8-cineole (10%). In the sample collected in Stockholm, the main components were beta-thujone (39%) and camphor (23%) followed by alpha-thujone (11%) and 1,8-cineole (8%). When constituents in the oils, e.g., alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, alpha+beta-thujone, 1,8-cineol, verbenol, and verbenone, were tested separately (each diluted 0.5%, vol:vol), 64-72% tick repellency was obtained. PMID:18283947

Pålsson, Katinka; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Baeckström, Peter; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2008-01-01

193

Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study  

PubMed Central

Background Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400–600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000–7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to cancer cell death. While frankincense essential oil elicited selective cancer cell death via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress, sandalwood essential oil induced non-selective cell death via DNA damage and cell cycle arrest.

2014-01-01

194

Biological activities of lavender essential oil.  

PubMed

Essential oils distilled from members of the genus Lavandula have been used both cosmetically and therapeutically for centuries with the most commonly used species being L. angustifolia, L. latifolia, L. stoechas and L. x intermedia. Although there is considerable anecdotal information about the biological activity of these oils much of this has not been substantiated by scientific or clinical evidence. Among the claims made for lavender oil are that is it antibacterial, antifungal, carminative (smooth muscle relaxing), sedative, antidepressive and effective for burns and insect bites. In this review we detail the current state of knowledge about the effect of lavender oils on psychological and physiological parameters and its use as an antimicrobial agent. Although the data are still inconclusive and often controversial, there does seem to be both scientific and clinical data that support the traditional uses of lavender. However, methodological and oil identification problems have severely hampered the evaluation of the therapeutic significance of much of the research on Lavandula spp. These issues need to be resolved before we have a true picture of the biological activities of lavender essential oil. PMID:12112282

Cavanagh, H M A; Wilkinson, J M

2002-06-01

195

Chemical characterization and synergistic antibiotic activity of volatile compounds from the essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils have been traditionally used for respiratory tract infections, and are used nowadays as ethnic medicines for\\u000a colds. The objective of this work was to study the antibiotic-modifying activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker using gaseous contact. Stems of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker (Asteracea) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was

N. K. A. Santos; H. D. M. Coutinho; G. S. B. Viana; Fabíola F. G. Rodrigues; José G. M. Costa

2011-01-01

196

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of Pterocarya fraxinifolia.  

PubMed

Current research into free radicals has confirmed that plants rich in antioxidants play an essential role in the prevention of many diseases. The potential antioxidant activities of Pterocarya fraxinifolia bark and leaves investigated employing six in vitro assay systems. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activities were 3.89 +/- 0.09 for leaves and 41.57 +/- 1.30 microg mL(-1) for bark, respectively. The leaf extract exhibited a good reducing power at 2.5 and 80 microg mL(-1) that was comparable with Vit C (p > 0.05). The extracts also showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating ability. The peroxidation inhibition of extracts exhibited values from 92 to 93% at 72nd h, almost at the same pattern of Vitamin C activity (p > 0.05). Based on higher total phenol and flavonoid contents in leaves, higher antioxidant activities were observed in leaf extract. In addition, chemical composition of leaf essential oil was determined. The major compound was bisabolol oxide A (23.6%). Sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes are the major compounds in leaves essential oil. Presence of these compounds may be a reason for the good antioxidant activity of leaf extract. PMID:19817122

Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Nabavi, S F; Nabavi, S M

2009-07-01

197

Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component. PMID:15839484

Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

2005-01-01

198

Antimicrobial Properties of Some Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celikel N., Kavas G. (2008): Antimicrobial properties of some essential oils against some pathogenic microorganisms . Czech J. Food Sci., 26: 174-181. Investigations were carried out to assess the efficiency of five plant essential oils: thyme, myrtle, laurel, sage, and orange oils as natural food preservatives. The effect of the plant essential oils against escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes , Staphylococcus

Nazan Celikel

199

Essential Oil of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) of Canadian Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils and microwave extracts obtained from 25 individual plants of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) occurring in the Chicoutimi area (Quebec) were examined by a combination of GC and GC\\/MS. Several chemotypes were observed, two of them probably for the first time. Half of the plants belong to a camphor-1,8-cineole-borneol (concentration >52%) mixed chemotype. The ?-thujone chemotype (>60%) was

Guy J. Collin; Hélène Deslauriers; Nathalie Pageau; Michel Gagnon

1993-01-01

200

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L.  

PubMed

The need for a reduction in drug resistance led to the investigation of Argemone Mexicana L. as an agent against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea and Candida torulopsis, using well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations methods. The sensitivity of Bacillus Subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oils of both the aerial and root parts were determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to the essential oil from both the aerial and root part of the plant. C. torulopsis, C. stellatoidea and C. albicans were susceptible to the essential oils from the aerial and root part of the plant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 3.75 mg/ml and 4.0 mg/ml were recorded for Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae by the aerial and the root extracts, but P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were not susceptible to the aerial and root extracts. The observed inhibition of selected bacteria and fungi by oils of Physalis angulata makes it a promising antimicrobial agent. This study justifies its uses for treatment of sores, cuts, intestinal and digestive problems and some skin-diseases often reported in folkloric medicine. PMID:21731161

Osho, A; Adetunji, T; Fayemi, S O; Moronkola, D O

2010-01-01

201

The Essential Oil of Poliomintha incana.  

PubMed

The essential oil content and composition of freshly gathered POLIOMINTHA INCANA (Torr.), A. Gray (Labiatae) have been determined using analytical-scale capillary GC, preparative-scale packed column GC, GC/ MS, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. A relatively high yield of volatiles (2.6% of the dried plant) was isolated. The primary component of the oil is pulegone (77%). Other important constituents are 1,8-cineole (3.9%), linalool (3.4%), isopulegone (2.3%), alpha-terpineol (2.0%), and 8-hydroxy-4- P-menthen-3-one (1.4%). PMID:17221401

Lewis, E J; Friedrich, E C

1990-04-01

202

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Near Year Earlier-Levels. Tea, Spices and Essential Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils in 1984 totaled 10,991 tons valued at $92.1 million, almost unchanged from 1983's level. Smaller shipments were registered for orange, peppermint, cedarwood, clove, and nutmeg oils, while increases were recorded for lemon an...

1985-01-01

203

Characteristic odor components of essential oil from Scutellaria laeteviolacea.  

PubMed

The essential oils from aerial parts of Scutellaria laeteviolacea was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The characteristic odor components were also detected in the oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, 100 components (accounting for 99.11 %) of S. laeteviolacea, were identified. The major components of S. laeteviolacea oil were found to be 1-octen-3-ol (27.72 %), germacrene D (21.67 %),and ?-caryophyllene (9.18 %). The GC-O and AEDA results showed that 1-octen-3-ol, germacrene D, germacrene B, and ?-caryophyllene were the most characteristic odor components of the oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the unique flavor of this plant. PMID:23357818

Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nomura, Machi; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Mori, Kiyoshige

2013-01-01

204

Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Satureja viminea (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

The aqueous extract and the essential oil of Satureja viminea (Lamiaceae) were tested. General physiologic effects were assessed through the Hippocratic screening test. Non fasted female Sprague Dawley rats were utilized and 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses were used. Two animals were used for each dosage level and for the vehicle alone. Exploratory behavior and curiosity were measured using a hole board apparatus and placing non-trained mice on the board and recording the number of holes explored in a 5 minute period. The Boissier chimney test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Muscle strength was assessed through a grasping test where mice were hung by their fore-limbs 40 cm above the base on a horizontal metal stainless bar. In all these tests, 3 groups of 6 albino mice, were treated with 1000 mg/kg of each the essential oil of S. viminea, the vehicle and diazepan (1 mg/kg) as a positive control. Analgesic activity was explored in Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail flick method described by D'Amour and Smith (1941) modified by CYTED was implemented on three groups (6 rats each) of animals treated with, each the essential oil of S. viminea (1000 mg/kg), the vehicle and indomethacine. The test was carried out just before and 30, 60 and 120 min after oral treatment. Peristaltic activity was measured in albino mice, three groups of 6 animals each, treated orally with each the essential oil of S. viminea (1000 mg/kg), the aqueous extract (1000 mg/kg), and the vehicle. The marker used was activated carbon. Animals were sacrificed 30 min after the marker was given and the percent of total small intestine traversed by it was calculated. Also a lethal dose 50 (LD 50) was determined with the Spearman-Karber method. A dose-related spontaneous motor activity reduction was observed. Exploratory behavior and curiosity were diminished. The grasping strength of mice was reduced. A very clear and significant analgesic effect was observed with the oral administration of the essential oil of S. viminea (1000 mg/kg). This effect is compared to that of indomethacine. Intestinal transit and gastric emptying were inhibited by the essential oil. The LD50 of the essential oil of S. viminea is 556.8 mg/kg. PMID:15162700

Suárez, Adriana; Echandi, María Mercedes; Ulate, Guido; Cicció, José F

2003-03-01

205

Effects of seasonal variation on the central nervous system activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) and other species of the same genus are used as medicines to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, commonly encountered in warm regions of the world. The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil varies according to their chemotypes: timol, eugenol or geraniol. In this study, the essential oil type eugenol was extracted by hydrodistillation in

Cristiana M. Murbach Freire; Márcia Ortiz M. Marques; Mirtes Costa

2006-01-01

206

Composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from Curcuma zedoaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) has long been used as a folk medicine. The essential oil of its dried rhizome was isolated using simultaneous steam-distillation and solvent-extraction apparatus and its fractions were prepared by silica gel column chromatography. Totally, 36 compounds were identified in the essential oil, including 17 terpenes, 13 alcohols and 6 ketones. The yields of Fractions 2

Jeng-Leun Mau; Eric Y. C Lai; Nai-Phon Wang; Chien-Chou Chen; Chi-Huarng Chang; Charng-Cherng Chyau

2003-01-01

207

Contribution of essential oils and phenolics to the antioxidant properties of aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different in vitro assays characterise most of the essential oils and phenolic compounds as antioxidants. These molecules can be found in a variety of aromatic plants and have been related to their bioactive properties. For the first time, a comparative study between the antioxidant properties of essential oils and phenolic extracts from Cistus ladanifer leaves, Citrus latifolia fruit peels, Cupressus

Rafaela Guimarães; Maria João Sousa; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

2010-01-01

208

Comparison of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation withthe traditional hydrodistillation method in the extractionof essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) is an advanced hydrodistillation (HD) technique utilizing a microwave oven in the extraction process. MAHD of essential oils from the aerial parts (tops) of Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) was studied and the results were compared with those of the conventional HD in terms of extraction time, extraction yield\\/efficiency, chemical composition, quality of the essential oils and

Mohammad-Taghi Golmakani; Karamatollah Rezaei

2008-01-01

209

Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.  

PubMed

White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:24006802

Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

2013-01-01

210

Processing of Vietnamese Essential Oils and Related Natural Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project document on processing of Vietnamese Essential Oils and related natural products was drawn up between the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam to develop an essential oils industry by u...

R. Gupta

1990-01-01

211

Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda. PMID:21941921

Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

2011-09-01

212

Physical Properties of Gum Karaya-Starch-Essential Oil Patches  

PubMed Central

Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin.

Shcherbina, Yulia; Roth, Zvi

2010-01-01

213

Chemotypic Variation in Indian Lantana camara Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from the leaves of Lantana camara from Dibrugarh, in the northeastern Indian state of Assam, after spectroscopic analysis, has shown that cis-davanone, an uncommon sesquiterpenoid, is its major constituent, while the essential oil from flowers contained ?-caryophyllene and bicyclo-germacrene as the major components. Presence of davanone in the essential oil from leaves of this region clearly showed

Laxminarain Misra; Anil K. Saikia

2011-01-01

214

Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Pituranthos chloranthus essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOS-chromotest in Escherichia coli is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work is to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Pituranthos chloranthus. The tested essential oils were not genotoxic towards both E. coli PQ37 and PQ35 strains. These essential oils reduced significantly Nifuroxazide

A. Neffati; I. Bouhlel; M. Ben Sghaier; J. Boubaker; I. Limem; S. Kilani; I. Skandrani; W. Bhouri; J. Le Dauphin; D. Barillier; R. Mosrati; L. Chekir-Ghedira; K. Ghedira

2009-01-01

215

Anti-Candida and radical scavenging activities of essential oils and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and essential oils of other plants belonging to the family Zingiberaceae.  

PubMed

Essential oils of young and mature rhizomes, air-dried and steamed rhizomes, and seed rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) were prepared, and their inhibition of filamentation by Candida albicans was examined. Ginger essential oils, and particularly those from seed and air-dried rhizomes, had potent inhibitory activity compared to ginger oleoresins obtained by ethanol and hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction and essential oils of 5 other plants in the family Zingiberaceae. Of the constituents, [6]-shogaol was most active against filament formation and growth of C. albicans, followed by citral and [6]-gingerol. Ginger oleoresin, and especially that obtained by ethanol extraction, with a high [6]-gingerol content exhibited potent scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals in comparison to essential oils of ginger and other Zingiberaceae plants. PMID:22466370

Takahashi, M; Inouye, S; Abe, S

2011-10-01

216

Anti-Oxidative Abilities of Essential Oils from Atractylodes ovata Rhizome  

PubMed Central

The rhizome of Atractylodes ovata De Candolle is rich in essential oils, which are usually removed by processing. In this study, anti-oxidative abilities of essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata rhizome were explored, and the influence of processing on the anti-oxidative abilities was examined. Essential oils and aqueous extracts of A. ovata were extracted by boiling water and steam distillation, respectively. Quality of these two A. ovata samples was controlled by HPLC and GC-MS system, and anti-oxidative abilities were then evaluated. Results showed that surface color of A. ovata turned to brown and chemical components were changed by processing. Contents of both atractylon and atractylenolide II decreased in the essential oils, but only the contents of atractylon decreased by processing. Atractylenolide III increased in both A. ovata samples. However, A. ovata essential oils displayed stronger anti-oxidative abilities than aqueous extracts in DPPH-scavenging, TBH-induced lipid peroxidation and catalase activity assays. Moreover, the bioactivity of essential oils from raw A. ovata was stronger than oils from processed A. ovata. On the other hand, cytotoxicity of A. ovata essential oils was stronger than that of aqueous extracts, and was more sensitive on H9C2 cell than NIH-3T3 and WI-38 cells. In contrast, stir-frying processing method increased cytotoxicity of essential oils, but the cytotoxicity was ameliorated when processed with assistant substances. The results suggested that phytochemical components and bioactivity of A. ovata were changed after processing and the essential oils from raw A. ovata showed better anti-oxidative and fewer cytotoxicity effects.

Wang, Kun-Teng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chou, Duen-Suey; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

2011-01-01

217

Antioxidant effect of oregano ( Lippia berlandieri v. Shauer) essential oil and mother liquors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional steam distillation process for oregano (Lippia berlandieri v. Shauer) essential oil extraction produces large volumes of mother liquor. This residual liquid represents a potential value because the soluble antioxidants it contains. Essential oil and ethyl acetate mother liquor extracts (MLEs) were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities by the 2-2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, by the

N. E. Rocha-Guzmán; J. A. Gallegos-Infante; R. F. González-Laredo; M. Ramos-Gómez; M. E. Rodríguez-Muñoz; R. Reynoso-Camacho; A. Rocha-Uribe; M. R. Roque-Rosales

2007-01-01

218

Antifungal activity and chemical composition of Essential oil of Origanum hypericifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endemic oregano's, Origanum hypericifolium O. Schwartz and P.H. Davis, essential oil was extracted to exert its biological activity in vitro. Twenty six components in its extracts performed by hydro distillation and DTD techniques were identified. The major components in the leaf volatiles of O. hypericifolium were p-cymene (42.94-44.14 g\\/100 g oil), carvacrol (22.38-31.74 g\\/100 g oil) and ?-terpinene (5.31-8.35 g\\/100

Ijlal Ocak; Ali Çelik; M. Zafer Özel; Elif Korcan; Muhsin Konuk

2010-01-01

219

Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Origanum Hypericifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endemic oregano's, Origanum hypericifolium O. Schwartz and P.H. Davis, essential oil was extracted to exert its biological activity in vitro. Fifteen components in its extracts performed by hydro distillation. The major components in the fruit and flower volatiles of O. hypericifolium were p-cymene (34.33 g\\/100 g oil), carvacrol (21.76 g\\/100 g oil), thymol (19.54 g\\/100 g) and ?-terpinene (13.91 g\\/100

Ijlal Ocak; Ali Çelik; M. Zafer Özel; Elif Korcan; Muhsin Konuk

2012-01-01

220

The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae).  

PubMed

The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus). PMID:22474966

Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

2012-02-01

221

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Heracleum rechingeri Manden from Iran.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil from Heracleum rechingeri was analysed using GC-MS. Twenty-seven compounds, accounting for 94.62% of the extracted essential oil, were identified. The main oil compounds were octyl acetate (29.49%), elemicine (23.06%), (E)-caryophyllene (9.26%), caryophyllene oxide (6.42%), terpinolene (6.12%) and (Z)-3-octenyl acetate (4.72%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against three different bacteria by disc diffusion method and showed maximum inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis. PMID:20552523

Habibi, Zohreh; Eshaghi, Rasool; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Maryam

2010-07-01

222

[Solid adsorption and stability of essential oil from pericarp of Gaultheria yunnaensis (Franch.) Rehd].  

PubMed

Experiments have been made on the solid adsorption and stability of the essential oil extracted from Gaultheria yunnanensis. The results show that among the chemical constituents of the oil, methyl salicylate accounts for 99.66%. Grain adsorbents of aluminum hydroxide gel have been proved useful in obtaining higher release rates of the oil at required temperatures as well as keeping the oil stable at room temperature. PMID:11243152

Yang, J; Ma, J; Yang, L; Wu, J; Chen, H

1998-01-01

223

The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative.

2014-01-01

224

Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano ( Origanum vulgare) essentials oils: Anti-inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on THP1 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fractions (S1 and S2) of an oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction have been used to test anti-inflammatory effects on activated human THP-1 cells. The main compounds present in the supercritical extract fractions of oregano were trans-sabinene hydrate, thymol and carvacrol. Fractions toxicity was assessed using the mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction method for several concentrations during

A. Ocaña-Fuentes; E. Arranz-Gutiérrez; F. J. Señorans; G. Reglero

2010-01-01

225

Phthalides in the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale.  

PubMed

The composition of the phthalide mixture of the essential oil from roots of Levisticum officinale Koch was investigated. The phthalide mixture was analyzed by combining separation methods - GLC, LSC and TLC - and subsequently using spectroscopic methods - IR, MS and NMR. E- and Z-butylidenephthalide, E- and Z-ligustilide, senkyunolide and validene-4,5-dihydrophthalide were found to be present; isosenkyunolide and propylidenephthalide were tentatively identified. The influence of the isolation procedure on the composition of the phthalide mixture was tentatively studied by comparison of mixtures isolated by solvent extraction and hydrodistillation respectively. PMID:17402120

Gijbels, M J; Scheffer, J J; Baerheim Svendsen, A

1982-04-01

226

Characterization of extraction and separation of rice bran oil rich in EFA using SFE process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice bran oil contains palmitic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, tocopherol, squalene, etc. The oil rich EFA (essential fatty acid) was extracted from the domestic brown rice bran using SCC (supercritical carbon dioxide), and the extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extracted amount of rice bran oil was dependent upon the operating pressure

Hyung-Jin Kim; Seung-Bum Lee; Kyung-Ai Park; In-Kwon Hong

1999-01-01

227

Oil extracts of herbal drugs--optimisation of the extraction parameters.  

PubMed

The plant constituents of fourty two olive oil extracts from chamomile flowers [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert] were analysed by means of GC, VIS-spectrometry, and HPLC in order to assess the effectiveness of the traditional extraction methods of the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB 2008). The influence of the extraction temperature and the extraction period as well as the influence of stirring during the extraction period and of a pre-treatment of the herbal drug with ethanol 94% on the extraction efficiency was also studied. The results are presented in the form of transfer ratios with regard to the essential oil, the carotenoids, coumarins, flavonoids and the phenolcarboxylic acids. PMID:19618679

Heldmaier, M; Beyer-Koschitzke, J; Stahl-Biskup, E

2009-06-01

228

Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil  

PubMed Central

In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques.

Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia

2011-01-01

229

Essential oils of Chiliadenus lopadusanus (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Chiliadenus lopadusanus growing on Lampedusa Island were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major component was camphor (39.4% in the leaves and 24.0% in the flowers), followed in the leaves by torreyol (6.7%), t-cadinol (5.2%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8%), while in the flowers by t-cadinol (15.2%), t-muurolol (5.1%) and torreyol (4.5%). Among the compounds identified, several seem to play a role in antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and spasmolytic activity. In addition, several compounds identified in this study seem to influence the attraction of Megachile (Eutricharaea) apicalis (Megachilidae) and Halictus (Seladonia) gemmeus (Halictidae), two hymenopteran here identified as pollinators of Chiliadenus lopadusanus. PMID:24079193

Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Scirica, Elena; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

2013-08-01

230

In vitro cytotoxic activity guided essential oil composition of flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering twigs of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) was fractioned by chromatography. Forty-three constituents were characterized with the help of GC, GC-MS and other spectroscopic techniques. The essential oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono- and sesqui-terpenes. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil and its fractions was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) based assay against two cancer cell types viz. C-6 (rat glioma cells) and CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells). The essential oil and its fractions showed promising cytotoxicity against both cell lines. The highest activity (95.6+/-0.6%) was show by the essential oil on the C-6 cell line at a concentration of 400 microg/mL, which was comparable with that of the standard drug vinblastin. PMID:25026731

Mann, Tavleen S; Agnihotri, Vijai K; Kumar, Dharmesh; Pal, Probir K; Koundal, Rajkesh; Kumar, Ashish; Padwad, Yogendra S

2014-05-01

231

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils.  

PubMed

The present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L. The chemical profile of each essential oil was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M. piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10,240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity [expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values, respectively], that were considerably higher than those of the commercial fungicide bifonazole. The essential oils of M. piperita and M. longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M. aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M. piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M. piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 % (IC50 = 2.53 microg/mL). The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica. PMID:12802721

Mimica-Duki?, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Sokovi?, Marina; Mihajlovi?, Biserka; Matavulj, Milan

2003-05-01

232

Caryophyllene-rich essential oil of Didymocarpus tomentosa: chemical composition and cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the leaves of Didymocarpus tomentosa was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. Twenty five constituents amounting to 81.6% of the oil were identified. The leaf oil contained 78.7% sesquiterpenes and 2.9% monoterpenes. The leaf essential oil of D. tomentosa is a unique caryophyllene-rich natural source containing beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, a-humulene and humulene oxide. The cytotoxic activity of the oil was determined by the BSLT using shrimp larva and the MTT assay using HeLa tumor cell line. The oil showed significant cytotoxic activity with LC50 and IC50 values of 12.26 and 11.4 microg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of D. tomentosa. PMID:23285825

Gowda, Prameela Javarayi; Ramakrishnaiah, Hanumanthaiah; Krishna, Venkatarangaiah; Narra, Sivakrishna; Jagannath, Nataraj

2012-11-01

233

U.S. Essential Oil Trade, May 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils totaled $147 million in 1992, down from $157 million in 1991. Peppermint was the most import oil exported, accounting for over a third of the market. Mint oils, as a group, accounted for 56 percent, while citrus oils made up...

1993-01-01

234

Essential oils from seeds: solubility of limonene in supercritical CO 2 and how it is affected by fatty oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty oil influence on the solubility of limonene in CO2 was investigated under pressures 8–12 MPa at 313.2 K, a temperature typically applied in supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils. Solubility in CO2 was measured using the dynamic method both for limonene and for the mixture of limonene and blackcurrant seed oil. In the whole range of pressures applied, the

Helena Sovová; Roumiana P Stateva; Anatolii A Galushko

2001-01-01

235

Efficacy of Essential Oil of Amomum subulatum as a Novel Aflatoxin B1 Suppressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from different parts of 12 plants belonging to eight angiospermic families were extracted and tested for activity against two toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus link. through the poisoned food technique. The oil of the spice plant Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) was found effective against two strains of A. flavus, completely inhibiting their mycelial growth at 750 ?g

Priyanka Singh; Bhawana Srivastava; Ashok Kumar; N. K. Dubey; Rajesh Gupta; Tanu

2008-01-01

236

Cytotoxicity and gene induction by some essential oils in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to get an insight into the possible genotoxicity of essential oils (EOs) used in traditional pharmacological applications we tested five different oils extracted from the medicinal plants Origanum compactum, Coriandrum sativum, Artemisia herba alba, Cinnamomum camphora (Ravintsara aromatica) and Helichrysum italicum (Calendula officinalis) for genotoxic effects using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clear cytotoxic effects were observed in the

F. Bakkali; S. Averbeck; D. Averbeck; A. Zhiri; M. Idaomar

2005-01-01

237

Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus hyemalis essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the volatile profile and antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris (thymol chemotype), Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis (thymol and two linalool chemotypes) and Thymus hyemalis Lange (thymol, thymol\\/linalool and carvacrol chemotypes) essential oils extracted from seven plants cultivated in Murcia (Spain). Antimicrobial activities of the oils were evaluated for control of growth and survival of 10 pathogenic microorganisms.Gas

María C. Rota; Antonio Herrera; Rosa M. Martínez; Jose A. Sotomayor; María J. Jordán

2008-01-01

238

Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500?L/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000?L/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000?L/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000?L/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500?L/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000?L/L) and clove oils (3000?L/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000?L/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure as effective non-toxic biopreservatives against OTA contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23107498

Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

2012-10-15

239

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

240

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrancois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbre, Severine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

241

Toxicity studies on western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil extracts of western juniper oil ( Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ) were evaluated for possible dermal toxic effects on mice and rabbits. Mice were tested for their response to both extracts utilizing a local lymph node assay. Western juniper oil extract at 0.5% and 5% concentrations did not show a stimulation index (SI) greater

A. Morrie Craig; Joseph J. Karchesy; Linda L. Blythe; Maria del Pilar

242

In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica)essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results : A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.

Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hoseini, Ali Akbar; Alavi, Amir Mootabi

2012-01-01

243

[Antiradical properties of oregano, thyme, and savory essential oils].  

PubMed

In model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the antiradical properties of essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgare), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and savory (Satureja hortensis) that are similar in the qualitative composition, but differ in the quantitative content of the main components, were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol. The reaction rates of components of essential oils with the radical were almost identical for all essential oils and were twice the reaction rate of ionol. The antiradical efficiency values were close to each other for all essential oils and by an order of magnitude smaller than for ionol. PMID:23662455

Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D

2013-01-01

244

Determination of new retention indices for quick identification of essential oils compounds.  

PubMed

The classical methods of chromatographic identification of compounds were based on calculation of retention indices by using different stationary phases. The aim of the work was to differentiate essential oils extracted from different plant species by identification of some of their major compounds. The method of identification was based on the calculation of new retention indices of essential oils compounds fractionated on a polar chromatographic column with temperature programming system. Similar chromatograms have been obtained on the same column for one plant family with two different temperature gradients allowing the rapid identification of essential oils of different species, sub-species or chemotypes of Citrus, Mentha and Thymus. PMID:17049795

Hérent, Marie-France; De Bie, Véronique; Tilquin, Bernard

2007-02-19

245

Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle fruits (limes) was studied for its potential spasmolytic effects in relation to its chemical composition. The essential oil, extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antispasmodic activity was evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum, aorta and uterus. The results indicated that the essential oil of C. aurantifolia possesses important spasmolytic properties, which are likely to be due to its major constituents, limonene (58.4%), beta-pinene (15.4%), gamma-terpinene (8.5%), and citral (4.4%). PMID:23285822

Spadaro, Federica; Costa, Rosaria; Circosta, Clara; Occhiuto, Francesco

2012-11-01

246

Essential oils analysis. I. Evaluation of essential oils composition using both GC and MS fingerprints.  

PubMed

The chemical nature of essential oils makes them suitable for analysis using a gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Mass spectra (MS) libraries can not be used as unique and absolute criteria for the identification of chromatogram peaks. The wide variety of MS of the libraries, recorded in different conditions, can lead us to erroneous results. In order to increase the reliability of the analytical results, we used as identity criteria, both GC fingerprints resulted from the relative retention indices (RRI) and the recorded MS of the separated compounds. The two criteria have been quantified by their correlation with the standards. A new parameter called global composition evaluation index (I(GCMS)), which resulted from a well-balanced average of the two criteria, has been defined. Because the comparison of the results of the MS with databases is more accurate than the RRI, we considered that the ratio of the two criteria must be at least GC:MS 1:2. A database containing RRI of about 600 components, widely found in essential oils composition and separated on HP-5 column, was created. Two macros based on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet were also created. The program offers the best 20 matches of each compound with the combined MS and RRI library. The composition of Romanian Acorus calamus L. essential oil was established and the results were compared with those obtained by 'classical' methods. PMID:9919966

Oprean, R; Tamas, M; Sandulescu, R; Roman, L

1998-12-01

247

Effects of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in experimental anxiety models in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus aurantium L. is popularly used to treat anxiety, among other indications suggesting central nervous system action. Previous studies showed anxiolytic effect in the essential oil from peel in mice evaluated on the elevated plus maze [Carvalho-Freitas, M.I.R., Costa, M., 2002. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 25, 1629–1633.].

Aline de Moraes Pultrini; Luciane Almeida Galindo; Mirtes Costa

2006-01-01

248

In vitro biological activity and essential oil composition of four indigenous South African Helichrysum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum species are used widely to treat various medical conditions. In this study, the anti-microbial, anti-oxidant (DPPH assay) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase assay) of Helichrysum dasyanthum, Helichrysum felinum, Helichrysum excisum and Helichrysum petiolare were investigated. The essential oil compositions of these species were determined. The acetone and methanol extracts as well as the essential oils exhibited activity against Gram-positive bacteria,

A. C. U. Lourens; D. Reddy; K. H. C. Ba?er; A. M. Viljoen; S. F. Van Vuuren

2004-01-01

249

Regional and maturational effects on essential oils yields and composition of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of volatile components of the essential oils extracted from fruits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) growing in two different Tunisian regions in both Menzel Temime and Borj El Ifaa was studied by GC and GC–MS. The highest oil yields were observed at final stages of maturity: 0.324±0.09% and 0.327±0.08%, in Menzel Temime and Borj El Ifaa, respectively. Essential

Kamel Msaada; Mouna Ben Taarit; Karim Hosni; Mohamed Hammami; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

250

Antifungal activity of volatile fractions of essential oils from four aromatic wild plants in israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils were extracted fromMajorana syriaca, Satureja thymbra, Micromeria fruticosa, andSalvia triloba, and their volatile fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against the soil-borne pathogensFusarium oxysporum andMacrophomina phaseolina and the foliar pathogensBotrytis cinerea andExserohilum turcicum. Results showed a fungistatic effect of 1, 2.5, and 5µl of the various essential oils on fungal mycelium growth. The most significant effect was

Moshe Shimoni; Eli Putievsky; Uzi Ravid; Reuven Reuveni

1993-01-01

251

Bacterial radiosensitization by using radiation processing in combination with essential oil: Mechanism of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spice extracts under the form of essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157H7 in culture media. The two pathogens were treated by gamma-irradiation alone or in combination with oregano essential oil to evaluate their mechanism of action. The membrane murein composition, and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of

Monique Lacroix; Stéphane Caillet; Francois Shareck

2009-01-01

252

Oregano essential oil as an inhibitor of higher fatty acid oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of the oxidation of fatty acids methyl esters by oregano essential oil was studied using capillary gas chromatography.\\u000a A mixture of fatty acids which contained saturated, mono-, di-, and polyunsaturated acids with 16–24 carbon atoms was extracted\\u000a from mice brain. Changes in the composition of esters in hexane solutions both in the presence of oregano essential oil and\\u000a without

M. B. Terenina; T. A. Misharina; N. I. Krikunova; E. S. Alinkina; L. D. Fatkulina; A. K. Vorob’yova

2011-01-01

253

Commercial opportunities for pesticides based on plant essential oils in agriculture, industry and consumer products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of intensive research on plant natural products and insect-plant chemical interactions over the past three decades,\\u000a only two new types of botanical insecticides have been commercialized with any success in the past 15 years, those based on\\u000a neem seed extracts (azadirachtin), and those based on plant essential oils. Certain plant essential oils, obtained through\\u000a steam distillation and rich in

Murray B. Isman; Saber Miresmailli; Cristina Machial

2011-01-01

254

Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In aromatherapy, essential oils are used as anti-inflammatory remedies, but experimental studies on their action mechanisms are very limited. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To assess their anti-inflammatory activities, the effects of essential oils on neutrophil recruitment in mice were examined in vivo. METHOD: The effect of essential oils on leukocyte and neutrophil recruitment induced 6 h after intraperitoneal injection of casein in mice was examined. RESULTS: Leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice was suppressed by intraperitoneal injections of geranium, lemongrass and spearmint oils at the dose of 5 microl/mouse, but was not by tea tree oil. This recruitment was inhibited dose-dependently by geranium oil. The suppression of leukocyte recruitment resulted from inhibition of neutrophil accumulation. CONCLUSION: Some essential oils used as anti-inflammatory remedies suppress neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice.

Abe, Shigeru; Maruyama, Naho; Hayama, Kazumi; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

2004-01-01

255

Chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the leaves of Feronia limonia was extracted and the chemical constituents and antibacterial activity were studied. The GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of F. limonia contained fourteen compounds representing about 98.4% of the total oil. The major chemical compounds identified were Eudesma-4 (14).11-dine (46.3%), carvacrol (29.6%) and 1,5-cyclodecandine (13.4%). The essential oil was screened for its antibacterial activity against different clinically isolated Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The essential oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains with MIC values ranging from 125 to 500 ?g/mL except Proteus mirabilis. PMID:22815575

Kumar, A Senthil; Venkatesalu, V; Kannathasan, K; Chandrasekaran, M

2010-10-01

256

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

257

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae) is commonly known in Argentina as "ajenjo". Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive. PMID:20085186

Laciar, A; Ruiz, M L Vaca; Flores, R Carrizo; Saad, J R

2009-01-01

258

Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of some essential oils against Ephestia kuehniella.  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of some essential oils extracted from aromatic plants (savory, Satureja thymbra L.; Turkish oregano, Origanum onites L.; myrtle, Myrtus communis L.; marjoram, Origanum majorana L.; laurel, Laurus nobilis L.; lemon, Citrus limon L.; sticky goosefoot, Chenopodium botrys L.; and tansy, Tanecetum armenum [DC.] Suchultz Bip.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fumigant toxicity of volatile compounds was tested against Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), eggs and adults. Percentage of mortality and longevity of E. kuehniella adults were estimated after essential oil treatments. LC50 and LC99 values were determined for each exposure time for each essential oil. Marjoram and lemon oils were the most effective of all the essential oils tested. The major components were linalool, 1.8-cineole, citral, 2-(4a.8-dimethyl-1.2.3.4.4a.5.6.7-octahydro-naphthalen-2-yl)-prop-2-en-l-ol, and p-cymene for marjoram, laurel, lemon, goosefoot, and tansy, respectively. The LC50 and LC99 values were estimated as 3.27 and 5.13 microl liter(-1) air for marjoram and 4.05 and 5.57 microl liter(-1) air for lemon essential oils at the longest exposure time. Decreasing longevity effect of marjoram and lemon was more prominent compared with other essential oils. We suggest that essential oils obtained from certain aromatic plants have potential as fumigants for stored product pests. PMID:21882685

Karabörklü, Salih; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Yilmaz, Semih; Akbulut, Mikail

2011-08-01

259

Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil).  

PubMed

Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree. It is one of the most widely used floral oils in perfumery. In this study chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of neroli oil are investigated. The essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. Flowers (Neroli oil) cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. About 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by (E)-nerolidol (17.5%), alpha-terpineol (14%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and (E, E)-farnesol (8%). Antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar-well-diffusion method against 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. Neroli oil exhibited a marked antibacterial activity especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Neroli oil exhibited a very strong antifungal activity compared with the standard antibiotic (Nystatin) as evidenced by their inhibition zones. Antioxidant activity determined by ABTS assay showed IC50 values of 672 mg L(-1). Finally, this study may be considered as the first report on the biological properties of this essential oil. The results of this study have provided a starting point for the investigations to exploit new natural substances present in the essential oil of C. aurantium L. flowers. PMID:24163946

Ammar, A Haj; Bouajila, J; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Romdhane, M; Zagrouba, F

2012-11-01

260

Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h. PMID:20334152

Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

2010-02-01

261

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Lower in 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poor global economic conditions, high interest rates, and a strong dollar, U.S. trade in essential oils in 1982 declined in both volume and value from a year earlier. U.S. exports of specified essential oils in 1982 totaled 8,715 tons valued at $86.9 mill...

1983-01-01

262

Chemotaxonomic characterisation of essential oil plants by vibrational spectroscopy measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from basil (Ocimum sp.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and oregano (Origanum sp.) were analysed rapidly and non-destructively applying different vibrational spectroscopic methods (ATR-IR, NIR and Raman spectroscopy). Whereas NIR spectroscopic data can be interpreted only by application of chemometric algorithms, IR and Raman spectra obtained from the essential oils present characteristic key

Hartwig Schulz; Malgorzata Baranska; Hans-Hermann Belz; Petra Rösch; Marion A Strehle; Jürgen Popp

2004-01-01

263

Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)  

PubMed Central

Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use

Nunez, L.; Aquino, M. D'

2012-01-01

264

2-undecanone rich leaf essential oil from Zanthoxylum armatum.  

PubMed

The leaf essential oils of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) from Kumaon, India, extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major classes of compounds found in the leaf oils were acyclic and menthane monoterpenoids as well as simple alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. The high proportion of non-terpenic acyclic ketones, notably 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, and the low abundance of undec-10-en-1-al and p-phellandren-8-ol make the composition entirely new. Other constituents present in significant amounts were oxygenated monoterpenes, which include 1,8-cineole, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented mainly by trans-caryophyllene, a-humulene and germacrene D. On the contrary, the oil distilled from the leaves on the second day of distillation was characterized by a high content of 2-tridecanone (27.1%) and trans-caryophyllene (7.4%), as compared with 3.5% and 4.6%, respectively, for the fresh leaves; a slight decrease in pH of the distillate was also significant. Moreover, the presence of a high 2-undecanone content followed by 2-tridecanone is being reported for the first time for Z. armatum from this region. In terms of molecular diversity, the simple acyclic ketones dominate the essential oils as compared with linalool that was reported in several previous studies on Z. armatum. Therefore, the two acyclic ketones may be utilized to establish the origin and authenticity of the material. PMID:21366058

Bisht, Deepa; Chanotiya, Chandan S

2011-01-01

265

Anti-Legionella activity of essential oil of Satureja cuneifolia.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. was characterized by a high concentration of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (21.3%) and thymol (9.2%). The in vitro activity of the essential oil against Legionela pneumophila serogroups (SG) I and 2-15 and Legionella spp. from different sources, using microdilution, showed that L. pneumofila is sensitive to the oil, with MICs ranging from 0.12 to 0.5%, v/v, and a MBC at 0.5 to 1%, v/v. The essential oil of S. cuneifolia was effective in the reduction of Legionellosis infections. PMID:25026730

Dunki?, Valerija; Mikrut, Antonija; Bezi?, Nada

2014-05-01

266

Pulegone-Rich Essential Oils of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulegone is a monoterpene ketone with a refreshing odor reminescent of mint. This is the reason why pulegone-rich oils containing plants are often named in Turkish after mint. Six Labiatae genera (i.e., Acinos, Calamintha, Cyclotrichium, Mentha, Micromeria and Ziziphora) have been found to contain pulegone as a major constituent in their respective oils. This study covers the oil compositions of

K. H. C. Baser; N. Kirimer; G. Tümen

1998-01-01

267

Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Pituranthos chloranthus essential oils.  

PubMed

The SOS-chromotest in Escherichia coli is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work is to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Pituranthos chloranthus. The tested essential oils were not genotoxic towards both E. coli PQ37 and PQ35 strains. These essential oils reduced significantly Nifuroxazide and H(2)O(2)-induced genotoxicity. Essential oils showed a protective effect against damages induced by radicals, obtained from the photolysis of H(2)O(2), on DNA plasmid through free radical scavenging mechanisms. The scavenging capacity of these essential oils was also estimated by evaluating the inhibition of ABTS(+.) radical. PMID:21783938

Neffati, A; Bouhlel, I; Ben Sghaier, M; Boubaker, J; Limem, I; Kilani, S; Skandrani, I; Bhouri, W; Le Dauphin, J; Barillier, D; Mosrati, R; Chekir-Ghedira, L; Ghedira, K

2009-03-01

268

Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.  

SciTech Connect

The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2003-08-01

269

Essential Oil of Eaglewood Tree: a Product of Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of eaglewood tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) has been considered to be a pathological product. An investigation was carried out to study the difference in composition of oils obtained from healthy, naturally infected and artificially inoculated eaglewood using GC and GC\\/MS analyses. This investigation showed a marked difference in the oil compositions among the treatments with regards to

Phatik Tamuli; Paran Boruah; Subhan C. Nath; Piet Leclercq

2005-01-01

270

U.S. Essential Oil Trade, April 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. essential oil exports in 1988 were a record $122.8 million, reflecting larger shipments of orange, peppermint, and spearmint oils, and higher market prices for these items. Lemon oil exports dropped by nearly a third, but unit export values recov...

1989-01-01

271

U.S. Essential Oil Trade, April 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. essential oil exports in 1986 approximated the record 1985 value of $107 million, but fell 30% in volume. Exports of both orange and lemon oils were lower, while shipments of mint oils showed good increases. Imports in 1986 were off slightly from a y...

1987-01-01

272

Composition of the Essential Oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. was investigated by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Of the 44 compounds detected, 35 were identified representing 96.62% of the oil; 24 of these components were detected for the first time. The major components of the oil were 1, 8 cineole (14.05%) and pulegone (21.92%).

K. H. C. Baser; E. Sezik; G. Tümen

1991-01-01

273

Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

274

Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements of Mexican Citrus Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Methodology in the Transmission Configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic methodology in the transmission configuration (PMTC) was used to study the thermophysical properties and their relation with the composition in Mexican citrus essential oils providing the viability of using photothermal techniques for quality control and for authentication of oils and their adulteration. Linear relations for the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample's thickness, for the PMTC was obtained through a theoretical model fit to the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in Mexican orange, pink grapefruit, mandarin, lime type A, centrifuged essential oils, and Mexican distilled lime essential oil. Gas chromatography for distilled lime essential oil and centrifuged lime essential oil type A is reported to complement the study. Experimental results showed close thermal-diffusivity values between Mexican citrus essential oils obtained by centrifugation, but a significant difference of this physical property for distilled lime oil and the corresponding value obtained by centrifugation, which is due to their different chemical compositions involved with the extraction processes.

Muñoz, G. A. López; González, R. F. López; López, J. A. Balderas; Martínez-Pérez, L.

2011-05-01

275

Comparative analysis of chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Abies holophylla and Abies koreana activities of essential oils from Abies holophylla and Abies koreana.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions and antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oils extracted from Abies holophylla and A. koreana were investigated. GC-MS analysis revealed that 38 compounds comprised 95.88% of the A. holophylla essential oil, with the main components being bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol (28.05%), delta3-carene (13.85%), alpha-pinene (11.68%), camphene (10.41%), dl-limonene (7.61%), beta-myrcene (7.11%), trans-caryophyllene (5.36%), and alpha- bisabolol (3.67%). In the essential oil from A. koreana, 36 compounds comprised 98.67% of the oil, and the main compounds were bornyl ester (41.79%), camphene (15.31%), alpha-pinene (11.19%), dl-limonene (8.58%), fenchyl acetate (5.55%), and alpha-terpinene (2.29%). Both essential oils showed great potential of antibacterial activity against several bacteria tested, in the range of 2.2-8.8 mug per disc by the agar disc diffusion method, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 5.5-21.8 mg/ml by the microdilution method. Both oils showed very effective antifungal activities toward all pathogenic strains tested, including Candida glabrata, with MIC values in the range of 0.5-2.2 mg/ml. As a whole, A.koreanaoil showed better antibacterial and antifungal properties than A.holophylla oil. PMID:19420993

Lee, Jeong-Ho; Hong, Soon-Kwang

2009-04-01

276

A systematic review of the effect of inhaled essential oils on sleep.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Sleep disturbances are recognized as an important health and public health problem that affects physical, mental, and emotional health and well-being. Inhalation of essential oils may be a safe alternative to pharmaceutical interventions for mild to moderate sleep disturbances. Quantitative human studies on the effect of inhaled essential oils on sleep that were published between 1990 to 2012 were reviewed. Methods: Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Science Direct, and PubMed databases were searched to extract articles that evaluated the effect of inhaled essential oils on sleep in humans. Results: The search yielded 15 quantitative studies, including 11 randomized controlled trials that examined hypnotic effects of inhalation of essential oils. A majority of the study findings suggested a positive effect of essential oils on sleep. Lavender was the most frequently studied essential oil. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Inhalation of essential oils may be considered for people with mild sleep disturbances. Further studies with larger samples and stronger methods and endpoints are needed to build on the findings. PMID:24720812

Lillehei, Angela S; Halcon, Linda L

2014-06-01

277

Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oils on Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Production on Asparagus racemosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the

Priyanka Singh; Ravindra Shukla; Ashok Kumar; Bhanu Prakash; Shubhra Singh; Nawal Kishore Dubey

2010-01-01

278

Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition, antifungal activity, and insecticidal activity.  

PubMed

Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were determined to be thymol methyl ether (=methyl thymol) (36.3%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (20.8%) and myrcene (15.7%). Antifungal activity of the essential oil was weak against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides in direct bioautography assay. The E. capillifolium oil showed promising repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, whereas the oil exhibited moderate activity against the mosquito's first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Topical applications of the oil showed no activity against the blood-feeding female adults of A. aegypti. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil showed a linear dose response between adult lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides) mortality and increasing oil concentration in an adulticidal activity bioassay. The dog-fennel oil was more potent than the conventional insecticide malathion. In conclusion, these combined results showed Eupatorium capillifolium oil is a promising novel source of a biological insecticide with multiple modes of action. PMID:20922999

Tabanca, Nurhayat; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Becnel, James J; Sampson, Blair; Werle, Chris; Demirci, Betül; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Blythe, Eugene K; Pounders, Cecil; Wedge, David E

2010-09-01

279

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Citrus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from Bitter orange, Sweet orange, Lemon and Mandarin were investigated. The antimicrobial capability of these oils was determined against ten strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including some phytopathogenic strains. The antibacterial activity of the oils was expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All oils showed good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative

S. Frassinetti; L. Caltavuturo; M. Cini; C. M. Della Croce; B. E. Maserti

2011-01-01

280

Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

Compton, L. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

281

Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis var. longicaulis.  

PubMed

This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. longicaulis. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil were resulted in determination 22 different compounds, representing 99.61% of total oil. gamma-terpinene, thymol and p-cymene were determined as the major compounds of the oil (27.80, 27.65 and 19.38%, respectively). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by four different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power and chelating effect. Essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity in beta-carotene/linoleic acid system among the experiments examined. In the case of other test systems, in general, methanol and water extracts exhibited the strongest activity profiles. Especially, reducing power of water extract was found superior than those of synthetic antioxidants. As well as the antioxidant activities of the extracts, they were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Hexane and water extracts were found to be rich-in phenolics. However, flavonoids were determined in the highest level in methanol extract. PMID:20385197

Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M; Eskici, Mustafa; Tepe, Bektas; Can, Sendil; Mete, Ebru

2010-07-01

282

GC-MS analysis of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil from North Xinjiang, China.  

PubMed

The essential oils of Ziziphora clinopodioide Lam. from four different production areas (Banfang ditch; Altay mountains; Tuoli; Terks) were investigated. The oils were extracted by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seventeen constituents were identified in the essential oil from Banfang ditch, 20 in that from the Altay mountains, 12 in the Tuoli essential oil, and 9 in the Terks sample. The major components of the oils were pulegone (67.6%, 32.5%, 86.4%, and 82.1%) and p-menthanone (14.8%, 43.7%, 3.2%, and 8.2% from the Banfang ditch, Tuoli, Altay mountains, and Terks samples, respectively). PMID:22428253

Zhou, Xiaoying; Yu, Qian; Gong, Haiyan; Tian, Shuge

2012-01-01

283

Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.  

PubMed

Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453

Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

2013-03-01

284

Penetrating the plaque biofilm: impact of essential oil mouthwash.  

PubMed

The interaction between saliva-coated tooth surfaces and pathogenic bacteria is partly governed by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, providing a solid rationale for using chemical agents as part of a plaque-control routine. Chlorhexidine works in several ways. For example, it binds to salivary mucins on the bacterial cell membrane, and penetrates the plaque biofilm. Essential oil (EO) mouthwashes kill micro-organisms by disrupting their cell walls and inhibiting their enzymic activity. They prevent bacterial aggregation, slow multiplication and extract endotoxins. Recent studies have shown that bacterial phenotypes are altered when organisms change from a planktonic to a sessile state. This suggests that an effective mouthwash must also penetrate the plaque biofilm. Two studies have demonstrated the ability of an EO mouthwash to penetrate the plaque biofilm. PMID:12787196

Ouhayoun, J-P

2003-01-01

285

Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from Lindera obtusiloba Blume against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The leaves of Lindera obtusiloba Blume var. obtusiloba were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of L. obtusiloba. The L. obtusiloba essential oil yield was 4.23%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were ?-copaene (31.42%), ?-caryophyllene (32.11%), ?-humulene (4.12%), ?-farnesene (4.15%), ?- cadinene (3.21%) and Nerolidol (6.84%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 24.32?ppm and an LC(90) value of 36.42?ppm. PMID:20477554

Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In

2011-03-01

286

Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Ocimum basilicum L., popularly known as sweet basil, is a Lamiaceae species whose essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids. The contents of these compounds can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors such as infections caused by viruses. The main goal of this research was an investigation of the effects of viral infection on the essential oil profile of common basil. Seeds of O. basilicum L. cv. Genovese were sowed and kept in a greenhouse. Plants presenting two pairs of leaves above the cotyledons were inoculated with an unidentified virus isolated from a field plant showing chlorotic yellow spots and foliar deformation. Essential oils of healthy and infected plants were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS. Changes in essential oil composition due to viral infection were observed. Methyleugenol and p-cresol,2,6-di-tert-butyl were the main constituents. However, methyleugenol contents were significantly decreased in infected plants. PMID:21922932

Nagai, Alice; Duarte, Ligia M L; Santos, Déborah Y A C

2011-08-01

287

Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh  

PubMed Central

The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay.

Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N.

2013-01-01

288

Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh.  

PubMed

The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. PMID:24082356

Siddiqui, M Z; Thomas, M; Prasad, N

2013-05-01

289

Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were ?-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), ?-zingiberene (8.74%), ?r-turmerone (6.31%), trans-?-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and ?-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. PMID:22416707

Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

2011-01-01

290

Interaction forces in bitumen extraction from oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-based extraction process (WBEP) has been successfully applied to bitumen recovery from Athabasca oil sand ore deposits in Alberta. In this process, two essential steps are involved. The bitumen first needs to be “liberated” from sand grains, followed by “aeration” with air bubbles. Bitumen “liberation” from the sand grains is controlled by the interaction between the bitumen and sand grains.

Jianjun Liu; Zhenghe Xu; Jacob Masliyah

2005-01-01

291

Viscometric control in the enzymatic extraction of citrus peel oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic treatment during the industrial extraction of lemon-peel oil allows the aqueous discharges from centrifuges to be recycled towards the extractors. Emulsions with stabilized and reduced viscosity are essential for centrifuges to work efficiently. In citrus processing plants, enzyme is added in a manual operation with no viscosity control. However, the correct measurement of this parameter makes it possible to

L. Coll; D. Saura; M. P. Ruiz; J. M. Ros; J. A. Cánovas; J. Laencina

1995-01-01

292

Antiherpetic activity of the traditionally used complex essential oil Olbas.  

PubMed

Essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. The antiviral effect of Olbas, a traditionally used complex essential oil, and of cajuput oil, a major constitutent of Olbas, against HSV type 1 was examined. The antiviral activity of these essential oils was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Olbas and cajuput oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 1.8 microg/ml and 7.5 microg/ml, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of these oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99% for Olbas and 66% for cajuput oil. The selectivity index of 150 for Olbas against herpes simplex virus was superior to a rather low selectivity index for cajuput oil. The mode of antiviral action of these essential oils was assessed by time-on-addition assays. Herpesvirus was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with Olbas essential oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Olbas affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus Olbas exerted a direct antiviral effect on HSV. A clearly time-dependent antiviral activity for Olbas and cajuput oil could be demonstrated. Considering the lipophilic nature of the Olbas complex essential oil mixture, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Olbas might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:24020128

Heidary Navid, M; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

2013-08-01

293

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium growing wild in Iran.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to investigate the composition of essential oil of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) growing wild in Iran. The wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area between Deylaman and Asiabar villages, at Alborz altitudes in Guilan province in September 2005. Aerial parts were dried at shade (room temperature) for several days and their essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that essential oil yield was 1.3%. Twenty eight components representing 93.3% of the oil were identified, which were mostly monoterpenes. beta-pinene and beta-thujone were the main components, which their contents were 23.8 and 18.6% respectively. The largest part of the essential oil was formed by hydrocarbon monoterpenes (47.8%). The results proved that chemotype of the studied wormwood essential oil was specific and different from other wormwood essential oil chemotypes, which have been reported so far. PMID:18814663

Rezaeinodehi, A; Khangholi, S

2008-03-15

294

Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats.  

PubMed

Essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. In the present study, the essential oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which is commercially used in soap, toothpaste and cosmetics, was extracted. Essential oil extracted from C. obtusa contains several types of terpenes, which have been shown to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil in vivo and in vitro following the induction of inflammation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats. While LPS induced an inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs), these levels were reduced when essential oil was pre-administered. Additionally, the mechanism of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil was investigated by measuring the mRNA expression of inflammation?associated genes. LPS treatment significantly induced the expression of transforming growth factor ? (TNF?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rats, while C. obtusa essential oil inhibited this effect. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. obtusa essential oil exerts anti?inflammatory effects by regulating the production of PGE2 and TNF? gene expression through the COX-2 pathway. These findings suggest that C. obtusa essential oil may constitute a novel source of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23652412

An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Hong-Seok; Choi, In-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jin; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2013-07-01

295

Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

2000-10-15

296

Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.  

PubMed

The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation. PMID:21660258

Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

2011-01-01

297

Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

Furletti, V. F.; Teixeira, I. P.; Obando-Pereda, G.; Mardegan, R. C.; Sartoratto, A.; Figueira, G. M.; Duarte, R. M. T.; Rehder, V. L. G.; Duarte, M. C. T.; Hofling, J. F.

2011-01-01

298

Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.  

PubMed

The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

2013-12-01

299

Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Ferula gummosa seed.  

PubMed

Antibacterial activity of Ferula gummosa essential oil was studied against bacterial laboratory ATCC standards using the disk diffusion method. The results showed activity against Gram(+) bacteria and Escherichia coli. Little antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:15567258

Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Borhani, K

2004-12-01

300

Comparative chemical study and cytotoxic activity of Uvariodendron angustifolium essential oils from Benin.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the chemical composition of volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, bark and roots of Uvariodendron angustifolium (Engl. & Diels) R. E. Fries. The essential oils, obtained with yields between 0.12 and 0.66%, were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. A great variability in the chemical composition was observed depending on the plant part treated. The essential oils obtained from leaves and stems contained mainly neral (29.7-30.5%) and geranial (42.9-47.3%), while methyl eugenol was the major component of the volatile extracts from bark (68.3%) and roots (85.3%). Interesting cytotoxic properties of these essential oils on human breast cancer cells MCF-7 were demonstrated. PMID:24689305

Noudogbessi, Jean-Pierre; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Adomou, Aristide; Adjalian, Elvis; Alitonou, Guy Alain; Avlessi, Félicien; Garcia, Marcel; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K; Menut, Chantal

2014-02-01

301

Essential oil compositions of Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF from Iran.  

PubMed

Aerial parts of aromatic grass, Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF, were collected at flowering stage from Kerman province of Iran. The essential oil of air dried samples obtained by hydro-distillation method. The compositions of the essential oil were determined by the use of GC and GC-MS. Nineteen (98.7%) constituents were identified. The main constituents were piperitone (80.8%), germacrene-D (5.1%), santolinyl acetate (2.1%) and alpha-eudesmol (2.1%). PMID:19090178

Bagheri, R; Mohamadi, S; Abkar, A; Fazlollahi, A

2007-10-01

302

Essential oil and volatile components of the genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae).  

PubMed

The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John's wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

Crockett, Sara L

2010-09-01

303

Essential oils as reducing agents of cabbage peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the antioxidant properties of essential oils, the effect of thyme, coriander, and rosemary was evaluated on the reduction of peroxidase in white cabbage “Brassica oleraceae var.capitata f. alba” and red cabbage “B. oleraceae var. capitata f. rubra”. To do this, pure, 50, 75, 100 and 200?l\\/100ml concentrations of essential oils were applied in vivo and in vitro of

Seyyed Javad Mousavizadeh; Shahram Sedaghathoor; Hasan Khorami

2011-01-01

304

Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)  

PubMed Central

The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented.

Crockett, Sara L.

2010-01-01

305

Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jurgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

306

Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

307

Essential oil composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss. from Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the essential oil content and composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss., a rare species spread in flora of Turkey. The samples were collected during the fructifying period of the plant from Erzincan, Turkey, at an altitude of 2430 m, in 2010. Essential oils were obtained from different parts of the plant such as fruits and herbal parts with Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Essential oil contents of the plant material were 0.38 ± 0.015%, 0.23 ± 0.012% and 0.21 ± 0.015% from fruits, herbal parts with fruits and herbal parts without fruits, respectively. Composition of essential oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of the herbal parts of the plant was dominated by fatty alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 73.10% and 24.64%, respectively. Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) was identified as a major component of essential oil with an average content of 73.10%. PMID:24601748

Avci, Ay?e Betül; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Ozçelik, Hasan

2014-05-01

308

Composition of Essential Oil of Artemisia persica Boiss. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam-distilled essential oil from Artemisia persica growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC\\/MS. In all 50 compounds were identified; Davanone (60.56%), Cis Chrysanthenyl acetate (8.65%), Limonene (5.68%), ? Pinene (3.74%), Davanone ether isomer + (3.6%) and ? Thujene (3.6%) were the main components of the oil respectively.

Omid Sadeghpour; Gholamreza Asghari; Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani

2004-01-01

309

Constituents of Essential Oil from Bauhinia forficate Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Bauhinia forficata was obtained from leaves by steam distillation. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. In total, 15 components were identified being 14 sesquiterpenes and one hydrocarbon. The main component found was ?-elemene (38.4%) followed by ?-bulnesene (17.3%), cariophyllene oxide (9.4%) and (Z)-?-farnesene (9.1%).

Patrícia Sartorilli; Daniela Saraiva Correa

2007-01-01

310

U.S. Essential Oil Trade, May 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports of essential oils in 1989 rose to an alltime high of nearly $144 million, 17 percent greater than a year earlier, and well above 1987 exports of $114 million. Exports of orange and lemon oils doubled and sharp increases also were recorded for...

1990-01-01

311

Supercritical fluid extraction of celery seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of oil from milled celery seeds, using CO2 as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of the process parameters — pressure and temperature of extraction, particle size of celery seeds and flow rate of CO2 — on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments. The results indicated a significant increase

I. Papamichail; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2000-01-01

312

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens. PMID:23444311

Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

2013-12-01

313

Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum longifolium Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils from aerial parts and roots of Tanacetum longifolium Wall. (Asteraceae) were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. The blue colored oil from the aerial parts contained trans-sabinyl acetate (43.2%) and trans-sabinol (12.7%) as the major compounds. More than forty other compounds were also identified. In contrast, the yellow colored root oil contained terpinen-4-ol (25.8%), sabinene (23.4%) and p-cymene

Vijay K. Kaul; Bikram Singh; Ram P. Sood

1993-01-01

314

Composition of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon travancorensis.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil of CYMBOPOGON TRAVANCORENSIS Bor. (Poaceae) was investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified. The oil contains mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (39.60%), oxygenated terpenes (30.45%), and phenyl propanoids (22.04%). The main constituents of the oil are camphene (11.86%), limonene (18.07%), borneol (9.71%), elemicin (17.22%), and elemol (11.21%). PMID:17226460

Mallavarapu, G R; Ramesh, S; Kulkarni, R N; Syamasundar, K V

1992-04-01

315

Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90–98% of the oils) 60–68 were identified (80–97%

Sof??a Salido; Joaqu??n Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez; Christophe Pannecouque; Myriam Witvrouw; Erik De Clercq

2002-01-01

316

The Essential Oil Composition of Leonurus cardiaca L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried aerial parts of Leonurus cardiaca L. (Labiatae) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-one components have been identified in the oil of L. cardiaca. The major constituents of the oil were epi-cedrol (9.7%), ?-humulene (9.2%), dehydro-1,8-cineole (8.9%), germacrene D (8.9%), spathulenol (8.8%).

Katayoun Morteza-Semnani; Majid Saeedi; Mohammad Akbarzadeh

2008-01-01

317

Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.  

PubMed

Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

2010-10-01

318

TLC-direct bioautography for determination of antibacterial activity of Artemisia adamsii essential oil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was the chemical characterization of the essential oil of a Mongolian medicinal plant, Artemisia adamsii Besser, and the investigation of the antibacterial effect of its oil on different human pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and S. epidermidis). The chemical composition of the oil was established by GC and GC/MS. Direct bioautography was used for detecting the antibacterial activity of the essential oil. The result of GC experiments showed that a-thujone was the main component (64.4%) of the oil, while the amount of beta-thujone was 7.1%. 1,8-Cineole seemed to be the other relevant component (15.2%). The antibacterial activity of the A. adamsii essential oil against all three investigated bacteria was observed in the bioautographic system, but this effect was not proportional to the concentrations of a- or beta-thujone; therefore, from a microbiological aspect, thujone content does not determine the medicinal value of this oil. On the whole, the combination of TLC separation with biological detection is an appropriate method for evaluating multicomponent and hydrophobic plant extracts, for instance, essential oils, and it provides more reliable results than traditional microbiological methods (e.g., disc diffusion and agar plate techniques). PMID:24645495

Horváth, Györgyi; Acs, Kamilla; Kocsis, Béla

2013-01-01

319

Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq. The essential oils of myrtle and parsley seed contained ?-pinene (36.08% and 22.89%, respectively) as main constituents. Trans-Anethole was the major compound found in fennel and aniseed oils (66.98% and 93.51%, respectively). The dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene

Mustafa Kiralan; Ali Bayrak; Omar Fawzi Abdulaziz; Tu?ba Özbucak

2012-01-01

320

Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq. The essential oils of myrtle and parsley seed contained ?-pinene (36.08% and 22.89%, respectively) as main constituents. Trans-Anethole was the major compound found in fennel and aniseed oils (66.98% and 93.51%, respectively). The dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene

Mustafa Kiralan; Ali Bayrak; Omar Fawzi Abdulaziz; Tu?ba Özbucak

2011-01-01

321

Essential oil composition of Salvia miltiorrhiza flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodistillation of the flower of seven populations of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. collected in different locations in China afforded a pale yellowish oil in a yield of approximately 0.2%. A total of 82 compounds were identified across all the samples, accounting for 98–100% of the total compositions of each sample. Components were mainly monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids and alkanes. GC and

Qian Liang; Zong-Suo Liang; Jun-Ru Wang; Wen-Hui Xu

2009-01-01

322

An improved microwave Clevenger apparatus for distillation of essential oils from orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has

Mohamed A. Ferhat; Brahim Y. Meklati; Jacqueline Smadja; Farid Chemat

2006-01-01

323

Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymbra capitata , Origanum vulgare , Thymus mastichina and Calamintha baetica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aromatic plants such as Thymbra capitata , Origanum vulgare , and Calamintha baetica are used in some Portuguese traditional meat dishes, particularly in rabbit meat, tomato salads, fish food, escargot, and olives. In the present work, the antioxidant ability of the essential oils extracted from T. capitata , O. vulgare , C. baetica , and Th. mastichina cultivated in

L. Galego; V. Almeida; V. Gonçalves; M. Costa; I. Monteiro; F. Matos

324

Potential allelopathic activity of Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet is a widespread Mediterranean Lamiacea. Essential oils from S. italica flowerheads and leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation and then tested for their potential allelopathic activity against Raphanus sativus L. (Magnoliophyta) and the moss Tortula muralis (Hedw.) (Bryophyta), two organisms already tested for allelopathy, and against two bryophytes growing in the same environment as S.

A. Basile; R. C. Cobianchi; D. Rigano; F. Senatore; M. Bruno; S. Rosselli; B. Conte; S. Sorbo

2011-01-01

325

Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of some essential oils evaluated by wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from the three medicinal plants; Helichrysum italicum, Ledum groenlandicum and Ravensara aromatica, together with their mixture were tested for their genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities against urethane, a well-known promutagen. We have adopted the somatic mutations and recombination test (SMART) in the wings of Drosophila melanogaster. Three days old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers mwh and flr,

M Idaomar; R El Hamss; F Bakkali; N Mezzoug; A Zhiri; D Baudoux; A Muñoz-Serrano; V Liemans; A Alonso-Moraga

2002-01-01

326

An improved microwave Clevenger apparatus for distillation of essential oils from orange peel.  

PubMed

Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation. PMID:16384566

Ferhat, Mohamed A; Meklati, Brahim Y; Smadja, Jacqueline; Chemat, Farid

2006-04-21

327

Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

Bellik, Yuva

2014-01-01

328

Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri  

PubMed Central

This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and to inhibitory activity of efflux pump by gaseous contact. The main component of the essential oil of C. zehntneri was estragole (76,8%). The gaseous components of the oil enhanced the inhibition zone of norfloxacin in 39,5%. This result shows that this oil influences the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin, possibly affecting the bacterial NorA efflux system, and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of multidrug resistant pathogens.

Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcao-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Junior, JP

2010-01-01

329

Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering  

PubMed Central

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost.

Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

2011-01-01

330

Chemical composition, antifungal and insecticidal activities of Hedychium essential oils.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as "biocides" is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides), the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%-42%), linalool (<0.1%-56%), a-pinene (3%-17%), b-pinene (4%-31%), and (E)-nerolidol (0.1%-20%). Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration. PMID:23579997

Sakhanokho, Hamidou F; Sampson, Blair J; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Demirci, Betul; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M; Becnel, James J; Chen, Jian; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Spiers, James M

2013-01-01

331

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

332

Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare antimicrobial effects of essential oils alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum. The essential oils included cinnamon, tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifola), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), Leptospermum morrisonii, arnica, eucalyptus, grapefruit, the essential oil mouthrinse Cool Mint Listerine and two of its components, menthol and thymol. Cinnamon exhibited the greatest antimicrobial potency (1.25-2.5 mg/ml). Manuka, L. morrisonii, tea-tree oils, and thymol also showed antimicrobial potency but to a lesser extent. The combination effect of the essential oil-chlorhexidine was greater against biofilm cultures of both S. mutans and L. plantarum than against planktonic cultures. The amount of chlorhexidine required to achieve an equivalent growth inhibition against the biofilm cultures was reduced 4-10-fold in combination with cinnamon, manuka, L. morrisonii, thymol, and Listerine. We conclude that there may be a role for essential oils in the development of novel anticaries treatments. PMID:15943766

Filoche, S K; Soma, K; Sissons, C H

2005-08-01

333

Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi  

PubMed Central

Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p?=?0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid.

2014-01-01

334

Chemical composition and biological properties of Rhododendron anthopogon essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogon was investigated by GC-MS, and seventeen compounds (representing approximately 98% of the oil) were identified. The major components of the aerial parts of the oil were the monoterpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene and the sesquiterpene delta-cadinene. Biological studies revealed a weak topical anti-inflammatory activity; a significant killing effect against some Gram-positive reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcusfecalis, Bacillus subtilis was measured; Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain and a clinical isolate of Candida, C. pseudotropicalis were killed by as low as 0.04% (v/v) essential oil. Moreover, the oil was able to reduce cancer cell growth independently of the cell line and the treatment protocols used. PMID:20428045

Innocenti, Gabbriella; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Scialino, Giuditta; Banfi, Elena; Sosa, Silvio; Gurung, Khilendra; Barbera, Mariagnese; Carrara, Maria

2010-04-01

335

Fumigant antifungal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and constituents from Leptospermum petersonii against three Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, A. flavus, and A. niger. Essential oils extracted from Leptospermum petersonii at air concentrations of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL and 28 × 10(-3) mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three Aspergillus species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10(-3) mg/mL, inhibition rates of L. petersonii essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of A. flavus and A. niger, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10(-3) mg/mL) only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in L. petersonii essential oil. The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%). The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in L. petersonii oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities. PMID:22945026

Kim, Eunae; Park, Il-Kwon

2012-01-01

336

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves.  

PubMed

Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), ?-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-?-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range. PMID:25050318

Rajendran, Mini Priya; Pallaiyan, Blessed Beautlin; Selvaraj, Nija

2014-05-01

337

Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and Methods: Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil. Results: Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), ?-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-?-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes. Conclusion: The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range.

Rajendran, Mini Priya; Pallaiyan, Blessed Beautlin; Selvaraj, Nija

2014-01-01

338

Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi  

PubMed Central

Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties.

Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

2011-01-01

339

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from Cleome spinosa.  

PubMed

Five different essential oil extractions of the aerial parts of Cleome spinosa Jacq. were examined. The oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the whole aerial parts, aerial parts without flowers (fruit, leaves and stem), flowers, fruits and leaves have been examined by GC-FID and GC-MS. The chemical profiles of the oils reveal the dominance of oxygenated sesqui- and diterpenes, with the exception of the fruit oil, which contained a high content of fatty acids. The most abundant compounds from the whole aerial parts were (Z)-phytol (31.3%), integerrimine (5.5%) and incensole (4.0%). The major compounds from the aerial portion without flowers were caryophyllene oxide (10.5%), (-)-spathulenol (7.5%) and Z-phytol (6.9%). In the flower oil, the main components were 7-alpha-hydroxy manool (23.8%), incensole (9.2%) and sclareol (8.7%). The chief constituents in the fruit oil were tetradecanoic acid (40.6%), (Z)-phytol (6.58%) and sclareol (4.5%). In the leaf oil, (Z)-phytol (19.5%), 7-alpha-hydroxy manool (6.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.36%) were the predominant compounds. Antimicrobial activity of the oil obtained from the whole aerial part was evaluated against nine microbial strains using a filter paper disc-diffusion method. The volatile oil showed moderate action against seven of the eight bacteria strains used, with significant inhibitory activity against Streptococcus pyogenes Group A when compared with the standard antibiotics, ampicillin and gentamicin. The fungus, Candida albicans was less sensitive to the essential oil. The oils showed moderate insecticidal activity against Cylas formicarius elegantalus, but possessed no antioxidant activity as indicated by the DPPH method. This represents the first report on the chemical composition of the essential oils from C. spinosa found in Jamaica and the in vitro antioxidant, insecticidal and antimicrobial potential of the oil from the aerial parts. PMID:20839641

McNeil, Megil J; Porter, Roy B R; Williams, Lawrence A D; Rainford, Lois

2010-08-01

340

Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and lower (P < 0.05) total tract digestibility of DM and fiber. Digestibility of all nutrients was also lowered (P < 0.05) by feeding essential oil, but there were no effects on ruminal fermentation or methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID:16699105

Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

2006-06-01

341

Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), ?-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

2010-01-01

342

Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters.  

PubMed

The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct contact assays. Some successful EOs were fractionated and the fractions containing hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing molecules tested separately. Twenty EOs showed corrected mortalities ?96% at 2 ?L/mL. These were further tested at lower concentrations. Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs showed lethal concentrations (LC100)<0.4?L/mL. Oxygen-containing molecules fractions showing corrected mortality ?96% did not always show LC100 values similar to the corresponding EOs, suggesting additive and/or synergistic relationships among fractions. Nine decoction waters (remaining hydrodistillation waters) revealed 100% mortality at a minimum concentration of 12.5?L/mL. R. graveolens, S. montana and T. capitata EOs are potential environmentally friendly alternatives for B. xylophilus control given their high nematotoxic properties. Nematotoxic activity of an EO should be taken in its entirety, as its different components may contribute, in distinct ways, to the overall EO activity. PMID:23829930

Faria, Jorge M S; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

2013-10-01

343

Pediculocidal and scabicidal properties of Lippia multiflora essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the leaves of Lippia multiflora Moldenke (Verbenaceae) was tested for its pediculocidal and scabicidal activites against bodylice, headlice and scabies' mites. The 'knockdown' times obtained for bodylice and headlice using lippia oil preparations were comparatively shorter than those obtained using benzyl benzoate and Delvap Super, a brand of dichlorvos. The lethal effect of the lippia oil on headlice was increased when applied in an enclosed system that prevented volatilization of the oil while allowing maximum contact of the vapour with the headlice. A 20% v/v preparation of lippia oil applied to scabietic subjects for 5 consecutive days gave 100% cure compared with 87.5% cure obtained for benzyl benzoate preparation of the same concentration. The GC-MS analysis of oil revealed, among others, the presence of terpineol, alpha- and beta-pinene which are known to be lethal to body and headlice. PMID:10967487

Oladimeji, F A; Orafidiya, O O; Ogunniyi, T A; Adewunmi, T A

2000-09-01

344

Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils.  

PubMed

Strong antiseptic activity of essential oils has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of oils was tested against clinical bacterial strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia and Pseudomonas genera. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. 120 strains of bacteria isolated from patients with infections of oral cavity, respiratory, genitourinary tracts and from hospital environment were investigated. The results of experiments showed that the oil from T. vulgaris exhibited extremely strong activity against all of the clinical strains. Thyme oil demonstrated a good efficacy against antibiotics resistant strains of the tested bacteria. Lavender oil has been less activity against clinical strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Escherichia genus. The worst results have been observed against all strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22313307

Sienkiewicz, Monika; ?ysakowska, Monika; Cie?wierz, Julita; Denys, Pawe?; Kowalczyk, Edward

2011-11-01

345

Characterization of extracted shale oil crudes  

SciTech Connect

An extensive investigation to obtain physical and engineering data on shale oils from Queensland, Australia and the United States was conducted. The boiling range distributions of seven different shale oils which were retorted in the same retort under identical conditions were obtained and compared. Also, the effects of carbon dioxide retorting versus nitrogen retorting were investigated. It was found that carbon dioxide retorting increased the yield of low to mid-distillate fractions in the shale oil, thus enhancing the oil quality. A correlation was found between the slope of a line from the plot of the log of the cumulative weight percent of n-paraffin's versus the n-paraffin's carbon number adjusted for the lack of C{sub 4} and lighter n-paraffins. It was found that as the slope of the line decreased, the quality of the shale oil, represented by the initial boiling point, increased. This increase or decrease in oil quality is due to an increase or decrease in the amount of low boiling to mid-distillate fractions in the shale oil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was utilized in order to identify the chemical components existing in the various shale oils. From this information, a parametric study was conducted to determine the characteristics of the shale oils relative to their parent oil shale's physical characteristics. Finally, shale oil obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide was compared to shale oil obtained by carbon dioxide retorting in terms of initial and final boiling points and chemical composition.

Polasky, M.E.

1988-01-01

346

Extraction of El-Lajjun Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of the bitumen fraction of El-Lajjun oil shale was carried out using 17 different solvents, pure and combined. Out of all the solvents used, toluene and chloroform were found to be the most efficient for extraction of the bitumen to perform the major part of the experiments. This selectivity was based on the quality and quantity of the yield

Mohammed Z. Anabtawi; B. Z. Uysal

1995-01-01

347

Toxicity studies on western juniper oil ( Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil ( Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil extracts of western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) were evaluated for possible dermal toxic effects on mice and rabbits. Mice were tested for their response to both extracts utilizing a local lymph node assay. Western juniper oil extract at 0.5% and 5% concentrations did not show a stimulation index (SI) greater than normal

A. Morrie Craig; Joseph J. Karchesy; Linda L. Blythe; Maria del Pilar González-Hernández; Laurence R. Swan

2004-01-01

348

Essential oils, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of different parts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).  

PubMed

Cuminum cyminum L. roots, stems and leaves, and flowers were investigated for their essential oils, total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins contents, individual phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities. The essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas identification and quantification of individual target polyphenolic compounds was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Essential oil yields were 0.03% in roots, 0.1% in stem and leaves, and 1.7% in flowers. Major components of the oils were bornyl acetate (23%), ?-terpinene (34%), and ?-terpinene (51%) in roots, stems and leaves, and flowers, respectively. In all C. cyminum organs, total phenolics content ranged from 11.8 to 19.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW). Among the polyphenols studied, 13 were identified in roots, 17 in stem and leaves, and 15 in flowers. The major phenolic compound in the roots was quercetin (26%), whereas in the stems and leaves, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, trans-2-dihydrocinnamic acids and resorcinol were predominant. In the flowers, vanillic acid was the main compound (51%). The antioxidant activities of C. cyminum essential oils and acetone extracts obtained from the three organs were assessed using four tests [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-carotene/linoleic acid, reducing power, and chelating power assays]. The acetone extract of flowers was strongly effective as a DPPH radical scavenger, lipid peroxidation inhibitor, and reducing agent, with IC(50) values of 4, 32, and 8 ?g/mL, respectively. Moreover, the acetone extract of stems and leaves showed the highest chelating power. However, the essential oils exhibited moderate activities in the different tests. PMID:20809647

Bettaieb, Iness; Bourgou, Soumaya; Wannes, Wissem Aidi; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

2010-10-13

349

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in northern hilly areas of India.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Forty-three constituents amounting to 98.16% of the total essential oil contents were identified. The essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. ?-Thujone (36.35%), ?-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), ?-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED(50), 85.75?mg?L(-1)), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED(50), 87.63?mg?L(-1)) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED(50), 93.23?mg?L(-1)). This study indicated that A. nilagirica essential oil can be used to control phytopathogenic fungi infesting agricultural crops and commodities. PMID:22348279

Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Walia, Suresh; Sati, O P

2013-01-01

350

Composition and antioxidant activities of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in Soybean oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes was studied in soybean oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activitiey of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in soybean oil during the storage period. The essential oil obtained from Pulicaria gnaphalodes by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/Mass. Fifty-eight compounds representing 90.7% of total was identified. Main ingredient in the oil were involved ? -Pinene (30.2%), 1,8-Cineole (12.1%), Beta-Citronellol (9.6%), Mertenol (6.6%), ?-Terpineol (6.1%), 4-Terpineol (5.9%) and Chrysanthenone (2.9%). Different concentrations (0.200, 400 and 800 ppm) of essential oil and ? hydroxyl toluene (BHT; 100 and 200 ppm) was added to soybean oil and incubated for 35 days at 65°C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbitoric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels were measured every week during the time period of the study. Moreover, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was determined using 1,1 diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time using ANOVA test. Results revealed that DPPH ?-carotene-linolic acid assay findings on the P. gnaphalodes essential oil were lower than these of synthetic antioxidant, BHT. Moreover, during the incubation time, P. gnaphalodes essential oil lowered PVs and TBARs levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). According to our results essential oil was less effective than synthetic antioxidant. Therefore it may be used as a food flavor, natural antioxidant and a preventive agent for many diseases caused by free radicals. PMID:25015444

Shariatifar, Nabi; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Shamse-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Misagi, Ali; Akhonzade, Afshin; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein

2014-07-01

351

Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO. PMID:20838809

Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

2011-01-01

352

The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative.

do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felicio; Medeiros, Rosalia Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

2013-01-01

353

The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as "marmeleiro", in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino Junior, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Queiroga Neto, Vicente

2013-12-01

354

Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The main components of C. cyminum oil were p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al, cumin aldehyde, gamma-terpinene, and beta-pinene, while those of the C. carvi oil were carvone, limonene, germacrene D, and trans-dihydrocarvone. Antibacterial activity, determined with the agar diffusion method, was observed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in this study. The activity was particularly high against the genera Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, Erwinia, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia, and Agrobacterium, which are responsible for plant or cultivated mushroom diseases worldwide. In general, a lower activity was observed against bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. These results suggest the potential use of the above essential oils for the control of bacterial diseases. PMID:15631509

Iacobellis, Nicola S; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

2005-01-12

355

Optimization of biosurfactant-mediated oil extraction from oil sludge.  

PubMed

Oil extraction from oil sludge with biosurfactant formulas was optimized by a Taguchi orthogonal array design of L16 (4(5)) with five main factors, including biosurfactant type (surfactin, lichenysin, rhamnolipid and emulsan), biosurfactant concentration, pH, salinity and solvent. Oil recoveries obtained with the sixteen batch washing experiments with the selected levels of each factor were processed with Design Expert/SPSS and a specific combination of factors with a predicted oil recovery of 76.81% was obtained. The predicted optimal biosurfactant formula of 2.0g/L rhamnolipid, pH 12.0, 10g/L NaCl, and 5.0g/L n-butanol were validated by a washing experiment that yielded an oil recovery of 74.55%, which was 27.28% higher than the grand average oil recovery of the whole experiment design. Based on the optimum biosurfactant formula, the oil extraction process followed first-order kinetics as the washing rate constant and final oil recovery increased with temperature. These results will be informative and meaningful for the design of oil sludge treatment in industrial application. PMID:22325902

Zheng, Chenggang; Wang, Manman; Wang, Yongli; Huang, Zhiyong

2012-04-01

356

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.  

PubMed

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

2010-05-01

357

Evaluation of bacterial resistance to essential oils and antibiotics after exposure to oregano and cinnamon essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) are excellent antimicrobial agents sometimes used in active food packaging. This work studies the susceptibility of 48 clinical isolates and 12 reference strains of Gram-negative bacilli to oregano essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, and combinations of both. Furthermore, the tendency of the clinical isolates to develop resistance to these EOs and to different antibiotics after sequential oregano or cinnamon exposure was studied. For this purpose, antibiotic susceptibility (through disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] determination) and oregano and cinnamon susceptibility (through MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] determination) were compared after 50 passages in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of oregano and cinnamon essential oils. The results showed that all strains were susceptible to both EOs and their combination independently of the antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, neither synergistic nor antagonistic effects were observed between oregano and cinnamon essential oils at the concentrations tested. After the sequential exposure to both EOs, only Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, and Proteus mirabilis treated with oregano changed their antibiotic resistance profile and/or increased their resistance to this EO. However, the changes in antibiotic and oregano resistance were not related. PMID:22827568

Becerril, Raquel; Nerín, Cristina; Gómez-Lus, Rafael

2012-08-01

358

The Essential Oil of Dutch Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of 14 samples of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), naturally occurring in the North-Eastern part of the Netherlands, revealed the presence of an artemisia ketone, a chrysanthenol\\/chrysanthenyl acetate, a lyratol\\/lyratyl acetate and a ?-thujone chemotype. The essential oils of the flower heads contained a higher percentage of the main constituent than the oil obtained from the leaves. Vulgarone A

H. Hendriks; D. J. D. van der Elst; F. M. S. van Putten; R. Bos

1990-01-01

359

Essential Oil Components of Water-Convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oil of Ipomoea aquatica has been investigated by GC, IR, H-NMR and GC\\/M S. The oil contained 58 volatile components of which 49.14% were terpenoid. The main components were phytol (37.08%), palmitic acid (10.99%), (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol (5.7%), ?-humulene (2.28%), n-hexacosane (2.25%) and bis(2-ethyl-hexyl) sebacate (2.17%).

Hiromu Kameoka; Kanji Kubo; Mitsuo Miyazawa

1992-01-01

360

Composition of the essential oil of Pogostemon travancoricus var. travancoricus.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Pogostemon travancoricus Bedd. var. travancoricus collected from the Agasthyamalai region of Tamil Nadu, India was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major components of the oil were bicyclogermacrene (16.0%), cis-calamenene (6.3%), germacrene B (11.1%), spathulenol (7.6%), viridiflorol (5.8%), alpha-cadinol (4.2%) and pogostone (9.9%). PMID:22428255

Murugan, Ramar; Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao

2012-01-01

361

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica.  

PubMed

Xylopia aethiopica is a medicinal plant of great repute in West Africa which produces a variety of complex chemical compounds. The fresh and dried fruits, leaf, stem bark and root bark essential oils showed various degrees of activity against the gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, the gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans, using the cup plate method. However, none of the oils showed activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:20161962

Fleischer, T C; Mensah, M L K; Mensah, A Y; Komlaga, G; Gbedema, S Y; Skaltsa, H

2008-01-01

362

Essential Oil of the Pothomorphe peltata (L.) Miq  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of leaves of the Pothomorphe peltata (L.) Miq., collected in vegetative and reproductive periods, showed yields of 0.10–0.20%. Analysis of the oil by GC\\/MS revealed that the predominant components were those of the sesquiterpene class. The major constituents were ?-caryophyllene (39.5–68.0%), germacrene D (6.213.3%), (E)-nerolidol (4.8–11.1%) and ?-humulene (2.1–6.5%).

Marlene S. Moraes; Silvia R. Machado; Marcia Ortiz M. Marques

2004-01-01

363

Carbonyl species characteristics during the evaporation of essential oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonyls emitted from essential oils can affect the air quality when they are used in indoors, especially under poor ventilation conditions. Lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, and tea tree oils were selected as typical and popular essential oils to investigate in terms of composition, thermal characteristics and fifteen carbonyl constituents. Based on thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, the activation energy was 7.6-8.3 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.7 and the frequency factor was 360-2838 min -1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the dominant carbonyl compounds, and their concentrations were 0.034-0.170 ppm. The emission factors of carbonyl compounds were 2.10-3.70 mg g -1, and acetone, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde accounted for a high portion of the emission factor of carbonyl compounds in essential oil exhaust. Some unhealthy carbonyl species such as formaldehyde and valeraldehyde, were measured at low-temperature during the vaporization of essential oils, indicating a potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Lai, Yen-Ming; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2010-06-01

364

Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were ?-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

Chekem, Marie Stephanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

2010-01-01

365

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

366

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

367

Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.  

PubMed

In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57mm and 128-512?g/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10?m and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

2014-12-15

368

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Kewda and Ketaki  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by water distillation of the staminate inflorescences of Kewda (Pandanus fascicularisLam. var. fasicularis) and Ketaki (P.fascicularis Lam. var. Ketaki) are reported. The major components of kewda oil were found to be 2-phenethyl methyl ether (65.6–75.4%), terpinen-4-ol (11.7–19.5%), p-cymene (1.0–3.1%) and ?-terpineol (1.2–2.9%), while the major components of ketaki oil were 2-phenethyl methyl

Reeta Misra; P. K. Dash; Y. R. Rao

2000-01-01

369

Analysis of the essential oil of Amsonia illustris.  

PubMed

The root and leaf essential oils, present in trace amounts in Amsonia illustris Woods. (Apocynaceae), were isolated by steam distillation and their chemical constituents identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 80% of the thirty volatile compounds in the leaf oil were identified, the major constituents being mainly sesquiterpenes like a-humulene (14.5%), beta-caryophyllene (12.4%) and guaiol (11.6%). The volatile ingredients of the root oil were pinocampheol, methyl salicylate, (2E,4E)- decadienal, eugenol and trans-isoeugenol. PMID:21425682

London, Annamaria; Veres, Katalin; Szabó, Krisztina; Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Máthé, Imre

2011-02-01

370

Composition and antimicrobial activity of Achillea distans essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Achillea distans W. et K. flower heads was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether 43 components in concentrations more than 0.1% were identified representing 93.5% of the oil composition. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (16.8%), trans-thujone (9.8%), sabinene (8.2%), borneol (7.5%), beta-pinene (6.5%), and camphor (5.8%). The oil showed moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and weak activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, and Escherichia coli. PMID:21815436

Konakchiev, Angel; Todorova, Milka; Mikhova, Bozhanka; Vitkova, Antonina; Najdenski, Hristo

2011-06-01

371

Phytochemical analysis of Geigeria alata and Francoeuria crispa essential oils.  

PubMed

Phytochemical analyses of Geigeria alata (Benth. & Hook.) and Francoeuria crispa (Forssk., Cas.) (Asteraceae) essential oils were performed. G. alata oil showed moderate in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50, micrograms/ml against tumor cells; P388: 2.0, A-549: 2.5 and HT-29: 5.0), and also showed weak anti-HIV activity. S-Carvotanacetone, the major component of F. crispa oil (93.0%), was isolated and its structure was elucidated by 2D-NMR analysis. PMID:9342957

Ross, S A; el Sayed, K A; el Sohly, M A; Hamann, M T; Abdel-Halim, O B; Ahmed, A F; Ahmed, M M

1997-10-01

372

Essential oils of Alpinia rafflesiana and their antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

The essential oils from the leaves, pseudostems, rhizomes and fruits of Alpinia rafflesiana were isolated by hydrodistillation. The oils were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The most abundant components in the leaf oil were trans-caryophyllene (32.61%), caryophyllene oxide (8.67%), (2E,6Z)-farnesol (4.91%) and alpha-terpineol (4.25%), while 1,8-cineole (32.25%), myrcene (13.63%), alpha-terpineol (9.90%) and trans-caryophyllene (9.80%) were the main constituents in the pseudostem oil. The rhizome constituted of tetracosane (42.61%), tau-cadinol (7.46%), alpha-terpineol (6.71%) were the major components, whereas tetracosane (13.39%), (2E,6E)-farnesol (7.31%), alpha-terpineol (8.51%) and caryophyllene oxide (8.05%) were the main components in the fruit oil. Antimicrobial assay revealed that all the essential oils showed moderate to weak inhibition against the tested microorganisms. The leaf oil was the most active and inhibited both S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 7.81 microg/mL and 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:24273875

Jusoh, Shariha; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Ahmad, Farediah

2013-09-01

373

The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ?-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

374

Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae. PMID:22581297

Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Ayd?n, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

2012-10-01

375

Repellent Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Simulium Species in India  

PubMed Central

Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) on the human volunteers against Simulium (blackflies) in three locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blackflies preferred biting legs (> 79%) as compared to hand and face with profound biting activity during 1000–1100 h (> 23%) and 1500 – 1600 h (> 28%). The essential oil extracted from Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides provided > 2 h protection at 5% concentration and > 5 h protection at 10% concentration in all the three testing locations. The repellency of Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides essential oils after 6 h application was > 50% at 5% concentration and > 90% at 10% concentration. The study provides evidence for the potential of these essential oils in developing new repellents against blackflies.

Hazarika, S; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, RK; Singh, Lokendera

2012-01-01

376

Characterization of Essential Oils from Helichrysum odoratissimum Using Different Drying Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helichrysum odoratissimum is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. The essential oil from the herb was extracted and characterized for the first time using different drying methods. The oils isolated from fresh, air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried aerial parts of the plant yielded 0.28, 0.46, 0.33 and 0.36%, respectively. The fresh leaf oil was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main constituents as p-menthone (35.4%), pulegone (34.2%) and 1, 8-cineole (13.0%). The dried plant oils had limonene (31.6-22.6%), µ-caryophyllene (13.0-12.0%) and µ-pinene (10.0-7.7%) as their major constituents. Generally, the yield and chemical profile of H. odoratissimum were affected by the drying methods utilized. There were noteworthy chemical alterations in the major components of the essential oils using different methods of drying. The compounds pulegone and menthone were reported as potentially harmful compounds, hence their substantial reduction in the dried oils as compared to the fresh leaf oil is noteworthy as it aids reduction of toxicity in the oils.

Asekun, O. T.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

377

Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.  

PubMed

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-06-01

378

The In Vitro Action of Essential Oils on Different Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal action of eight (Lavandula hybrid, Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Coriandrum sativum L. and Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils was tested in vitro against Phytophtora cinnamomi Rads., Pyrenochaeta lycopersici Kleb. and Verticillium dahliae Kleb., using different concentrations (up to 1600 ppm). The fungistatic + fungicidal activity of the

Laura Giamperi; Daniele Fraternale; Donata Ricci

2002-01-01

379

Composition of the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the common tansy obtained from a population growing in the Dzhungarain Ala-Tau has been investigated.\\u000a More than 50 substances have been detected, of which 39, including the main ones, have been identified.

A. D. Dembitskii; G. I. Krotova; R. A. Yurina; R. Suleeva

1984-01-01

380

Composition of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum polycephalum Schultz. Bip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the aerial parts of Tanacetum polycephalum was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. The main constituents were camphor (18.2%), 1,8-cineole (17.0%), carveol (9.1%) and trans-isopulegone (8.0%).

Abdolhossein Rustaiyan; Faraz Mojob; Mehri Salsali; Shiva Masoudi; Mohammad Yari

1999-01-01

381

Constituents of the Essential Oil of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the flowers of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less. growing wild in Kenya was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, the major constituents being ?-pinene (43.4%), (E, E)-farnesol (16.8%) and ?-humulene (14.6%).

Wilber Lwande; Ahmed Hassanali; Onesmus B. Wanyama; Sarah Ngola; Julius W. Mwangi

1993-01-01

382

U.S. Essential Oil Trade Increases in 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. exports and imports of essential oils were up sharply in 1983, reflecting a stronger global economy and a replenishing of depleted inventories. Despite a strong dollar, exports increased to $93.1 million, 7% greater than 1982 shipments. Orange and le...

1984-01-01

383

Essential oils from roots of certain Heracleum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and dynamics of the principal components of essential oils from roots of several introduced species of Heracleum were found in order to determine if the data could be used to resolve issues with the species systematics of this genus. The Heracleum species that were studied were: H. antasiaticum, H. asperum, H. calcareum var. colchicum, H. chorodanum, H. dissectum,

K. G. Tkachenko

2009-01-01

384

Essential Oil of Origanum vulgare L. from North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. More than 30 constituents were identified of which linalool (23.8%), myrcene (18.0%), ?-caryophyllene (9.06%), germacrene-D (7.4%) and terpinen-4-ol (4.4%) were found as the major compounds.

Vijay K. Kaul; Bikram Singh; Ram P. Sood

1996-01-01

385

Effect of Eucalyptus Essential Oil on Respiratory Bacteria and Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was determined for 120 isolates of Streptococcus\\u000a pyogenes, 20 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 40 isolates of S. agalactiae, 20 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 40 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 30 isolates of H. parainfluenzae, 10 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two viruses, a strain of adenovirus and a strain

Claudio Cermelli; Anna Fabio; Giuliana Fabio; Paola Quaglio

2008-01-01

386

Chemical studies of essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia.  

PubMed

Leaf and (unripe and ripe) berry essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. badia (H. Gay) Debeaux grown wild in Spain have been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. A seasonal investigation of both leaf and berry oils was also performed. Among the approximately 80 constituents investigated (representing 90-98% of the oils) 60-68 were identified (80-97% of the oil composition). The leaf oils were mainly composed of alpha-pinene (40-57%) and manoyl oxide (5-10%). The (unripe) berry oils were dominated by alpha-pinene (65%) with moderate amounts of myrcene, limonene, germacrene D or gamma-muurolene. Several differences in yields and chemical composition from a qualitative and quantitative point of view were detected when comparing all the oil samples analysed. In addition, two oil samples were examined, but found inactive, against the replication of HIV-1(III(B)) and HIV-2(ROD) in cell culture, whereas the samples were toxic for the cells at a 50% cytotoxic concentration of 106 and 123 microg/ml, respectively. PMID:12020937

Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Nogueras, Manuel; Sánchez, Adolfo; Pannecouque, Christophe; Witvrouw, Myriam; De Clercq, Erik

2002-06-01

387

Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil  

PubMed Central

Background: Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved. Objective: The aim of this current study was therefore to investigate the potential anticancer properties of agarwood essential oil obtained from distillation of agarwood (resin) towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was subjected to screening assays namely cell viability, cell attachment and sulforhodamine B (SRB)-based cytotoxicity assay to determine the IC50 value. Results: The agarwood essential oil caused reduction of the cell number in both the cell viability and attachment assay suggesting a cumulative effect of the cell killing, inhibition of the cell attachment and or causing cells to detach. The agarwood essential oil showed IC50 value of 900 ?g/ml towards the cancer cells. Conclusion: The agarwood essential oil exhibited anticancer activity which supports the traditional use against the inflammatory-associated diseases. This warrants further investigation towards the development of alternative remedy towards cancer.

Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Phirdaous, Abbas; Azura, Amid

2014-01-01

388

The metabolic responses to aerial diffusion of essential oils.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and affect a great number of people worldwide. Essential oils, take effects through inhalation or topical application, are believed to enhance physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of essential oils in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabonomics study that reveals the aromas-induced metabolic changes and the anxiolytic effect of aromas in elevated plus maze (EPM) induced anxiety model rats. The significant alteration of metabolites in the EPM group was attenuated by aromas treatment, concurrent with the behavioral improvement with significantly increased open arms time and open arms entries. Brain tissue and urinary metabonomic analysis identified a number of altered metabolites in response to aromas intervention. These metabolic changes included the increased carbohydrates and lowered levels of neurotransmitters (tryptophan, serine, glycine, aspartate, tyrosine, cysteine, phenylalanine, hypotaurine, histidine, and asparagine), amino acids, and fatty acids in the brain. Elevated aspartate, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose, fructose, and glucose), nucleosides and organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate were also observed in the urine. The EPM induced metabolic differences observed in urine or brain tissue was significantly reduced after 10 days of aroma inhalation, as noted with the loss of statistical significance on many of the metabolites in the aroma-EPM group. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the metabonomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils and provide the basis for pinpointing affected pathways in anxiety-related behavior, which will lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of anxiolytic effect of essential oils. PMID:22984571

Wu, Yani; Zhang, Yinan; Xie, Guoxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Pan, Xiaolan; Chen, Tianlu; Hu, Yixue; Liu, Yumin; Cheng, Yu; Chi, Yi; Yao, Lei; Jia, Wei

2012-01-01

389

Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.  

PubMed

In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

2010-04-01

390

The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus.

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

391

The mechanism of antifungal action of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

2012-01-01

392

Changes of peel essential oil composition of four Tunisian citrus during fruit maturation.  

PubMed

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90-90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63-69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63-31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04-9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23-9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81-69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01-26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53-14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52-86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

393

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

PubMed Central

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saidani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

394

Composition of the essential oil of Cynanchum mongolicum (Asclepiadaceae) and insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphidiae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Farmers have applied Cynanchum mongolicum (Maxim) to control crop pests. The aim of this study was to analyze composition of essential oil from C. mongolicum, evaluate insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines, and lethal doses. Materials and Methods: Essential oil from C. mongolicum was efficiently extracted by steam distillation. The main components of the oil were analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system, and the insecticidal activity of the essential oil on soybean aphids Aphis glycines was tested using a variety of methods. Results: The components of the essential oil from C. mongolicum mainly included terpenes and ester compounds, of which (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol acetate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, ?-farnesene, and ?-caryophyllene accounted for 15.8, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.5%, respectively. With 1- and 2-day exposure, the essential oil showed pronounced contact toxicity (median lethal concentration (LC50) =37.8 and 38.4 ?L/mL, respectively), weak fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 139.7 and 139.9 ?L/L, respectively). The essential oil showed strong deterrent activity on soybean aphids in 2 and 4 h. Conclusion: The essential oil of C. mongolicum contained insecticidal components and possessed contact toxicity and deterrent activity to A. glycines.

Yang, Wang; Zhao, An; Congai, Zhen; Qizhi, Liu; Wangpeng, Shi

2014-01-01

395

Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and ?-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), ?-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

2010-03-01

396

Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.  

PubMed

Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 ?g/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. PMID:22510493

Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

2012-06-15

397

Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.  

PubMed

The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

2010-01-01

398

Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.62%; and inhalation of 0.1 and 0.3 mL/cage inhibited locomotion by 62.81% and 65.33%, respectively. Generally, larger doses and longer administrations of nutmeg seed essential oil exhibited greater locomotor inhibition. Subsequently, the plasma concentrations of essential oil compounds were measured. The most concentrated compound in the plasma was myristicin. Half an hour after the addition of 1 mL/cage of nutmeg seed oil, the plasma concentration of myristicin was 3.7 ?g/mL; one and two hours after the addition, the blood levels of myristicin were 5.2 ?g/mL and 7.1 ?g/mL, respectively. Other essential oil compounds identified in plasma were safrole (two-hour inhalation: 1.28 ?g/mL), 4-terpineol (half-hour inhalation: 1.49 ?g/mL, one-hour inhalation: 2.95 ?g/mL, two-hour inhalation: 6.28 ?g/mL) and fatty esters. The concentrations of the essential oil compounds in the blood plasma were relatively low (?g/mL or ppm). In conclusion, the volatile compounds of nutmeg seed essential oil identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

Muchtaridi; Subarnas, Anas; Apriyantono, Anton; Mustarichie, Resmi

2010-01-01

399

Larvicidal activity of two Algerian Verbenaceae essential oils against Culex pipiens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of essential oils extracted from the leaves of Verbena officinalis and Lantana camara L. for the control of Culex pipiens. Triplicate bioassays were performed with fourth larval instars of C. pipiens (n=25 per replicate) with solutions at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ?L/L of V. officinalis and L. camara L. extracts. Cumulative mortalities were determined 3, 6, 12 and 24h after treatment. Results showed cumulative mortalities, at three (3) hours to be 30.0 ± 2.9% and 14.8 ± 1.5% and achieve 43.3 ± 1.9% and 44.4 ± 3.1% after 24h exposure time, at 100mg/L of essential oil from L. camara and V. officinalis, respectively. PMID:21592668

Zoubiri, Safia; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

2011-09-27

400

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

2012-01-01

401

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-01-01

402

Supercritical gas extraction of oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of supercritical gas extraction for the refining of oil shales is studied. The experiments are carried out in a 300 cc reactor with toluene as the solvent. The temperature is allowed to range from 330 to 450°C, and the pressure from 6.9 to 22.4 mPa. The extraction efficiency as a function of temperature is determined. Solubility parameters are

1983-01-01

403

Supercritical gas extraction of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The use of supercritical gas extraction for the refining of oil shales is studied. The experiments are carried out in a 300 cc reactor with toluene as the solvent. The temperature is allowed to range from 330 to 450/sup 0/C, and the pressure from 6.9 to 22.4 mPa. The extraction efficiency as a function of temperature is determined. Solubility parameters are used to predict this temperature dependence.

Compton, L.E.

1983-01-01

404

Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils

Naho Maruyama; Yuka Sekimoto; Hiroko Ishibashi; Shigeharu Inouye; Haruyuki Oshima; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

2005-01-01

405

Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.  

PubMed

Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use. PMID:19032971

Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

2009-01-01

406

Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent\\u000a mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search\\u000a for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against\\u000a Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted

Raquel M. Gleiser; Maria A. Bonino; Julio A. Zygadlo

2011-01-01

407

Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of edible films to release antimicrobial constituents in food packaging is a form of active packaging. Antimicrobial properties of spice extracts are well known, however their application to edible films is limited. In this study, antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films containing 1.0–4.0% (wt\\/vol) ratios of oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils were tested against Escherichia

A. C. Seydim; G. Sarikus

2006-01-01

408

Effect of essential oils treatment on the frozen storage stability of chub mackerel fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bay leaf (BLO), thyme (TO), rosemary (RO), black seed (BSO), sage (SO), grape seed (GSO), flaxseed (FSO) and\\u000a lemon (LO) essential oil from vegetable extracted on lipid oxidation and some other quality parameter of frozen chub mackerel\\u000a during frozen storage at ?20°C were examined over a period of 11 months. Taste, odour, texture and overall acceptability of\\u000a control

Nuray Erkan; Gözde Bilen

2010-01-01

409

GC\\/MS and GC\\/FTIR Analysis of the Essential Oil of Celery Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steam-distilled essential oil first extracted with 1,1,2-tri-chloro-l,2,2-trifluorethane (CFC-113) from celery seeds (Apium graveolensL.) has been separated by distillation and column chromatography. It was then subjected to analysis with GC\\/MS and GC\\/FTIR. More than 50 compounds could be detected, 27 of which have been identified.

Cu Jian-Qin; Zhang Zheng-Ju; Pu Fan; Francis Perineau; Michel Delmas; Antoine Gaset

1990-01-01

410

Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test. PMID:11313115

Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V

2001-05-01

411

Essential oil composition of three Peperomia species from the Amazon, Brazil.  

PubMed

The essential oils of three species of Peperomia from the Amazon, Brazil, were hydrodistilled and their 96 volatile constituents identified by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents found in the oil of P. macrostachya were epi-alpha-bisabolol (15.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.9%), myristicin (7.6%), an aromatic compound (6.6%) and limonene (5.4%). The oil of P. pellucida was dominated by dillapiole (55.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (14.3%) and carotol (8.1%). The major volatile found in the oil of P. rotundifolia was decanal (43.3%), probably a fatty acid-derived compound, followed by dihydro-P3-santalol (9.0%), (E)-nerolidol (7.9%) and limonene (7.7%). The aromatic compounds elemicin, myristicin, apiole, dillapiole and safrole identified in these Peperomia species has been found also in Amazon Piper species. The oils and methanol extracts showed high brine shrimp larvicidal activities. The oil of P. rotundifolia (LC50 = 1.9 +/- 0.1 microg/mL) was the more toxic, followed by the extract of P. pellucida (LC50 = 2.4 +/- 0.5 microg/mL) and the oil of P. macrostachya (LC50 = 9.0 +/- 0.4 microg/mL), therefore with important biological properties. PMID:19413127

de Lira, Patricia Natália B; da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Sousa, Pergentino José; Silva, Nayla N S; Maia, José Guilherme S

2009-03-01

412

Supercritical fluid extraction of the volatile oil from Santolina chamaecyparissus.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the volatile oil from Santolina chamaecyparissus L. flower heads was performed under different conditions of pressure, temperature, mean particle size and CO(2) flow rate. This oil was compared with the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation (HD). The SFE volatile and essential oils were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The range of the main volatile components obtained with HD and SFE were, respectively: 1,8-cineole (25-30% and 7-48%), camphor (7-9% and 8-14%), borneol (7-8% and 2-11%), terpinen-4-ol (6-7% and 1-4%), terpinolene (1-4% and 1-7%) and isobornyl acetate (1-2% and 1-11%). The chemical composition of the extracts was greatly influenced by the conditions of pressure and temperature used. In fact, it was possible to enrich the sesquiterpene fraction by increasing the pressure from 8 to 9 MPa, while changing the temperature from 50 to 40 degrees C at 9 MPa enriched the volatiles in n-alkanes [corrected]. PMID:19705372

Grosso, Clara; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Burillo, Jesus; Mainar, Ana M; Urieta, José S; Barroso, José G; Coelho, José A; Palavra, António M F

2009-09-01

413

Essential oil of Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae) from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from aerial parts of the Costa Rican herb Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht) Vatke (Lamiaceae) collected in El Empalme, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Fifty-one components were identified corresponding ca. 93% of the oil. The major components were beta-pinene (26.6%), cis-pinocamphone (25.1%), delta-3-carene (6.1%), trans-pinocamphone (4.0%), camphor (3.8%) and beta-caryophyllene (3.7%). PMID:10883325

Cicció, J F; Soto, V H; Poveda, L J

1999-09-01

414

Seasonal influence on the essential oil of Eucalyptus microcorys.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil, phenolic contents, and foliar nutrients of Eucalyptus microcorys leaves, cultivated in Brazil, was analysed on a monthly basis for one year. Canonical redundancy analysis correlated results with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature), allowing three groups to be distinguished as regards temperature, flavonoids, and the content of some metals. Strong correlations between Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, P, and K with some monoterpenes and phenolic compounds were ob