Science.gov

Sample records for establish mutually beneficial

  1. Bacterial symbioses. Predation and mutually beneficial associations.

    PubMed

    Esteve, I; Gaju, N

    1999-06-01

    The endosymbiotic theory, which has proved to explain the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, also posits the origin of nucleus and other cellular organelles that could have derived from ancient relationships among bacteria. It seems that predation might have been a prerequisite to the establishment of symbiosis as a source of evolutionary novelty. This review describes current different examples of bacteria able not only to attack and degrade other bacteria, but also to establish stable symbiotic relationships with different eukaryotic organisms. PMID:10943397

  2. Mutually Beneficial Service Learning: Language Teacher Candidates in a Local Community Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a project designed to provide mutually beneficial solutions to challenges faced by world language teacher candidates, their preparation program, and a local community center. The project provided opportunities for teacher candidates enrolled in a world language (WL) teacher education course to complete clinical experiences…

  3. Establishing mutual trust--a prerequisite to public partnership.

    PubMed

    Bakir, P H

    2000-01-01

    Establishing mutual trust is the key to establishing workable and sustainable partnerships between the public and service providers, in any part of the world. The experience of utilities in the United Kingdom and United States shows that trust is established through sharing information with the public and improving customer service. Understanding the needs of the public and the service agency are a prerequisite to establishing trust. There is no "magic formula" for the process, as it depends on the current level of knowledge, attitudes and actual practice (behavior) of both the public and the service agency. In Jordan, for example, there is awareness of environmental issues, but trust must be developed to generate public support for programs. PMID:10842796

  4. Mutually beneficial host exploitation and ultra-biased sex ratios in quasisocial parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiuyun; Meng, Ling; Kapranas, Apostolos; Xu, Fuyuan; Hardy, Ian C W; Li, Baoping

    2014-01-01

    Selfish interests usually preclude resource sharing, but under some conditions collective actions enhance per capita gains. Such Allee effects underlay early explanations of social evolution but current understanding focusses on kin selection (inclusive fitness). We find an Allee effect that explains unusual quasisociality (cooperative brood care) among parasitoid wasps without invoking or precluding kin selection effects. In Sclerodermus harmandi, individual females produce most offspring when exploiting small hosts alone. However, larger hosts are more successfully exploited by larger groups of females, with the per-female benefits outweighing the costs of host sharing. Further, the extremely biased sex ratios (97% female) are better explained by mutually beneficial female-female interactions that increase the reproductive value of daughters (local resource enhancement), rather than by the usually invoked local mate competition between males. Thus, atypical quasisocial behaviour in a parasitoid wasp directly enhances reproductive success and selects for very extremely female-biased sex ratios. PMID:25216091

  5. Mutually beneficial host exploitation and ultra-biased sex ratios in quasisocial parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiuyun; Meng, Ling; Kapranas, Apostolos; Xu, Fuyuan; Hardy, Ian C.W.; Li, Baoping

    2014-01-01

    Selfish interests usually preclude resource sharing, but under some conditions collective actions enhance per capita gains. Such Allee effects underlay early explanations of social evolution but current understanding focusses on kin selection (inclusive fitness). We find an Allee effect that explains unusual quasisociality (cooperative brood care) among parasitoid wasps without invoking or precluding kin selection effects. In Sclerodermus harmandi, individual females produce most offspring when exploiting small hosts alone. However, larger hosts are more successfully exploited by larger groups of females, with the per-female benefits outweighing the costs of host sharing. Further, the extremely biased sex ratios (97% female) are better explained by mutually beneficial female–female interactions that increase the reproductive value of daughters (local resource enhancement), rather than by the usually invoked local mate competition between males. Thus, atypical quasisocial behaviour in a parasitoid wasp directly enhances reproductive success and selects for very extremely female-biased sex ratios. PMID:25216091

  6. Mutually beneficial and sustainable management of Ethiopian and Egyptian dams in the Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habteyes, Befekadu G.; Hasseen El-bardisy, Harb A. E.; Amer, Saud A.; Schneider, Verne R.; Ward, Frank A.

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing pressures from population growth, recurrent drought, climate, urbanization and industrialization in the Nile Basin raise the importance of finding viable measures to adapt to these stresses. Four tributaries of the Eastern Nile Basin contribute to supplies: the Blue Nile (56%), White Nile-Albert (14%), Atbara (15%) and Sobat (15%). Despite much peer reviewed work addressing conflicts on the Nile, none to date has quantitatively examined opportunities for discovering benefit sharing measures that could protect negative impacts on downstream water users resulting from new upstream water storage developments. The contribution of this paper is to examine the potential for mutually beneficial and sustainable benefit sharing measures from the development and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam while protecting baseline flows to the downstream countries including flows into the Egyptian High Aswan Dam. An integrated approach is formulated to bring the hydrology, economics and institutions of the region into a unified framework for policy analysis. A dynamic optimization model is developed and applied to identify the opportunities for Pareto Improving measures to operate these two dams for the four Eastern Nile Basin countries: Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt. Results indicate a possibility for one country to be better off (Ethiopia) and no country to be worse off from a managed operation of these two storage facilities. Still, despite the optimism of our results, considerable diplomatic negotiation among the four riparians will be required to turn potential gains into actual welfare improvements.

  7. Mutually beneficial relationship in optimization between search-space smoothing and stochastic search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Manabu; Hiramatsu, Kotaro

    2013-10-01

    The effectiveness of the Metropolis algorithm (MA) (constant-temperature simulated annealing) in optimization by the method of search-space smoothing (SSS) (potential smoothing) is studied on two types of random traveling salesman problems. The optimization mechanism of this hybrid approach (MASSS) is investigated by analyzing the exploration dynamics observed in the rugged landscape of the cost function (energy surface). The results show that the MA can be successfully utilized as a local search algorithm in the SSS approach. It is also clarified that the optimization characteristics of these two constituent methods are improved in a mutually beneficial manner in the MASSS run. Specifically, the relaxation dynamics generated by employing the MA work effectively even in a smoothed landscape and more advantage is taken of the guiding function proposed in the idea of SSS; this mechanism operates in an adaptive manner in the de-smoothing process and therefore the MASSS method maintains its optimization function over a wider temperature range than the MA.

  8. Mutually Beneficial Activities for Young Children and Older Adults in Dependent Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremmel, Andrew J.; Travis, Shirley S.; Kelly-Harrison, Patti

    1997-01-01

    Argues successful intergenerational curriculum should meet the following criteria: (1) developmentally appropriate; (2) socially appropriate for impaired adults; (3) functionally appropriate; and (4) coexploration and mutual benefit. Suggests activities including free conversation, singing, music, telling or reading stories, and cooking. Advocates…

  9. Nonlinear time series analysis of Kepler Space Telescope data: Mutually beneficial progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevti?, N.; Stine, P.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Nonlinear time series analysis, though a powerful tool, has not been used widely in astronomy and astrophysics because the principle requirements that the data be sampled uniformly and continuous are rarely met. Kepler Space Telescope variable-star light curves satisfy these and almost all other requirements. These data have allowed a more systematic study of the methodology and yielded new information. Nonlinear noise reduction is the aspect we focus on here. Nonlinear time series power spectra often have relevant information across all the frequencies in a spectrum. As opposed to traditional filtering that results in a loss of information at the high frequencies, nonlinear local projective noise reduction allows us to significantly reduce noise while keeping high-frequency information. Nonlinear noise reduction is discussed for a number of Kepler Space Telescope targets with different power-spectral characteristics. The extremely high quality of the Kepler data has also allowed us to explore the novel use of average mutual information (AMI) for distinguishing signal from noise in broadband spectra. We report on noise reduction for targets with power spectra that contain a fundamental and harmonics, power spectra with no such lines and spectra with high-frequency lines.

  10. The Effect of Linkage on Establishment and Survival of Locally Beneficial Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Aeschbacher, Simon; Bürger, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    We study invasion and survival of weakly beneficial mutations arising in linkage to an established migration–selection polymorphism. Our focus is on a continent–island model of migration, with selection at two biallelic loci for adaptation to the island environment. Combining branching and diffusion processes, we provide the theoretical basis for understanding the evolution of islands of divergence, the genetic architecture of locally adaptive traits, and the importance of so-called “divergence hitchhiking” relative to other mechanisms, such as “genomic hitchhiking”, chromosomal inversions, or translocations. We derive approximations to the invasion probability and the extinction time of a de novo mutation. Interestingly, the invasion probability is maximized at a nonzero recombination rate if the focal mutation is sufficiently beneficial. If a proportion of migrants carries a beneficial background allele, the mutation is less likely to become established. Linked selection may increase the survival time by several orders of magnitude. By altering the timescale of stochastic loss, it can therefore affect the dynamics at the focal site to an extent that is of evolutionary importance, especially in small populations. We derive an effective migration rate experienced by the weakly beneficial mutation, which accounts for the reduction in gene flow imposed by linked selection. Using the concept of the effective migration rate, we also quantify the long-term effects on neutral variation embedded in a genome with arbitrarily many sites under selection. Patterns of neutral diversity change qualitatively and quantitatively as the position of the neutral locus is moved along the chromosome. This will be useful for population-genomic inference. Our results strengthen the emerging view that physically linked selection is biologically relevant if linkage is tight or if selection at the background locus is strong. PMID:24610861

  11. Insect-microbe mutualism without vertical transmission: a stinkbug acquires a beneficial gut symbiont from the environment every generation.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-07-01

    The broad-headed bug Riptortus clavatus (Heteroptera: Alydidae) possesses a number of crypts at a posterior midgut region, which house a dense population of a bacterial symbiont belonging to the genus Burkholderia. Although the symbiont is highly prevalent (95 to 100%) in the host populations, the symbiont phylogeny did not reflect the host systematics at all. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying the promiscuous host-symbiont relationship despite the specific and prevalent association, we investigated the transmission mode and the fitness effects of the Burkholderia symbiont in R. clavatus. Inspection of eggs and a series of rearing experiments revealed that the symbiont is not vertically transmitted but is environmentally acquired by nymphal insects. The Burkholderia symbiont was present in the soil of the insect habitat, and a culture strain of the symbiont was successfully isolated from the insect midgut. Rearing experiments by using sterilized soybean bottles demonstrated that the cultured symbiont is able to establish a normal and efficient infection in the host insect, and the symbiont infection significantly improves the host fitness. These results indicated that R. clavatus postnatally acquires symbiont of a beneficial nature from the environment every generation, uncovering a previously unknown pathway through which a highly specific insect-microbe association is maintained. We suggest that the stinkbug-Burkholderia relationship may be regarded as an insect analogue of the well-known symbioses between plants and soil-associated microbes, such as legume-Rhizobium and alder-Frankia relationships, and we discuss the evolutionary relevance of the mutualistic but promiscuous insect-microbe association. PMID:17483286

  12. Insect-Microbe Mutualism without Vertical Transmission: a Stinkbug Acquires a Beneficial Gut Symbiont from the Environment Every Generation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-01-01

    The broad-headed bug Riptortus clavatus (Heteroptera: Alydidae) possesses a number of crypts at a posterior midgut region, which house a dense population of a bacterial symbiont belonging to the genus Burkholderia. Although the symbiont is highly prevalent (95 to 100%) in the host populations, the symbiont phylogeny did not reflect the host systematics at all. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying the promiscuous host-symbiont relationship despite the specific and prevalent association, we investigated the transmission mode and the fitness effects of the Burkholderia symbiont in R. clavatus. Inspection of eggs and a series of rearing experiments revealed that the symbiont is not vertically transmitted but is environmentally acquired by nymphal insects. The Burkholderia symbiont was present in the soil of the insect habitat, and a culture strain of the symbiont was successfully isolated from the insect midgut. Rearing experiments by using sterilized soybean bottles demonstrated that the cultured symbiont is able to establish a normal and efficient infection in the host insect, and the symbiont infection significantly improves the host fitness. These results indicated that R. clavatus postnatally acquires symbiont of a beneficial nature from the environment every generation, uncovering a previously unknown pathway through which a highly specific insect-microbe association is maintained. We suggest that the stinkbug-Burkholderia relationship may be regarded as an insect analogue of the well-known symbioses between plants and soil-associated microbes, such as legume-Rhizobium and alder-Frankia relationships, and we discuss the evolutionary relevance of the mutualistic but promiscuous insect-microbe association. PMID:17483286

  13. The Belief That Market Transactions Are Mutually Beneficial: A Comparison of the Views of Students in Economics and Other Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Amélie; Méon, Pierre-Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Using a survey of a large group of first- and final-year students of different disciplines to study their beliefs in the existence of mutual benefits of market transactions, the authors observe significant differences between economics and business students versus students of other disciplines. These differences increase over time, due partly to…

  14. The Belief That Market Transactions Are Mutually Beneficial: A Comparison of the Views of Students in Economics and Other Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Amélie; Méon, Pierre-Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Using a survey of a large group of first- and final-year students of different disciplines to study their beliefs in the existence of mutual benefits of market transactions, the authors observe significant differences between economics and business students versus students of other disciplines. These differences increase over time, due partly to…

  15. Evolution of mutualism between species

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  16. Lymphoid-Tissue-Resident Commensal Bacteria Promote Members of the IL-10 Cytokine Family to Establish Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Fung, Thomas C; Bessman, Nicholas J; Hepworth, Matthew R; Kumar, Nitin; Shibata, Naoko; Kobuley, Dmytro; Wang, Kelvin; Ziegler, Carly G K; Goc, Jeremy; Shima, Tatsuichiro; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Sartor, R Balfour; Sullivan, Kaede V; Lawley, Trevor D; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2016-03-15

    Physical separation between the mammalian immune system and commensal bacteria is necessary to limit chronic inflammation. However, selective species of commensal bacteria can reside within intestinal lymphoid tissues of healthy mammals. Here, we demonstrate that lymphoid-tissue-resident commensal bacteria (LRC) colonized murine dendritic cells and modulated their cytokine production. In germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice, LRCs colonized intestinal lymphoid tissues and induced multiple members of the IL-10 cytokine family, including dendritic-cell-derived IL-10 and group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-derived IL-22. Notably, IL-10 limited the development of pro-inflammatory Th17 cell responses, and IL-22 production enhanced LRC colonization in the steady state. Furthermore, LRC colonization protected mice from lethal intestinal damage in an IL-10-IL-10R-dependent manner. Collectively, our data reveal a unique host-commensal-bacteria dialog whereby selective subsets of commensal bacteria interact with dendritic cells to facilitate tissue-specific responses that are mutually beneficial for both the host and the microbe. PMID:26982365

  17. Biocrust re-establishment trials demonstrate beneficial prospects for mine site rehabilitation in semi-arid landscapes of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Williams, Stephen; Galea, Vic

    2015-04-01

    Biocrusts live at the interface between the atmosphere and the soil; powered by photosynthesis they strongly influence a range of soil micro-processes. At Jacinth-Ambrosia mine site, on the edge of the Nullarbor Plain (South Australia), biocrusts are a significant component of the semi-arid soil ecosystem and comprised mainly of cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses. Cyanobacteria directly contribute to soil surface stabilisation, regulation of soil moisture and, provide a biogeochemical pathway for carbon and nitrogen fertilisation. Following disturbance, rehabilitation processes are underpinned by early soil stabilisation that can be facilitated by physical crusts or bio-active crusts in which cyanobacteria are ideal soil surface colonisers. Biocrust growth trials were carried out in autumn and winter (2012) to test the re-establishment phases of highly disturbed topsoil associated with mine site operations. The substrate material originated from shallow calcareous sandy loam typically found in chenopod shrublands. The biocrust-rich substrates (1-5 cm) were crushed (biocrush) or fine sieved followed by an application of concentrated cyanobacterial inoculum. Each treatment comprised four replicated plots that were natural or moisture assisted (using subsurface mats). After initial saturation equal amounts of water were applied for 30 days at which time half of all of the plots were enclosed with plastic to increase humidity. From 30-60 days water was added as required and from 60-180 days all treatments were uncovered and subjected periodic wet-dry cycles. At 180 days diverse biocrusts had re-established across the majority of the treatments, incorporating a mix of cyanobacterial functional groups that were adapted to surface and subsurface habitats. There were no clear trends in diversity and abundance. Overall, the moisture assisted biocrush and sieved biocrush appeared to have 80% cyanobacterial diversity in common. Differences were found between the surface and subsurface cyanobacterial genera in the moisture assisted trials across both treatments. The biocrush and sieved biocrush treatments had all increased in cover between 14-30 days. During 30-60 days the enclosed inoculated biocrush doubled its cover and the sieved inoculated biocrush increased by ~110%. All of the open treatments decreased in cover between 30-60 days. Cyanobacteria biomass (chlorophyll a) trended similarly across all regrowth trial plots for the first 60 days, with a reduction in biomass after the first 30 days followed by increases at 60 days. There was a reduction in biomass (compared to 60 days) across most of the growth plots following the dry phase (120-180 days). Mean photosynthetic yield (YII) at the conclusion of trials were significantly different for the biocrush plots compared to the moisture assisted biocrush. This contrasted to the mean YII for the sieved biocrush that were generally lower. Across all treatments pH was within the normal site range while EC values were marginally lower. At the conclusion of the trials the majority of the treatments had increased in total C and N. The compressive strength of the regrown biocrusts differed significantly between all the open and sieved biocrush treatments compared to their enclosed counterparts. The open sieved biocrush had the lowest strength of all treatments. Biocrust re-establishment during mining rehabilitation relies on the role of cyanobacteria as a means of early soil stabilisation. Provided there is adequate cyanobacterial inoculum in the topsoil their growth and the subsequent crust formation should take place largely unassisted. Growth trials however, showed on a small scale, that accelerated biocrust recovery could be achieved with inoculation and additional moisture.

  18. Differential effects of undernutrition during pregnancy on the behaviour of does and their kids at parturition and on the establishment of mutual recognition.

    PubMed

    Terrazas, A; Robledo, V; Serafín, N; Soto, R; Hernández, H; Poindron, P

    2009-02-01

    We investigated whether undernutrition during the second half of pregnancy impaired the behaviour of does and their kids at parturition and early mutual recognition. Twenty-two control and 22 underfed mixed-breed, multiparous dairy goats were used, together with their respective kids (control, n = 31: nine singles, 16 twins and six triplets; underfed, n = 32: 11 singles, 18 twins and three triplets). Undernutrition involved limiting protein and energy intake at 70% of the nutritional requirements for maintenance and foetal growth from day 70 of pregnancy until birth. The behaviour of mothers and their two first-born kids was observed for 90 min from the birth of each kid. Maternal olfactory recognition of the kid was assessed at 4 h post partum by testing selective nursing behaviour. Non-olfactory recognition was assessed at 8 h in a two-choice test excluding olfactory cues. In kids, preference for the mother was assessed in a two-choice test at either 12 or 24 h post partum. Bodyweight of does and kids were lower in the underfed group up to 2 weeks post partum. At parturition, licking, maternal bleating frequency and latency to nursing did not differ between nutritional groups. Control kids were faster than underfed kids to stand, search for and reach the udder, but underfed kids bleated more and tended to spend more time at the udder. Both control and underfed does accepted their own kid and rejected the alien in the selectivity test at 4 h. In contrast, at 8 h post partum, only control goats showed a significant preference for their own kid in the non-olfactory recognition test. Both control and underfed kids showed a preference for their own mother at 12 and 24 h and undernutrition during pregnancy had little influence on the performance of kids. However, 12 h-old underfed kids tended to be less active than control kids and visited their own mothers less than control kids. There were no significant correlations between the behaviour of the mother or of the kid at parturition and their performance in the discrimination tests. Overall, undernutrition in the second half of pregnancy appears to be more detrimental for the behaviour of the mother than for the kid. Furthermore, it has more impact on the establishment of maternal non-olfactory recognition than on maternal care at parturition or the establishment of maternal selectivity. PMID:22444233

  19. Establishment of stable synthetic mutualism without co-evolution between microalgae and bacteria demonstrated by mutual transfer of metabolites (NanoSIMS isotopic imaging) and persistent physical association (Fluorescent in situ hybridization)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Mayali, Xavier; Bebout, Brad M.; Weber, Peter K.; Detweiler, Angela M.; Hernandez, Juan- Pablo; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Bashan, Yoav

    2016-03-03

    The demonstration of a mutualistic interaction requires evidence of benefits for both partners as well as stability of the association over multiple generations. A synthetic mutualism between the freshwater microalga Chlorella sorokiniana and the soil-derived plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Azospirillum brasilense was created when both microorganisms were co-immobilized in alginate beads. Using stable isotope enrichment experiments followed by high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging of single cells, we demonstrated transfer of carbon and nitrogen compounds between the two partners. Further, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), mechanical disruption and scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated the stability of their physicalmore » association for a period of 10 days after the aggregated cells were released from the beads. The bacteria significantly enhanced the growth of the microalgae while the microalgae supported growth of the bacteria in a medium where it could not otherwise grow. In conclusion, we propose that this microalga-bacterium association is a true synthetic mutualism independent of co-evolution. (155 words).« less

  20. Lunar beneficiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    Natural concentrations of industrially valuable minerals are far less likely to be found on the Moon than on the Earth. But that is all the more reason for devising beneficiation processes to concentrate and extract the useful mineral components in lunar rocks and soils. As an example of a useful mineral that can be beneficiated, it has been estimated that ilmenite abundance accounts for 15 and 20 percent of the volume of the Apollo 11 and 17 basalts and 2 and 5 percent by volume in the Apollo 11 and 17 soils. Reduction of lunar ilmenite with hydrogen imported from Earth appears to one of the more practical schemes for obtaining lunar oxygen. While the reported concentrations are significant, a more highly concentrated ilmenite extract would improve the efficiency of the reduction process. The topics covered include electrostatic concentration, magnetic concentration, lunar soil sizing, and electrical sizing.

  1. Mutual help in SETIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, F.; Frisch, D. H.

    1985-06-01

    Techniques to establish communication between earth and extraterrestrial intelligent beings are examined analytically, emphasizing that the success of searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETIs) depends on the selection by both sender and receiver of one of a few mutually helpful SETI strategies. An equation for estimating the probability that an SETI will result in the recognition of an ETI signal is developed, and numerical results for various SETI strategies are presented in tables. A minimum approach employing 10 40-m 20-kW dish antennas for a 30-yr SETI in a 2500-light-year disk is proposed.

  2. Peer Mentoring Second Language Teachers: A Mutually Beneficial Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott P.; King, Elena Tosky

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that there are not enough qualified foreign language and English as a second language teachers in this country. To increase the number of new second language teachers who remain in the profession, and to promote their use of best teaching practices, the ACTFL has identified mentoring as a national research priority. The…

  3. Peer Mentoring Second Language Teachers: A Mutually Beneficial Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott P.; King, Elena Tosky

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that there are not enough qualified foreign language and English as a second language teachers in this country. To increase the number of new second language teachers who remain in the profession, and to promote their use of best teaching practices, the ACTFL has identified mentoring as a national research priority. The…

  4. Liberal Learning and Management: A Mutually Beneficial Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Management, which generates wealth, determines the distribution of wealth, and helps control the direction and accessibility of careers in most developed countries, is a subject worthy of the humanities, and deserves to be pursued more aggressively as a point of contact among disciplines. (MSE)

  5. The evolution of mutualism.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G

    2010-12-01

    Like altruism, mutualism, cooperation between species, evolves only by enhancing all participants' inclusive fitness. Mutualism evolves most readily between members of different kingdoms, which pool complementary abilities for mutual benefit: some of these mutualisms represent major evolutionary innovations. Mutualism cannot persist if cheating annihilates its benefits. In long-term mutualisms, symbioses, at least one party associates with the other nearly all its life. Usually, a larger host harbours smaller symbionts. Cheating is restrained by vertical transmission, as in Buchnera; partner fidelity, as among bull-thorn acacias and protective ants; test-based choice of symbionts, as bobtail squid choose bioluminescent bacteria; or sanctioning nonperforming symbionts, as legumes punish nonperforming nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Mutualisms involving brief exchanges, as among plants and seed-dispersers, however, persist despite abundant cheating. Both symbioses and brief-exchange mutualisms have transformed whole ecosystems. These mutualisms may be steps towards ecosystems which, like Adam Smith's ideal economy, serve their members' common good. PMID:20942825

  6. Nematode-bacteria mutualism: Selection within the mutualism supersedes selection outside of the mutualism.

    PubMed

    Morran, Levi T; Penley, McKenna J; Byrd, Victoria S; Meyer, Andrew J; O'Sullivan, Timothy S; Bashey, Farrah; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi; Lively, Curtis M

    2016-03-01

    The coevolution of interacting species can lead to codependent mutualists. Little is known about the effect of selection on partners within verses apart from the association. Here, we determined the effect of selection on bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) both within and apart from its mutualistic partner (a nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae). In nature, the two species cooperatively infect and kill arthropods. We passaged the bacteria either together with (M+), or isolated from (M-), nematodes under two different selection regimes: random selection (S-) and selection for increased virulence against arthropod hosts (S+). We found that the isolated bacteria evolved greater virulence under selection for greater virulence (M-S+) than under random selection (M-S-). In addition, the response to selection in the isolated bacteria (M-S+) caused a breakdown of the mutualism following reintroduction to the nematode. Finally, selection for greater virulence did not alter the evolutionary trajectories of bacteria passaged within the mutualism (M+S+ = M+S-), indicating that selection for the maintenance of the mutualism was stronger than selection for increased virulence. The results show that selection on isolated mutualists can rapidly breakdown beneficial interactions between species, but that selection within a mutualism can supersede external selection, potentially generating codependence over time. PMID:26867502

  7. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  8. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, D.A.; Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; McKendree, M.H.; Kleve, M.G.; Scruggs, S.

    1994-12-31

    Electrostatic beneficiation is being investigated as a dry precombustion cleaning method for removing pyritic forms of sulfur from coal. The coal is ground to a fine powder and then electrostatically charged. The pyrite particles adopt a negative charge and the carbon particles a positive charge. The pyrite and carbon fractions can then be separated in an electrostatic separator based on their charge differences. The efficiency of the beneficiation process is determined by quantitative sulfur analysis of the feed and processed coal. A description of the electrostatic beneficiation process and characterization of the physical and chemical properties of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal processed by electrostatic beneficiation are presented.

  9. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  10. Behavioral Ecology: Manipulative Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David P

    2015-09-21

    A new study reveals that an apparent mutualism between lycaenid caterpillars and their attendant ants may not be all it seems, as the caterpillars produce secretions that modify the brains and behavior of their attendant ants. PMID:26394105

  11. Perspective on coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1986-03-27

    A brief introduction to coal beneficiation processes is given. The paper includes a brief review of current commerical practices and presents several developmental coal cleaning methods. Recent advances in coal beneficiation methods are driven by environmental concerns and the desire to produce superclean or ultraclean coal to make coal-water slurry fuels. Coal-water slurry fuels are being developed as a potential replacement for No. 6 fuel oil in oil-fired power plants. However, most of the novel coal cleaning technologies are still developmental in nature. It is felt that coal beneficiation research should be directed to developing a better understanding of coal morphology and to developing innovative coal cleaning methods that can yield high ash and sulfur removals from coal in a cost-effective manner. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The Beneficiation of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senger, April J.

    2014-01-01

    When the challenge of adapting curriculum to meet the requirements of the Common Core State Standards were presented, this author immediately sought out the assistance of experts in another field: the school library staff. It was apparent that staff needed to practice the beneficiation of the current curriculum to meet the CCSS requirements.…

  13. The Beneficiation of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senger, April J.

    2014-01-01

    When the challenge of adapting curriculum to meet the requirements of the Common Core State Standards were presented, this author immediately sought out the assistance of experts in another field: the school library staff. It was apparent that staff needed to practice the beneficiation of the current curriculum to meet the CCSS requirements.…

  14. Discards beneficiation in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, D.W.

    1995-08-01

    The intergrown nature of most South African coals means that in beneficiating them, the preparation engineer rarely has the easy task of carrying out a simple separation between good coal and high density shale or stone. Apart from de-shaling operations, all beneficiation entails rejecting, not only adventitious stone but a large percentage of high ash but strongly combustible middlings material. Typically, a coal preparation plant can only recover about 70-80% of the heat in the run-of-mine coal. The other 20-30% ends up on the discard heap. Over the last decade, extensive studies were carried out to establish the extend to which that discarded heat may be recoverable in marketable grades of coal. Detailed washability studies were carried out on four mines which between them produce almost 60% of the total make of discards. Computer simulations allowed different flowsheet configurations to be assessed to give rewashed coal of various calorific values. The flowsheets were also subjected to factorial establishment of budget capital and operating costs. Finally some initial work was carried out on the potential markets for such products. This paper is concise account of the results of the study for one major mine. Please note that the paper is based almost wholly on the evaluation carried out for the Energy Branch of the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs (DMEA). The actual work was executed by the van Eck and Lurie Division of E L Bateman and Co. The writer chaired the Beneficiation Sub-Committee set up by the DMEA to oversee and guide the work, and in that capacity was closely connected with the study as it evolved. Other acknowledgements are given at the end of the paper.

  15. Mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, S.

    2002-08-01

    After a brief review of the notion of a full set of mutually unbiased bases in an N-dimensional Hilbert space, we summarize the work of Wootters and Fields (W K Wootters and B C Fields, Ann. Phys. 191, 363 (1989)) which gives an explicit construction for such bases for the case N=pr, where p is a prime. Further, we show how, by exploiting certain freedom in the Wootters-Fields construction, the task of explicitly writing down such bases can be simplified for the case when p is an odd prime. In particular, we express the results entirely in terms of the character vectors of the cyclic group G of order p. We also analyse the connection between mutually unbiased bases and the representations of G.

  16. Intercontinental differences in resource use reveal the importance of mutualisms in fire ant invasions.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; LeBrun, Edward G; Eubanks, Micky D

    2011-12-20

    Mutualisms play key roles in the functioning of ecosystems. However, reciprocally beneficial interactions that involve introduced species also can enhance invasion success and in doing so compromise ecosystem integrity. For example, the growth and competitive ability of introduced plant species can increase when fungal or microbial associates provide limiting nutrients. Mutualisms also may aid animal invasions, but how such systems may promote invasion success has received relatively little attention. Here we examine how access to food-for-protection mutualisms involving the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) aids the success of this prominent invader. Intense interspecific competition in its native Argentina constrained the ability of S. invicta to benefit from honeydew-producing Hemiptera (and other accessible sources of carbohydrates), whereas S. invicta dominated these resources in its introduced range in the United States. Consistent with this strong pattern, nitrogen isotopic data revealed that fire ants from populations in the United States occupy a lower trophic position than fire ants from Argentina. Laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that honeydew elevated colony growth, a crucial determinant of competitive performance, even when insect prey were not limiting. Carbohydrates, obtained largely through mutualistic partnerships with other organisms, thus represent critical resources that may aid the success of this widespread invasive species. These results illustrate the potential for mutualistic interactions to play a fundamental role in the establishment and spread of animal invasions. PMID:22143788

  17. [Mutual promotion, mutual assistance and mutual inhibition in the compatibility of acupoints].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuming; Guo, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Mutual promotion, mutual assistance and mutual inhibition are commonly for the compatibility of Chinese herbs, but they are also existed among the acupoints. In the paper, the relevant literature on acupoint, compatibility was collected and the mutual promotion, mutual assistance and mutual inhibition relationships of acupoints were described. The laws of the above mentioned combinations, the theoretic evidences and modern researches were summarized briefly. The mutual promotion and mutual assistance refer to the coordination of acupoints, presenting the relationship of the primary and the secondary about the mutual assistance. Hereby, the acupoints could be divided into the simple assistant acupoints and the acupoints from the affected meridians. The mutual inhibition is used to describe the antagonism effect in acupoint combination. There are more researches on the mutual promotion of acupoint combination but less ones on the mutual inhibition and its mechanism is just hypothetic. It is very important to have the deep study on those compatibility relationships for the improvement of acupuncture efficacy and to elaborate the effect mechanism. PMID:26790211

  18. Beneficial betrayal aversion.

    PubMed

    Aimone, Jason A; Houser, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate the social benefits of cooperation. Likewise, recent studies convincingly demonstrate that betrayal aversion hinders trust and discourages cooperation. In this respect, betrayal aversion is unlike socially "beneficial" preferences including altruism, fairness and inequity aversion, all of which encourage cooperation and exchange. To our knowledge, other than the suggestion that it acts as a barrier to rash trust decisions, the benefits of betrayal aversion remain largely unexplored. Here we use laboratory experiments with human participants to show that groups including betrayal-averse agents achieve higher levels of reciprocity and more profitable social exchange than groups lacking betrayal aversion. These results are the first rigorous evidence on the benefits of betrayal aversion, and may help future research investigating cultural differences in betrayal aversion as well as future research on the evolutionary roots of betrayal aversion. Further, our results extend the understanding of how intentions affect social interactions and exchange and provide an effective platform for further research on betrayal aversion and its effects on human behavior. PMID:21423732

  19. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lindquist; K. B. Tennal; M. K. Mazumder

    1998-10-29

    It was suggested in the proposal that small particles, due to low inertia, may not impact on the surfaces of the tribocharger. They would, thus, not receive charge and would not be beneficiated in the electrostatic separation. A milling process was proposed in which the small particles are stirred together with larger carrier beads producing the desired contact charge exchange. A force is necessary for removing the coal particles from the carrier beads. In copying machines electrostatic force is used to pull toner particles away horn iron carrier particles which are held back by magnetic force. Aerodynamic force is used in test instruments for measuring the charge to mass ratio on toners. A similar system of milling and removal is desired for use with the small coal particles. The carrier beads need to be made of copper rather than iron. This complicates the separation process since copper is non-magnetic. We are working on coating of iron beads with a layer of copper. Dr. Robert Engleken of Arkansas State University has supplied us with several test batches of copper-coated iron in the size range of -40 +70 mesh. ` We are currently testing whether the milling process used with the copper coated iron beads produces the desired charge on the coal particles.

  20. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  1. Beneficial uses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1991-10-01

    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  2. [Biological mutualism, concepts and models].

    PubMed

    Perru, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Mutualism is a biological association for a mutual benefit between two different species. In this paper, firstly, we examine the history and signification of mutualism in relation to symbiosis. Then, we consider the link between concepts and models of mutualism. Models of mutualism depend on different concepts we use: If mutualism is situated at populations' level, it will be expressed by Lotka-Volterra models, concerning exclusively populations' size. If mutualism is considered as a resources' exchange or a biological market increasing the fitness of these organisms, it will be described at an individual level by a cost-benefit model. Our analysis will be limited to the history and epistemology of Lotka-Volterra models and we hypothesize that these models are adapted at first to translate dynamic evolutions of mutualism. They render stability or variations of size and assume that there are clear distinctions and a state of equilibrium between populations of different species. Italian mathematician Vito Volterra demonstrated that biological associations consist in a constant relation between some species. In 1931 and 1935, Volterra described the general form of antagonistic or mutualistic biological associations by the same differential equations. We recognize that these equations have been more used to model competition or prey-predator interactions, but a simple sign change allows describing mutualism. The epistemological problem is the following: Volterra's equations help us to conceptualize a global phenomenon. However, mutualistic interactions may have stronger effects away from equilibrium and these effects may be better understood at individual level. We conclude that, between 1985 and 2000, some researchers carried on working and converting Lotka-Volterra models but this description appeared as insufficient. So, other researchers adopted an economical viewpoint, considering mutualism as a biological market. PMID:22288336

  3. Rethinking "mutualism" in diverse host-symbiont communities.

    PubMed

    Mushegian, Alexandra A; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    While examples of bacteria benefiting eukaryotes are increasingly documented, studies examining effects of eukaryote hosts on microbial fitness are rare. Beneficial bacteria are often called "mutualistic" even if mutual reciprocity of benefits has not been demonstrated and despite the plausibility of other explanations for these microbes' beneficial effects on host fitness. Furthermore, beneficial bacteria often occur in diverse communities, making mutualism both empirically and conceptually difficult to demonstrate. We suggest reserving the terms "mutualism" and "parasitism" for pairwise interactions where the relationship is largely independent of other species and can be verified by measuring the fitness effect experienced by both partners. In hosts with diverse microbial communities, we propose re-formulating some of the essential questions of symbiosis research - e.g. concerning specificity, transmission mode, and common evolutionary fates - as questions of community ecology and ecosystem function, allowing important biological interactions to be investigated without making assumptions about reciprocity. Understanding the fitness of host-associated bacteria is a crucial component of investigations into the role of microbes in eukaryote evolution. PMID:26568407

  4. Plant invasions--the role of mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D M; Allsopp, N; D'Antonio, C M; Milton, S J; Rejmánek, M

    2000-02-01

    Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal-mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are well served by generalist pollinators (insects and birds), and pollinator limitation does not appear to be a major barrier for the spread of introduced plants (special conditions relating to Ficus and orchids are described). Seeds of many of the most notorious plant invaders are dispersed by animals, mainly birds and mammals. Our review supports the view that tightly coevolved, plant-vertebrate seed dispersal systems are extremely rare. Vertebrate-dispersed plants are generally not limited reproductively by the lack of dispersers. Most mycorrhizal plants form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which, because of their low specificity, do not seem to play a major role in facilitating or hindering plant invasions (except possibly on remote islands such as the Galapagos which are poor in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi). The lack of symbionts has, however, been a major barrier for many ectomycorrhizal plants, notably for Pinus spp. in parts of the southern hemisphere. The roles of nitrogen-fixing associations between legumes and rhizobia and between actinorhizal plants and Frankia spp. in promoting or hindering invasions have been virtually ignored in the invasions literature. Symbionts required to induce nitrogen fixation in many plants are extremely widespread, but intentional introductions of symbionts have altered the invasibility of many, if not most, systems. Some of the world's worst invasive alien species only invaded after the introduction of symbionts. Mutualisms in the new environment sometimes re-unite the same species that form partnerships in the native range of the plant. Very often, however, different species are involved, emphasizing the diffuse nature of many (most) mutualisms. Mutualisms in new habitats usually duplicate functions or strategies that exist in the natural range of the plant. Occasionally, mutualisms forge totally novel combinations, with profound implications for the behaviour of the introduced plant in the new environment (examples are seed dispersal mutualisms involving wind-dispersed pines and cockatoos in Australia; and mycorrhizal associations involving plant roots and fungi). Many ecosystems are becoming more susceptible to invasion by introduced plants because: (a) they contain an increasing array of potential mutualistic partners (e.g. generalist frugivores and pollinators, mycorrhizal fungi with wide host ranges, rhizobia strains with infectivity across genera); and (b) conditions conductive for the establishment of various alien/alien synergisms are becoming more abundant. Incorporating perspectives on mutualisms in screening protocols will improve (but not perfect) our ability to predict whether a given plant species could invade a particular habitat. PMID:10740893

  5. Grief and Palliative Care: Mutuality

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Grief and palliative care are interrelated and perhaps mutually inclusive. Conceptually and practically, grief intimately relates to palliative care, as both domains regard the phenomena of loss, suffering, and a desire for abatement of pain burden. Moreover, the notions of palliative care and grief may be construed as being mutually inclusive in terms of one cueing the other. As such, the discussions in this article will center on the conceptualizations of the mutuality between grief and palliative care related to end-of-life circumstances. Specifically, the complementarity of grief and palliative care, as well as a controvertible view thereof, will be considered. PMID:25278758

  6. To Establish the Bonds of Common Purpose and Mutual Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Toni; Lambert, Robin

    1995-01-01

    In rural America, community members are working together to reform education, revitalize communities, and improve the quality of life. This article describes long-term efforts, such as Alabama's PACERS program, Georgia's REAL Enterprises project, and Minnesota's Center for School Change. Smaller-scale efforts in Nebraska, Mississippi, and South…

  7. Method for beneficiating coal ore

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, S.D.

    1983-03-15

    A new heavy liquid parting medium comprising an emulsion of water and a substantially water immiscible heavy parting liquid for use in beneficiating ores by gravity separations such as sink -float processes. The specific gravity of the emulsion parting medium can be adjusted by proportioning the relative amounts of water and the substantially water immiscible heavy liquid. Asmined coal is beneficiated using a water-trichlorofluoromethane emulsion as the parting medium in a sink-float separation process.

  8. Mutual Mentoring Makes Better Mentors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Cindy; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda; Whitten, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will describe how our peer-to-peer mentoring has enabled us to become better mentors for our undergraduate students, for recent graduates beginning their careers and for colleagues at local and neighboring institutions.

  9. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962....

  10. Hierarchical clustering using mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraskov, A.; Stögbauer, H.; Andrzejak, R. G.; Grassberger, P.

    2005-04-01

    We present a conceptually simple method for hierarchical clustering of data called mutual information clustering (MIC) algorithm. It uses mutual information (MI) as a similarity measure and exploits its grouping property: The MI between three objects X, Y, and Z is equal to the sum of the MI between X and Y, plus the MI between Z and the combined object (XY). We use this both in the Shannon (probabilistic) version of information theory and in the Kolmogorov (algorithmic) version. We apply our method to the construction of phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial DNA sequences and to the output of independent components analysis (ICA) as illustrated with the ECG of a pregnant woman.

  11. A color-mediated mutualism between two arthropod predators.

    PubMed

    Peng, Po; Blamires, Sean J; Agnarsson, Ingi; Lin, Hui-Chen; Tso, I-Min

    2013-01-21

    The nature of interactions between animals varies depending on local selection pressure, trophic status of the participants, and evolutionary circumstances. Body coloration and other visual signals may also affect animal interactions. Game theory posits that if one species provides a "service" in exchange for a "goods," a mutualism may ensue. Mutualisms between two predators are rare because of multiple conflicts of interests (but see [11, 12]). We used a nocturnal system traditionally considered kleptoparasitic to determine whether a mutualism ensues because the body coloration of the kleptoparasite is beneficial to the host. Specifically, we tested whether the silver body of the spider Argyrodes fissifrons (Theridiidae) attracts prey for the larger, duller spider Cyrtophora unicolor (Araneidae), which reciprocates by allowing A. fissifrons access to its web. When A. fissifrons were removed from C. unicolor webs, the webs intercepted fewer prey. Furthermore, covering the silver body parts of A. fissifrons also resulted in a reduction in prey interception by C. unicolor webs. We thus show that a mutualism between two arthropod predators can be mediated by the coloration of one species enhancing the foraging gains of another. PMID:23260470

  12. Ecological genomics of mutualism decline in nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Christie R; Lau, Jennifer A; Heath, Katy D

    2016-03-16

    Anthropogenic changes can influence mutualism evolution; however, the genomic regions underpinning mutualism that are most affected by environmental change are generally unknown, even in well-studied model mutualisms like the interaction between legumes and their nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia. Such genomic information can shed light on the agents and targets of selection maintaining cooperation in nature. We recently demonstrated that N-fertilization has caused an evolutionary decline in mutualistic partner quality in the rhizobia that form symbiosis with clover. Here, population genomic analyses of N-fertilized versus control rhizobium populations indicate that evolutionary differentiation at a key symbiosis gene region on the symbiotic plasmid (pSym) contributes to partner quality decline. Moreover, patterns of genetic variation at selected loci were consistent with recent positive selection within N-fertilized environments, suggesting that N-rich environments might select for less beneficial rhizobia. By studying the molecular population genomics of a natural bacterial population within a long-term ecological field experiment, we find that: (i) the N environment is indeed a potent selective force mediating mutualism evolution in this symbiosis, (ii) natural variation in rhizobium partner quality is mediated in part by key symbiosis genes on the symbiotic plasmid, and (iii) differentiation at selected genes occurred in the context of otherwise recombining genomes, resembling eukaryotic models of adaptation. PMID:26962142

  13. Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Lucas A; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Vaissière, Bernard E; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; Hipólito, Juliana; Freitas, Breno M; Ngo, Hien T; Azzu, Nadine; Sáez, Agustín; Åström, Jens; An, Jiandong; Blochtein, Betina; Buchori, Damayanti; Chamorro García, Fermín J; Oliveira da Silva, Fabiana; Devkota, Kedar; Ribeiro, Márcia de Fátima; Freitas, Leandro; Gaglianone, Maria C; Goss, Maria; Irshad, Mohammad; Kasina, Muo; Pacheco Filho, Alípio J S; Kiill, Lucia H Piedade; Kwapong, Peter; Parra, Guiomar Nates; Pires, Carmen; Pires, Viviane; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Rizali, Akhmad; Saraiva, Antonio M; Veldtman, Ruan; Viana, Blandina F; Witter, Sidia; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-22

    Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach. Using a coordinated protocol across regions and crops, we quantify to what degree enhancing pollinator density and richness can improve yields on 344 fields from 33 pollinator-dependent crop systems in small and large farms from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. For fields less than 2 hectares, we found that yield gaps could be closed by a median of 24% through higher flower-visitor density. For larger fields, such benefits only occurred at high flower-visitor richness. Worldwide, our study demonstrates that ecological intensification can create synchronous biodiversity and yield outcomes. PMID:26798016

  14. Cross-kingdom chemical communication drives a heritable, mutually beneficial prion-based transformation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Daniel F; Brown, Jessica C S; Walker, Gordon A; Datta, Manoshi S; Ung, W Lloyd; Lancaster, Alex K; Rotem, Assaf; Chang, Amelia; Newby, Gregory A; Weitz, David A; Bisson, Linda F; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-08-28

    In experimental science, organisms are usually studied in isolation, but in the wild, they compete and cooperate in complex communities. We report a system for cross-kingdom communication by which bacteria heritably transform yeast metabolism. An ancient biological circuit blocks yeast from using other carbon sources in the presence of glucose. [GAR(+)], a protein-based epigenetic element, allows yeast to circumvent this "glucose repression" and use multiple carbon sources in the presence of glucose. Some bacteria secrete a chemical factor that induces [GAR(+)]. [GAR(+)] is advantageous to bacteria because yeast cells make less ethanol and is advantageous to yeast because their growth and long-term viability is improved in complex carbon sources. This cross-kingdom communication is broadly conserved, providing a compelling argument for its adaptive value. By heritably transforming growth and survival strategies in response to the selective pressures of life in a biological community, [GAR(+)] presents a unique example of Lamarckian inheritance. PMID:25171409

  15. Innovation in global collaborations: from student placement to mutually beneficial exchanges.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Hammel, Joy; Mayo, Liliana; Inwald, Stephanie; Sen, Supriya

    2013-06-01

    Five years ago, an academic department in the United States and the Ann Sullivan Center of Peru (CASP) initiated an international partnership to foster research collaborations and reciprocal consultation, and to create an advanced clinical placement for occupational therapy doctoral students. CASP is a globally recognized hub for community-based research, demonstration and training for people with disabilities (most of whom are from low-income families). CASP has provided occupational therapy students and faculty with a rich cultural environment in which to learn and collaborate as well as opportunities for developing research collaborations. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss an innovative model of international collaboration highlighting specific areas of exchange and reciprocal learning. First, we will describe the collaboration and CASP's rich learning opportunities. Second, we will discuss a model of collaboration that includes three main phases: planning and preparation, developing and sustaining the partnership, and evaluating and celebrating outcomes and benefits. We illustrate the partnership with a case example and describe exchanges between CASP and a local community agency with whom faculty have collaborated for 20 years. Finally, we discuss implications of our innovative model towards developing and sustaining global partnerships. . PMID:23436752

  16. Cross-kingdom chemical communication drives a heritable, mutually beneficial prion-based transformations of metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Gordon A.; Datta, Manoshi S.; Ung, W. Lloyd; Lancaster, Alex K.; Chang, Amelia; Newby, Gregory A.; Weitz, David A.; Bisson, Linda F.; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In experimental science, organisms are usually studied in isolation, but in the wild they compete and cooperate in complex communities. We report a system for cross-kingdom communication by which bacteria heritably transform yeast metabolism. An ancient biological circuit blocks yeast from using other carbon sources in the presence of glucose. [GAR+], a protein-based epigenetic element, allows yeast to circumvent this glucose repression and use multiple carbon sources in the presence of glucose. Some bacteria secrete a chemical factor that induces [GAR+]. [GAR+] is advantageous to bacteria because yeast cells make less ethanol, and is advantageous to yeast because their growth and long-term viability is improved in complex carbon sources. This cross-kingdom communication is broadly conserved, providing a compelling argument for its adaptive value. By heritably transforming growth and survival strategies in response to the selective pressures of life in a biological community, [GAR+] presents a unique example of Lamarckian inheritance. PMID:25171409

  17. The Charlotte Action Research Project: A Model for Direct and Mutually Beneficial Community-University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…

  18. Mutual Respect and Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary theories of civic education frequently appeal to an ideal of mutual respect in the context of ethical, ethical and religious disagreement. This paper critically examines two recently popular criticisms of this ideal. The first, coming from a postmodern direction, charges that the ideal is hypocritical in its effort to be maximally…

  19. No vacancy: how beneficial microbes cooperate with immunity to provide colonization resistance to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian intestine harbors a community of trillions of microbes, collectively known as the gut microbiota, which coevolved with the host in a mutually beneficial relationship. Among the numerous gut microbial species, certain commensal bacteria are known to provide health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts and, as such, are labeled "probiotics." We review some of the mechanisms by which probiotics and other beneficial commensals provide colonization resistance to pathogens. The battle for similar nutrients and the bacterial secretion of antimicrobials provide a direct means of competition between beneficial and harmful microbes. Beneficial microbes can also indirectly diminish pathogen colonization by stimulating the development of innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the function of the mucosal barrier. Altogether, we gather and present evidence that beneficial microbes cooperate with host immunity in an effort to shut out pathogens. PMID:25888704

  20. Managing urban biosolids: Beneficial uses

    SciTech Connect

    Forste, J.B.

    1998-07-01

    Biosolids (the primarily organic product produced by wastewater treatment processes that can be beneficially recycled) are becoming a significant challenge for operators of both small and large urban wastewater facilities. More stringent water quality standards, coupled with increasingly sensitive environmental and public health considerations, have made the treatment and use/disposal of solids from treatment processes a growing and complex field of environmental management.

  1. Generalized mutual information of quantum critical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, F. C.; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the generalized mutual information I˜n of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the Rényi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete Z (Q ) symmetries (Q -state Potts model with Q =2 ,3 ,4 and Z (Q ) parafermionic models with Q =5 ,6 ,7 ,8 and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the U (1 ) continuous symmetries (Klein-Gordon field theory, X X Z and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wave functions in two special bases. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter n that defines I˜n. For a system, with total size L and subsystem sizes ? and L -? , the I˜n has a logarithmic leading behavior given by c/˜n4 log[L/? sin(?/? L ) ] where the coefficient c˜n is linearly dependent on the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory describing the system's critical properties.

  2. Pluto-charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Binzel, R.P. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

  3. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Captain, Janine; Arens, Ellen; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith is a method allowing refinement of specific minerals in the material for processing on the moon. The use of tribocharging the regolith prior to separation was investigated on the lunar simulant MLS-I by passing the dust through static mixers constructed from different materials; aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The amount of charge acquired by the simulant was dependent upon the difference in the work function of the dust and the charging material. XPS and SEM were used to characterize the simulant after it was sieved into five size fractions (> 100 pm, 75-100 pm, 50- 75 pm, 50-25 pm, and < 25 pm), where very little difference in surface composition was observed between the sizes. Samples of the smallest (< 25 pm) and largest (> 100 pm) size fractions were beneficiated through a charge separator using the aluminum (charged the simulant negatively) and PTFE (charged positively) mixers. The mass fractions of the separated simulant revealed that for the larger particle size, significant unipolar charging was observed for both mixers, whereas for the smaller particle sizes, more bipolar charging was observed, probably due to the finer simulant adhering to the inside of the mixers shielding the dust from the charging material. Subsequent XPS analysis of the beneficiated fractions showed the larger particle size fraction having some species differentiation, but very little difference for the smaller.size. Although MLS-1 was made to have similar chemistry to actual lunar dust, its mineralogy is quite different. On-going experiments are using NASA JSC-1 lunar simulant. A vacuum chamber has been constructed, and future experiments are planned in a simulated lunar environment.

  4. Gene-Swapping Mediates Host Specificity among Symbiotic Bacteria in a Beneficial Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A.; Gorman, Clayton; Lostroh, C. Phoebe; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally acquired beneficial associations are comprised of a wide variety of symbiotic species that vary both genetically and phenotypically, and therefore have differential colonization abilities, even when symbionts are of the same species. Strain variation is common among conspecific hosts, where subtle differences can lead to competitive exclusion between closely related strains. One example where symbiont specificity is observed is in the sepiolid squid-Vibrio mutualism, where competitive dominance exists among V. fischeri isolates due to subtle genetic differences between strains. Although key symbiotic loci are responsible for the establishment of this association, the genetic mechanisms that dictate strain specificity are not fully understood. We examined several symbiotic loci (lux-bioluminescence, pil?=?pili, and msh-mannose sensitive hemagglutinin) from mutualistic V. fischeri strains isolated from two geographically distinct squid host species (Euprymna tasmanica-Australia and E. scolopes-Hawaii) to determine whether slight genetic differences regulated host specificity. Through colonization studies performed in naïve squid hatchlings from both hosts, we found that all loci examined are important for specificity and host recognition. Complementation of null mutations in non-native V. fischeri with loci from the native V. fischeri caused a gain in fitness, resulting in competitive dominance in the non-native host. The competitive ability of these symbiotic loci depended upon the locus tested and the specific squid species in which colonization was measured. Our results demonstrate that multiple bacterial genetic elements can determine V. fischeri strain specificity between two closely related squid hosts, indicating how important genetic variation is for regulating conspecific beneficial interactions that are acquired from the environment. PMID:25014649

  5. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  6. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  7. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress historical power imbalances and inequities and is helping to sustain the initial steps taken to establish a local research agenda at Atoifi Hospital. It is our experience that embedding mutuality throughout the research capacity strengthening process has had great benefit and may also benefit researchers from more resourced and less resourced countries wanting to partner in research capacity strengthening activities. PMID:23249439

  8. The global stability of coexisting equilibria for three models of mutualism.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Paul; Zhang, Hong; Maxin, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the dynamics of three models of mutualism, establishing the global stability of coexisting equilibria by means of Lyapunov's second method. This further establishes the usefulness of certain Lyapunov functionals of an abstract nature introduced in an earlier paper. As a consequence, it is seen that the use of higher order self-limiting terms cures the shortcomings of Lotka-Volterra mutualisms, preventing unbounded growth and promoting global stability. PMID:26776263

  9. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  10. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., title and control of the honey and beneficial interest in the honey, as specified in 7 CFR 1434.6, must... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans under this part a producer must have the beneficial interest in the honey that is tendered to CCC for...

  14. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  15. Beneficial effects of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Rose, Maximas H

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are playing a vital role in our day-to-day life. Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid), a biomaterial, receives special attention among them. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polyanionic natural polymer occurring as linear polysaccharide composed of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine repeats via a ?-1,4 linkage. It is the most versatile macromolecule present in the connective tissues of all vertebrates. Hyaluronic acid has a wide range of applications with its excellent physicochemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and nonimmunogenicity and serves as an excellent tool in biomedical applications such as osteoarthritis surgery, ocular surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. It plays a key role in cushioning and lubricating the body and is abundant in the eyes, joints, and heart valves. A powerful antioxidant, hyaluronic acid is perhaps best known for its ability to bond water to tissue. Hyaluronan production increases in proliferating cells, and the polymer may play a role in mitosis. This chapter gives an overview of hyaluronic acid and its physicochemical properties and applications. This chapter gives a deep understanding on the special benefits of hyaluronic acid in the fields of pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental applications. Hyaluronic acid paves the way for beneficial research and applications to the welfare of life forms. PMID:25081082

  16. Explaining mutualism variation: a new evolutionary paradox?

    PubMed

    Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-02-01

    The paradox of mutualism is typically framed as the persistence of interspecific cooperation, despite the potential advantages of cheating. Thus, mutualism research has tended to focus on stabilizing mechanisms that prevent the invasion of low-quality partners. These mechanisms alone cannot explain the persistence of variation for partner quality observed in nature, leaving a large gap in our understanding of how mutualisms evolve. Studying partner quality variation is necessary for applying genetically explicit models to predict evolution in natural populations, a necessary step for understanding the origins of mutualisms as well as their ongoing dynamics. An evolutionary genetic approach, which is focused on naturally occurring mutualist variation, can potentially synthesize the currently disconnected fields of mutualism evolution and coevolutionary genetics. We outline explanations for the maintenance of genetic variation for mutualism and suggest approaches necessary to address them. PMID:24303853

  17. Mutual information and the F-theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Horacio; Huerta, Marina; Myers, Robert C.; Yale, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    Mutual information is used as a purely geometrical regularization of entanglement entropy applicable to any QFT. A coefficient in the mutual information between concentric circular entangling surfaces gives a precise universal prescription for the monotonous quantity in the c-theorem for d = 3. This is in principle computable using any regularization for the entropy, and in particular is a definition suitable for lattice models. We rederive the proof of the c-theorem for d = 3 in terms of mutual information, and check our arguments with holographic entanglement entropy, a free scalar field, and an extensive mutual information model.

  18. Constructing mutually unbiased bases in dimension six

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, Stephen; Weigert, Stefan

    2009-05-15

    The density matrix of a qudit may be reconstructed with optimal efficiency if the expectation values of a specific set of observables are known. In dimension six, the required observables only exist if it is possible to identify six mutually unbiased complex (6x6) Hadamard matrices. Prescribing a first Hadamard matrix, we construct all others mutually unbiased to it, using algebraic computations performed by a computer program. We repeat this calculation many times, sampling all known complex Hadamard matrices, and we never find more than two that are mutually unbiased. This result adds considerable support to the conjecture that no seven mutually unbiased bases exist in dimension six.

  19. Shading decreases plant carbon preferential allocation towards the most beneficial mycorrhizal mutualist.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaoyuan; Ji, Baoming; Zhang, Junling; Zhang, Fusuo; Bever, James D

    2015-01-01

    Preferential allocation towards the most beneficial mutualist could maintain mycorrhizal mutualism. Context dependence of preferential allocation could then determine environmental patterns in abundance of mycorrhizal mutualists. We assessed the preferential allocation of carbon (C) and differential phosphorus (P) uptake across four light treatments between the host plant Allium vineale and two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within a split-root system. The ratios of C allocation and P uptake between the beneficial and nonbeneficial AM fungi were measured using isotopic labelling. Allium vineale preferentially allocated more C towards roots infected with the most beneficial AM fungus in high light and, in return, received more P from the beneficial fungus. Preferential allocation declined with shading, as A. vineale allocated 25% of labelled C to roots infected with beneficial AM fungi in high light, but only 15% with shading, a similar percentage to that allocated to roots infected with nonbeneficial fungi regardless of shading. Our findings demonstrate that plant preferential allocation towards the most beneficial mycorrhizal mutualist depends upon above-ground resources, suggesting that the abundance of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi will increase with amount of above-ground resources, with implications for mycorrhizal mediation of plant productivity with anthropogenic change. PMID:25243653

  20. A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria and epithelial Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; von Martels, Julius Z. H.; Khan, Muhammed Tanweer; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Gerard; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2015-01-01

    Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria. A main obstacle in generating such knowledge is the lack of simple and robust coculturing methods for anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring human cells. Here, we describe the development of a coculture system for intestinal Caco-2 cells and an anaerobic symbiont, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, making use of 50 mL culture tubes. F. prausnitzii was grown in 40 mL YCFAG-agar with glass-adhered Caco-2 cells placed on top in 10 mL DMEM medium. Grown for 18–36 h in a humidified incubator at 37 °C and 5% CO2, coverslip-attached Caco-2 cells promoted growth and metabolism of F. prausnitzii, while F. prausnitzii suppressed inflammation and oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. F. prausnitzii did not compromise Caco-2 cell viability. Exogenously added porcine mucin also promoted growth of F. prausnitzii, suggesting that it may be part of the mechanism of Caco-2-stimulated growth of F. prausnitzii. This ‘Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic‘ (HoxBan) coculturing system uniquely establishes host-microbe mutualism of a beneficial anaerobic gut microbe in vitro and principally allows the analysis of host-microbe interactions of pure and mixed cultures of bacteria and human cells. PMID:26667159

  1. A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria and epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; von Martels, Julius Z H; Khan, Muhammed Tanweer; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Gerard; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2015-01-01

    Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria. A main obstacle in generating such knowledge is the lack of simple and robust coculturing methods for anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring human cells. Here, we describe the development of a coculture system for intestinal Caco-2 cells and an anaerobic symbiont, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, making use of 50?mL culture tubes. F. prausnitzii was grown in 40?mL YCFAG-agar with glass-adhered Caco-2 cells placed on top in 10?mL DMEM medium. Grown for 18-36?h in a humidified incubator at 37?°C and 5% CO2, coverslip-attached Caco-2 cells promoted growth and metabolism of F. prausnitzii, while F. prausnitzii suppressed inflammation and oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. F. prausnitzii did not compromise Caco-2 cell viability. Exogenously added porcine mucin also promoted growth of F. prausnitzii, suggesting that it may be part of the mechanism of Caco-2-stimulated growth of F. prausnitzii. This 'Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic' (HoxBan) coculturing system uniquely establishes host-microbe mutualism of a beneficial anaerobic gut microbe in vitro and principally allows the analysis of host-microbe interactions of pure and mixed cultures of bacteria and human cells. PMID:26667159

  2. Mutualisms and Population Regulation: Mechanism Matters

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Shalene; Allen, David; Liere, Heidi; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2012-01-01

    For both applied and theoretical ecological science, the mutualism between ants and their hemipteran partners is iconic. In this well-studied interaction, ants are assumed to provide hemipterans protection from natural enemies in exchange for nutritive honeydew. Despite decades of research and the potential importance in pest control, the precise mechanism producing this mutualism remains contested. By analyzing maximum likelihood parameter estimates of a hemipteran population model, we show that the mechanism of the mutualism is direct, via improved hemipteran growth rates, as opposed to the frequently assumed indirect mechanism, via harassment of the specialist parasites and predators of the hemipterans. Broadly, this study demonstrates that the management of mutualism-based ecosystem services requires a mechanistic understanding of mutualistic interactions. A consequence of this finding is the counter intuitive demonstration that preserving ant participation in the ant-hemipteran mutualism may be the best way of insuring pest control. PMID:22927978

  3. Mutual Orbits of Transneptunian Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, William M.; Noll, K. S.; Roe, H. G.; Porter, S. B.; Trujillo, C. A.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.

    2012-10-01

    We report the latest results from a program of high spatial resolution imaging to resolve the individual components of binary transneptunian objects. These observations use Hubble Space Telescope and also laser guide star adaptive optics systems on Keck and Gemini telescopes on Mauna Kea. From relative astrometry over multiple epochs, we determine the mutual orbits of the components, and thus the total masses of the systems. Accurate masses anchor subsequent detailed investigations into the physical characteristics of these systems. For instance, dynamical masses enable computation of bulk densities for systems where the component sizes can be estimated from other measurements. Additionally, patterns in the ensemble characteristics of binary orbits offer clues to circumstances in the protoplanetary nebula when these systems formed, as well as carrying imprints of various subsequent dynamical evolution processes. The growing ensemble of known orbits shows intriguing patterns that can shed light on the evolution of this population of distant objects. This work has been supported by an NSF Planetary Astronomy grant and by several Hubble Space Telescope and NASA Keck data analysis grants. The research makes use of data from the Gemini Observatory obtained through NOAO survey program 11A-0017, from a large number of Hubble Space Telescope programs, and from several NASA Keck programs.

  4. Beneficial Insects and Spiders of Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of integrated pest management programs is dependent on the availability of biological information on beneficial insects and natural enemies of agricultural pests. This cooperative effort between ARS and UAF represents the first manual on beneficial insects and natural enemies of pest...

  5. Beneficial trait stability in entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Deterioration or loss of beneficial traits during laboratory or industrial culture prod...

  6. Making beneficial fungi resistant to fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike phytopathogenic fungi such as scab and Phytophthora, some fungi that are found in the orchard are beneficial. These beneficial fungi such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum are natural control agents of various insect pests including the pecan weevil. However, these fungi can be...

  7. Fostering of advanced mutualism with gut microbiota by Immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Duncan B; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA), the most abundantly secreted antibody isotype in mammals, not only provides direct immune protection to neonates via maternal milk but also helps program the infant immune system by regulating the microbiota. IgA continues to maintain dynamic interactions with the gut microbiota throughout life and this influences immune system homeostasis as well as other physiological processes. The secretory IgA produced independently of T-cell selection are commonly referred to as natural or innate antibodies. Our studies have shown that innate-IgA, while effective at excluding microorganisms from the gut, does not promote mutualism with the microbiota in the same way as adaptive-IgA that is selected in T cell-dependent germinal center reactions. Adaptive-IgA fosters more advanced mutualism with the microbiota than innate-IgA by selecting and diversifying beneficial microbial communities. In this review, we suggest that the diversified microbiota resulting from adaptive-IgA pressure was pivotal in promoting ecological adaptability and speciation potential of mammals. PMID:26864102

  8. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  9. Leaching of metals from beneficially used foundry residuals into soils

    SciTech Connect

    Fahnline, D.E.; Regan, R.W.

    1996-11-01

    Every year American foundries send thousands of tons of solid waste to landfills. The foundry industry could reduce costs by using the wastes as a component of asphalt, cement materials, and mixing it with construction fill. This would also be environmentally beneficial by reducing the amount of wastes being sent to landfills. The concept has been referred to as beneficial use. Pennsylvania foundries may be permitted to beneficially use their wastes as described in the PA Municipal Waste Code. For regulatory approval, it must be demonstrated that the material to be reused meets similar specifications as the material being replaced without adversely effecting the public health, safety, welfare, and the environment. The purpose of the report from which this paper was developed was to investigate the environmental impact of foundry residuals when beneficially sued as construction materials. Previous environmental assessments have shown that foundry waste does leach metals to a limited degree. This paper indicates the degree that the leached metals may be attenuated by the surrounding soil before entering the local groundwater. Specific objectives of this paper included the following: (1) to report the statistical results of the chemical characterizations of foundry residuals and to relate them to drinking water standards for 12 selected metals; (2) to review selected results for the use of foundry residuals as highway embankment materials; (3) to establish the degree to which typical Pa soils provided an attenuation capacity under extreme conditions for the eight specific metals, namely As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag (primary drinking water standards).

  10. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to...

  11. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form 1522) and MHC-2 (OTS Form 1523). Description: The OTS analyzes the submitted information to...

  12. Phenological shifts and the fate of mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; CaraDonna, Paul J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing of life history events in a wide array of species, many of which are involved in mutualistic interactions. Because many mutualisms can form only if partner species are able to locate each other in time, differential phenological shifts are likely to influence their strength, duration and outcome. At the extreme, climate change-driven shifts in phenology may result in phenological mismatch: the partial or complete loss of temporal overlap of mutualistic species. We have a growing understanding of how, when, and why phenological change can alter one type of mutualism–pollination. However, as we show here, there has been a surprising lack of attention to other types of mutualism. We generate a set of predictions about the characteristics that may predispose mutualisms in general to phenological mismatches. We focus not on the consequences of such mismatches but rather on the likelihood that mismatches will develop. We explore the influence of three key characteristics of mutualism: 1) intimacy, 2) seasonality and duration, and 3) obligacy and specificity. We predict that the following characteristics of mutualism may increase the likelihood of phenological mismatch: 1) a non-symbiotic life history in which co-dispersal is absent; 2) brief, seasonal interactions; and 3) facultative, generalized interactions. We then review the limited available data in light of our a priori predictions and point to mutualisms that are more and less likely to be at risk of becoming phenologically mismatched, emphasizing the need for research on mutualisms other than plant–pollinator interactions. Future studies should explicitly focus on mutualism characteristics to determine whether and how changing phenologies will affect mutualistic interactions. PMID:25883391

  13. Certainty relations, mutual entanglement, and nondisplaceable manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucha?a, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, ?ukasz; Chabuda, Krzysztof; Paraniak, Miko?aj; ?yczkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    We derive explicit bounds for the average entropy characterizing measurements of a pure quantum state of size N in L orthogonal bases. Lower bounds lead to novel entropic uncertainty relations, while upper bounds allow us to formulate universal certainty relations. For L =2 the maximal average entropy saturates at logN because there exists a mutually coherent state, but certainty relations are shown to be nontrivial for L ?3 measurements. In the case of a prime power dimension, N =pk , and the number of measurements L =N +1 , the upper bound for the average entropy becomes minimal for a collection of mutually unbiased bases. An analogous approach is used to study entanglement with respect to L different splittings of a composite system linked by bipartite quantum gates. We show that, for any two-qubit unitary gate U ?U(4 ) there exist states being mutually separable or mutually entangled with respect to both splittings (related by U ) of the composite system. The latter statement follows from the fact that the real projective space R P3?C P3 is nondisplaceable by a unitary transformation. For L =3 splittings the maximal sum of L entanglement entropies is conjectured to achieve its minimum for a collection of three mutually entangled bases, formed by two mutually entangling gates.

  14. Mutually unbiased bases with free parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Gómez, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic method to introduce free parameters in sets of mutually unbiased bases. In particular, we demonstrate that any set of m real mutually unbiased bases existing in dimension N >2 admits the introduction of (m -1 )N /2 free parameters that cannot be absorbed by a global unitary operation. As consequence, there are m =k +1 mutually unbiased bases in every dimension N =k2 with k3/2 free parameters, where k is even. We explicitly construct the maximal set of triplets of mutually unbiased bases for two-qubit systems and triplets, quadruplets, and quintuplets of mutually unbiased bases with free parameters for three-qubit systems. Furthermore, we study the richness of the entanglement structure of such bases and provide the quantum circuits required to implement all these bases with free parameters in the laboratory. We also show that the free parameters introduced can be controlled by a single party of the system. Finally, we find the upper bound for the maximal number of real and complex mutually unbiased bases existing in every dimension. This proof is simple, short, and considers basic matrix algebra.

  15. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  16. Acceptable approaches for beneficial use of cement kiln dust

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.J.; Smeenk, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    One beneficial use of cement kiln dust (CKD) is application of CKD to cropland as agricultural lime or fertilizer. However, the EPA has expressed a concern over land application of CKD when the metals constituents in the CKD are above the industry-wide median levels presented in EPA`s Report to Congress on Cement Kiln Dust. Under the Clean Water Act, EPA has established limits for metals concentrations in sewage sludge that is applied to the land for beneficial use of the nitrogen in the sludge. The limits for land application of sewage sludge were established based on the results of exposure risk assessments. A comparison of the median industry-wide metals concentrations in CKD to the metals concentration limits for land application of sewage sludge indicates that all trace metal concentrations IN CKD are below the corresponding sewage sludge land application limit, with the exception of the median level of arsenic from one data set. EPA has determined that land application of CKD with metals concentration limits at or below the industry-wide median concentrations does not pose a significant human cancer or non-cancer health risk. Therefore, with appropriate limits, CKD can be beneficially reused for land application on agricultural land in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment.

  17. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association that is in the mutual form shall issue mutual capital certificates pursuant to this section or... shall be granted unless the proposed issuance of the mutual capital certificates and the form and manner...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual...

  18. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... association that is in the mutual form shall issue mutual capital certificates pursuant to this section or... shall be granted unless the proposed issuance of the mutual capital certificates and the form and manner...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual...

  19. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association that is in the mutual form shall issue mutual capital certificates pursuant to this section or... shall be granted unless the proposed issuance of the mutual capital certificates and the form and manner...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual...

  20. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... association that is in the mutual form shall issue mutual capital certificates pursuant to this section or... shall be granted unless the proposed issuance of the mutual capital certificates and the form and manner...) Application form; supporting information. An application for approval of the issuance of mutual...

  1. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal mutual savings association bylaws. 544.5 Section 544.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Bylaws § 544.5 Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (a) General. A Federal mutual...

  2. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  3. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  4. 12 CFR 144.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 144.1 Section 144.1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 144.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  5. 12 CFR 544.1 - Federal mutual charter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal mutual charter. 544.1 Section 544.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL MUTUAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-CHARTER AND BYLAWS Charter § 544.1 Federal mutual charter. A Federal mutual savings association shall have a charter in the following...

  6. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  7. Integrating plant carbon dynamics with mutualism ecology.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    71 I. 71 II. 72 III. 73 IV. 74 V. 74 74 References 74 SUMMARY: Plants reward microbial and animal mutualists with carbohydrates to obtain nutrients, defense, pollination, and dispersal. Under a fixed carbon budget, plants must allocate carbon to their mutualists at the expense of allocation to growth, reproduction, or storage. Such carbon trade-offs are indirectly expressed when a plant exhibits reduced growth or fecundity in the presence of its mutualist. Because carbon regulates the costs of all plant mutualisms, carbon dynamics are a common platform for integrating these costs in the face of ecological complexity and context dependence. The ecophysiology of whole-plant carbon allocation could thus elucidate the ecology and evolution of plant mutualisms. If mutualisms are costly to plants, then they must be important but frequently underestimated sinks in the terrestrial carbon cycle. PMID:26414800

  8. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g., at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and to show that they actually feature the least macroscopic correlations compared to their symmetric superpositions is highly nontrivial. We prove this result in general, by considering the quantum mutual information based on the two-Rényi entanglement entropy and using a locality result stemming from quasiadiabatic continuation. Moreover, in the paradigmatic case of the exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum X Y model, we further verify the general result by considering also the quantum mutual information based on the von Neumann entanglement entropy.

  9. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human behavior is very common, and is often quite complex. An understanding of unlearned and learned establishing operations can contribute to our ability to identify and control the various components of such multiple determination. PMID:22478146

  10. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  11. The population genetics of beneficial mutations

    PubMed Central

    Orr, H. Allen

    2010-01-01

    The population genetic study of advantageous mutations has lagged behind that of deleterious and neutral mutations. But over the past two decades, a number of significant developments, both theoretical and empirical, have occurred. Here, I review two of these developments: the attempt to determine the distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations and the attempt to determine their average dominance. Considering both theory and data, I conclude that, while considerable theoretical progress has been made, we still lack sufficient data to draw confident conclusions about the distribution of effects or the dominance of beneficial mutations. PMID:20308094

  12. Hierarchical classifier design using mutual information.

    PubMed

    Sethi, I K; Sarvarayudu, G P

    1982-04-01

    A nonparametric algorithm is presented for the hierarchical partitioning of the feature space. The algorithm is based on the concept of average mutual information, and is suitable for multifeature multicategory pattern recognition problems. The algorithm generates an efficient partitioning tree for specified probability of error by maximizing the amount of average mutual information gain at each partitioning step. A confidence bound expression is presented for the resulting classifier. Three examples, including one of handprinted numeral recognition, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:21869061

  13. Impact of Mutual Mentoring on Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Barbara; Blaha, Cynthia; Bug, Amy; Cox, Anne; Fritz, Linda

    2011-03-01

    In this talk we discuss one of the impacts of an NSF ADVANCE sponsored horizontal, mutual mentoring alliance. Our cohort of five women physicists at liberal arts colleges has found that mutual mentoring has had a profound impact on many aspects of our professional lives. In this talk we will give some specific ways that we have supported and helped to expand each other's research. For some new areas of research were opened, for others new focus was brought to existing areas, and still others found acceptance for where they were.

  14. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-07-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered.

  15. Static and adaptive feedback control for synchronization of different chaotic oscillators with mutually Lipschitz nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Riaz; Muhammad, Rehan; Keum-Shik, Hong; Muhammad, Ashraf; Haroon, Ur Rasheed

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the control law design for synchronization of two different chaotic oscillators with mutually Lipschitz nonlinearities. For analysis of the properties of two different nonlinearities, an advanced mutually Lipschitz condition is proposed. This mutually Lipschitz condition is more general than the traditional Lipschitz condition. Unlike the latter, it can be used for the design of a feedback controller for synchronization of chaotic oscillators of different dynamics. It is shown that any two different Lipschitz nonlinearities always satisfy the mutually Lipschitz condition. Applying the mutually Lipschitz condition, a quadratic Lyapunov function and uniformly ultimately bounded stability, easily designable and implementable robust control strategies utilizing algebraic Riccati equation and linear matrix inequalities, are derived for synchronization of two distinct chaotic oscillators. Furthermore, a novel adaptive control scheme for mutually Lipschitz chaotic systems is established by addressing the issue of adaptive cancellation of unknown mismatch between the dynamics of different chaotic systems. The proposed control technique is numerically tested for synchronization of two different chaotic Chua's circuits and for obtaining identical behavior between the modified Chua's circuit and the Rössler system.

  16. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  17. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-01

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB11) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  18. Mutual colliding impact fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-09-15

    It is proposed to apply the well established colliding beam technology of high energy physics to the fast hot spot ignition of a highly compressed DT (deuterium-tritium) target igniting a larger D (deuterium) burn, by accelerating a small amount of solid deuterium, and likewise a small amount of tritium, making a head-on collision in the center of the target, projecting them through conical ducts situated at the opposite side of the target and converging in its center. In their head-on collision, the relative collision velocity is 5/3 times larger compared to the collision velocity of a stationary target. The two pieces have for this reason to be accelerated to a smaller velocity than would otherwise be needed to reach upon impact the same temperature. Since the velocity distribution of the two head-on colliding projectiles is with its two velocity peaks non-Maxwellian, the maximum cross section velocity product turns out to be substantially larger than the maximum if averaged over a Maxwellian. The D and T projectiles would have to be accelerated with two sabots driven by powerful particle or laser beams, permitting a rather large acceleration length. With the substantially larger cross section-velocity product by virtue of the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution, a further advantage is that the head-on collision produces a large magnetic field by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, enhancing propagating burn. With this concept, the ignition of the neutron-less hydrogen-boron (HB{sup 11}) reaction might even be possible in a heterogeneous assembly of the hydrogen and the boron to reduce the bremsstrahlung-losses, resembling the heterogeneous assembly in a graphite-natural uranium reactor, there to reduce the neutron losses.

  19. Impact of spatial distribution on the development of mutualism in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Ákos T.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of mutualism is one of the long-standing puzzles in evolutionary biology. Why would an individual contribute to the group at the expense of its own fitness? Individual bacterial cells cooperate by secreting products that are beneficial for the community, but costly to produce. It has been shown that cooperation is critical for microbial communities, most notably in biofilms, however, the degree of cooperation strongly depends on the culturing conditions. Spatial community structure provides a solution how cooperation might develop and remain stable. This perspective paper discusses recent progresses on experiments that use microbes to understand the role of spatial distribution on the stability of intraspecific cooperation from an evolutionary point of view and also highlights the effect of mutualism on spatial segregation. Recent publications in this area will be highlighted, which suggest that while mechanisms that allow assortment help to maintain cooperative traits, strong mutualism actually promotes population intermixing. Microbes provide simple and suitable systems to examine the features that define population organization and mutualism. PMID:25505463

  20. Beneficial Biofilms: Wastewater and Other Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the use of beneficial biofilms for the production of industrial chemicals such as ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. It also emphasizes application of biofilm reactors for treatment of dairy industry wastewater, oily sea water...

  1. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    PubMed

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062

  2. Induced Systemic Resistance by Beneficial Microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic esistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathog...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commodity if, prior to harvest, such person has obtained title to the growing commodity at the same time that such person obtained full title to the land on which such crop was growing; (f) If marketing..., title and control of the commodity and beneficial interest in the commodity as specified in 7 CFR...

  4. Introduction: Mass production for beneficial organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous organisms that are beneficial to humans and the environment. Some of these organisms can be cultured on a large scale. However, certain key aspects in production technology and maximization of cost efficiency are lacking for many organisms. The purpose of this book is to assemb...

  5. Practicing the Political Art of Beneficial Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins-Newby, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    All of us are deeply embedded within a number of strong, web-like structures of relationships, such as our families and workplaces. Sometimes these relationships benefit us; at others times they don't. We spend much of our mental energy trying to strengthen our beneficial relationships and transform the harmful ones to our benefit. In practicing…

  6. [The coffee break, beneficial for occupational health].

    PubMed

    Mocquet, Rodolphe

    2014-11-01

    The coffee break has beneficial effects on health. A form of support for healthcare professionals and a way of bringing together the nursing team, it boosts the quality of support given to patients and their families, for the benefit of the patient's health. PMID:25619099

  7. The Roles of Beneficiation in Lunar Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug L.

    2010-01-01

    Natural feedstocks used for any process are intrinsically variable. They may also contain deleterious components or low concentrations of desired fractions. For these three reasons it is standard industrial practice to beneficiate feedstocks. This is true across all industries which trans-form raw materials into standardized units. On the Moon there are three natural resources: vacuum, radiation and regolith. To utilize in situ resources on the Moon it is reasonable to presume some beneficiation of the regolith (ground rock) resource will be desirable if not essential. As on Earth, this will require fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the relevant processes, which are exceeding complex in detail. Further, simulants are essential test articles for evaluation of components and systems planned for lunar deployment. Simulants are of course made from geologic feedstocks. Therefore, there is variation, deleterious components and incorrect concentrations of desired fractions in the feedstocks used for simulants. Thus, simulant production can benefit from beneficiation of the input feedstocks. Beneficiation of geologic feedstocks is the subject of extractive metallurgy. Clearly, NASA has two discrete interests pertaining to the science and technology of extractive metallurgy.

  8. 7 CFR 1421.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., title and control of the commodity and beneficial interest in the commodity as specified in 7 CFR 1421.6..., feedlot, ethanol plant, wool pool, feed mill, feed or grain bank, or other facilities as determined by CCC... entities such as a dairy, feedlot, ethanol plant, wool pool, feed mill, feed or grain bank, or...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., title and control of the commodity and beneficial interest in the commodity as specified in 7 CFR 1421.6..., feedlot, ethanol plant, wool pool, feed mill, feed or grain bank, or other facilities as determined by CCC... entities such as a dairy, feedlot, ethanol plant, wool pool, feed mill, feed or grain bank, or...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., title and control of the commodity and beneficial interest in the commodity as specified in 7 CFR 1421.6..., feedlot, ethanol plant, wool pool, feed mill, feed or grain bank, or other facilities as determined by CCC... entities such as a dairy, feedlot, ethanol plant, wool pool, feed mill, feed or grain bank, or...

  11. 7 CFR 1421.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... providing the seed to the producer, including contracts for the production of hybrid seed, genetically modified commodities, and other specialty seeds as approved in writing by CCC, are eligible to be pledged..., title and control of the commodity and beneficial interest in the commodity as specified in 7 CFR...

  12. Rare beneficial mutations can halt Muller's ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Daniel; Goyal, Sidhartha; Jerison, Elizabeth; Neher, Richard; Shraiman, Boris; Desai, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In viral, bacterial, and other asexual populations, the vast majority of non-neutral mutations are deleterious. This motivates the application of models without beneficial mutations. Here we show that the presence of surprisingly few compensatory mutations halts fitness decay in these models. Production of deleterious mutations is balanced by purifying selection, stabilizing the fitness distribution. However, stochastic vanishing of fitness classes can lead to slow fitness decay (i.e. Muller's ratchet). For weakly deleterious mutations, production overwhelms purification, rapidly decreasing population fitness. We show that when beneficial mutations are introduced, a stable steady state emerges in the form of a dynamic mutation-selection balance. We argue this state is generic for all mutation rates and population sizes, and is reached as an end state as genomes become saturated by either beneficial or deleterious mutations. Assuming all mutations have the same magnitude selective effect, we calculate the fraction of beneficial mutations necessary to maintain the dynamic balance. This may explain the unexpected maintenance of asexual genomes, as in mitochondria, in the presence of selection. This will affect in the statistics of genetic diversity in these populations.

  13. Aligning Expectations for Mutually Beneficial Community Service-Learning: The Case of Spanish Language Proficiency, Cultural Knowledge, and Professional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Darcy; Abbott, Annie

    2009-01-01

    The growing importance of Spanish in the U.S. has generated an impressive growth in the number of university Spanish programs that offer community service learning. However, students' and community partners' misaligned expectations can create tensions and problems in these programs. Instructors must make a special effort to articulate and align…

  14. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  15. Mutual diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C

    1989-01-01

    The generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used, together with the two-dimensional pressure equation, to analyze mutual diffusion in concentrated membrane systems. These equations can be used to investigate the role that both direct and hydrodynamic interactions play in determining diffusive behavior. Here only direct interactions are explicitly incorporated into the theory at high densities; however, both direct and hydrodynamic interactions are analyzed for some dilute solutions. We look at diffusion in the presence of weak attractions, soft repulsions, and hard-core repulsions. It is found that, at low densities, attractions retard mutual diffusion while repulsions enhance it. Mechanistically, attractions tend to tether particles together and oppose the dissipation of gradients or fluctuations in concentration, while repulsions provide a driving force that pushes particles apart. At higher concentrations, changes in the structure of the fluid enhance mutual diffusion even in the presence of attractions. It is shown that the theoretical description of postelectrophoresis relaxation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments must be modified if interacting systems are studied. The effects of interactions on mutual diffusion coefficients have probably already been seen in postelectrophoresis relaxation experiments. PMID:2775829

  16. The Genogram: From Diagnostics to Mutual Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Adriana Balaguer; Levitt, Mary Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents the need for integration of mutual client-therapist collaboration into the process of genogram construction and demonstrates through case examples how such integration enhances the therapeutic power of the genogram. Suggests possible changes in the training of marriage and family therapists in order for such integration to become more…

  17. Mutual information of tri-polar concentric ring electrodes.

    PubMed

    Besio, W; Koka, K

    2006-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) signals are spatio-temporal. EEG has very good temporal resolution but typically doesn't possess high spatial resolution. The surface Laplacian enhances the spatial resolution and selectivity of the surface electrical activity. Concentric ring electrodes have been shown to estimate the surface Laplacian directly with significantly better spatial resolution than conventional electrodes and possess spatial filtering characteristics. Movement Related potentials (MRP) were recorded using tri-polar and bipolar concentric ring electrodes as well as conventional disc EEG electrodes while the subjects were pressing a micro-switch. The electrodes were placed in an array of 35 encompassing the area between Fz-Cz-Pz-P3-T5-T3-T7-F3. Mutual information (MI) of the MRP signals recorded with the different electrode systems was compared. The MRP signals recorded with the tri-polar concentric ring electrode system have significantly less MI between locations than the other two electrode configurations tested. The decrease in MI should increase the total information available by pooling of information from independent tri-polar concentric ring electrodes. These characteristics should make tri-polar concentric electrodes beneficial for EEG applications. PMID:17946023

  18. Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Karishma K.

    2010-01-01

    MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.

  19. [Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Karishma

    2010-01-01

    MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.

  20. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this research program is to study ways to modify surface properties of coal, pyrite and ash-forming mineral matter for beneficiation of fine coal. Since the differences in surface properties of coal and mineral matter are utilized in several oil based preparation technologies, such as: froth flotation, emulsion flotation, spherical agglomeration and liquid-liquid separation, another objective is to delineate the role of oil.

  1. Strategies of genomic integration within insect-bacterial mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Insects, the most diverse group of macroorganisms with 900,000 known species, have been a rich playground for the evolution of symbiotic associations. Symbionts of this enormous animal group include a range of microbial partners. Insects are prone to establishing relationships with intracellular bacteria, which include the most intimate, highly integrated mutualisms known in the biological world. In recent years, an explosion of genomic studies has offered new insights into the molecular, functional, and evolutionary consequences of these insect-bacterial partnerships. In this review, I highlight some insights from genome sequences of bacterial endosymbionts and select insect hosts. Notably, comparisons of facultative versus obligate bacterial mutualists have revealed distinct genome features representing different stages along a shared trajectory of genome reduction. Bacteria associated with the cedar aphid offer a snapshot of a transition from facultative to obligate mutualism, illustrating the genomic basis of this key step along the symbiotic spectrum. In addition, genomes of stable, dual bacterial symbionts reflect independent instances of astonishing metabolic integration. In these systems, synthesis of key nutrients, and perhaps basic cellular processes, require collaboration among co-residing bacteria and their insect host. These findings provide a launching point for a new era of genomic explorations of bacterial-animal symbioses. Future studies promise to reveal symbiotic strategies across a broad ecological and phylogenetic range, to clarify key transitions along a spectrum of interaction types, and to fuel new experimental approaches to dissect the mechanistic basis of intimate host-symbiont associations. PMID:22983037

  2. Aggressive mimicry coexists with mutualism in an aphid

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Adrián; Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Hidalgo, Nicolás; Carazo, Pau; Font, Enrique; Martínez-Torres, David

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary transition from interspecific exploitation to cooperation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Ant–aphid relationships represent an ideal system to this end because they encompass a coevolutionary continuum of interactions ranging from mutualism to antagonism. In this study, we report an unprecedented interaction along this continuum: aggressive mimicry in aphids. We show that two morphs clonally produced by the aphid Paracletus cimiciformis during its root-dwelling phase establish relationships with ants at opposite sides of the mutualism–antagonism continuum. Although one of these morphs exhibits the conventional trophobiotic (mutualistic) relationship with ants of the genus Tetramorium, aphids of the alternative morph are transported by the ants to their brood chamber and cared for as if they were true ant larvae. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses reveal that the innate cuticular hydrocarbon profile of the mimic morph resembles the profile of ant larvae more than that of the alternative, genetically identical nonmimic morph. Furthermore, we show that, once in the brood chamber, mimic aphids suck on ant larva hemolymph. These results not only add aphids to the limited list of arthropods known to biosynthesize the cuticular chemicals of their deceived hosts to exploit their resources but describe a remarkable case of plastic aggressive mimicry. The present work adds a previously unidentified dimension to the classical textbook paradigm of aphid–ant relationships by showcasing a complex system at the evolutionary interface between cooperation and exploitation. PMID:25583474

  3. Mutual positive effects between shrubs in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Tirado, Reyes; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Pugnaire, Francisco I.

    2015-01-01

    One-way facilitation in plants has been found in many harsh environments and their role as structural forces governing species composition in plant communities is now well established. However, reciprocal positive effects benefiting two interacting species have seldom been reported and, in recent reviews, conceptually considered merely as facilitation when in fact there is room for adaptive strategies and evolutionary responses. We tested the existence of such reciprocal positive effects in an arid environment in SE Spain using spatial pattern analysis, a species removal experiment, and a natural experiment. We found that the spatial association between Maytenus senegalensis and Whitania frutescens, two shrub species of roughly similar size intimately interacting in our community, resulted in mutual benefit for both species. Benefits included improved water relations and nutritional status and protection against browsing, and did occur despite simultaneous competition for resources. Our data suggest two-way facilitation or, rather, a facultative mutualism among higher plant species, a process often overlooked which could be a main driver of plant community dynamics allowing for evolutionary processes. PMID:26419958

  4. Mutual learning and reverse innovation–where next?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal’s ongoing thematic series, “Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries” illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly “global innovation flow”, although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

  5. Aggressive mimicry coexists with mutualism in an aphid.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Adrián; Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Hidalgo, Nicolás; Carazo, Pau; Font, Enrique; Martínez-Torres, David

    2015-01-27

    Understanding the evolutionary transition from interspecific exploitation to cooperation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Ant-aphid relationships represent an ideal system to this end because they encompass a coevolutionary continuum of interactions ranging from mutualism to antagonism. In this study, we report an unprecedented interaction along this continuum: aggressive mimicry in aphids. We show that two morphs clonally produced by the aphid Paracletus cimiciformis during its root-dwelling phase establish relationships with ants at opposite sides of the mutualism-antagonism continuum. Although one of these morphs exhibits the conventional trophobiotic (mutualistic) relationship with ants of the genus Tetramorium, aphids of the alternative morph are transported by the ants to their brood chamber and cared for as if they were true ant larvae. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses reveal that the innate cuticular hydrocarbon profile of the mimic morph resembles the profile of ant larvae more than that of the alternative, genetically identical nonmimic morph. Furthermore, we show that, once in the brood chamber, mimic aphids suck on ant larva hemolymph. These results not only add aphids to the limited list of arthropods known to biosynthesize the cuticular chemicals of their deceived hosts to exploit their resources but describe a remarkable case of plastic aggressive mimicry. The present work adds a previously unidentified dimension to the classical textbook paradigm of aphid-ant relationships by showcasing a complex system at the evolutionary interface between cooperation and exploitation. PMID:25583474

  6. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  7. Statistical mechanics of mutual information maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2000-03-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed (Becker S. and Hinton G., Nature, 355 (1992) 161). By exploiting a formal analogy to supervised learning in parity machines, the theory of zero-temperature Gibbs learning for the unsupervised procedure is presented for the case that the networks are perceptrons and for the case of fully connected committees.

  8. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  9. Entropy rate estimates from mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissman, B. D.; McKay-Jones, L. C.; Binder, P.-M.

    2011-10-01

    We show how to estimate the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy rate for chaotic systems using the mutual information function, easily obtainable from experimental time series. We state the conditions under which the relationship is exact, and explore the usefulness of the approach for both maps and flows. We also explore refinements of the method, and study its convergence properties as a function of time series length.

  10. A Bayesian Alternative to Mutual Information for the Hierarchical Clustering of Dependent Random Variables.

    PubMed

    Marrelec, Guillaume; Messé, Arnaud; Bellec, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The use of mutual information as a similarity measure in agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) raises an important issue: some correction needs to be applied for the dimensionality of variables. In this work, we formulate the decision of merging dependent multivariate normal variables in an AHC procedure as a Bayesian model comparison. We found that the Bayesian formulation naturally shrinks the empirical covariance matrix towards a matrix set a priori (e.g., the identity), provides an automated stopping rule, and corrects for dimensionality using a term that scales up the measure as a function of the dimensionality of the variables. Also, the resulting log Bayes factor is asymptotically proportional to the plug-in estimate of mutual information, with an additive correction for dimensionality in agreement with the Bayesian information criterion. We investigated the behavior of these Bayesian alternatives (in exact and asymptotic forms) to mutual information on simulated and real data. An encouraging result was first derived on simulations: the hierarchical clustering based on the log Bayes factor outperformed off-the-shelf clustering techniques as well as raw and normalized mutual information in terms of classification accuracy. On a toy example, we found that the Bayesian approaches led to results that were similar to those of mutual information clustering techniques, with the advantage of an automated thresholding. On real functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets measuring brain activity, it identified clusters consistent with the established outcome of standard procedures. On this application, normalized mutual information had a highly atypical behavior, in the sense that it systematically favored very large clusters. These initial experiments suggest that the proposed Bayesian alternatives to mutual information are a useful new tool for hierarchical clustering. PMID:26406245

  11. A Bayesian Alternative to Mutual Information for the Hierarchical Clustering of Dependent Random Variables

    PubMed Central

    Marrelec, Guillaume; Messé, Arnaud; Bellec, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The use of mutual information as a similarity measure in agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) raises an important issue: some correction needs to be applied for the dimensionality of variables. In this work, we formulate the decision of merging dependent multivariate normal variables in an AHC procedure as a Bayesian model comparison. We found that the Bayesian formulation naturally shrinks the empirical covariance matrix towards a matrix set a priori (e.g., the identity), provides an automated stopping rule, and corrects for dimensionality using a term that scales up the measure as a function of the dimensionality of the variables. Also, the resulting log Bayes factor is asymptotically proportional to the plug-in estimate of mutual information, with an additive correction for dimensionality in agreement with the Bayesian information criterion. We investigated the behavior of these Bayesian alternatives (in exact and asymptotic forms) to mutual information on simulated and real data. An encouraging result was first derived on simulations: the hierarchical clustering based on the log Bayes factor outperformed off-the-shelf clustering techniques as well as raw and normalized mutual information in terms of classification accuracy. On a toy example, we found that the Bayesian approaches led to results that were similar to those of mutual information clustering techniques, with the advantage of an automated thresholding. On real functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets measuring brain activity, it identified clusters consistent with the established outcome of standard procedures. On this application, normalized mutual information had a highly atypical behavior, in the sense that it systematically favored very large clusters. These initial experiments suggest that the proposed Bayesian alternatives to mutual information are a useful new tool for hierarchical clustering. PMID:26406245

  12. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin )

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  13. Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2013-02-01

    The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms. PMID:23103772

  14. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in section 593(a)....

  16. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in...

  18. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563.74 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No savings association that is in the mutual form shall...

  19. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... association that is in the mutual form shall issue mutual capital certificates pursuant to this section or... report stating the number of purchasers. (i) Requirements as to mutual capital certificates—(1) Form...

  20. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... association that is in the mutual form shall issue mutual capital certificates pursuant to this section or... report stating the number of purchasers. (i) Requirements as to mutual capital certificates—(1) Form...

  1. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... association that is in the mutual form shall issue mutual capital certificates pursuant to this section or... report stating the number of purchasers. (i) Requirements as to mutual capital certificates—(1) Form...

  2. Root-Secreted Malic Acid Recruits Beneficial Soil Bacteria1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Paré, Paul W.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial soil bacteria confer immunity against a wide range of foliar diseases by activating plant defenses, thereby reducing a plant's susceptibility to pathogen attack. Although bacterial signals have been identified that activate these plant defenses, plant metabolites that elicit rhizobacterial responses have not been demonstrated. Here, we provide biochemical evidence that the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate l-malic acid (MA) secreted from roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) selectively signals and recruits the beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis FB17 in a dose-dependent manner. Root secretions of l-MA are induced by the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst DC3000) and elevated levels of l-MA promote binding and biofilm formation of FB17 on Arabidopsis roots. The demonstration that roots selectively secrete l-MA and effectively signal beneficial rhizobacteria establishes a regulatory role of root metabolites in recruitment of beneficial microbes, as well as underscores the breadth and sophistication of plant-microbial interactions. PMID:18820082

  3. Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ian PS

    2006-01-01

    Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

  4. Mutual obligation, shared responsibility agreements & indigenous health strategy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian P S

    2006-01-01

    Since 2004 the Howard Coalition government has implemented a new policy framework and administrative arrangements as part of its program of reform in Indigenous affairs. In this paper I will describe both the parameters of this reform program and review the processes established to support the implementation of national Indigenous health strategy. In particular, I will consider both the shift from a policy framework based on 'self-determination' to one based on 'mutual obligation', and the implementation of Shared Responsibility Agreements (SRAs) that are based on the latter principle. I will use the example of the Mulan SRA to illustrate the difficulties in articulating the 'new arrangements' with current approaches to Indigenous health planning and strategy implementation. I conclude that 'new arrangements' pose a number of problems for Indigenous health planning and strategy that need to be addressed. PMID:16999873

  5. Preferential allocation, physio-evolutionary feedbacks, and the stability and environmental patterns of mutualism between plants and their root symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bever, James D

    2015-03-01

    The common occurrence of mutualistic interactions between plants and root symbionts is problematic. As the delivery of benefit to hosts involves costs to symbionts, symbionts that provide reduced benefit to their host are expected to increase in frequency. Plants have been shown to allocate preferentially to the most efficient symbiont and this preferential allocation may stabilize the mutualism. I construct a general model of the interactive feedbacks of host preferential allocation and the dynamics of root symbiont populations to evaluate the stability of nutritional mutualisms. Preferential allocation can promote the evolution of mutualism even when the cost to the symbiont is very large. Moreover, the physiological plasticity of preferential allocation likely leads to coexistence of beneficial and nonbeneficial symbionts. For arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which facilitate plant uptake of phosphorus (P), the model predicts greater P transfer from these fungi per unit carbon invested with decreasing concentrations of soil P and with increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 , patterns that have been observed in laboratory and field studies. This framework connects physiological plasticity in plant allocation to population processes that determine mutualism stability and, as such, represents a significant step in understanding the stability and environmental patterns in mutualism. PMID:25561086

  6. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the {open_quotes}beneficial reuse{close_quotes} concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned.

  7. When is Constrained Clustering Beneficial, and Why?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Basu, Sugato; Davidson, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Several researchers have shown that constraints can improve the results of a variety of clustering algorithms. However, there can be a large variation in this improvement, even for a fixed number of constraints for a given data set. We present the first attempt to provide insight into this phenomenon by characterizing two constraint set properties: informativeness and coherence. We show that these measures can help explain why some constraint sets are more beneficial to clustering algorithms than others. Since they can be computed prior to clustering, these measures can aid in deciding which constraints to use in practice.

  8. Integrating Beneficiation into Regolith Conveyance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Mantovani, James H.; Townsend, I. I.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Regolith conveyance includes hauler/dumpers, hoppers, augers, pneumatic transport subsystems, and other elements. The features of the conveyance and the time the material stream spend in conveyance may be used synergistically to perform beneficiation, pre-processing (such as heating), and other tasks, thus reducing the mass and complexity of the overall ISRU system. Since the cost of spaceflight is largely driven by the cost of launching mass out of Earth's gravity well, the conveyance system should be leveraged in this way to the maximum extent.

  9. Current situation and development of dry beneficiation of coal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q.R.; Yang, Y.F.

    1997-12-31

    The paper analyzes the current situation and development of dry beneficiation of coal technology in the world and discusses in detail the principle. The paper also discusses the industrial application of dry beneficiation of coal technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed, which can beneficiate efficiently the coarse coal of size 50-6mm, laboratory studies of deep fluidized bed beneficiating large coal of size 300-50mm, vibrational fluidized bed beneficiating efficiently small coal of size 6-0.5mm, and triboelectric separation beneficiating fine coal of size smaller than 1mm.

  10. Quantum reconstruction of the mutual coherence function.

    PubMed

    Hradil, Z; Rehácek, J; Sánchez-Soto, L L

    2010-07-01

    Light is a major carrier of information about the world around us, from the microcosmos to the macrocosmos. The present methods of detection are sensitive both to robust features, such as intensity, or polarization, and to more subtle effects, such as correlations. Here we show how wave front detection, which allows for registering the direction of the incoming wave flux at a given position, can be used to reconstruct the mutual coherence function when combined with some techniques previously developed for quantum information processing. PMID:20867424

  11. Why Is Test-Restudy Practice Beneficial for Memory? An Evaluation of the Mediator Shift Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyc, Mary A.; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Although the memorial benefits of testing are well established empirically, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are not well understood. The authors evaluated the mediator shift hypothesis, which states that test-restudy practice is beneficial for memory because retrieval failures during practice allow individuals to evaluate the effectiveness…

  12. 17 CFR 240.14c-7 - Providing copies of material for certain beneficial owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the registrant, any employee benefit plan established by an affiliate of the registrant that holds securities of the registrant that the registrant elects to treat as exempt employee benefit plan securities... paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section shall not cover beneficial owners of exempt employee...

  13. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is to study ways to modify surface properties of coal, pyrite and ash-forming mineral matter for beneficiation of fine coal. Since the differences in surface properties of coal and mineral matter are utilized in several oil based preparation technologies, such as: froth flotation, emulsion flotation, spherical agglomeration and liquid-liquid separation, another objective is to delineate the role of oil. The following studies are behind carried out to achieve the objectives: Investigation of the natural hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite; development and evaluation of enhanced coal hydrophobicity; development and evaluation of reagents xanthates which modulate the hydrophobicity of pyrite; and development and evaluation of emulsion processes and their underlying principles.

  14. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

  15. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, R.D.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

  16. Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Calum J; Guinane, Caitriona M; O'Toole, Paul W; Cotter, Paul D

    2014-11-17

    The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells and has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disruption of this population has been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including examples such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that are highlighted in this review. A logical extension of these observations suggests that the manipulation of the gut microbiota can be employed to prevent or treat these conditions. Thus, here we highlight a variety of options, including the use of changes in diet (including the use of prebiotics), antimicrobial-based intervention, probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation, and discuss their relative merits with respect to modulating the intestinal community in a beneficial way. PMID:24681100

  17. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  18. Biosolids management: Beneficial use comes of age

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.

    1996-12-01

    The most important issues facing the biosolids management industry today are costs, odors and public perception. Of these, public perception has the biggest effect on the industry -- in the way biosolids are generated, used, destroyed, transported and reused. Even in the way they have been named. Officially, sludge is a term affixed to the product that comes out of sewage treatment plants and biosolids is what the processed end product is called. Although it sounds like two different things, the terms are used interchangeably. Still called sludge by some environmental professionals in the water and wastewater industries, biosolids is the official term for sludge being marketed to the public. And apparently it`s working. After years of public misperceptions, biosolids education and public relations programs thrust the organics into the Age of Beneficial Use.

  19. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  20. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Corné M J; Zamioudis, Christos; Berendsen, Roeland L; Weller, David M; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed. PMID:24906124

  1. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  2. Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haire, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.

  3. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  4. The bonobo-dialium positive interactions: seed dispersal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Beaune, David; Bretagnolle, François; Bollache, Loïc; Hohmann, Gottfried; Surbeck, Martin; Bourson, Chloé; Fruth, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    A positive interaction is any interaction between individuals of the same or different species (mutualism) that provides a benefit to both partners such as increased fitness. Here we focus on seed dispersal mutualism between an animal (bonobo, Pan paniscus) and a plant (velvet tamarind trees, Dialium spp.). In the LuiKotale rainforest southwest of Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, seven species of the genus Dialium account for 29.3% of all trees. Dialium is thus the dominant genus in this forest. Dialium fruits make up a large proportion of the diet of a habituated bonobo community in this forest. During the 6 months of the fruiting season, more than half of the bonobos' feeding time is devoted to Dialium fruits. Furthermore, Dialium fruits contribute a considerable proportion of sugar and protein to bonobos' dietary intake, being among the richest fruits for these nutrients. Bonobos in turn ingest fruits with seeds that are disseminated in their feces (endozoochory) at considerable distances (average: 1.25 km after 24 hr of average transit time). Endozoochory through the gut causes loss of the cuticle protection and tegumentary dormancy, as well as an increase in size by water uptake. Thus, after gut passage, seeds are better able to germinate. We consider other primate species as a potential seed disperser and conclude that Dialium germination is dependent on passage through bonobo guts. This plant-animal interaction highlights positive effects between two major organisms of the Congo basin rainforest, and establishes the role of the bonobo as an efficient disperser of Dialium seeds. Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23307414

  5. Competition between Mutually Exclusive Object States in Event Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sarah H; Hindy, Nicholas C; Altmann, Gerry T M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-12-01

    Successful language comprehension requires one to correctly match symbols in an utterance to referents in the world, but the rampant ambiguity present in that mapping poses a challenge. Sometimes the ambiguity lies in which of two (or more) types of things in the world are under discussion (i.e., lexical ambiguity); however, even a word with a single sense can have an ambiguous referent. This ambiguity occurs when an object can exist in multiple states. Here, we consider two cases in which the presence of multiple object states may render a single-sense word ambiguous. In the first case, one must disambiguate between two states of a single object token in a short discourse. In the second case, the discourse establishes two different tokens of the object category. Both cases involve multiple object states: These states are mutually exclusive in the first case, whereas in the second case, these states can logically exist at the same time. We use fMRI to contrast same-token and different-token discourses, using responses in left posterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (pVLPFC) as an indicator of conflict. Because the left pVLPFC is sensitive to competition between multiple, incompatible representations, we predicted that state ambiguity should engender conflict only when those states are mutually exclusive. Indeed, we find evidence of conflict in same-token, but not different-token, discourses. Our data support a theory of left pVLPFC function in which general conflict resolution mechanisms are engaged to select between multiple incompatible representations that arise in many kinds of ambiguity present in language. PMID:26284994

  6. Establishing Mutual Dependence between TQM and the Learning Organization: A Multiple Case Study Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terziovski, Mile; Howell, Andrea; Sohal, Amrik; Morrison, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Five Australian companies using total quality management (TQM) were evaluated to identify the relationship between learning organization characteristics and Baldrige quality award criteria. Companies' sustained commitment to learning was the most important practice underlying successful implementation of TQM. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  7. Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Shantz, Andrew A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Burkepile, Deron E

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world's nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change. PMID:26549314

  8. Mutualism and Adaptive Divergence: Co-Invasion of a Heterogeneous Grassland by an Exotic Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Stephanie S.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Rice, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion. PMID:22174755

  9. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  10. Mutual recognition between ewes and lambs.

    PubMed

    Walser, E S; Alexander, G

    1980-01-01

    Studies to investigate the relative value of sight, hearing and smell in mutual recognition between ewes and lambs are described. The method used was to alter clues that could aid in recognition, rather than interfering with the animal's sensory perception. When lambs were coloured with powdered dyes to change appearance, this produced marked avoidance by the dams of the treated lambs. When lambs were partially coloured, the ewes' greatest reaction was shown to lambs whose heads were coloured. Other experiments compared the role of vision and hearing by observing recognition when the ewes or lambs were hidden behind screening, or muted. The results indicate that while olfaction is important for recognition when the ewe and lamb are close together, visual clues are of major importance in maternal discrimination and auditory clues are important for the lambs as they get older. PMID:7349447

  11. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  12. Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.

  13. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of beneficiation

    PubMed Central

    Adushkin, Vitaly V; Golub', Anatoly P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations. Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated. Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier. PMID:24778972

  14. The beneficial effect of yoga in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Varun; Singh, Savita; Tandon, Om Prakash; Sharma, Suman Bala

    2005-12-01

    Twenty NIDDM subjects (mild to moderate diabetics) in the age group of 30-60 years were selected from the out patient clinic of G.T.B. hospital. They were on a 40 days yoga asana regime under the supervision of a yoga expert. 13 specific Yoga asanas < or = done by Type 2 Diabetes Patients included. Surya Namaskar, Trikonasana, Tadasana, Sukhasana, Padmasana, Bhastrika Pranayama, Pashimottanasana, Ardhmatsyendrasana, Pawanmuktasana, Bhujangasana, Vajrasana, Dhanurasana and Shavasana are beneficial for diabetes mellitus. Serum insulin, plasma fasting and one hour postprandial blood glucose levels and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after yoga asanas. The results indicate that there was significant decrease in fasting glucose levels from basal 208.3 +/- 20.0 to 171.7 +/- 19.5 mg/dl and one hour postprandial blood glucose levels decreased from 295.3 +/- 22.0 to 269.7 +/- 19.9 mg/dl. The exact mechanism as to how these postures and controlled breathing interact with somatoendocrine mechanism affecting insulin kinetics was worked out. A significant decrease in waist-hip ratio and changes in insulin levels were also observed, suggesting a positive effect of yoga asanas on glucose utilisation and fat redistribution in NIDDM. Yoga asanas may be used as an adjunct with diet and drugs in the management of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:16519085

  15. On the Mutual Coupling Between Circular Resonant Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2007-01-01

    For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such array probes is impaired by the mutual coupling present between the radiating elements. The mutual coupling problem poses a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and its sensitivity. In this paper, we investigate the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane both numerically and experimentally. Based on the analysis of the dominant coupling mechanism, i.e., the surface currents, various remedies to reduce the slots' mutual coupling are proposed and verified.

  16. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    PubMed

    Sprinzak, David; Lakhanpal, Amit; LeBon, Lauren; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Elowitz, Michael B

    2011-06-01

    Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems. PMID:21695234

  17. On the Mutual Coupling between Circular Resonant Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Kharkovshy, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2007-01-01

    For near- and far-field microwave imaging purposes, array of circular resonant slots can be utilized to sample the electric field at a given reference plane. In general, the sensitivity of such an array is impaired by the existing mutual coupling between the radiating elements or in this case circular slots. The mutual coupling problem imposes a design tradeoff between the resolution of the array and the overall system sensitivity and dynamic range. In this paper, the mutual coupling between circular resonant slots in conducting ground plane is investigated both numerically and experimentally. In particular, the mutual coupling in the E- and H-plane configurations of two identical slots is studied.

  18. Putative linkages between below- and aboveground mutualisms during alien plant invasions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Traveset, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the fundamental role of below-aboveground links in controlling ecosystem processes is mostly based on studies done with soil herbivores or mutualists and aboveground herbivores. Much less is known about the links between belowground and aboveground mutualisms, which have been studied separately for decades. It has not been until recently that these mutualisms-mycorrhizas and legume-rhizobia on one hand, and pollinators and seed dispersers on the other hand-have been found to influence each other, with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we review the mechanisms that may link these two-level mutualisms, mostly reported for native plant species, and make predictions about their relevance during alien plant invasions. We propose that alien plants establishing effective mutualisms with belowground microbes might improve their reproductive success through positive interactions between those mutualists and pollinators and seed dispersers. On the other hand, changes in the abundance and diversity of soil mutualists induced by invasion can also interfere with below-aboveground links for native plant species. We conclude that further research on this topic is needed in the field of invasion ecology as it can provide interesting clues on synergistic interactions and invasional meltdowns during alien plant invasions. PMID:26034049

  19. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Nuñez, Martin A.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is increasingly clear that exotic invasive species affect seed-dispersal mutualisms, a synthetic examination of the effect of exotic invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms is lacking. Here, we review the impacts of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal. We found that sites with L. humile had 92 per cent fewer native ant seed dispersers than did sites where L. humile was absent. In addition, L. humile did not replace native seed dispersers, as rates of seed removal and seedling establishment were all lower in the presence of L. humile than in its absence. We conclude that potential shifts in plant diversity and concomitant changes in ecosystem function may be a consequence of Argentine ant invasions, as well as invasions by other ant species. Because very few studies have examined the effects of non-ant invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms, the prevalence of disruption of seed-dispersal mutualisms by invasive species is unclear. PMID:19465575

  20. Making fewer depression diagnoses: beneficial for patients?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Currently, general practitioners actively search for depressive disorders in their patients. When they diagnose ‘depressive disorder’, they tell their patients that they have a disease and can be treated accordingly. This is probably an important reason for the huge prescription rates of anti-depressants. In doing so, general practitioners implement specialised, psychiatric diagnostic methods in a setting characterised by patients with symptoms that superficially may resemble those of depressive disorder but in reality mainly arise from normal problems in everyday life due to losses of valued relations or failure to achieve desired goals. We argue that it might be beneficial for patients if general practitioners, in a stepped care approach, hold back on specialised methods of psychiatry and instead use a more generalist approach as first step, in which patients' problems are formulated in their own words, and efforts are directed in helping patients regain their self-confidence to solve them. Our arguments for directing attention away from diagnosing depressive disorder are: depressive disorder is a diagnosis by agreement and therefore relative, so there are other ways to look at problems than though psychiatric glasses; depression has unclear boundaries with other mental disorders and with normality; depression is often not an adequate summary of the real problems of the patient; the patient often has a very different conception about what is wrong and often does not agree with the proposed presence of a mental disorder; to diagnose depressive disorder may have more disadvantages than advantages for the patient;. the efficacy of anti-depressants is very modest. PMID:22477864

  1. The beneficial effect of hydroxyapatite lasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose In contrast to early migration, the long-term migration of hydroxyapatite- (HA-) coated tibial components in TKA has been scantily reported. This randomized controlled trial investigated the long-term migration measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of HA-coated, uncoated, and cemented tibial components in TKA. Patients and methods 68 knees were randomized to HA-coated (n = 24), uncoated (n = 20), and cemented (n = 24) components. All knees were prospectively followed for 11–16 years, or until death or revision. RSA was used to evaluate migration at yearly intervals. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was according to the Knee Society system. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM, adjusted for age, sex, diagnosis, revisions, and BMI) was used to take into account the repeated-measurement design. Results The present study involved 742 RSA analyses. The mean migration at 10 years was 1.66 mm for HA, 2.25 mm for uncoated and 0.79 mm for the cemented group (p < 0.001). The reduction of migration by HA as compared to uncoated components was most pronounced for subsidence and external rotation. 3 tibial components were revised for aseptic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), 3 for septic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), and 1 for instability (HA-coated). 2 of these cases were revised for secondary loosening after a period of stability: 1 case of osteolysis and 1 case of late infection. There were no statistically significant differences between the fixation groups regarding clinical or radiographic scores. Interpretation HA reduces migration of uncemented tibial components. This beneficial effect lasts for more than 10 years. Cemented components showed the lowest migration. Longitudinal follow-up of TKA with RSA allows early detection of secondary loosening. PMID:22329667

  2. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  3. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  4. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  5. 76 FR 35084 - Mutual to Stock Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual to Stock Conversion Application AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... following information collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual to Stock Conversion Application. OMB Number... of all information furnished in the application in order to determine the safety and soundness of...

  6. Social Climate Comparison of Mutual Help and Psychotherapy Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Rappaport, Julian

    In recent years, mutual help groups have been formed to address problems in substance abuse, chronic physical illness, mental illness, marital disruption, and child abuse. Despite the proliferation of these groups, little research has been conducted to assess their efficacy or what happens in them. The nature of mutual help groups (N=32) was…

  7. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  8. 47 CFR 22.131 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for mutually exclusive applications...) (according to the filing dates) as acceptable for filing. (4) Window filing group. A window filing group comprises mutually exclusive applications whose filing date is within an announced filing window....

  9. Reducing Deviance Through Youths' Mutual Aid Group Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2016-01-01

    The mutual aid group, as supported by the social worker, emerges to play a vital role in helping group members reduce their deviance or behavioral problem. However, how the collaboration of the group and social worker accomplishes the reduction has remained uncharted. Based on social capital theory, mutual aid and cohesion within the group and social workers' specific aid for the group are likely responsible for the reduction. The test of such hypotheses relies on a two-wave panel survey of the members of 60 mutual aid groups who had deviant behavioral problems, located in Hong Kong, China. These groups had 241 youths completing both initial and 1-year follow-up surveys. Results manifested the direct or unconditional contributions of mutual aid, group cohesion, and social workers' specific aid to reducing deviance. Hence, social workers can enhance the effectiveness of the mutual aid group in reducing youths' deviance. PMID:25169973

  10. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  11. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions. PMID:8201808

  12. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    PubMed

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  13. Quantum mutual information along unitary orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevtic, Sania; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2012-05-01

    Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyze the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system's state with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimization problem for the smallest system of two qubits and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward for equal-sized subsystems, however their minimization displays nontrivial structures. We characterize a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides: a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular “Young tableau” form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with respect to individual marginal entropies, and the presence of a “see-saw effect” for these entropies forces a finer analysis to determine the optimal tableau.

  14. An Efficient and Adaptive Mutual Authentication Framework for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network-Based Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications. PMID:24521942

  15. An efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework for heterogeneous wireless sensor network-based applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications. PMID:24521942

  16. Common Trends in Mutualism Revealed by Model Associations Between Invertebrates and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaston, John; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Mutually beneficial interactions between microbes and animals are a conserved and ubiquitous feature of biotic systems. In many instances animals, including humans, are dependent on their microbial associates for nutrition, defense, or development. To maintain these vital relationships animals have evolved processes that ensure faithful transmission of specific microbial symbionts between generations. Elucidating mechanisms of transmission and symbiont specificity has been aided by the study of experimentally tractable invertebrate animals with diverse and highly evolved associations with microbes. Here we review several invertebrate model systems that are contributing to our current understanding of symbiont transmission, recognition, and specificity. Although the details of transmission and symbiont selection vary among associations, comparisons of diverse mutualistic associations are revealing a number of common themes, including restriction of symbiont diversity during transmission and glycan-lectin interactions during partner selection and recruitment. PMID:19909347

  17. Stainless Steel RSM Beneficial Reuse technical feasibility to business reality

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.; Mishra, G.

    1997-08-01

    The Stainless Steel Beneficial Reuse Program began in 1994 as a demonstration funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. The purpose was to assess the practicality of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle. Technical feasibility has been demonstrated through the production of a number of products made from recycled RSM. A solid business foundation is yet to be achieved. However, a business environment is beginning to develop as multiple markets and applications for RSM are surfacing around the Complex. The criteria for a successful business reality includes: - affordable programs, - a continuing production base from which to expand, - real products needs, - adequate RSM supply, and - a multi-year program This program currently sponsored by SRS and DOE-ORO to fabricate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters from RSM provides an activity that satisfies these criteria. The program status is discussed. A comparison of the cost of DWPF canisters fabricated from recycled RSM and virgin metal is presented. The comparison is a function of several factors: disposal costs, the fabrication cost of virgin metal canisters, the fabrication cost of recycled RSM canisters, free release decontamination costs, and the cost to accumulate the RSM. These variables are analyzed and the relationship established to show the break-even point for various values of each parameter.

  18. Niche Engineering Demonstrates a Latent Capacity for Fungal-Algal Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Erik F. Y.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic symbioses shape the evolution of species and ecosystems and catalyze the emergence of biological complexity, yet how such symbioses first form is unclear. We show that an obligate mutualism between the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii—two model eukaryotes with very different life histories—can arise spontaneously in an environment requiring reciprocal carbon and nitrogen exchange. This capacity for mutualism is phylogenetically broad, extending to other Chlamydomonas and fungal species. Furthermore, we witnessed the spontaneous association of Chlamydomonas algal cells physically interacting with filamentous fungi. These observations demonstrate that under specific conditions, environmental change induces free-living species to become obligate mutualists and establishes a set of experimentally tractable, phylogenetically related, synthetic systems for studying the evolution of symbiosis. PMID:24994654

  19. Feature selection using mutual information based uncertainty measures for tumor classification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Xu, Jiucheng

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is a key problem in tumor classification and related tasks. This paper presents a tumor classification approach with neighborhood rough set-based feature selection. First, some uncertainty measures such as neighborhood entropy, conditional neighborhood entropy, neighborhood mutual information and neighborhood conditional mutual information, are introduced to evaluate the relevance between genes and related decision in neighborhood rough set. Then some important properties and propositions of these measures are investigated, and the relationships among these measures are established as well. By using improved minimal-Redundancy-Maximal-Relevancy, combined with sequential forward greedy search strategy, a novel feature selection algorithm with low time complexity is proposed. Finally, several cancer classification tasks are demonstrated using the proposed approach. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and effective. PMID:24211962

  20. Parallel compensatory evolution stabilizes plasmids across the parasitism-mutualism continuum.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ellie; Guymer, David; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Plasmids drive genomic diversity in bacteria via horizontal gene transfer [1, 2]; nevertheless, explaining their survival in bacterial populations is challenging [3]. Theory predicts that irrespective of their net fitness effects, plasmids should be lost: when parasitic (costs outweigh benefits), plasmids should decline due to purifying selection [4-6], yet under mutualism (benefits outweigh costs), selection favors the capture of beneficial accessory genes by the chromosome and loss of the costly plasmid backbone [4]. While compensatory evolution can enhance plasmid stability within populations [7-15], the propensity for this to occur across the parasitism-mutualism continuum is unknown. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas fluorescens and its mercury resistance mega-plasmid, pQBR103 [16], across an environment-mediated parasitism-mutualism continuum. Compensatory evolution stabilized plasmids by rapidly ameliorating the cost of plasmid carriage in all environments. Genomic analysis revealed that, in both parasitic and mutualistic treatments, evolution repeatedly targeted the gacA/gacS bacterial two-component global regulatory system while leaving the plasmid sequence intact. Deletion of either gacA or gacS was sufficient to completely ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage. Mutation of gacA/gacS downregulated the expression of ∼17% of chromosomal and plasmid genes and appears to have relieved the translational demand imposed by the plasmid. Chromosomal capture of mercury resistance accompanied by plasmid loss occurred throughout the experiment but very rarely invaded to high frequency, suggesting that rapid compensatory evolution can limit this process. Compensatory evolution can explain the widespread occurrence of plasmids and allows bacteria to retain horizontally acquired plasmids even in environments where their accessory genes are not immediately useful. PMID:26190075

  1. The Evolution of Mutualism in Gut Microbiota Via Host Epithelial Selection

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Jonas; Foster, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    The human gut harbours a large and genetically diverse population of symbiotic microbes that both feed and protect the host. Evolutionary theory, however, predicts that such genetic diversity can destabilise mutualistic partnerships. How then can the mutualism of the human microbiota be explained? Here we develop an individual-based model of host-associated microbial communities. We first demonstrate the fundamental problem faced by a host: The presence of a genetically diverse microbiota leads to the dominance of the fastest growing microbes instead of the microbes that are most beneficial to the host. We next investigate the potential for host secretions to influence the microbiota. This reveals that the epithelium–microbiota interface acts as a selectivity amplifier: Modest amounts of moderately selective epithelial secretions cause a complete shift in the strains growing at the epithelial surface. This occurs because of the physical structure of the epithelium–microbiota interface: Epithelial secretions have effects that permeate upwards through the whole microbial community, while lumen compounds preferentially affect cells that are soon to slough off. Finally, our model predicts that while antimicrobial secretion can promote host epithelial selection, epithelial nutrient secretion will often be key to host selection. Our findings are consistent with a growing number of empirical papers that indicate an influence of host factors upon microbiota, including growth-promoting glycoconjugates. We argue that host selection is likely to be a key mechanism in the stabilisation of the mutualism between a host and its microbiota. PMID:23185130

  2. Effective citizen advocacy of beneficial nuclear technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, J. Malvyn; Wood, Susan

    2007-07-01

    In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)

  3. Mutual information between SSH and SST fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le goff, Clément; Chapron, Bertrand; Fablet, Ronan; Tandeo, Pierre; Autret, Emmanuelle; Ailliot, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Mutual information between SST and SSH Investigations to relate satellite SST and SSH measurements in the Agulhas return current region are presented. In this study, we focus on the use of SSH and SST maps obtained during the year 2004, corresponding to a particularly well-sampled period for altimetry. The SST and SSH anomalies are then obtained as high-pass filtered fields, to analyze scales smaller than approximately 300km. As revealed, we clearly distinguish different regimes. During the winter months, a marked strong correlation between fields of SSH and SST anomalies is clearly revealed. During the summer months, a much lower correlation is found. Further conditioning the analysis to separate the areas of positive and negative SSH anomalies, it is then obtained, for both summer and winter periods, that aeras of negative SSH anomalies always correspond with areas of negative SST anomalies. This high correspondance also applies in winter but only for areas of positive SSH anomalies, which indeed well match with areas of positive SST anomalies. In summer, this high correspondance is lost, and areas with positive SSH anomalies do not necessarily correspond to positive SST anomalies. Accordingly, such an effect affects and weakens the overall SST/SSH correlation during the summer months. Yet, the areas of positive SSH anomalies are not fully disconnected from the areas of positive SST anomalies. For these cases, observations and results demonstrate a systematic spatial shift between them. This suggests the influence of the mixed layer depth and wind speed to control the spatial correspondance between SST and SSH anomalies, especially below regions of positive SSH anomalies. In such cases, the upper layer SST anomalies are certainly advected by the interior flow to also provide means to relate surface observations and interior dynamics.

  4. Method for the beneficiation of low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, P.E.; Herman, D.E.

    1986-04-22

    An improved process is described for the beneficiation of low rank coal, the process comprising the steps of: (a) admixing pulverized low rank coal with a surface treating mixture comprised of water, a polymerizable monomer, a polymerization catalyst and a coal derived oil; and (b) recovering the resulting beneficiated coal.

  5. Stability issues: maintenance of beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Deterioration or loss of beneficial traits during laboratory or industrial culture prod...

  6. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  7. RNAi at work: Targeting invertebrate pests and beneficial organisms' diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invertebrates present two types of large scale RNAi application opportunities: pest control and beneficial insect health. The former involves the introduction of sustainable applications to keep pest populations low, and the latter represents the challenge of keeping beneficial organisms healthy. RN...

  8. Concept paper: establishment of a diagnostics platform for South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, I; Bubb, M; Msomi, N

    2007-01-01

    This concept paper focuses on diagnostics as one of the key areas of strategic importance. Lifelab intends to specialise in the research and development of in vitro diagnostic test systems specifically for diseases of relevance to the Southern African region. The use of diagnostic tests is an essential but costly element in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases and in particular, HIV/AIDS. Consistent with the need to improve affordability and accessibility, the strategy will be to research, develop, and manufacture promising diagnostic test systems and through mutually beneficial partnerships with joint venture companies and distributors, rapidly introduce these diagnostic systems to the market. PMID:17703559

  9. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Sung, Kang; Chang-Ho, Hong; Jino, Heo; Jong-In, Lim; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Korea University.

  10. Spatial Mutual Information Based Hyperspectral Band Selection for Classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information involved in hyperspectral imaging is large. Hyperspectral band selection is a popular method for reducing dimensionality. Several information based measures such as mutual information have been proposed to reduce information redundancy among spectral bands. Unfortunately, mutual information does not take into account the spatial dependency between adjacent pixels in images thus reducing its robustness as a similarity measure. In this paper, we propose a new band selection method based on spatial mutual information. As validation criteria, a supervised classification method using support vector machine (SVM) is used. Experimental results of the classification of hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate results. PMID:25918742

  11. Mutual Coupling and Compensation in FMCW MIMO Radar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Christian M.; Feger, Reinhard; Wagner, Christoph; Stelzer, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with mutual coupling, its effects and the compensation thereof in frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array radar systems. Starting with a signal model we introduce mutual coupling and its primary sources in FMCW MIMO systems. We also give a worst-case boundary of the effects that mutual coupling can have on the side lobe level of an array. A method of dealing with and compensating for these effects is covered in this paper and verified by measurements from a 77-GHz FMCW radar system.

  12. Parasponia: a novel system for studying mutualism stability.

    PubMed

    Behm, Jocelyn E; Geurts, Rene; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how mutualistic interactions are stabilized in the presence of cheaters is a major question in evolutionary biology. The legume-rhizobia mutualism has become a model system for studying how plants control cheating partners. However, the generality and evolutionary origins of these control mechanisms are intensely debated. In this Opinion article, we argue that a novel system--the Parasponia-rhizobia mutualism--will significantly advance research in mutualism stability. Parasponia is the only non-legume lineage to have evolved a rhizobial symbiosis, which provides an evolutionary replicate to test how rhizobial exploitation is controlled. Evidence also suggests that this symbiosis is young. This allows studies at an earlier evolutionary stage in mutualisms, so the origin of control mechanisms can be better understood. PMID:25239777

  13. Complex degree of mutual anisotropy of biological liquid crystals nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yuriy O.; Tomka, Yuriy Ya.; Misevitch, Igor Z.; Istratiy, Vadim V.; Telenga, Olga I.

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to investigate the potentiality of describing and differentiating optical-anisotropic properties of biological liquid crystal net by statistic analysis of coordinate distributions of a new analytical parameter, a complex degree of mutual anisotropy.

  14. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP 1906: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF ASSOCIATED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE MAP - 1906: ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, PATERSON, N.J. (4x5 NEGATIVE) - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  15. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  16. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  17. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  18. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  19. 47 CFR 101.45 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Processing of Applications § 101.45 Mutually... fixed point-to-point microwave applications for authorization under this part will be entitled...

  20. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  1. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  2. 47 CFR 27.321 - Mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Application, Licensing, and Processing Rules for WCS § 27.321... Commission's rules governing the Wireless Communications Services involved. The Commission uses the general procedures in this section for processing mutually exclusive applications in the Wireless...

  3. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  4. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  5. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  6. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  7. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  8. "It Might Actually Work This Time": Benefits and Barriers to Adapted 12-Step Facilitation Therapy and Mutual-Help Group Attendance From the Perspective of Dually Diagnosed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Hagler, Kylee J; Rice, Samara L; Muñoz, Rosa E; Salvador, Julie G; Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Most U.S. healthcare professionals encourage mutual-help group involvement as an adjunct to treatment or aftercare for individuals with substance use disorders, yet there are multiple challenges in engaging in these community groups. Dually diagnosed individuals (DDIs) may face additional challenges in affiliating with mutual-help groups. Twelve-step facilitation for DDIs (TSF-DD), a manualized treatment to facilitate mutual-help group involvement, was developed to help patients engage in Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR), a mutual-help group tailored to DDIs. Given the promising role that TSF-DD and DTR may have for increasing abstinence while managing psychiatric symptoms, the aim of the current study was to systematically examine reasons for TSF-DD and DTR attendance from the perspective of DDIs using focus group data. Participants were a subset (n = 15) of individuals diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder as well as a major depressive, bipolar, or psychotic disorder who participated in a parent study testing the efficacy of TSF-DD for increasing mutual-help group involvement and reducing alcohol use. Analyses of focus group data revealed that participants construed DTR and TSF-DD as helpful tools in the understanding and management of their disorders. Relative to other mutual-help groups in which participants reported feeling ostracized because of their dual diagnoses, participants reported that it was beneficial to learn about dual disorders in a safe and accepting environment. Participants also expressed aspects that they disliked. Results from this study yield helpful empirical recommendations to healthcare professionals seeking to increase DDIs' participation in DTR or other mutual-help groups. PMID:26340570

  9. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    The mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles is presented as a summation of several exponential integrals with complex arguments. Mathematical models are developed to show the near-zone field of the sinusoidal dipole. The mutual impedance of coupled dipoles is expressed as the sum of four monopole-mobopole impedances to simplify the analysis procedure. The subroutines for solving the parameters of the dipoles are discussed.

  10. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-05-15

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  11. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1975-01-01

    The mutual impedance expressions for parallel dipoles in terms of sine-integrals and cosine-integrals have been published by King (1957). The investigation reported provides analogous expressions for nonparallel dipoles. The expressions presented are most useful when the monopoles are close together. The theory of moment methods shows an approach for employing the mutual impedance of filamentary sinusoidal dipoles to calculate the impedance and scattering properties of straight and bent wires with small but finite diameter.

  12. Rethinking mutualism stability: cheaters and the evolution of sanctions.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2013-12-01

    How cooperation originates and persists in diverse species, from bacteria to multicellular organisms to human societies, is a major question in evolutionary biology. A large literature asks: what prevents selection for cheating within cooperative lineages? In mutualisms, or cooperative interactions between species, feedback between partners often aligns their fitness interests, such that cooperative symbionts receive more benefits from their hosts than uncooperative symbionts. But how do these feedbacks evolve? Cheaters might invade symbiont populations and select for hosts that preferentially reward or associate with cooperators (often termed sanctions or partner choice); hosts might adapt to variation in symbiont quality that does not amount to cheating (e.g., environmental variation); or conditional host responses might exist before cheaters do, making mutualisms stable from the outset. I review evidence from yucca-yucca moth, fig-fig wasp, and legume-rhizobium mutualisms, which are commonly cited as mutualisms stabilized by sanctions. Based on the empirical evidence, it is doubtful that cheaters select for host sanctions in these systems; cheaters are too uncommon. Recognizing that sanctions likely evolved for functions other than retaliation against cheaters offers many insights about mutualism coevolution, and about why mutualism evolves in only some lineages of potential hosts. PMID:24552098

  13. Potential beneficial effects of marine algal sterols on human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Ta, Quang Van

    2011-01-01

    The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have gained much attention. Sterols are important structural component of cell membranes. It has been reported that plant sterols exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as hypercholesterolemic, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Marine algae with a great diversity can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine algae derived sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22054947

  14. Putative linkages between below- and aboveground mutualisms during alien plant invasions

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Traveset, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the fundamental role of below–aboveground links in controlling ecosystem processes is mostly based on studies done with soil herbivores or mutualists and aboveground herbivores. Much less is known about the links between belowground and aboveground mutualisms, which have been studied separately for decades. It has not been until recently that these mutualisms—mycorrhizas and legume–rhizobia on one hand, and pollinators and seed dispersers on the other hand—have been found to influence each other, with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we review the mechanisms that may link these two-level mutualisms, mostly reported for native plant species, and make predictions about their relevance during alien plant invasions. We propose that alien plants establishing effective mutualisms with belowground microbes might improve their reproductive success through positive interactions between those mutualists and pollinators and seed dispersers. On the other hand, changes in the abundance and diversity of soil mutualists induced by invasion can also interfere with below–aboveground links for native plant species. We conclude that further research on this topic is needed in the field of invasion ecology as it can provide interesting clues on synergistic interactions and invasional meltdowns during alien plant invasions. PMID:26034049

  15. Rapid evolution of stability and productivity at the origin of a microbial mutualism

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesland, Kristina L.; Stahl, David A.

    2009-12-01

    Mutualistic interactions are taxonomically and functionally diverse. Despite their ubiquity, the basic ecological and evolutionary processes underlying their origin and maintenance are poorly understood. A major reason for this has been the lack of an experimentally tractable model system. We examine the evolution of an experimentally imposed obligate mutualism between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic microorganisms that have no known history of prior interaction. Twenty-four independent pairings (cocultures) of the bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis were established and followed for 300 community doublings in two environments, one allowing for the development of a heterogeneous distribution of resources and the other not. Evolved cocultures grew up to 80percent faster and were up to 30percent more productive (biomass yield per mole substrate) than the ancestors. The evolutionary process was marked by periods of significant instability leading to extinction of two of the cocultures, but resulted in more stable, efficient, and productive mutualisms for most replicated pairings. Comparisons of evolved cocultures with those assembled from one evolved and one ancestral mutualist showed that evolution of both species contributed to improved productivity. Surprisingly, however, overall improvements in growth rate and yield were less than the sum of individual contributions, suggesting antagonistic interactions between mutations from the coevolved populations. Physical constraints on the transfer of metabolites in the evolution environment affected the evolution of M. maripaludis but not D. vulgaris. Together, these results show that challenges can imperil nascent obligate mutualisms and demonstrate the evolutionary responses that enable their persistence and future evolution.

  16. HR4 Gene Is Induced in the Arabidopsis-Trichoderma atroviride Beneficial Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-Mata, Jorge; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to microbes, for this reason they have evolved sophisticated strategies to perceive and identify biotic interactions. Thus, plants have large collections of so-called resistance (R) proteins that recognize specific microbe factors as signals of invasion. One of these proteins is codified by the Arabidopsis thaliana HR4 gene in the Col-0 ecotype that is homologous to RPW8 genes present in the Ms-0 ecotype. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of the HR4 gene in Arabidopsis seedlings interacting with the beneficial fungus Trichoderma atroviride. We observed the induction of the HR4 gene mainly at 96 hpi when the fungus interaction was established. Furthermore, we found that the HR4 gene was differentially regulated in interactions with the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and the pathogenic bacterium P. syringae. When hormone treatments were applied to A. thaliana (Col-0), each hormone treatment induced changes in HR4 gene expression. On the other hand, the expression of the RPW8.1 and RPW8.2 genes of Arabidopsis ecotype Ms-0 in interaction with T. atroviride was assessed. Interestingly, these genes are interaction-responsive; in particular, the RPW8.1 gene shows a very high level of expression in the later stages of interaction. These results indicate that HR4 and RPW8 genes could play a role in the establishment of Arabidopsis interactions with beneficial microbes. PMID:22942755

  17. [Contract instead of regress : Possibilities for mutually agreed termination of benchmark checking procedure for prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Warntjen, M

    2009-08-01

    The law in section 106 paragraph 5d of the Code of Civil Law provides for various possibilities for a mutual agreement to terminate the unpleasant benchmark checking procedure of prescriptions. This does not as otherwise lead to establishing a regress by the testing body or the complaints committee but a form of contract is sealed between the physician and the test panel, which then finalizes the test procedure. Overall the individual benchmark agreement and the compromise settlement represent interesting options for bargaining. PMID:19618158

  18. The distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations.

    PubMed

    Orr, H Allen

    2003-04-01

    We know little about the distribution of fitness effects among new beneficial mutations, a problem that partly reflects the rarity of these changes. Surprisingly, though, population genetic theory allows us to predict what this distribution should look like under fairly general assumptions. Using extreme value theory, I derive this distribution and show that it has two unexpected properties. First, the distribution of beneficial fitness effects at a gene is exponential. Second, the distribution of beneficial effects at a gene has the same mean regardless of the fitness of the present wild-type allele. Adaptation from new mutations is thus characterized by a kind of invariance: natural selection chooses from the same spectrum of beneficial effects at a locus independent of the fitness rank of the present wild type. I show that these findings are reasonably robust to deviations from several assumptions. I further show that one can back calculate the mean size of new beneficial mutations from the observed mean size of fixed beneficial mutations. PMID:12702694

  19. The role of weathering on fly ash charge distribution during triboelectrostatic beneficiation.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Federico; Notarnicola, Michele; Liberti, Lorenzo; Stencel, John

    2009-05-30

    Triboelectrostatic beneficiation of coal combustion fly ashes with high-unburned carbon contents can produce low-carbon ash products having value as mineral admixtures and meeting technical requirements for replacing cement in concrete. This capability is a result of establishing bipolar charge on mineral ash versus carbon particles where, typically, unburned carbon attains positive surface charge and ash attains negative surface charge under the tribocharging conditions employed in triboelectrostatic technologies. However, long-term exposure of fly ash to weathering conditions, such as moisture or high humidity, before beneficiation is known to dramatically diminish carbon-ash separation efficiencies. Although experimentation has shown that water soluble surface species can be redistributed on fly ash particles after exposure to moisture, which could affect the extent of charging and polarities, measurement of the actual amount of charge and polarity on particles after weathering exposure versus after removal of surface moisture has not been accomplished. Hence, a new experimental methodology was developed and applied to measure charge distributions on tribocharged ash and carbon particles in a fly ash that had been exposed to weathering conditions for 6 months before and after removal of the surface moisture. Weathered ash particles were found to have an average zero charge, whereas carbon particles attained an average negative charge, opposite of the normal polarity for carbon. Although the extent of uncharged particles decreased and ash particles attained an average negative charge after drying, carbon particles attained only an average zero charge. These changes were reflected in very small increases in carbon-ash separation efficiency, in contrast to previous beneficiation tests in which fly ash drying led to significant increases in carbon-ash separation efficiency. It is suggested that removal of surface moisture in the absence of other processes like surface ion redistribution would beneficially impact carbon-ash triboelectrostatic beneficiation. PMID:18819747

  20. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  1. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Clare E.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Background As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create “widow” species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem – the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses – remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1–4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40–58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses. Conclusions Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions. PMID:23840571

  2. Population dynamics and mutualism: Functional responses of benefits and costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2002-01-01

    We develop an approach for studying population dynamics resulting from mutualism by employing functional responses based on density‐dependent benefits and costs. These functional responses express how the population growth rate of a mutualist is modified by the density of its partner. We present several possible dependencies of gross benefits and costs, and hence net effects, to a mutualist as functions of the density of its partner. Net effects to mutualists are likely a monotonically saturating or unimodal function of the density of their partner. We show that fundamental differences in the growth, limitation, and dynamics of a population can occur when net effects to that population change linearly, unimodally, or in a saturating fashion. We use the mutualism between senita cactus and its pollinating seed‐eating moth as an example to show the influence of different benefit and cost functional responses on population dynamics and stability of mutualisms. We investigated two mechanisms that may alter this mutualism's functional responses: distribution of eggs among flowers and fruit abortion. Differences in how benefits and costs vary with density can alter the stability of this mutualism. In particular, fruit abortion may allow for a stable equilibrium where none could otherwise exist.

  3. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    PubMed

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described. PMID:22398886

  4. Standardised animal models of host microbial mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, A J; McCoy, K D

    2015-01-01

    An appreciation of the importance of interactions between microbes and multicellular organisms is currently driving research in biology and biomedicine. Many human diseases involve interactions between the host and the microbiota, so investigating the mechanisms involved is important for human health. Although microbial ecology measurements capture considerable diversity of the communities between individuals, this diversity is highly problematic for reproducible experimental animal models that seek to establish the mechanistic basis for interactions within the overall host-microbial superorganism. Conflicting experimental results may be explained away through unknown differences in the microbiota composition between vivaria or between the microenvironment of different isolated cages. In this position paper, we propose standardised criteria for stabilised and defined experimental animal microbiotas to generate reproducible models of human disease that are suitable for systematic experimentation and are reproducible across different institutions. PMID:25492472

  5. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws C Appendix...—Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws MODEL BYLAWS FOR MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES The term “trustees” may be... mutual holding company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws C Appendix...—Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws MODEL BYLAWS FOR MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES The term “trustees” may be... mutual holding company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws C Appendix...—Mutual Holding Company Model Bylaws MODEL BYLAWS FOR MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES The term “trustees” may be... mutual holding company for the election of directors and for the transaction of any other business of...

  8. 77 FR 73700 - Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Mutual of America Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of Application December 5, 2012. AGENCY... the Act from Section 17(a) of the Act. APPLICANTS: Mutual of America Life Insurance Company (``Mutual of America''), Wilton Reassurance Life Company of New York (``Wilton,'' and, together with Mutual...

  9. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  10. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-01-01

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise. PMID:26501284

  11. Comprehensive analysis of mutually exclusive alternative splicing in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Takei, Satomi; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Mutually exclusive selection of one exon in a cluster of exons is a rare form of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, yet suggests strict regulation. However, the repertoires of regulation mechanisms for the mutually exclusive (ME) splicing in vivo are still unknown. Here, we experimentally explore putative ME exons in C. elegans to demonstrate that 29 ME exon clusters in 27 genes are actually selected in a mutually exclusive manner. Twenty-two of the clusters consist of homologous ME exons. Five clusters have too short intervening introns to be excised between the ME exons. Fidelity of ME splicing relies at least in part on nonsense-mediated mRNA decay for 14 clusters. These results thus characterize all the repertoires of ME splicing in this organism. PMID:25254147

  12. Measuring causality by taking the directional symbolic mutual information approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui; Xie, Lei; Chu, Jian

    2013-03-01

    We propose a novel measure to assess causality through the comparison of symbolic mutual information between the future of one random quantity and the past of the other. This provides a new perspective that is different from the conventional conceptions. Based on this point of view, a new causality index is derived that uses the definition of directional symbolic mutual information. This measure presents properties that are different from the time delayed mutual information since the symbolization captures the dynamic features of the analyzed time series. In addition to characterizing the direction and the amplitude of the information flow, it can also detect coupling delays. This method has the property of robustness, conceptual simplicity, and fast computational speed.

  13. Sparse Bayesian learning for DOA estimation with mutual coupling.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-01-01

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise. PMID:26501284

  14. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium. PMID:20866484

  15. Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Bernamonti, Alice

    2014-03-01

    We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulas for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

  16. Algorithmic significance, mutual information, and DNA sequence comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Milosavljevic, A.

    1993-12-31

    The newly proposed algorithmic significance method [6] enables recognition of patterns in DNA sequences at prespecified significance levels via minimal length encoding. We extend the method to provide a formal framework for DNA sequence comparisons via mutual information. While in this paper we restrict our discussion to DNA sequence analysis, the methods that are presented are potentially applicable in many other domains. Under a few simplifying assumptions, we show that significance of sequence similarity depends exponentially on mutual information. In addition to this estimate of significance, the concept of mutual information provides solutions to the following two problems in DNA sequence comparisons: Factoring out contribution of shared repetitive patterns and factoring out bias due to partial sequencing.

  17. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  18. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I?(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.

  19. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ?{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different ?-Rényi generalizations I{sub ?}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit ? ? 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter ?. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when ? is in a neighborhood of one.

  20. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Samuel B.; Rhee, Frank C.; Monroe, James I.; Sohn, Jason W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To develop a new metric for image registration that incorporates the (sub)pixelwise differential importance along spatial location and to demonstrate its application for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: It is well known that rigid-body image registration with mutual information is dependent on the size and location of the image subset on which the alignment analysis is based [the designated region of interest (ROI)]. Therefore, careful review and manual adjustments of the resulting registration are frequently necessary. Although there were some investigations of weighted mutual information (WMI), these efforts could not apply the differential importance to a particular spatial location since WMI only applies the weight to the joint histogram space. The authors developed the spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) metric by incorporating an adaptable weight function with spatial localization into mutual information. SWMI enables the user to apply the selected transform to medically ''important'' areas such as tumors and critical structures, so SWMI is neither dominated by, nor neglects the neighboring structures. Since SWMI can be utilized with any weight function form, the authors presented two examples of weight functions for IGRT application: A Gaussian-shaped weight function (GW) applied to a user-defined location and a structures-of-interest (SOI) based weight function. An image registration example using a synthesized 2D image is presented to illustrate the efficacy of SWMI. The convergence and feasibility of the registration method as applied to clinical imaging is illustrated by fusing a prostate treatment planning CT with a clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) image set acquired for patient alignment. Forty-one trials are run to test the speed of convergence. The authors also applied SWMI registration using two types of weight functions to two head and neck cases and a prostate case with clinically acquired CBCT/MVCT image sets. The SWMI registration with a Gaussian weight function (SWMI-GW) was tested between two different imaging modalities: CT and MRI image sets. Results: SWMI-GW converges 10% faster than registration using mutual information with an ROI. SWMI-GW as well as SWMI with SOI-based weight function (SWMI-SOI) shows better compensation of the target organ's deformation and neighboring critical organs' deformation. SWMI-GW was also used to successfully fuse MRI and CT images. Conclusions: Rigid-body image registration using our SWMI-GW and SWMI-SOI as cost functions can achieve better registration results in (a) designated image region(s) as well as faster convergence. With the theoretical foundation established, we believe SWMI could be extended to larger clinical testing.

  1. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-01-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states. PMID:26278628

  2. Computer modelling of electronegative plasma sheaths and their mutual interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromadka, Jakub; Ibehej, Tomas; Hrach, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Our paper focuses on investigation of sheath structures formed in the vicinity of biased solid objects immersed in electronegative plasma. In Particular, phenomena during mutual interaction of several plasma sheaths were investigated. Our results show the manner in which the sheath of a cylindrical probe is affected by the presence of another cylindrical probe with smaller radius in its surroundings. Number density of charged particles, electric field intensity and fluxes of charged particles on the probes were observed to quantify the mutual interaction of sheaths. The study was done by means of the 2D particle-in-cell model with Monte Carlo treatment of collisions.

  3. Holographic mutual information in global Vaidya-BTZ spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziogas, Vaios

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the evolution of the mutual information between two spatial subsystems in a compact 1+1 dimensional CFT after a quantum quench. To this end, we use the dual holographic process, given by the 2+1 dimensional Vaidya-BTZ spacetime in global coordinates, which describes the collapse of a spherically symmetric null shell. So, we first discuss the spacelike geodesic structure of this geometry and then we present the various behaviors of the holographic mutual information observed in this case. We also consider the analogous process in the adiabatic limit and compare these two cases from a geometrical point of view.

  4. Separability criteria via sets of mutually unbiased measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2015-01-01

    Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states. PMID:26278628

  5. Binary phase oscillation of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Shoko; Namekata, Naoto; Takata, Kenta; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Inoue, Shuichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-03-01

    A two-site Ising model is implemented as an injection-locked laser network consisting of a single master laser and two mutually coupled slave lasers. We observed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orders in the in-phase and out-of-phase couplings between the two slave lasers. Their phase difference is locked to either 0 or ? even if the coupling path is continuously modulated. The system automatically selects the oscillation frequency to satisfy the in-phase or out-of-phase coupling condition, when the mutual coupling dominates over the injection-locking by the master laser. PMID:25836827

  6. Mining and beneficiation: A review of possible lunar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful exploration of Mars and outer space may require base stations strategically located on the Moon. Such bases must develop a certain self-sufficiency, particularly in the critical life support materials, fuel components, and construction materials. Technology is reviewed for the first steps in lunar resource recovery-mining and beneficiation. The topic is covered in three main categories: site selection; mining; and beneficiation. It will also include (in less detail) in-situ processes. The text described mining technology ranging from simple diggings and hauling vehicles (the strawman) to more specialized technology including underground excavation methods. The section of beneficiation emphasizes dry separation techniques and methods of sorting the ore by particle size. In-situ processes, chemical and thermal, are identified to stimulate further thinking by future researchers.

  7. Mining and beneficiation: A review of possible lunar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Peter G.

    Successful exploration of Mars and outer space may require base stations strategically located on the Moon. Such bases must develop a certain self-sufficiency, particularly in the critical life support materials, fuel components, and construction materials. Technology is reviewed for the first steps in lunar resource recovery-mining and beneficiation. The topic is covered in three main categories: site selection; mining; and beneficiation. It will also include (in less detail) in-situ processes. The text described mining technology ranging from simple diggings and hauling vehicles (the strawman) to more specialized technology including underground excavation methods. The section of beneficiation emphasizes dry separation techniques and methods of sorting the ore by particle size. In-situ processes, chemical and thermal, are identified to stimulate further thinking by future researchers.

  8. Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung-Phil; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-01-01

    People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; “switching,” “mutual rush,” “mutual avoidance,” and “unfair” patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with “switching” and “mutual avoidance” patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the “unfair” and “mutual rush” patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status. PMID:26441707

  9. No effect of diffraction on Pluto-Charon mutual events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    Mulholland and Gustafson (1987) made the interesting suggestion that observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events might show significant dependence on both wavelength and telescope aperture because of diffraction effects. In this letter, observations are presented that show the predicted effects to be absent and demonstrate that the parameters of the system are such that the events can be accurately analyzed with geometrical optics.

  10. Circumstances for Pluto-Charon mutual events in 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, Marc W.

    1988-01-01

    Circumstances for 90 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1989 opposition are presented. It is found that the deepest and longest events will occur near postopposition quadrature in early August. Two new stars are selected as comparison stars for events occurring before opposition in 1989, and it is noted that the 1988 comparison stars should be used for events occurring after opposition.

  11. Are linear prebuckling paths and linear stability problems mutually conditional?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinboeck, Andreas; Mang, Herbert A.

    2008-08-01

    Stability problems are termed linear if the tangent stiffness used for determining loss of stability has a specific, simple form. The term “linear prebuckling paths” refers to the shape of the load displacement diagrams before loss of stability. In this note, it will be shown that these two terms are not mutually conditional.

  12. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

  13. Language Experience Shapes the Development of the Mutual Exclusivity Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Caloghiris, Zoe; Raviglione, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    Halberda (2003) demonstrated that 17-month-old infants, but not 14- or 16-month-olds, use a strategy known as mutual exclusivity (ME) to identify the meanings of new words. When 17-month-olds were presented with a novel word in an intermodal preferential looking task, they preferentially fixated a novel object over an object for which they already…

  14. Mutual Aid: A Key to Survival for Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Alex J.

    1977-01-01

    In the Brotherhood Crusade, a black mutual aid, self-help organization, Los Angeles blacks joined together to effect independence within the professions and the social service delivery systems, rejecting incorporation into the United Way, the major L.A. fund-raising organization. This article presents findings of a study of Crusade participants.…

  15. Enhancing Web-Based Courses through a Mutual Aid Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Randolph, Karen A.; Vinton, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Students taking a class together belong to a group where members typically develop a sense of connection to each other by engaging in mutual support and assistance through shared experiences and knowledge. Some have argued that the lack of face-to-face interaction precludes such processes and prevents the effective teaching of social work in an…

  16. Mutual Suppression: Comment on Paulhus et Al. (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, and Tracy ("Multivariate Behavioral Research," 2004, 39, 305-328) suggested that the three types of two-predictor suppression situations--classical suppression, cooperative suppression, and net suppression--can all be considered special cases of mutual suppression, in that the magnitude of each of the two…

  17. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with the rules in subpart P and subpart T of this part. Two or more pending applications are... “application for initial authorization” is: (i) Any application requesting an authorization for a new system or... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for mutually exclusive...

  18. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with the rules in subpart P and subpart T of this part. Two or more pending applications are... “application for initial authorization” is: (i) Any application requesting an authorization for a new system or... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for mutually exclusive...

  19. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2016-02-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared with those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of 2 rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479279

  20. A Mutual Support Group for Young Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    A Swedish mutual support group for young problem gamblers is described and discussed. During the study period, 116 weekly meetings occurred, usually involving six to ten participants; in total, 69 problem gamblers (66 male and three female), aged 17-25, and 23 partners and friends attended the meetings. Half the gamblers had problems with Internet…

  1. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  2. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared to those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of two rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. PMID:26479279

  3. Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

  4. Chinese and American Women: Issues of Mutual Concern. Wingspread Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

    This article briefly describes a conference of Chinese and American women held to discuss womens' issues and promote mutual understanding between the two groups. The cultural exchange of information at the conference focused on discussion of the All China Womens' Federation (ACWF); the roles of women in China and the United States in the areas of…

  5. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  6. The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa

    1991-01-01

    The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.

  7. Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

  8. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  9. Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

  10. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Use of the Mutual Exclusivity Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Examined the use of the mutual exclusivity constraint in naming objects among young children monolingual in English or bilingual in English/Urdu or in English/Greek. The study used three tests of the constraint: disambiguation, rejection and restriction. Findings revealed that bilingual children used the constraint to a lesser extent than…

  11. Cooperative Efforts: Voluntary Resettlement Agencies and Mutual Assistance Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Migration and Refugee Affairs, New York, NY. Refugee Center.

    In 1983, the Refugee Resource Center conducted a survey of Mutual Assistance Associations (MAA's) and local voluntary resettlement agency affiliates to find out how the two types of organizations worked together to carry out refugee resettlement. According to the survey, the relations between agency affiliates and MAA's generally revolved around…

  12. Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

  13. Enhancing Web-Based Courses through a Mutual Aid Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Randolph, Karen A.; Vinton, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Students taking a class together belong to a group where members typically develop a sense of connection to each other by engaging in mutual support and assistance through shared experiences and knowledge. Some have argued that the lack of face-to-face interaction precludes such processes and prevents the effective teaching of social work in an…

  14. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  15. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  16. 12 CFR 144.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the institution... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  17. 12 CFR 144.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the institution... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  18. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  19. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  20. 12 CFR 144.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the institution... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  1. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation...

  2. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation...

  3. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation...

  4. 7 CFR 550.13 - Mutuality of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mutuality of interest. 550.13 Section 550.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Formation...

  5. International Mutual Recognition: Progress and Prospects. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    Increasing the mobility of service providers, including professionals, via mutual recognition (of regulatory systems) agreements (MRAs) has become a significant issue worldwide. Despite increasing interest in MRAs, it may be argued that MRAs are but one of a larger range of major developments that have fueled current interest in occupational…

  6. Establishment of generalized synchronization in a network of logistic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koronovskii, A. A.; Moskalenko, O. I.; Pivovarov, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the process of generalized chaotic synchronization establishment in a network of mutually coupled logistic maps and analyzed the character of interaction between elements of the network on the passage from asynchronous to synchronous dynamics related to increase in the coupling parameter. Peculiarities of the interaction between elements of the network and the onset of generalized synchronization have been elucidated using the method of phase tubes.

  7. Problem decomposition by mutual information and force-based clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Richard Edward

    The scale of engineering problems has sharply increased over the last twenty years. Larger coupled systems, increasing complexity, and limited resources create a need for methods that automatically decompose problems into manageable sub-problems by discovering and leveraging problem structure. The ability to learn the coupling (inter-dependence) structure and reorganize the original problem could lead to large reductions in the time to analyze complex problems. Such decomposition methods could also provide engineering insight on the fundamental physics driving problem solution. This work forwards the current state of the art in engineering decomposition through the application of techniques originally developed within computer science and information theory. The work describes the current state of automatic problem decomposition in engineering and utilizes several promising ideas to advance the state of the practice. Mutual information is a novel metric for data dependence and works on both continuous and discrete data. Mutual information can measure both the linear and non-linear dependence between variables without the limitations of linear dependence measured through covariance. Mutual information is also able to handle data that does not have derivative information, unlike other metrics that require it. The value of mutual information to engineering design work is demonstrated on a planetary entry problem. This study utilizes a novel tool developed in this work for planetary entry system synthesis. A graphical method, force-based clustering, is used to discover related sub-graph structure as a function of problem structure and links ranked by their mutual information. This method does not require the stochastic use of neural networks and could be used with any link ranking method currently utilized in the field. Application of this method is demonstrated on a large, coupled low-thrust trajectory problem. Mutual information also serves as the basis for an alternative global optimizer, called MIMIC, which is unrelated to Genetic Algorithms. Advancement to the current practice demonstrates the use of MIMIC as a global method that explicitly models problem structure with mutual information, providing an alternate method for globally searching multi-modal domains. By leveraging discovered problem inter- dependencies, MIMIC may be appropriate for highly coupled problems or those with large function evaluation cost. This work introduces a useful addition to the MIMIC algorithm that enables its use on continuous input variables. By leveraging automatic decision tree generation methods from Machine Learning and a set of randomly generated test problems, decision trees for which method to apply are also created, quantifying decomposition performance over a large region of the design space.

  8. Buen Viaje: Mutually Beneficial Tourism. A Four-Lesson Unit about Traveling with Care in Mexico for Grades 8-12 and Adult Learners in English and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Alexandra; Ruiz, Octavio; Sommers, Meredith

    Intended for secondary students, this curriculum unit (in both English and Spanish) provides a look into Mexico's second largest industry, tourism. The curriculum unit of four lessons includes general information about tourism, maps, stories, and a code of behavior for travelers. The unit enumerates learner objectives, defines vocabulary and…

  9. Human genetics and politics as mutually beneficial resources: The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics during the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do we explain why the vast majority of German human geneticists and eugenicists were willing to work for the National Socialist state and, at the very least, legitimized its exterminationist racial policy; and (2) what accounts for at least some of Germany's most renowned medically trained professionals' involvement in forms of morally compromised science that wholly transcend the bounds of normal scientific practice? Although a complete answer to this question must await an examination of other German biological research centers, the present study suggests that during the Nazi period the symbiotic relationship between human genetics and politics served to radicalize both. The dynamic between the science of human heredity and Nazi politics changed the research practice of some of the biomedical sciences housed at the KWIA. It also simultaneously made it easier for the Nazi state to carry out its barbaric racial program leading, finally, to the extermination of millions of so-called racial undesirables. PMID:17212034

  10. Children's Illnesses: Their Beneficial Effects on Behavioral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, Arthur H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses potential beneficial effects of children's illnesses on their behavioral development. It is argued, on the basis of clinical experience and related research, that minor illnesses give children many opportunities to increase knowledge of self, other, prosocial behavior, and empathy and to realistically understand the sick role. (Author/RH)

  11. Beneficial effects of berryfruit polyphenols on neuronal behavioral aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is becoming increasingly clear that although there is a great deal of research being devoted to elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging, practical information on how to forestall or reverse the deleterious effects of aging may be years away. Therefore, it may be beneficial to dete...

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL BENEFICIATION PLANTS FOR SO2 EMISSIONS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes an optimization model for estimating the properties and cost of washed coal from coal beneficiation plants of varying levels of complexity. he design and technical description of the plant performance model are presented, together with cost algorithms for th...

  13. Coal beneficiation. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field investigations of a variety of methods and equipment used in coal beneficiation processes. Grinding, washing, flotation techniques, dewatering, and drying are among the preparation techniques discussed. Some attention is given to combustion characteristics of pulverized coal. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa; Zappalà, Lucia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. PMID:23109262

  15. USING MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY TO OPTIMIZE ARTIFICIAL DIETS FOR BENEFICIAL INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optimized artificial diet is key for the production of high quality beneficial insects at affordable cost. Using a Drosophila microarray chip with 7000 unigenes, several hundred dietary regulated genes were identified in Perillus bioculatus that fed on a suboptimal artificial diet. These dietary ...

  16. 241-SY-101 mulitport riser acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, R.E.

    1995-10-02

    This document formally demonstrates that the Acceptance for Beneficial USE (ABU) process for the SY tank farm Multiport Riser assembly has been properly completed in accordance with the ABU checklist. For each item required on the ABU checklist, a bibliography of the documentation prepared and released to satisfy the requirement is provided

  17. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  18. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  19. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  20. Safety of a novel insecticide, sucrose ocatanoate, to beneficial insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory trials were used to estimate the toxicity of sucrose octanoate to beneficial insects representing four insect orders of importance in biological control in citrus. First instar larvae of the ladybeetles Cycloneda sanguinea L., Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Harmonia axyridis Pallas and Olla ...

  1. Beneficial Effects of Tactile Stimulation on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Reviews selected research on the beneficial effects of tactile stimulation on infants. Examines the results of studies with animals, preterm infants, cocaine- and HIV-exposed preterm infants, and normal full-term infants. Briefly discusses caregiving implications and offers suggestions on how caregivers can incorporate tactile stimulation in…

  2. THE ROLE OF BENEFICIAL MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN GRAPEVINE NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial organisms that colonize plant roots. The fungus actually grows within the root itself, within the space between the cell walls and cell membranes of the root cortex. Their fungal filaments or hyphae extend outside of the root into the soil. This increases ...

  3. Factitious foods to reduce production costs of beneficial insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reports the use of factitious foods such as Tenebrio molitor pupa, E. kuehniella eggs, Ephestia eggs, and or Artemia franciscana eggs for the rearing of beneficial insect such as Podisus maculiventris, spined soldier bug and several ladybird predators belonging to the Coccinellidae fam...

  4. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  5. Mutual interference is common and mostly intermediate in magnitude

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interference competition occurs when access to resources is negatively affected by the presence of other individuals. Within a species or population, this is known as mutual interference, and it is often modelled with a scaling exponent, m, on the number of predators. Originally, mutual interference was thought to vary along a continuum from prey dependence (no interference; m = 0) to ratio dependence (m = -1), but a debate in the 1990's and early 2000's focused on whether prey or ratio dependence was the better simplification. Some have argued more recently that mutual interference is likely to be mostly intermediate (that is, between prey and ratio dependence), but this possibility has not been evaluated empirically. Results We gathered estimates of mutual interference from the literature, analyzed additional data, and created the largest compilation of unbiased estimates of mutual interference yet produced. In this data set, both the alternatives of prey dependence and ratio dependence were observed, but only one data set was consistent with prey dependence. There was a tendency toward ratio dependence reflected by a median m of -0.7 and a mean m of -0.8. Conclusions Overall, the data support the hypothesis that interference is mostly intermediate in magnitude. The data also indicate that interference competition is common, at least in the systems studied to date. Significant questions remain regarding how different factors influence interference, and whether interference can be viewed as a characteristic of a particular population or whether it generally shifts from low to high levels as populations increase in density. PMID:21211032

  6. The effect of the cation alkyl chain branching on mutual solubilities with water and toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Kurnia, Kiki A.; Sintra, Tânia E.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Shimizu, Karina; Lopes, José N. Canongia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Freire, Mara G.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The design of ionic liquids has been focused on the cation-anion combinations but other more subtle approaches can be used. In this work the effect of the branching of the cation alkyl chain on the design of ionic liquids (ILs) is evaluated. The mutual solubilities with water and toxicities of a series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-based ILs, combined with imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium cations with linear or branched alkyl chains, are reported. The mutual solubility measurements were carried out in the temperature range from (288.15 to 323.15) K. From the obtained experimental data, the thermodynamic properties of the solution (in the water-rich phase) were determined and discussed. The COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the liquid-liquid equilibrium. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations were also carried out aiming to get a deeper understanding of these fluids at the molecular level. The results show that the increase in the number of atoms at the cation ring (from five to six) leads to a decrease in the mutual solubilities with water while increasing their toxicity, and as expected from the well-established relationship between toxicities and hydrophobicities of ILs. The branching of the alkyl chain was observed to decrease the water solubility in ILs, while increasing the ILs solubility in water. The inability of COSMO-RS to correctly predict the effect of branching alkyl chains toward water solubility on them was confirmed using molecular dynamic simulations to be due to the formation of nano-segregated structures of the ILs that are not taken into account by the COSMO-RS model. In addition, the impact of branched alkyl chains on the toxicity is shown to be not trivial and to depend on the aromatic nature of the ILs. PMID:25119425

  7. EVALUATION OF WEED CONTROL DURING SWITCHGRASS ESTABLISHMENT WITH POSTEMERGENCE HERBICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass weeds can often pose a severe threat to the establishment of switchgrass, so identifying herbicides which can control grass weeds without inhibiting switchgrass growth would prove beneficial. Quinclorac and sulfosulfuron, recently labeled for CRP and seed production, were evaluated for use in...

  8. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  9. Inter individual variations of the fish skin microbiota: host genetics basis of mutualism?

    PubMed

    Boutin, Sébastien; Sauvage, Christopher; Bernatchez, Louis; Audet, Céline; Derome, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota of fish skin is suspected to provide a protection against opportunist infections. The skin of fish harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that closely interacts with the surrounding water microbial communities. Up to now there is no clear evidence as to whether the host regulates the recruitment of environmental bacteria to build a specific skin microbiota. To address this question, we detected Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with the abundance of specific skin microbiota bacterial strains in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), combining 16S RNA tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with genetic linkage analysis. Skin microbiota analysis revealed high inter-individual variation among 86 F2 fish progeny based upon the relative abundance of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Out of those OTUs, the pathogenic strain Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the non-pathogenic strain Methylobacterium rhodesianum explained the majority of inter-individual distances. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation was found between Flavobacterium and Methylobacterium, suggesting a mutually competitive relationship. Finally, after considering a total of 266 markers, genetic linkage analysis highlighted three major QTL associated with the abundance of Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium. All these three genera are known for their beneficial antibacterial activity. Overall, our results provide evidence that host genotype may regulate the abundance of specific genera among their surface microbiota. They also indicate that Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium are potentially important genera in providing protection against pathogens. PMID:25068850

  10. Inter Individual Variations of the Fish Skin Microbiota: Host Genetics Basis of Mutualism?

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Sébastien; Sauvage, Christopher; Bernatchez, Louis; Audet, Céline; Derome, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota of fish skin is suspected to provide a protection against opportunist infections. The skin of fish harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that closely interacts with the surrounding water microbial communities. Up to now there is no clear evidence as to whether the host regulates the recruitment of environmental bacteria to build a specific skin microbiota. To address this question, we detected Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with the abundance of specific skin microbiota bacterial strains in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), combining 16S RNA tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with genetic linkage analysis. Skin microbiota analysis revealed high inter-individual variation among 86 F2 fish progeny based upon the relative abundance of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Out of those OTUs, the pathogenic strain Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the non-pathogenic strain Methylobacterium rhodesianum explained the majority of inter-individual distances. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation was found between Flavobacterium and Methylobacterium, suggesting a mutually competitive relationship. Finally, after considering a total of 266 markers, genetic linkage analysis highlighted three major QTL associated with the abundance of Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium. All these three genera are known for their beneficial antibacterial activity. Overall, our results provide evidence that host genotype may regulate the abundance of specific genera among their surface microbiota. They also indicate that Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium are potentially important genera in providing protection against pathogens. PMID:25068850

  11. Duration and mutual entrainment of changes in parenting practices engendered by behavioral parent training targeting recently separated mothers.

    PubMed

    Reed, Andrea; Snyder, James; Staats, Sarah; Forgatch, Marion S; Degarmo, David S; Patterson, Gerald R; Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Schmidt, Nicole

    2013-06-01

    Parent management training (PMT) has beneficial effects on child and parent adjustment that last for 5 to 10 years. Short-term changes in parenting practices have been shown to mediate these effects, but the manner in which changes in specific components of parenting are sequenced and become reciprocally reinforcing (or mutually entrained) to engender and sustain the cascade of long-term beneficial effects resulting from PMT has received modest empirical attention. Long-term changes in parenting resulting from the Oregon model of PMT (PMTO) over a 2-year period were examined using data from the Oregon Divorce Study-II in which 238 recently separated mothers and their 6- to 10-year-old sons were randomly assigned to PMTO or a no treatment control (NTC) group. Multiple indicators of observed parenting practices were used to define constructs for positive parenting, monitoring and discipline at baseline, and at 6-, 12-, 18- and 30-months postbaseline. PMTO relative to NTC resulted in increased positive parenting and prevented deterioration in discipline and monitoring over the 30-month period. There were reliable sequential, transactional relationships among parenting practices; positive parenting supported better subsequent monitoring, and positive parenting and better monitoring supported subsequent effective discipline. Small improvements in parenting resulting from PMTO and small deteriorations in parenting in the NTC group may be sustained and amplified by mutually entrained relationships among parenting practices. These data about the change processes engendered by PMTO may provide information needed to enhance the power, effectiveness, and efficiency of behavioral parent training interventions. PMID:23750517

  12. MEGSA: A Powerful and Flexible Framework for Analyzing Mutual Exclusivity of Tumor Mutations.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xing; Hyland, Paula L; Huang, Jing; Song, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-03-01

    The central challenges in tumor sequencing studies is to identify driver genes and pathways, investigate their functional relationships, and nominate drug targets. The efficiency of these analyses, particularly for infrequently mutated genes, is compromised when subjects carry different combinations of driver mutations. Mutual exclusivity analysis helps address these challenges. To identify mutually exclusive gene sets (MEGS), we developed a powerful and flexible analytic framework based on a likelihood ratio test and a model selection procedure. Extensive simulations demonstrated that our method outperformed existing methods for both statistical power and the capability of identifying the exact MEGS, particularly for highly imbalanced MEGS. Our method can be used for de novo discovery, for pathway-guided searches, or for expanding established small MEGS. We applied our method to the whole-exome sequencing data for 13 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified multiple previously unreported non-pairwise MEGS in multiple cancer types. For acute myeloid leukemia, we identified a MEGS with five genes (FLT3, IDH2, NRAS, KIT, and TP53) and a MEGS (NPM1, TP53, and RUNX1) whose mutation status was strongly associated with survival (p = 6.7 × 10(-4)). For breast cancer, we identified a significant MEGS consisting of TP53 and four infrequently mutated genes (ARID1A, AKT1, MED23, and TBL1XR1), providing support for their role as cancer drivers. PMID:26899600

  13. Divergence in an obligate mutualism is not explained by divergent climatic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsoe, W.; Strand, Espen; Smith, C.I.; Yoder, J.B.; Esque, T.C.; Pellmyr, O.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to divergent environments creates and maintains biological diversity, but we know little about the importance of different agents of ecological divergence. Coevolution in obligate mutualisms has been hypothesized to drive divergence, but this contention has rarely been tested against alternative ecological explanations. Here, we use a well-established example of coevolution in an obligate pollination mutualism, Yucca brevifolia and its two pollinating yucca moths, to test the hypothesis that divergence in this system is the result of mutualists adapting to different abiotic environments as opposed to coevolution between mutualists. ??? We used a combination of principal component analyses and ecological niche modeling to determine whether varieties of Y. brevifolia associated with different pollinators specialize on different environments. ??? Yucca brevifolia occupies a diverse range of climates. When the two varieties can disperse to similar environments, they occupy similar habitats. ??? This suggests that the two varieties have not specialized on distinct habitats. In turn, this suggests that nonclimatic factors, such as the biotic interaction between Y. brevifolia and its pollinators, are responsible for evolutionary divergence in this system. ?? New Phytologist (2009).

  14. Construction of mutually unbiased bases with cyclic symmetry for qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfarth, Ulrich; Ranade, Kedar S.

    2011-10-01

    For the complete estimation of arbitrary unknown quantum states by measurements, the use of mutually unbiased bases has been well established in theory and experiment for the past 20 years. However, most constructions of these bases make heavy use of abstract algebra and the mathematical theory of finite rings and fields, and no simple and generally accessible construction is available. This is particularly true in the case of a system composed of several qubits, which is arguably the most important case in quantum information science and quantum computation. In this paper, we close this gap by providing a simple and straightforward method for the construction of mutually unbiased bases in the case of a qubit register. We show that our construction is also accessible to experiments, since only Hadamard and controlled-phase gates are needed, which are available in most practical realizations of a quantum computer. Moreover, our scheme possesses the optimal scaling possible, i.e., the number of gates scales only linearly in the number of qubits.

  15. Information-Theoretic Limits on Broadband Multi-Antenna Systems in the Presence of Mutual Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taluja, Pawandeep Singh

    2011-12-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems have received considerable attention over the last decade due to their ability to provide high throughputs and mitigate multipath fading effects. While most of these benefits are obtained for ideal arrays with large separation between the antennas, practical devices are often constrained in physical dimensions. With smaller inter-element spacings, signal correlation and mutual coupling between the antennas start to degrade the system performance, thereby limiting the deployment of a large number of antennas. Various studies have proposed transceiver designs based on optimal matching networks to compensate for this loss. However, such networks are considered impractical due to their multiport structure and sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the system. In this dissertation, we investigate two aspects of compact transceiver design. First, we consider simpler architectures that exploit coupling between the antennas, and second, we establish information-theoretic limits of broadband communication systems with closely-spaced antennas. We begin with a receiver model of a diversity antenna selection system and propose novel strategies that make use of inactive elements by virtue of mutual coupling. We then examine the limits on the matching efficiency of a single antenna system using broadband matching theory. Next, we present an extension to this theory for coupled MIMO systems to elucidate the impact of coupling on the RF bandwidth of the system, and derive optimal transceiver designs. Lastly, we summarize the main findings of this dissertation and suggest open problems for future work.

  16. Environment and host genotype determine the outcome of a plant-virus interaction: from antagonism to mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Poulicard, Nils; Mora, Miguel-Ángel; Pagán, Israel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that plant-virus interactions vary between antagonism and conditional mutualism according to environmental conditions. This hypothesis is based on scant experimental evidence, and to test it we examined the effect of abiotic factors on the Arabidopsis thaliana-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction. Four Arabidopsis genotypes clustering into two allometric groups were grown under six environments defined by three temperature and two light-intensity conditions. Plants were either CMV-infected or mock-inoculated, and the effects of environment and infection on temporal and resource allocation life-history traits were quantified. Life-history traits significantly differed between allometric groups over all environments, with group 1 plants tolerating abiotic stress better than those of group 2. The effect of CMV infection on host fitness (virulence) differed between genotypes, being lower in group 1 genotypes. Tolerance to abiotic stress and to infection was similarly achieved through life-history trait responses, which resulted in resource reallocation from growth to reproduction. Effects of infection varied according to plant genotype and environment from detrimental to beneficial for host fitness. These results are highly relevant and demonstrate that plant viruses can be pleiotropic parasites along the antagonism-mutualism continuum, which should be considered in analyses of the evolution of plant-virus interactions. PMID:26365599

  17. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Malusá, E.; Sas-Paszt, L.; Ciesielska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield. PMID:22547984

  18. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  19. Beneficial use of landfill gas at the Burnsville sanitary landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, M.; Morely, J.; Kitts, S.

    1995-08-01

    A beneficial use study was conducted to determine the most economical method of converting landfill gas to energy at the Burnsville Sanitary Landfill. The existing 98.5-acre landfill is permitted for nine million cubic yards of municipal solid waste and estimated to generate significant quantities of landfill gas. The beneficial use study reviewed four options to utilize the landfill gas, as follows; generate electric power and utilize on site; generate electric power and sell to local utility; clean up the landfill gas and sell to natural gas company; and sell landfill gas to nearby asphalt and concrete plants in the summer months, then to 15 commercial businesses for heat in the winter months. The study concluded that it is most economical to generate electricity and sell power to the local utility. Since May 1994, 3.2 megawatts of power have been generated. Upon site closure, the potential for 4.8 megawatts of power generation may exist.

  20. Beneficiated coal-slurry fuels -- Overview and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Trass, O.

    1997-12-31

    The history of coal-slurry fuels (CSF) is reviewed briefly, starting with the early efforts in the 1960`s, through coal-oil-mixtures (COM) in the late `70s, initially with no beneficiation of the coal, followed by coal-water-fuels (CWF) and various other slurry fuel combinations. Beneficiation will then be emphasized, for example by oil agglomeration to make CWOF`s, or by other means. Such slurries could be compatibilized using detergents or methanol. At the very low oil levels used in recent work, with flotation for clean coal recovery, the problem is much easier and should lead to good fuels, from mined coal, washery waste streams or tailing ponds. Aspects of processing technology, including the concept of simultaneous grinding and agglomeration, combustion characteristics, as well as strategic and commercial concerns will be reviewed. The current state of CSF utilization, recommended approaches and future prospects complete the presentation.

  1. Acceptance for Beneficial Use Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid N

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-03-13

    This is a final Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) for Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skid ''N''. PIC skid ''N'' is ready for pumping tank U-109. All the testing and documentation has been completed as required on the AE3U checklist. This AE3U covers only the readiness of the PIC skid ''N''. Other U-farm preparations including dilution tank fabrication, portable exhauster readiness, leak detection, valve pit preparation, and the Operation Control Station readiness are not part of this ABU. PIC skid ''N'' is a new skid fabricated and tested at Site Fabrication Services. The skid controls the jet pump and monitors various instruments associated with the pumping operation. This monitoring includes leak detection along the waste transfer route and flammable gases in the pump pit. This Acceptance for Beneficial Use documents that Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''N'' is ready for field use. This document does not cover the field installation or operational testing.

  2. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action. PMID:20370896

  3. Can cognitive behaviour therapy be beneficial for heart failure patients?

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Johan; Andersson, Gerhard; Johansson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This review aims to summarize the theory of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as well as the current evidence for whether CBT can be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF). Depression and/or anxiety are common in HF patients. However, participation in disease management programmes does not seem to be beneficial for these problems. CBT, which focuses on the identification and changing of dysfunctional beliefs and thoughts and on behaviour therapy, is a possible treatment option. The number of CBT studies on HF is small and they are often not designed as randomized controlled trials. However, the studies on HF indicate that CBT can decrease depression as well as anxiety and suggest that relaxation exercises with elements of CBT may decrease symptom burden. Before implementation in clinical practice, more knowledge is needed about how CBT programmes should be designed, where CBT should be delivered and who should deliver CBT. PMID:25475179

  4. Maximising the secondary beneficial effects of larval debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Nigam, Y

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory-based clinical investigations have shown that maggots and their secretions promote, among other activities, fibroblast motogenesis and angiogenesis. These events would contribute to re-granulation if translated to the wound environment. Maggot secretions also have ascribed antibacterial actions and may exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. Many of these biological events would be lost in the presence of necrotic tissue, making debridement a prerequisite for the release of larval-secreted secondary beneficial effects on the wound. We argue that Larval Debridement Therapy (LDT) should be considered as a primary and secondary treatment in wound management, with the primary application designed to debride the wound, and with subsequent applications to the debrided wound targeted to cellular events that promote healing. This review lends support to a re-evaluation of larval application protocols, in order to optimally harness the potential secondary beneficial clinical effects of larval therapy. PMID:24225601

  5. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  6. Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

  7. Circumstances for Pluto-Charon mutual events in 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, Marc W.; Swift, Catherine E.

    1987-01-01

    Circumstances are tabulated for 88 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1987 opposition. Charon is predicted to be completely obscured either by Pluto or Pluto's shadow during each passage behind Pluto during this opposition, providing several opportunities to study Pluto uncontaminated by the light of Charon. The duration of these total events is predicted to be from 32 to 79 min. The mutual-event season is now expected to conclude during the 1990 opposition. Two new stars have been selected as comparison stars for events occurring prior to opposition in 1987. Standardization of the primary comparison stars used in 1985 and 1986 has yielded the following magnitudes: B = 12.6044 + or - 0.0015 and V = 11.7956 + or - 0.0017 (1985 Primary); B = 13.1238 + or 0.0008 and V = 12.3885 + or - 0.0014 (1986 Primary).

  8. Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate.

    PubMed

    Fiedor, Pawe?

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs. PMID:25353838

  9. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  10. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  11. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  12. AdS plane waves, entanglement, and mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Debangshu; Narayan, K.

    2014-07-01

    Anti-de Sitter plane wave backgrounds are dual to conformal field theory excited states with energy momentum density T++=Q. Building on previous work on entanglement entropy in these and nonconformal brane plane wave backgrounds, we first describe a phenomenological scaling picture for entanglement in terms of "entangling partons." We then study aspects of holographic mutual information in these backgrounds for two strip shaped subsystems, aligned parallel or orthogonal to the flux. We focus on the wide (Qld?1) and narrow (Qld?1) strip regimes. In the wide strip regime, mutual information exhibits growth with the individual strip sizes, and a disentangling transition as the separation between the strips increases, for which the behavior is distinct from the ground and thermal states. In the narrow strip case, our calculations have parallels with "entanglement thermodynamics" for these anti-de Sitter plane wave deformations. We also discuss some numerical analyses.

  13. The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) onboard ROSETTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Pierre; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Béghin, Christian; Décréau, Pierrette; Grard, Réjean; Hamelin, Michel; Mazelle, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orélien; Schmidt, Walter; Winterhalter, Daniel; Aouad, Youcef; Lagoutte, Dominique; Vallières, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The ROSETTA mission will reach the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014 and enable, for the first time, the in situ survey of a comet activity during along orbit. On board the ROSETTA orbiter, the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) is one of the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) that aims at monitoring the cometary plasma environment. MIP is a quadrupolar probe that measures the frequency response of the coupling impedance between two emitting and two receiving dipoles. The electron density and temperature are derived from the resonance peak and the interference pattern of the mutual impedance spectrum. We will describe this instrument and discuss the preliminary results obtained during the third ROSETTA Earth flyby to show its expected capabilities. The RPC switch ON for the post-hibernation recommissioning is planned at the end of March. The health status of the instrument will be discussed.

  14. Role of mutual punishment in the snowdrift game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of punishment on cooperation have drawn increasing attention. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism of punishment, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. We incorporate the mutual punishment into the snowdrift game. Results for well-mixed and structured populations have shown that, for no punishment or small values of punishment fine, the fraction of cooperators continuously decreases with the temptation to defect. However, for large values of punishment fine, there exists an abrupt transition point, at which the fraction of cooperators suddenly drops from 1 to 0. Compared to no punishment, mutual punishment promotes cooperation when the temptation to defect is small but inhibits cooperation when the temptation to defect is large. For weak (strong) temptation to defect, the cooperation level increases (decreases) with the punishment fine. For moderate temptation to defect, there exists an optimal value of the punishment fine that leads to the highest cooperation level.

  15. Mutual information as an order parameter for quantum synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameri, V.; Eghbali-Arani, M.; Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Kheirandish, F.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon, important in many theoretical studies and applications. Recently, this effect has been analyzed and observed in a number of physical systems close to the quantum-mechanical regime. In this work we propose mutual information as a useful order parameter which can capture the emergence of synchronization in very different contexts, ranging from semiclassical to intrinsically quantum-mechanical systems. Specifically, we first study the synchronization of two coupled Van der Pol oscillators in both classical and quantum regimes and later we consider the synchronization of two qubits inside two coupled optical cavities. In all these contexts, we find that mutual information can be used as an appropriate figure of merit for determining the synchronization phases independently of the specific details of the system.

  16. Abiotic mediation of a mutualism drives herbivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Emily H; Phillips, Joseph S; Tillberg, Chadwick V; Sandrow, Cheryl; Nelson, Annika S; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-01-01

    Species abundance is typically determined by the abiotic environment, but the extent to which such effects occur through the mediation of biotic interactions, including mutualisms, is unknown. We explored how light environment (open meadow vs. shaded understory) mediates the abundance and ant tending of the aphid Aphis helianthi feeding on the herb Ligusticum porteri. Yearly surveys consistently found aphids to be more than 17-fold more abundant on open meadow plants than on shaded understory plants. Manipulations demonstrated that this abundance pattern was not due to the direct effects of light environment on aphid performance, or indirectly through host plant quality or the effects of predators. Instead, open meadows had higher ant abundance and per capita rates of aphid tending and, accordingly, ants increased aphid population growth in meadow but not understory environments. The abiotic environment thus drives the abundance of this herbivore exclusively through the mediation of a protection mutualism. PMID:26563752

  17. Improving Quantum State Estimation with Mutually Unbiased Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, R. B. A.; Steinberg, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    When used in quantum state estimation, projections onto mutually unbiased bases have the ability to maximize information extraction per measurement and to minimize redundancy. We present the first experimental demonstration of quantum state tomography of two-qubit polarization states to take advantage of mutually unbiased bases. We demonstrate improved state estimation as compared to standard measurement strategies and discuss how this can be understood from the structure of the measurements we use. We experimentally compared our method to the standard state estimation method for three different states and observe that the infidelity was up to 1.84±0.06 times lower by using our technique than it was by using standard state estimation methods.

  18. Self-mixing interferometry with mutual independent orthogonal polarized light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Sun, Liqun

    2016-02-15

    A self-mixing interferometry with mutual independent orthogonal polarized light is introduced. Its most important feature is that two mutual independent orthogonal lights are used as measuring and reference light. Frequency shifting and polarization multiplexing technologies are used in the proposed optical system. Phase variation of the two orthogonal polarized beams is simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with a lock-in amplifier. The phase difference of the orthogonal polarized light accurately reflects the target displacement. The target in this system is a non-cooperative object which is different from a traditional Michelson interferometer. The primary experimental results show that this kind of self-mixing interferometry is very feasible. Under typical room conditions, the system's short-term resolution is better than 2 nm. PMID:26872203

  19. 75 FR 28665 - Kinetics Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Kinetics Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application May 17, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and... the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. ] APPLICANTS: Kinetics Mutual Funds, Inc. (``Company''), Kinetics Portfolios Trust (``Trust''), Kinetics Asset Management, Inc. (``Adviser''),...

  20. Beneficiation of lunar rocks and regolith - Concepts and difficulties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Mckay, David S.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the inherent differences between lunar rocks and the finer portion of the regolith, the soil, are discussed. A brief outline of the formation of lunar soil is presented. Beneficiation of rocks vs regolith for the production of an ilmenite feedstock is addressed in particular, but the concepts and principles considered are applicable to other situations as well. The overall systems design must take the range of available feedstocks into account. Decisions on design that will influence feedstock requirements must be made.

  1. Biosolids recycling: Beneficial technology for a better environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The booklet is written to provide an understanding of the great value that can be derived from the beneficial use of biosolids. The booklet then briefly discusses important aspects of its new regulation (40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 503) that govern the final use or disposal of biosolids. It concludes with a discussion of the scientific basis of the rule and names of people and references to contact for additional information regarding the rule and risk assessment.

  2. Pluto-Charon mutual event predictions for 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Circumstances are tabulated for 81-Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1986 opposition. The deepest and longest events will occur in February and reach a depth of about 0.15 mag. Observations of these events will lead to an accurate determination of the satellite's orbit, the diameters of the two bodies, the mean density of the system, and crude albedo maps of one hemisphere on each object.

  3. Information properties of a hologram of mutually conjugate waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rubanov, A.S.; Serebryakova, L.M.

    1995-12-01

    A theoretical study of information properties of a correlation response to a fragment of an image of a thin referenceless hologram of mutually conjugate waves that is recorded with a phase-conjugating (PC) mirror is reported. It is shown that this hologram reconstructs a full image in reflected light and can be used as an associative storage device and as a selective PC mirror. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Five new and three improved mutual orbits of transneptunian binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Nimmo, F.; Roe, H. G.; Buie, M. W.; Porter, S. B.; Benecchi, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Levison, H. F.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We present three improved and five new mutual orbits of transneptunian binary systems (58534) Logos-Zoe, (66652) Borasisi-Pabu, (88611) Teharonhiawako-Sawiskera, (123509) 2000 WK 183, (149780) Altjira, 2001 QY 297, 2003 QW 111, and 2003 QY 90 based on Hubble Space Telescope and Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics observations. Combining the five new orbit solutions with 17 previously known orbits yields a sample of 22 mutual orbits for which the period P, semimajor axis a, and eccentricity e have been determined. These orbits have mutual periods ranging from 5 to over 800 days, semimajor axes ranging from 1600 to 37,000 km, eccentricities ranging from 0 to 0.8, and system masses ranging from 2 × 10 17 to 2 × 10 22 kg. Based on the relative brightnesses of primaries and secondaries, most of these systems consist of near equal-sized pairs, although a few of the most massive systems are more lopsided. The observed distribution of orbital properties suggests that the most loosely-bound transneptunian binary systems are only found on dynamically cold heliocentric orbits. Of the 22 known binary mutual orbits, orientation ambiguities are now resolved for 9, of which 7 are prograde and 2 are retrograde, consistent with a random distribution of orbital orientations, but not with models predicting a strong preference for retrograde orbits. To the extent that other perturbations are not dominant, the binary systems undergo Kozai oscillations of their eccentricities and inclinations with periods of the order of tens of thousands to millions of years, some with strikingly high amplitudes.

  5. Jupiter's Galilean satellites mutual events as a teaching tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, J. F.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present a set of observations of the mutual phenomena (occultations and eclipses) between Jupiter's Galilean satellites in 2014 and 2015 obtained with a Celestron 11 telescope from the Aula EspaZio Gela at E.T.S.I. - UPV/EHU. These observations are used as a practical teaching tool for photometry and astrodynamics in different matters of the Master in Space Science and Technology UPV/EHU.

  6. Quantum Conditional Mutual Information and Approximate Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzi, Omar; Renner, Renato

    2015-12-01

    A state on a tripartite quantum system forms a Markov chain if it can be reconstructed from its marginal on by a quantum operation from B to . We show that the quantum conditional mutual information I( A : C| B) of an arbitrary state is an upper bound on its distance to the closest reconstructed state. It thus quantifies how well the Markov chain property is approximated.

  7. Second Law of Thermodynamics with Qc-Mutual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    I'd like to discuss generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics in the presence of quantum information processing such as quantum measurement and quantum feedback control. A quantum information content, referred to as QC-mutual information, is shown to play a crucial role. We also discuss the generalization of a quantum generalization of the Hatano- Sasa inequality for transitions between nonequilibrium steady states with quantum feedback control. Note from Publisher: This article contains only abstract.

  8. Adaptive walks and distribution of beneficial fitness effects.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Sarada; Jain, Kavita

    2014-04-01

    We study the adaptation dynamics of a maladapted asexual population on rugged fitness landscapes with many local fitness peaks. The distribution of beneficial fitness effects is assumed to belong to one of the three extreme value domains, viz. Weibull, Gumbel, and Fréchet. We work in the strong selection-weak mutation regime in which beneficial mutations fix sequentially, and the population performs an uphill walk on the fitness landscape until a local fitness peak is reached. A striking prediction of our analysis is that the fitness difference between successive steps follows a pattern of diminishing returns in the Weibull domain and accelerating returns in the Fréchet domain, as the initial fitness of the population is increased. These trends are found to be robust with respect to fitness correlations. We believe that this result can be exploited in experiments to determine the extreme value domain of the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. Our work here differs significantly from the previous ones that assume the selection coefficient to be small. On taking large effect mutations into account, we find that the length of the walk shows different qualitative trends from those derived using small selection coefficient approximation. PMID:24274696

  9. Beneficiating value-added products from combustion fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; McMahan, L.; Gray, D.; Fauth, T.A.; Link, K.; Champagne, J.; Schoffstall, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    Two separation techniques, a dry triboelectrostatic and a wet agglomeration column technique, were developed for beneficiating value-added products from combustion fly ashes. The dry triboelectrostatic separation of fly ash derived from both coal combustion and the combustion of coal mixed with 10 wt.% biomass were conducted. Two different types of triboelectrostatic separators - parallel plate and louvered plate separators - were used for this study. It was found that the quality of separation was dependent upon the nature of fly ash and the configuration of the separator utilized. The development of an oil agglomeration process for the recovery of unburned carbon from fly ash required the optimization of the process. The beneficiation was performed using the six-foot agglomeration column under batch mode conditions. A systematic study on the effects of agglomerant, agitation speeds, air flows, feed rates and agglomerant/ash ratios on the quality of beneficiation was conducted. Preliminary results indicate that the unburned carbon products with the purity of 66 to 71% and the yields of 55 to 57% could be obtained under the optimum conditions studied. Selected applications (i.e., activated carbon, molecular sieves and catalytic application) from the fly ash derived products were explored.

  10. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  11. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  12. Tribocharging Lunar Simulant in Vacuum for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Captain; Trigwell, Steve; Arens, Ellen; Biris, Alex; Janine, Captain; Quinn, Jacqueline; Calle, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Electrostatic beneficiation of lunar regolith has potential application for separating minerals for material processing on the moon. This paper describes the use of tribocharging lunar simulant prior to mineral grain separation. The lunar simulant JSC-1 was sieved into five size fractions: <25?m, 25-50?m, 50-75?m, 75-100?m, >100?m for characterization, however only the 50-75?m fraction was passed through aluminum, copper and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) inclined plane chargers. The amount of charge acquired by the simulant is dependant upon the difference in the work function of the charging material and the mineral grain composition of the simulant itself. Various charge-to-mass ratios (Q/M) for the different tribocharging materials were obtained for JSC-1 in vacuum as well as in air. XPS, SEM and Raman spectroscopy were used to evaluate the JSC-1 simulant before and after beneficiation. Results indicate notable changes in mineral composition between pre- and post-beneficiation samples after only a single pass through the aluminum inclined plane charger.

  13. Beneficial reuse of a national resource from the nuclear enterprise

    SciTech Connect

    Large, D. )

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a vital national resource existing within and being generated by the US nuclear enterprise and current and planned technologies and techniques for its beneficial use. Several million tons of radioactively contaminated metals, considered scrap and waste, have been identified at the many commercial and federal sites involved in the nuclear enterprise. Both the public and private sectors have several concerns regarding the disposition of existing inventories and potential generation of contaminated scrap metals. In the past, good metal has been buried as waste. The time has come and is long overdue for that practice to cease. In the late eighties, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge office pioneered the move to involve private industry in dealing with the contaminated scrap metal under its purview. Consequently, the Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) emerged as the leader in processing contaminated metal for beneficial reuse. To use and advance the technologies and techniques for disposal of radioactively contaminated metals, SEG has built and operates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a metal processing facility (MPF). This MPF is used to process radioactively contaminated metals, rid them of most of the contamination, and form them into customized shield blocks and other beneficial-use items. Significant volume reduction for scrap metals (estimated to be in excess of 20 to 1) is achieved with metal-melting services.

  14. Beneficial effects of rosuvastatin treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Cem; Yildiz, Ahmet; Ozkan, Alev Arat; Uzunhasan, Isil; Kaya, Aysem; Yigit, Zerrin

    2015-02-01

    We determined the effect of 6-month rosuvastatin treatment on blood lipids, oxidative parameters, apolipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Healthy individuals (men aged >40 years and postmenopausal women) with a body mass index ? 30 (n = 100) who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria for MetS were included. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased (P < .0001). The change in LDL 1 to 3 subgroups was significant (P = .0007, P < .0001, and P = .006, respectively). Changes in LDL 4 to 7 subgroups were not significant. There was a beneficial effect on oxidized LDL, fibrinogen, homocysteine, and HbA1c. Rosuvastatin significantly increased high-density lipoprotein levels (P = .0003). The oxidant/antioxidant status and subclinical inflammatory state were also beneficially changed. Rosuvastatin had a significant beneficial effect on atherogenic dyslipidemia as well as on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with MetS. PMID:24554427

  15. Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single ancestral species diversifies into many descendants adapted to exploit a wide range of habitats. The appearance of ecological opportunities, or the colonisation or adaptation to novel ecological resources, has been documented to promote adaptive radiation in many classic examples. Mutualistic interactions allow species to access resources untapped by competitors, but evidence shows that the effect of mutualism on species diversification can greatly vary among mutualistic systems. Here, we test whether the development of obligate mutualism with sea anemones allowed the clownfishes to radiate adaptively across the Indian and western Pacific oceans reef habitats. Results We show that clownfishes morphological characters are linked with ecological niches associated with the sea anemones. This pattern is consistent with the ecological speciation hypothesis. Furthermore, the clownfishes show an increase in the rate of species diversification as well as rate of morphological evolution compared to their closest relatives without anemone mutualistic associations. Conclusions The effect of mutualism on species diversification has only been studied in a limited number of groups. We present a case of adaptive radiation where mutualistic interaction is the likely key innovation, providing new insights into the mechanisms involved in the buildup of biodiversity. Due to a lack of barriers to dispersal, ecological speciation is rare in marine environments. Particular life-history characteristics of clownfishes likely reinforced reproductive isolation between populations, allowing rapid species diversification. PMID:23122007

  16. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person’s interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks. PMID:25114228

  17. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA-RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. PMID:26554032

  18. Stability of an intraguild predation system with mutual predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanshi; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2016-04-01

    We examine intraguild predation (IGP), in which species both compete for resources or space and prey on each other. The IGP system is modeled here by a lattice gas model of the mean-field theory. First, we consider the IGP system of one species in which individuals of the same species cannibalize each other. The dynamical behavior of the model demonstrates a mechanism by which the intraspecific predation promotes persistence of the species. Then we consider the IGP system of two species with mutual predation. Global dynamics of the model exhibit basic properties of IGP: (i) When both species' efficiencies in converting the consumptions into fitness are large, the outcome of their interaction is mutualistic in form and the IGP promotes persistence of both species. (ii) When one species' efficiency is large but the other's is small, the interaction outcomes become parasitic in nature, in which an obligate species can survive through the mutual predation with a facultative one. (iii) When both species' efficiencies are small, the interaction outcomes are competitive in nature and the IGP leads to extinction of one of the species. A novel result of this work is that varying one parameter or population density of the species can lead to transition of interaction outcomes between mutualism, parasitism and competition. On the other hand, dynamics of the models demonstrate that over-predation or under-predation will result in extinction of one/both species, while intermediate predation is favorable under certain parameter ranges.

  19. Mutual information-based analysis of JPEG2000 contexts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Karam, Lina J

    2005-04-01

    Context-based arithmetic coding has been widely adopted in image and video compression and is a key component of the new JPEG2000 image compression standard. In this paper, the contexts used in JPEG2000 are analyzed using the mutual information, which is closely related to the compression performance. We first show that, when combining the contexts, the mutual information between the contexts and the encoded data will decrease unless the conditional probability distributions of the combined contexts are the same. Given I, the initial number of contexts, and F, the final desired number of contexts, there are S(I, F) possible context classification schemes where S(I, F) is called the Stirling number of the second kind. The optimal classification scheme is the one that gives the maximum mutual information. Instead of using an exhaustive search, the optimal classification scheme can be obtained through a modified generalized Lloyd algorithm with the relative entropy as the distortion metric. For binary arithmetic coding, the search complexity can be reduced by using dynamic programming. Our experimental results show that the JPEG2000 contexts capture the correlations among the wavelet coefficients very well. At the same time, the number of contexts used as part of the standard can be reduced without loss in the coding performance. PMID:15825477

  20. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-01

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks. PMID:25114228

  1. Dispersal Mutualism Incorporated into Large-Scale, Infrequent Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Parker, V. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Because of their influence on succession and other community interactions, large-scale, infrequent natural disturbances also should play a major role in mutualistic interactions. Using field data and experiments, I test whether mutualisms have been incorporated into large-scale wildfire by whether the outcomes of a mutualism depend on disturbance. In this study a seed dispersal mutualism is shown to depend on infrequent, large-scale disturbances. A dominant shrubland plant (Arctostaphylos species) produces seeds that make up a persistent soil seed bank and requires fire to germinate. In post-fire stands, I show that seedlings emerging from rodent caches dominate sites experiencing higher fire intensity. Field experiments show that rodents (Perimyscus californicus, P. boylii) do cache Arctostaphylos fruit and bury most seed caches to a sufficient depth to survive a killing heat pulse that a fire might drive into the soil. While the rodent dispersal and caching behavior itself has not changed compared to other habitats, the environmental transformation caused by wildfire converts the caching burial of seed from a dispersal process to a plant fire adaptive trait, and provides the context for stimulating subsequent life history evolution in the plant host. PMID:26151560

  2. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual...

  3. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual...

  4. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual...

  5. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual...

  6. Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Conscience Development: From Toddler to Early School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Murray, Kathleen T.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the long-term consequences of mother-child mutually responsive orientation for the development of conscience at early school age. Found that mutually responsive orientation at toddler and preschool ages predicted children's conscience, even after controlling for developmental continuity of conscience. Toddler mutually responsive…

  7. Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Conscience Development: From Toddler to Early School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Murray, Kathleen T.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the long-term consequences of mother-child mutually responsive orientation for the development of conscience at early school age. Found that mutually responsive orientation at toddler and preschool ages predicted children's conscience, even after controlling for developmental continuity of conscience. Toddler mutually responsive…

  8. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual...

  9. Parent-Child Mutuality in Early Childhood: Two Behavioral Genetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; O'Connor, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    Used quantitative genetic design to examine between- and within-family variations and gene-environment processes in parent-child mutuality among 3-year-old identical and same-sex fraternal twins. Found that greater mutuality was associated with higher socioeconomic status. Moderate sibling similarity in parent-child mutuality was accounted for by…

  10. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  11. 12 CFR >appendix A to Part 239 - Mutual Holding Company Model Charter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mutual Holding Company Model Charter A >Appendix A to Part 239 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Pt. 239, App. A >Appendix A to Part 239—Mutual Holding Company Model...

  12. 12 CFR 333.4 - Conversions from mutual to stock form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... converted from the mutual to stock form of ownership may not repurchase its capital stock within one year... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversions from mutual to stock form. 333.4... GENERAL POLICY EXTENSION OF CORPORATE POWERS Regulations § 333.4 Conversions from mutual to stock form....

  13. 78 FR 53175 - The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... COMMISSION The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application Agency: Securities... Section 17(b) of the Act from Section 17(a) of the Act. Applicants: The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance... Account A and VA Account B, the ``Annuity Accounts'') and Northwestern Mutual Variable Life Account...

  14. Establishment of facultative sexuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paley, Chris J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.; Elliott, Stephen R.

    2007-06-01

    The existence of sex is one of the major unsolved problems in biology. We use computer simulations to model conditions in which sex may first become established. We develop an individual-based population model and show that a hypothetical facultative sex gene can fix, provided that the initial cost is low. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium fitness in the population increases with increasing population size and decreasing mutation rate. The probability of the establishment of the sex gene is found not to be directly related to the fitness difference between the asexual and sexual populations. This change in fitness on changing the parameters of the model is investigated.

  15. Establishing and Managing Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Care should be taken in selecting switchgrass varieties, using only those specifically adapted to the region of interest. Good establishment practices include using high quality seed, an appropriate seeding rate, a well-prepared seedbed, cultipacking after planting, and both pre- and post-emergence...

  16. Is Beneficial Elitism Beneficial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Jack A.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing Ralph Smith's monograph EXCELLENCE IN ART EDUCATION: IDEAS AND INITIATIVES, the author criticizes the reliance on "classics" or "masterpieces" for art education. Stating that Smith's elitism is unbeneficial, Hobbs advocates a mixture of the classics and local and popular art with a disposition to interpret and criticize. (GEA)

  17. Beneficial microstructured titania photoanodes for improving DSSC performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Saquib

    Critical assessment of economically viable renewable energy sources is essential for the development of a globally sustainable society. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) offer a viable alternative to traditional silicon and thin film photovoltaic (PV) technologies owing to their potential low cost and facile manufacturing. The two main challenges in enhancing device cell performance lie in improving the open circuit voltage (VOC), and suppressing recombination in the semiconductor TiO2 matrix. This thesis explores the latter challenge through investigation of a novel microstructured TiO2 photoanode system. In this research, we have synthesized CTAB-templated mesoporous, anatase, high surface area TiO2 using an acidic precursor to enhance dye adsorption. Through simple supramolecular self-assembly of the TiO2 particles during the synthesis, we have discovered a self-assembled system of TiO2 nanocrystallite aggregates with high surface area, which when applied as the photoanode in DSSCs, result in a novel high-roughness film beneficial for dye adsorption, and also lead to enhanced intrinsic light-scattering within the film itself. The TiO2 nanocrystallites are highly crystalline, with good interconnectivity for improved electron conduction. An additional unique and beneficial feature inherent of this novel photoanode film is its hierarchical meso- and macro-porosity, leading to improved electrolyte percolation through the TiO2 matrix---thereby providing better access to dye molecules for regeneration to occur more effectively (enhanced charge transfer). In all, we have fabricated a TiO2 system through a one-step process that incorporates key beneficial microstructural features crucial for enhancing DSSC behavior. We have further carried out critical TiCl4 surface treatment studies of this porous electrode structure of TiO2 aggregates to understand and improve upon recombination kinetics in the photonanode film matrix, together with enhancing its intrinsic light harvesting features. We have found this surface treatment to be a powerful one-step method to simultaneously enhance as well as provide insight into the beneficial microstructural features of our unique TiO2 photoanode system. Improved efficiency was observed when compared to cells prepared using standard Degussa P25 TiO 2 electrodes of similar thickness.

  18. Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Horiuchi, E; Kanazawa, I

    2001-12-01

    Zonisamide (ZNS) is a generally well tolerated anticonvulsant that has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease (PD). ZNS (300 mg/day) given to a patient with PD who incidentally had convulsive attacks, ameliorated the attacks and, surprisingly, his parkinsonian symptoms. We, therefore, carried out an open trial of ZNS on nine patients with PD. Patients were given 50-200 mg/day ZNS in addition to their anti-PD drugs. Seven clearly showed lessening of symptoms, especially wearing-off. We speculate that long lasting activation of dopamine synthesis by ZNS ameliorates parkinsonian symptoms, in particular wearing-off. PMID:11755227

  19. Maintaining diplomatic relations between mammals and beneficial microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Hill, David A; Artis, David

    2009-01-01

    The first reports of diplomatic relations between human communities date back to the 14th century B.C.E. and the age of the Egyptian pharaohs. However, the evolution of analogous relations between mammals and mutualistic microbial communities is as old as multicellular organisms themselves. A fundamental issue surrounding the biology of these mutualistic relationships is how the immune system recognizes beneficial microbes and tolerates their colonization of barrier surfaces while simultaneously preventing their outgrowth and potentially lethal dissemination throughout the host. New evidence provides insight into the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate diplomacy between the mammalian immune system and bacterial communities in the gut. PMID:19934432

  20. Maintaining Diplomatic Relations Between Mammals and Beneficial Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David A.; Artis, David

    2010-01-01

    The first reports of diplomatic relations between human communities date back to the 14th century B.C.E. and the age of the Egyptian pharaohs. However, the evolution of analogous relations between mammals and mutualistic microbial communities is as old as multicellular organisms themselves. A fundamental issue surrounding the biology of these mutualistic relationships is how the immune system recognizes beneficial microbes and tolerates their colonization of barrier surfaces while simultaneously preventing their outgrowth and potentially lethal dissemination throughout the host. New evidence provides insight into the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate diplomacy between the mammalian immune system and bacterial communities in the gut. PMID:19934432

  1. Conditioning of carbonaceous material prior to physical beneficiation

    DOEpatents

    Warzinski, Robert P. (Venetia, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material such as coal is conditioned by contact with a supercritical fluid prior to physical beneficiation. The solid feed material is contacted with an organic supercritical fluid such as cyclohexane or methanol at temperatures slightly above the critical temperature and pressures of 1 to 4 times the critical pressure. A minor solute fraction is extracted into critical phase and separated from the solid residuum. The residuum is then processed by physical separation such as by froth flotation or specific gravity separation to recover a substantial fraction thereof with reduced ash content. The solute in supercritical phase can be released by pressure reduction and recombined with the low-ash, carbonaceous material.

  2. Conditioning of carbonaceous material prior to physical beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Warzinski, R.P.; Ruether, J.A.

    1986-05-15

    A carbonaceous material such as coal is conditioned by contact with a supercritical fluid prior to physical beneficiation. The solid feed material is contacted with an organic supercritical fluid such as cyclohexane or methanol at temperatures slightly above the critical temperature and pressures of 1 to 4 times the critical pressure. A minor solute fraction is extracted into critical phase and separated from the solid residuum. The residuum is then processed by physical separation such as by froth flotation or specific gravity separation to recover a substantial fraction thereof with reduced ash content. The solute in supercritical phase can be released by pressure reduction and recombined with the low-ash, carbonaceous material.

  3. A trophic cascade induced by predatory ants in a fig-fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Geng, Xiang-Zong; Ma, Li-Bin; Cook, James M; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2014-09-01

    A trophic cascade occurs when predators directly decrease the densities, or change the behaviour, of herbivores and thus indirectly increase plant productivity. The predator-herbivore-plant context is well known, but some predators attack species beneficial to plants (e.g. pollinators) and/or enemies of herbivores (e.g. parasites), and their role in the dynamics of mutualisms remains largely unexplored. We surveyed the predatory ant species and studied predation by the dominant ant species, the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina, associated with the fig tree Ficus racemosa in southwest China. We then tested the effects of weaver ants on the oviposition behaviour of pollinating and non-pollinating fig wasps in an ant-exclusion experiment. The effects of weaver ants on fig wasp community structure and fig seed production were then compared between trees with and without O. smaragdina. Oecophylla smaragdina captured more non-pollinating wasps (Platyneura mayri) than pollinators as the insects arrived to lay eggs. When ants were excluded, more non-pollinators laid eggs into figs and fewer pollinators entered figs. Furthermore, trees with O. smaragdina produced more pollinator offspring and fewer non-pollinator offspring, shifting the community structure significantly. In addition, F. racemosa produced significantly more seeds on trees inhabited by weaver ants. Oecophylla smaragdina predation reverses the dominance of the two commonest wasp species at the egg-laying stage and favours the pollinators. This behavioural pattern is mirrored by wasp offspring production, with pollinators' offspring dominating figs produced by trees inhabited by weaver ants, and offspring of the non-pollinator P. mayri most abundant in figs on trees inhabited by other ants. Overall, our results suggest that predation by weaver ants limits the success of the non-pollinating P. mayri and therefore indirectly benefits the mutualism by increasing the reproductive success of both the pollinators and the plant. Predation is thus a key functional factor that can shape the community structure of a pollinator-plant mutualistic system. PMID:24666375

  4. Disruption of a protective ant-plant mutualism by an invasive ant increases elephant damage to savanna trees.

    PubMed

    Riginos, Corinna; Karande, Megan A; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Palmer, Todd M

    2015-03-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect ecosystem processes via the disruption of mutualisms. The mutualism between the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) and four species of symbiotic ants is an ecologically important one; ants strongly defend trees against elephants, which can otherwise have dramatic impacts on tree cover. In Laikipia, Kenya, the invasive big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) has established itself at numerous locations within the last 10-15 years. In invaded areas on five properties, we found that three species of symbiotic Crematogaster ants were virtually extirpated, whereas Tetraponera penzigi co-occurred with P. megacephala. T. penzigi appears to persist because of its nonaggressive behavior; in a whole-tree translocation experiment, Crematogaster defended host trees against P. megacephala, but were extirpated from trees within hours. In contrast, T. penzigi retreated into domatia and withstood invading ants for >30 days. In the field, the loss of defensive Crematogaster ants in invaded areas led to a five- to sevenfold increase in the number of trees catastrophically damaged by elephants compared to uninvaded areas. In savannas, tree cover drives many ecosystem processes and provides essential forage for many large mammal species; thus, the invasion of big-headed ants may strongly alter the dynamics and diversity of East Africa's whistling thorn savannas by disrupting this system's keystone acaciaant mutualism. PMID:26236862

  5. Establishing Catchment Sediment Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walling, D. E.; Collins, A. L.

    2005-12-01

    The sediment budget concept, first introduced more than 40 years ago, is of fundamental importance to an understanding of the interaction between sediment mobilization, delivery, storage and yield within a catchment, and such understanding is a key requirement for designing effective sediment control and management strategies. However, despite its importance as a concept, from both a scientific and management perspective, there have to date been few successful attempts to establish detailed sediment budgets for individual catchments. Arguably, therefore, the sediment budget concept has yet to be fully exploited as a practical or operational tool within a management context. Recent advances in monitoring sediment loads, establishing sediment sources, documenting sediment mobilisation and storage on the slopes of a catchment and quantifying storage on river floodplains, in river channels and in other sediment sinks have, however, greatly advanced the potential for establishing reliable sediment budgets for small and intermediate sized catchments. In particular, the use of environmental or fallout radionuclides to trace sediment mobilization and transfer within a drainage basin has provided important new opportunities for obtaining spatially distributed and temporally integrated data on sediment mobilization, delivery and storage. Several examples of the application of these and related techniques to the establishment of sediment budgets for small and intermediate sized agricultural catchments in both the UK and overseas (e.g. Africa) will be presented. Despite such advances, significant problems still remain. These include the need to reconcile the different levels of temporal resolution associated with different techniques, and the inability to effect a rigorous budget closure in most investigations. The need for further work in developing techniques for establishing sediment budgets and in facilitating the application of the sediment budget concept as an operational tool will be reviewed.

  6. Effect of some insecticides on acetylcholinesterase from beneficial insects: Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia.

    PubMed

    Bozsik, Andras; Francis, Frédéric; Gaspar, Charles; Haubruge, Eric

    2002-01-01

    In vitro enzyme activity of head homogenates from adults of Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia originated from different habitats in Belgium (wheat, barley, rye, set-aside fields and experimental orchard, uncultivated area) were investigated in presence of insecticide active ingredients. Using the procedure of Ellman, I50 (M) and Ki (M-1 min-1) values were established. The beneficial insects showed the least susceptibility to diazinon and the differences between their measured values were not remarkable. Paraoxon was extremely toxic to the AChE of F. auricularia but Ch. carnea and C. septempunctata were similarly more tolerant to this organophosphate. In the case of malaoxon earwig and green lacewing AChEs were much more sensitive than AChE of the ladybird beetle. Measuring the carbaryl inhibition, F. auricularia was the least tolerant. The susceptibility of ladybird AChE differed highly from that of both species. According to the measured values, the green lacewing was less tolerant than the ladybird beetle but more tolerant compared with the common earwig. Summarizing our biochemical results, the order of susceptibility of beneficial insects to insecticides investigated was the following F. auricularia > Ch. carnea > C. septempunctata. PMID:12696436

  7. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  8. Characterization of actinobacteria associated with three ant-plant mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Hanshew, Alissa S; McDonald, Bradon R; Díaz Díaz, Carol; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Ant-plant mutualisms are conspicuous and ecologically important components of tropical ecosystems that remain largely unexplored in terms of insect-associated microbial communities. Recent work has revealed that ants in some ant-plant systems cultivate fungi (Chaetothyriales) within their domatia, which are fed to larvae. Using Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. from French Guiana and Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana and Crematogaster margaritae/Keetia hispida, both from Cameroon, as models, we tested the hypothesis that ant-plant-fungus mutualisms co-occur with culturable Actinobacteria. Using selective media, we isolated 861 putative Actinobacteria from the three systems. All C. margaritae/K. hispida samples had culturable Actinobacteria with a mean of 10.0 colony forming units (CFUs) per sample, while 26 % of P. penetrator/Tachigali samples (mean CFUs 1.3) and 67 % of P. phylax/L. africana samples (mean CFUs 3.6) yielded Actinobacteria. The largest number of CFUs was obtained from P. penetrator workers, P. phylax alates, and C. margaritae pupae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of four main clades of Streptomyces and one clade of Nocardioides within these three ant-plant mutualisms. Streptomyces with antifungal properties were isolated from all three systems, suggesting that they could serve as protective symbionts, as found in other insects. In addition, a number of isolates from a clade of Streptomyces associated with P. phylax/L. africana and C. margaritae/K. hispida were capable of degrading cellulose, suggesting that Streptomyces in these systems may serve a nutritional role. Repeated isolation of particular clades of Actinobacteria from two geographically distant locations supports these isolates as residents in ant-plant-fungi niches. PMID:25096989

  9. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic.

    PubMed

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

    2005-06-22

    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative.We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  10. Circumstances for Pluto-Charon mutual events in 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, Marc W.; Swift, Catherine E.

    1987-01-01

    Physical parameters are tabulated for 89 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1988 opposition. A primary star and a check star have been selected as comparison stars for events occurring prior to the 1988 opposition. Standardization of the comparison star 1987 Primary has provided a B magnitude of 12.3093 + or - 0.0013 and a V magnitude of 11.4215 + or - 0.0013. The designations, positions, and preliminary magnitudes and colors are also given for two transformation stars selected in order to aid in determination of the color terms necessary to convert the instrumental magnitudes of observers to the standard system.

  11. Optimization of stable quadruped locomotion using mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pedro; Santos, Cristina P.; Polani, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Central Pattern Generators (CPG)s have been widely used in the field of robotics to address the task of legged locomotion generation. The adequate configuration of these structures for a given platform can be accessed through evolutionary strategies, according to task dependent selection pressures. Information driven evolution, accounts for information theoretical measures as selection pressures, as an alternative to a fully task dependent selection pressure. In this work we exploit this concept and evaluate the use of mean Mutual Information, as a selection pressure towards a CPG configuration capable of faster, yet more coordinated and stabler locomotion than when only a task dependent selection pressure is used.

  12. Link Prediction in Complex Networks: A Mutual Information Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Fei; Xia, Yongxiang; Zhu, Boyao

    2014-01-01

    Topological properties of networks are widely applied to study the link-prediction problem recently. Common Neighbors, for example, is a natural yet efficient framework. Many variants of Common Neighbors have been thus proposed to further boost the discriminative resolution of candidate links. In this paper, we reexamine the role of network topology in predicting missing links from the perspective of information theory, and present a practical approach based on the mutual information of network structures. It not only can improve the prediction accuracy substantially, but also experiences reasonable computing complexity. PMID:25207920

  13. Mutual phenomena involving J5 Amalthea in 2002-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachier, F.; Arlot, J. E.; Thuillot, W.

    2002-10-01

    Every six years mutual eclipses and occultations occur among the Jovian system of satellites. Very accurate astrometric measurements and several physical characteristics of the surfaces can be infered from their observation. This paper is provide predictions of this type of events involving the fifth satellite J5 Amalthea, spanning from November 2002 to June 2003 and to urge astronomers to observe them. Only the predictions of the eclipses of Amalthea by Io are presented, when the distance between Amalthea-Io and Amalthea-Jutpiter is large enough for photometric purposes. A full list of phenomena is available on the server http://www.imcce.fr/Phemu03/phemu03_eng.html

  14. Reconstruction of the mutual coherence function for a moving source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic radiation of a randomly fluctuating source in motion is characterized analytically to determine the mutual coherence function (MCF). A far-field relation is derived via a series of invertible transformations, and a higher-dimension Radon transformation is performed to reconstruct the MCF; explicit formulas for computing the MCF from the transformed radiation data are provided. The technique is applied to the cases of an axisymmetric line source of finite extent moving at constant velocity along a line and a spatially incoherent line source. Applications to X-ray tomography and analysis of the noise emitted by a moving jet aircraft are suggested.

  15. Paul Drude's Prediction of Nonreciprocal Mutual Inductance for Tesla Transformers

    PubMed Central

    McGuyer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed. PMID:25542040

  16. The preset grating effect for mutually pumped phase conjugator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Kang, Zhihua; Zhang, Ninghua; Liu, Jifang; Shi, Shunxiang

    2014-11-01

    Based on the four-wave mixing mechanism and light fanning effect, a mutually pumped phase conjugator(MPPC) model is proposed to analyze the variation of MPPC output response with time for different scattering seed value. It shows that preset grating can enhance the fan light intensity when it satisfies Bragg condition and also can shorten MPPC response time. In experiment the bird-wings MPPC is done with or without the preset grating and the variation of MPPC reflectivity with time is obtained in two cases, and simulation conclusion is in agreement with the experimental result. These results have importance for applications of MPPC on optical heterodyne detection.

  17. Paul Drude's prediction of nonreciprocal mutual inductance for Tesla transformers.

    PubMed

    McGuyer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed. PMID:25542040

  18. Estimation and classification by sigmoids based on mutual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1994-01-01

    An estimate of the probability density function of a random vector is obtained by maximizing the mutual information between the input and the output of a feedforward network of sigmoidal units with respect to the input weights. Classification problems can be solved by selecting the class associated with the maximal estimated density. Newton's s method, applied to an estimated density, yields a recursive maximum likelihood estimator, consisting of a single internal layer of sigmoids, for a random variable or a random sequence. Applications to the diamond classification and to the prediction of a sun-spot process are demonstrated.

  19. Detecting classical phase transitions with Renyi mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaconis, Jason; Inglis, Stephen; Kallin, Ann B.; Melko, Roger G.

    2013-05-01

    By developing a method to represent the Renyi entropies via a replica trick on classical statistical mechanical systems, we introduce a procedure to calculate the Renyi mutual information (RMI) in any Monte Carlo simulation. Through simulations on several classical models, we demonstrate that the RMI can detect finite-temperature critical points, and even identify their universality class, without knowledge of an order parameter or other thermodynamic estimators. Remarkably, in addition to critical points mediated by symmetry breaking, the RMI is able to detect topological vortex-unbinding transitions, as we explicitly demonstrate on simulations of the XY model.

  20. A Mutual Self- and Informant-Report of Cognitive Complaint Correlates with Neuropathological Outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Hohman, Timothy J.; Xu, Meng; Han, Xue; Romano, Raymond R.; Fritzsche, Laura R.; Abel, Ty; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines whether different sources of cognitive complaint (i.e., self and informant) predict Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology in elders with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Data were drawn from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform and Neuropathology Datasets (observational studies) for participants with a clinical diagnosis of MCI and postmortem examination (n = 1843, 74±8 years, 52% female). Cognitive complaint (0.9±0.5 years prior to autopsy) was classified into four mutually exclusive groups: no complaint, self-only, informant-only, or mutual (both self and informant) complaint. Postmortem neuropathological outcomes included amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Proportional odds regression related complaint to neuropathology, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, depressed mood, cognition, APOE4 status, and last clinical visit to death interval. Results Mutual complaint related to increased likelihood of meeting NIA/Reagan Institute (OR = 6.58, p = 0.004) and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease criteria (OR = 5.82, p = 0.03), and increased neurofibrillary tangles (OR = 3.70, p = 0.03), neuritic plaques (OR = 3.52, p = 0.03), and diffuse plaques (OR = 4.35, p = 0.02). Informant-only and self-only complaint was not associated with any neuropathological outcome (all p-values>0.12). Conclusions In MCI, mutual cognitive complaint relates to AD pathology whereas self-only or informant-only complaint shows no relation to pathology. Findings support cognitive complaint as a marker of unhealthy brain aging and highlight the importance of obtaining informant corroboration to increase confidence of underlying pathological processes. PMID:26539829

  1. Electrostatic coal beneficiation - potential applications and research needs -

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, O. Jr.; Chen, Zhong-Ying

    1993-12-31

    Electrostatic beneficiation makes use of the fact that mineral impurities and coal matrices can be charged differently, and thus can be separated when an external electrical field is applied. Electrostatic beneficiation can work effectively for fine coal particles in the size range of 1 mm {times} 0. As a dry process, electrostatic separation has many advantages over wet processes, notably: the ability to operate in areas where water resources are scarce, and no need for dewatering the processed coal. Additionally, electrostatic separation has a great potential for offering an alternative to the advanced wet processes for cleaning fine coal, and provides a unique opportunity for treating pulverized coal in power plants. This paper analyzes fundamental technical issues in developing this technology such as proper charging, handling fine particles, safety, and the advantages and shortcomings of different process methods and configurations. Based on these analyses, potential applications such as treating pulverized coal to reduce sulfur and other pollutants for utility application and cleaning of untreated fines in coal preparation plants are identified, and the corresponding research and development needs are discussed.

  2. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Caba?a, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic. PMID:26802685

  3. Identifying Beneficial Qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, M. Belén; Quijada, Narciso M.; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners. PMID:24413597

  4. Awareness and benefits drive increasing CCP beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The American Coal Ash Association recently released its annual Coal Combustion Product Production and Use Survey, reporting that 123.1 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2005. About 40% were used beneficially or 49.6 million tons. This represents a slight 0.21% increase from 2004 when 49 million tons of CCPs were used, of 122.4 million tons produced. An increase of 0.53% was reported for 2004. The use of coal combustion products, reported in 15 survey categories, creates a wide array of extraordinary environmental, economic and technical advantages that meet US industry and government objectives. Fly ash use accounts for 13 of 15 categories tracked by the survey. Of 71.1 million tons produced, 29 million was used in such applications as concrete products, structural fills and cement raw feed for clinker. Bottom ash production amounted to 17.6 million tons in 2005 - a slight 2.3% rise - while utilisation dropped 7% from 8 to 7.5 million tons. Of 11.8 million tons produced, 77.4% or 9.2 million tons of FGD gypsum was used in 2005. Boiler slag has the highest ratio of beneficial use at 96.6%. Of the 1.96 million tons produced, 1.89 million tons was used in 2005. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 photos.

  5. Beneficial effects of propolis on human health and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Tahira; Farooqui, Akhlaq A

    2012-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product, collected by honeybees Apis mellifera, from various plant sources. Propolis is extensively used in foods and beverages because it improves human health. It contains more than 300 natural compounds such as polyphenols, phenolic aldehydes, sequiterpene-quinones, coumarins, amino acids, steroids and inorganic compounds. Propolis exhibits a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumor, anticancer, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective actions. The chemical composition and beneficial properties of propolis vary greatly depending on the phytogeographical areas, seasonal collection time, and botanical source. Polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables are beginning to receive increased attention due to their vital role in protecting neural cells from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation associated with normal aging and chronic age-related diseases. Propolis is one of the most abundant sources of polyphenols (mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids). This overview is an attempt to discuss the molecular mechanism underlying the potential beneficial effects of propolis on human health and neurological diseases. PMID:22201913

  6. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  7. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health.

    PubMed

    Parvez, S; Malik, K A; Ah Kang, S; Kim, H-Y

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention. PMID:16696665

  8. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  9. How to assemble a beneficial microbiome in three easy steps

    PubMed Central

    Scheuring, István; Yu, Douglas W

    2012-01-01

    There is great interest in explaining how beneficial microbiomes are assembled. Antibiotic-producing microbiomes are arguably the most abundant class of beneficial microbiome in nature, having been found on corals, arthropods, molluscs, vertebrates and plant rhizospheres. An exemplar is the attine ants, which cultivate a fungus for food and host a cuticular microbiome that releases antibiotics to defend the fungus from parasites. One explanation posits long-term vertical transmission of P seudonocardia bacteria, which (somehow) evolve new compounds in arms-race fashion against parasites. Alternatively, attines (somehow) selectively recruit multiple, non-coevolved actinobacterial genera from the soil, enabling a ‘multi-drug’ strategy against parasites. We reconcile the models by showing that when hosts fuel interference competition by providing abundant resources, the interference competition favours the recruitment of antibiotic-producing (and -resistant) bacteria. This partner-choice mechanism is more effective when at least one actinobacterial symbiont is vertically transmitted or has a high immigration rate, as in disease-suppressive soils. PMID:22913725

  10. How to assemble a beneficial microbiome in three easy steps.

    PubMed

    Scheuring, István; Yu, Douglas W

    2012-11-01

    There is great interest in explaining how beneficial microbiomes are assembled. Antibiotic-producing microbiomes are arguably the most abundant class of beneficial microbiome in nature, having been found on corals, arthropods, molluscs, vertebrates and plant rhizospheres. An exemplar is the attine ants, which cultivate a fungus for food and host a cuticular microbiome that releases antibiotics to defend the fungus from parasites. One explanation posits long-term vertical transmission of Pseudonocardia bacteria, which (somehow) evolve new compounds in arms-race fashion against parasites. Alternatively, attines (somehow) selectively recruit multiple, non-coevolved actinobacterial genera from the soil, enabling a 'multi-drug' strategy against parasites. We reconcile the models by showing that when hosts fuel interference competition by providing abundant resources, the interference competition favours the recruitment of antibiotic-producing (and -resistant) bacteria. This partner-choice mechanism is more effective when at least one actinobacterial symbiont is vertically transmitted or has a high immigration rate, as in disease-suppressive soils. PMID:22913725

  11. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  12. Beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol exposure on Caenorhabditis elegans worms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Wanming; Ma, Junfeng; Fu, Xueqi; Zhao, Zhizhuang J

    2011-09-01

    Alcoholic beverages are consumed widely throughout the world. While the harmful effects of alcoholism are well recognized, the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption to human health remain debatable. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term ethanol exposure on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans worms. At high concentrations (≥ 4%), ethanol significantly impaired mobility, reduced fertility, and shortened lifespan. Interestingly, at low concentrations (1-2%), it extended lifespan, accompanied with a slower decline of mobility during aging, although it slightly impaired development, fertility, and chemotaxis. The lifespan-prolonging effects of ethanol at the low concentrations were seen in normal worms exposed to ethanol from egg, young larva, and young adult stages but were not observed in age-1 and sir-2.1 mutant worms. Our study demonstrated hormetic effects of ethanol and further established C. elegans as a suitable animal model to study ethanol related problems. PMID:21871869

  13. A Novel Interaction between Plant-Beneficial Rhizobacteria and Roots: Colonization Induces Corn Resistance against the Root Herbivore Diabrotica speciosa

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Franciele; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Paré, Paul W.; Sanches, Patrícia A.; Kamiya, Aline C.; Tonelli, Mateus; Nardi, Cristiane; Bento, José Mauricio S.

    2014-01-01

    A number of soil-borne microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria, establish mutualistic interactions with plants, which can indirectly affect other organisms. Knowledge of the plant-mediated effects of mutualistic microorganisms is limited to aboveground insects, whereas there is little understanding of what role beneficial soil bacteria may play in plant defense against root herbivory. Here, we establish that colonization by the beneficial rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense affects the host selection and performance of the insect Diabrotica speciosa. Root larvae preferentially orient toward the roots of non-inoculated plants versus inoculated roots and gain less weight when feeding on inoculated plants. As inoculation by A. brasilense induces higher emissions of (E)-?-caryophyllene compared with non-inoculated plants, it is plausible that the non-preference of D. speciosa for inoculated plants is related to this sesquiterpene, which is well known to mediate belowground insect-plant interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a beneficial rhizobacterium inoculant indirectly alters belowground plant-insect interactions. The role of A. brasilense as part of an integrative pest management (IPM) program for the protection of corn against the South American corn rootworm, D. speciosa, is considered. PMID:25405495

  14. Analysis of genes contributing to plant-beneficial functions in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and related Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bruto, Maxime; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Muller, Daniel; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    The positive effects of root-colonizing bacteria cooperating with plants lead to improved growth and/or health of their eukaryotic hosts. Some of these Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) display several plant-beneficial properties, suggesting that the accumulation of the corresponding genes could have been selected in these bacteria. Here, this issue was targeted using 23 genes contributing directly or indirectly to established PGPR effects, based on genome sequence analysis of 304 contrasted Alpha- Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. Most of the 23 genes studied were also found in non-PGPR Proteobacteria and none of them were common to all 25 PGPR genomes studied. However, ancestral character reconstruction indicated that gene transfers -predominantly ancient- resulted in characteristic gene combinations according to taxonomic subgroups of PGPR strains. This suggests that the PGPR-plant cooperation could have established separately in various taxa, yielding PGPR strains that use different gene assortments. The number of genes contributing to plant-beneficial functions increased along the continuum -animal pathogens, phytopathogens, saprophytes, endophytes/symbionts, PGPR- indicating that the accumulation of these genes (and possibly of different plant-beneficial traits) might be an intrinsic PGPR feature. This work uncovered preferential associations occurring between certain genes contributing to phytobeneficial traits and provides new insights into the emergence of PGPR bacteria. PMID:25179219

  15. Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

  16. Water Stress Strengthens Mutualism Among Ants, Trees, and Scale Insects

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant–plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant–plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism. PMID:24223521

  17. Inflammation and colorectal cancer, when microbiota-host mutualism breaks

    PubMed Central

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Carbonero, Franck; Rampelli, Simone; Fiorentini, Carla; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Structural changes in the gut microbial community have been shown to accompany the progressive development of colorectal cancer. In this review we discuss recent hypotheses on the mechanisms involved in the bacteria-mediated carcinogenesis, as well as the triggering factors favoring the shift of the gut microbiota from a mutualistic to a pro-carcinogenic configuration. The possible role of inflammation, bacterial toxins and toxic microbiota metabolites in colorectal cancer onset is specifically discussed. On the other hand, the strategic role of inflammation as the keystone factor in driving microbiota to become carcinogenic is suggested. As a common outcome of different environmental and endogenous triggers, such as diet, aging, pathogen infection or genetic predisposition, inflammation can compromise the microbiota-host mutualism, forcing the increase of pathobionts at the expense of health-promoting groups, and allowing the microbiota to acquire an overall pro-inflammatory configuration. Consolidating inflammation in the gut, and favoring the bloom of toxigenic bacterial drivers, these changes in the gut microbial ecosystem have been suggested as pivotal in promoting carcinogenesis. In this context, it will become of primary importance to implement dietary or probiotics-based interventions aimed at preserving the microbiota-host mutualism along aging, counteracting deviations that favor a pro-carcinogenic microbiota asset. PMID:24574765

  18. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

  19. Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their mutual relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui

    2006-10-01

    Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their mutual relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their mutual relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.

  20. Classical mutual information in mean-field spin glass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, Vincenzo; Inglis, Stephen; Pollet, Lode

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the classical Rényi entropy Sn and the associated mutual information In in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (S-K) model, which is the paradigm model of mean-field spin glasses. Using classical Monte Carlo simulations and analytical tools we investigate the S-K model in the n -sheet booklet. This is achieved by gluing together n independent copies of the model, and it is the main ingredient for constructing the Rényi entanglement-related quantities. We find a glassy phase at low temperatures, whereas at high temperatures the model exhibits paramagnetic behavior, consistent with the regular S-K model. The temperature of the paramagnetic-glassy transition depends nontrivially on the geometry of the booklet. At high temperatures we provide the exact solution of the model by exploiting the replica symmetry. This is the permutation symmetry among the fictitious replicas that are used to perform disorder averages (via the replica trick). In the glassy phase the replica symmetry has to be broken. Using a generalization of the Parisi solution, we provide analytical results for Sn and In and for standard thermodynamic quantities. Both Sn and In exhibit a volume law in the whole phase diagram. We characterize the behavior of the corresponding densities, Sn/N and In/N , in the thermodynamic limit. Interestingly, at the critical point the mutual information does not exhibit any crossing for different system sizes, in contrast with local spin models.

  1. Housekeeping Mutualisms: Do More Symbionts Facilitate Host Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Lemer, Sarah; Leray, Matthieu; Mills, Suzanne C.; Osenberg, Craig W.

    2012-01-01

    Mutualisms often involve one host supporting multiple symbionts, whose identity, density and intraguild interactions can influence the nature of the mutualism and performance of the host. However, the implications of multiple co-occurring symbionts on services to a host have rarely been quantified. In this study, we quantified effects of decapod symbionts on removal of sediment from their coral host. Our field survey showed that all common symbionts typically occur as pairs and never at greater abundances. Two species, the crab Trapezia serenei and the shrimp Alpheus lottini, were most common and co-occurred more often than expected by chance. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test for effects of decapod identity and density on sediment removal. Alone, corals removed 10% of sediment, but removal increased to 30% and 48% with the presence of two and four symbionts, respectively. Per-capita effects of symbionts were independent of density and identity. Our results suggest that symbiont density is restricted by intraspecific competition. Thus, increased sediment removal from a coral host can only be achieved by increasing the number of species of symbionts on that coral, even though these species are functionally equivalent. Symbiont diversity plays a key role, not through added functionality but by overcoming density limitation likely imposed by intraspecific mating systems. PMID:22523536

  2. Permutation auto-mutual information of electroencephalogram in anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The dynamic change of brain activity in anesthesia is an interesting topic for clinical doctors and drug designers. To explore the dynamical features of brain activity in anesthesia, a permutation auto-mutual information (PAMI) method is proposed to measure the information coupling of electroencephalogram (EEG) time series obtained in anesthesia. Approach. The PAMI is developed and applied on EEG data collected from 19 patients under sevoflurane anesthesia. The results are compared with the traditional auto-mutual information (AMI), SynchFastSlow (SFS, derived from the BIS index), permutation entropy (PE), composite PE (CPE), response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). Performance of all indices is assessed by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability. Main results. The PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis show that the PAMI index correlates closely with the anesthetic effect. The coefficient of determination R2 between PAMI values and the sevoflurane effect site concentrations, and the prediction probability Pk are higher in comparison with other indices. The information coupling in EEG series can be applied to indicate the effect of the anesthetic drug sevoflurane on the brain activity as well as other indices. The PAMI of the EEG signals is suggested as a new index to track drug concentration change. Significance. The PAMI is a useful index for analyzing the EEG dynamics during general anesthesia.

  3. Spices: the savory and beneficial science of pungency.

    PubMed

    Nilius, Bernd; Appendino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Spicy food does not only provide an important hedonic input in daily life, but has also been anedoctically associated to beneficial effects on our health. In this context, the discovery of chemesthetic trigeminal receptors and their spicy ligands has provided the mechanistic basis and the pharmacological means to investigate this enticing possibility. This review discusses in molecular terms the connection between the neurophysiology of pungent spices and the "systemic" effects associated to their trigeminality. It commences with a cultural and historical overview on the Western fascination for spices, and, after analysing in detail the mechanisms underlying the trigeminality of food, the main dietary players from the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels are introduced, also discussing the "alien" distribution of taste receptors outside the oro-pharingeal cavity. The modulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by spices is next described, discussing how spicy sensations can be turned into hedonic pungency, and analyzing the mechanistic bases for the health benefits that have been associated to the consumption of spices. These include, in addition to a beneficial modulation of gastro-intestinal and cardio-vascular function, slimming, the optimization of skeletal muscle performance, the reduction of chronic inflammation, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We conclude by reviewing the role of electrophilic spice constituents on cancer prevention in the light of their action on pro-inflammatory and pro-cancerogenic nuclear factors like NF?B, and on their interaction with the electrophile sensor protein Keap1 and the ensuing Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity. Spicy compounds have a complex polypharmacology, and just like any other bioactive agent, show a balance of beneficial and bad actions. However, at least for moderate consumption, the balance seems definitely in favour of the positive side, suggesting that a spicy diet, a caveman-era technology, could be seriously considered in addition to caloric control and exercise as a measurement to prevent and control many chronic diseases associate to malnutrition from a Western diet. PMID:23605179

  4. New perspectives on the functioning and evolution of photosymbiosis in plankton: Mutualism or parasitism?

    PubMed

    Decelle, Johan

    2013-07-01

    Photosymbiosis is common and widely distributed in plankton and is considered to be beneficial for both partners (mutualism). Such intimate associations involving heterotrophic hosts and microalgal symbionts have been extensively studied in coral reefs, but in the planktonic realm, the ecology and evolution of photosymbioses remain poorly understood. Acantharia (Radiolaria) are ubiquitous and abundant heterotrophic marine protists, many of which host endosymbiotic microalgae. Two types of photosymbiosis involving acantharians have recently been described using molecular techniques: one found in a single acantharian species involving multiple microalgal partners (dinoflagellates and haptophytes), and the other observed in more than 25 acantharian species exclusively living with the haptophyte Phaeocystis. Contrary to most benthic and terrestrial mutualistic symbioses, these symbiotic associations share the common feature of involving symbionts that are abundant in their free-living stage. We propose a hypothetical framework that may explain this original mode of symbiosis, and discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications. We suggest that photosymbiosis in Acantharia, and probably in other planktonic hosts, may not be a mutualistic relationship but rather an "inverted parasitism," from which only hosts seem to benefit by sequestrating and exploiting microalgal cells. The relatively small population size of microalgae in hospite would prevent reciprocal evolution that can select uncooperative symbionts, therefore making this horizontally-transmitted association stable over evolutionary time. The more we learn about the diversity of life and the structure of genomes, the more it appears that much of the evolution of biodiversity is about the manipulation of other species-to gain resources and, in turn, to avoid being manipulated (John Thompson, 1999). PMID:23986805

  5. Equilibrium population dynamics when mating is by mutual choice based on age.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Katrantzi, Ioanna; Ramsey, David

    2014-06-01

    We consider a steady state model of mutual mate choice in which an individual's mate preferences depend on his/her age, and the preferences are over the ages of prospective mates of the opposite sex. We present a discrete time (and age) model corresponding to successive mating seasons. Males are fertile for m periods (corresponding to 'age' i=1 to m) and females for n?m periods (they have ages j=1 to n), which is all that distinguishes the sexes. Although we can deal with arbitrary preferences, we concentrate on a simple fertility model where the common utility to a male age i and female age j who mate is the number K=min(m-i+1,n-j+1) of future periods of joint fertility. The incoming sex ratio R of age 1 males to age 1 females is given exogenously. In each period individuals are randomly (non assortatively) matched and form a mated couple by mutual consent; otherwise they go into the next period unmated and older. We derive properties of equilibrium threshold acceptance strategies and establish the existence of time-invariant age distributions. Our methods determine the age distribution of couples at marriage (mating) and the population sex ratio (OSR) at equilibrium. Since this can be determined empirically in a population, our model can be used to rule out most systems of age preferences (those not consistent with the observed distribution). This extends earlier models of mutual choice with one dimensional types of Alpern and Reyniers [1999. Strategic mating with homotypic preferences. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88; 2005. Strategic mating with common preferences. J. Theor. Biol. 237, 337-354] where individuals sought, respectively, individuals with similar or high types, but in those models an individual's type was fixed over time. Under the simple fertility model, at equilibrium the maximum age of an acceptable partner is increasing in the age of the searcher. Our results relate to discussions in the literature regarding optimal parental age differences, age-related mate preferences, and to mate choice in general. We believe our model will be used as a tool in future investigations in these areas. PMID:23541396

  6. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine. PMID:21472114

  7. Hydrochloric acid method of beneficiating magnesite using a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sertin, V.A.; Galkin, Y.M.; Gemusova, I.B.; Glezer, E.B.; Khaltyurin, V.A.; Kislitsyn, V.I.; Rodde, T.V.; Simonov, K.V.; Vetlugina, N.A.; Yurlova, L.N.; Zakutinskii, V.L.

    1985-07-01

    One feature of the HCl treatment of magnesite is the possibility of using the main mass of HCl in a closed cycle. Regeneration of the HCl takes place during the thermal hydrolysis of the purified solution of magnesium chloride. In accordance with the plan drawn up by the Eastern Institute of Refractories and the Ukranian Institute of Chemistry, a pilot plant has been built at the Magnesite Combine; this has been mastered and is used for the hydrochloric acid treatment of magnesite; the annual productivity of the equipment is 400 tons. Some features of the process of dissolution of natural and caustic magnesite in HCL and the sintering of the beneficiated product have been considered elsewhere. This paper pays particular attention to the apparatus-process character and considers in more detail the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride.

  8. Beneficiation and extraction of nonterrestrial materials, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    A review of options for processing extraterrestrial materials was dominated by industrial materials scientist who tried to identify which processes utilizing space materials could be implemented in the near term. The most practical process seem to us to be the extraction of lunar oxygen and the extraction of metals and ceramics from the residues of the reduction process. The growth of space activity will be accompanied by increased demand for liquid oxygen for each round trip to the Moon. The oxygen and the intermediary product water will be needed for the life support at the base. The reduced metals and ceramics may be considered byproducts or may develop into primary products. Some of the same processes would be directly applicable to recovery of products from asteroids. We also discussed other processes for directly utilizing asteroid metals. Some of the topics covered include beneficiation and oxygen extraction methods, metallurgy, and extraterrestrial cement.

  9. Cardiac RKIP induces a beneficial ?-adrenoceptor-dependent positive inotropy.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Evelyn; Neef, Stefan; Berlin, Christopher; Tomasovic, Angela; Kahlert, Katrin; Nordbeck, Peter; Deiss, Katharina; Denzinger, Sabrina; Herrmann, Sebastian; Wettwer, Erich; Weidendorfer, Markus; Becker, Daniel; Schäfer, Florian; Wagner, Nicole; Ergün, Süleyman; Schmitt, Joachim P; Katus, Hugo A; Weidemann, Frank; Ravens, Ursula; Maack, Christoph; Hein, Lutz; Ertl, Georg; Müller, Oliver J; Maier, Lars S; Lohse, Martin J; Lorenz, Kristina

    2015-11-01

    In heart failure therapy, it is generally assumed that attempts to produce a long-term increase in cardiac contractile force are almost always accompanied by structural and functional damage. Here we show that modest overexpression of the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), encoded by Pebp1 in mice, produces a well-tolerated, persistent increase in cardiac contractility that is mediated by the ?1-adrenoceptor (?1AR). This result is unexpected, as ?1AR activation, a major driver of cardiac contractility, usually has long-term adverse effects. RKIP overexpression achieves this tolerance via simultaneous activation of the ?2AR subtype. Analogously, RKIP deficiency exaggerates pressure overload-induced cardiac failure. We find that RKIP expression is upregulated in mouse and human heart failure, indicative of an adaptive role for RKIP. Pebp1 gene transfer in a mouse model of heart failure has beneficial effects, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for heart failure therapy. PMID:26479924

  10. Estimating the time since the fixation of a beneficial allele.

    PubMed Central

    Przeworski, Molly

    2003-01-01

    The fixation of a beneficial allele in a population leaves a well-characterized signature in patterns of nucleotide variation at linked sites. This signature can be used to estimate the time since fixation from patterns of polymorphism in extant individuals. I introduce a method to assess the support in polymorphism data for a recent episode of directional positive selection and to estimate the time since fixation. I summarize the polymorphism data by three statistics that carry information about levels of diversity, the allele frequency spectrum, and the extent of allelic associations. Simulations are then used to obtain a sample from the posterior distribution of the time since fixation, conditional on the observed summaries. I test the performance of the approach on simulated data and apply it to the gene tb1 in maize. The data support the recent fixation of a favored allele, consistent with what is known about the importance of tb1 in the domestication process of maize. PMID:12930770

  11. Rate of fixation of beneficial mutations in sexual populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Joseilme F.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Sátiro, Caio; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2009-06-01

    We have investigated the rate of substitution of advantageous mutations in populations of haploid organisms where the rate of recombination can be controlled. We have verified that in all the situations recombination speeds up adaptation through recombination of beneficial mutations from distinct lineages in a single individual, and so reducing the intensity of clonal interference. The advantage of sex for adaptation is even stronger when deleterious mutations occur since now recombination can also restore genetic background free of deleterious mutations. However, our simulation results demonstrate that evidence of clonal interference, as increased mean selective effect of fixed mutations and reduced likelihood of fixation of small-effect mutations, are also present in sexual populations. What we see is that this evidence is delayed when compared to asexual populations.

  12. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    PubMed

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed. PMID:25046596

  13. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Elise; Hankard, Régis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln) supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln. PMID:22175008

  14. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2011-03-28

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine. PMID:21472114

  15. DRAMMS: Deformable registration via attribute matching and mutual-saliency weighting.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yangming; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Paragios, Nikos; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-08-01

    A general-purpose deformable registration algorithm referred to as "DRAMMS" is presented in this paper. DRAMMS bridges the gap between the traditional voxel-wise methods and landmark/feature-based methods with primarily two contributions. First, DRAMMS renders each voxel relatively distinctively identifiable by a rich set of attributes, therefore largely reducing matching ambiguities. In particular, a set of multi-scale and multi-orientation Gabor attributes are extracted and the optimal components are selected, so that they form a highly distinctive morphological signature reflecting the anatomical and geometric context around each voxel. Moreover, the way in which the optimal Gabor attributes are constructed is independent of the underlying image modalities or contents, which renders DRAMMS generally applicable to diverse registration tasks. A second contribution of DRAMMS is that it modulates the registration by assigning higher weights to those voxels having higher ability to establish unique (hence reliable) correspondences across images, therefore reducing the negative impact of those regions that are less capable of finding correspondences (such as outlier regions). A continuously-valued weighting function named "mutual-saliency" is developed to reflect the matching uniqueness between a pair of voxels implied by the tentative transformation. As a result, voxels do not contribute equally as in most voxel-wise methods, nor in isolation as in landmark/feature-based methods. Instead, they contribute according to the continuously-valued mutual-saliency map, which dynamically evolves during the registration process. Experiments in simulated images, inter-subject images, single-/multi-modality images, from brain, heart, and prostate have demonstrated the general applicability and the accuracy of DRAMMS. PMID:20688559

  16. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1990-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

  17. Sweetgum: An ancient source of beneficial compounds with modern benefits

    PubMed Central

    Lingbeck, Jody M.; O’Bryan, Corliss A.; Martin, Elizabeth M.; Adams, Joshua P.; Crandall, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    Sweetgum trees are large, deciduous trees found in Asia and North America. Sweetgum trees are important resources for medicinal and other beneficial compounds. Many of the medicinal properties of sweetgum are derived from the resinous sap that exudes when the outer bark of the tree has been damaged. The sap, known as storax, has been used for centuries to treat common ailments such as skin problems, coughs, and ulcers. More recently, storax has proven to be a strong antimicrobial agent even against multidrug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to the sap, the leaves, bark, and seeds of sweetgum also possess beneficial compounds such as shikimic acid, a precursor to the production of oseltamivir phosphate, the active ingredient in Tamiflu®–an antiviral drug effective against several influenza viruses. Other extracts derived from sweetgum trees have shown potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and chemopreventive agents. The compounds found in the extracts derived from sweetgum sap suppress hypertension in mice. Extracts from sweetgum seeds have anticonvulsant effects, which may make them suitable in the treatment of epilepsy. In addition to the potential medicinal uses of sweetgum extracts, the extracts of the sap possess antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi and have been effective treatments for reducing nematodes and the yellow mosquito, Aedes aegypti, populations thus highlighting the potential of these extracts as environment-friendly pesticides and antifungal agents. The list of value-added products derived from sweetgum trees can be increased by continued research of this abundantly occurring tree. PMID:26009686

  18. Sweetgum: An ancient source of beneficial compounds with modern benefits.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Martin, Elizabeth M; Adams, Joshua P; Crandall, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    Sweetgum trees are large, deciduous trees found in Asia and North America. Sweetgum trees are important resources for medicinal and other beneficial compounds. Many of the medicinal properties of sweetgum are derived from the resinous sap that exudes when the outer bark of the tree has been damaged. The sap, known as storax, has been used for centuries to treat common ailments such as skin problems, coughs, and ulcers. More recently, storax has proven to be a strong antimicrobial agent even against multidrug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to the sap, the leaves, bark, and seeds of sweetgum also possess beneficial compounds such as shikimic acid, a precursor to the production of oseltamivir phosphate, the active ingredient in Tamiflu®-an antiviral drug effective against several influenza viruses. Other extracts derived from sweetgum trees have shown potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and chemopreventive agents. The compounds found in the extracts derived from sweetgum sap suppress hypertension in mice. Extracts from sweetgum seeds have anticonvulsant effects, which may make them suitable in the treatment of epilepsy. In addition to the potential medicinal uses of sweetgum extracts, the extracts of the sap possess antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi and have been effective treatments for reducing nematodes and the yellow mosquito, Aedes aegypti, populations thus highlighting the potential of these extracts as environment-friendly pesticides and antifungal agents. The list of value-added products derived from sweetgum trees can be increased by continued research of this abundantly occurring tree. PMID:26009686

  19. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  20. Mutual information between thermo-field doubles and disconnected holographic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Ian A.; Roberts, Matthew M.

    2013-07-01

    We use mutual information as a measure of the entanglement between `physical' and thermo-field double degrees of freedom in field theories at finite temperature. We compute this "thermo-mutual information" in simple toy models: a quantum mechanics two-site spin chain, a two dimensional massless fermion, and a two dimensional holographic system. In holographic systems, the thermo-mutual information is related to minimal surfaces connecting the two disconnected boundaries of an eternal black hole. We derive a number of salient features of this thermo-mutual information, including that it is UV finite, positive definite and bounded from above by the standard mutual information for the thermal ensemble. We relate the construction of the reduced density matrices used to define the thermo-mutual information to the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, ensuring that all our objects are well defined in Euclidean and Lorentzian signature.

  1. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  2. Establishing effective working relationships.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. PMID:26907148

  3. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  4. The establishment of the United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Taryam, A.O.

    1987-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates were established in response to the British decision to withdraw from the Gulf by 1971. This decision, announced in 1968, had left the rulers of the emirates perplexed and alarmed. After decades of mutual suspicion and rivalry, fostered by British imperial dominance, the emirates were now obliged to seek security in federal union. Early in 1968 came the bilateral agreement for union between Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Then followed three years of prolonged negotiations between nine emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ras al-Khaimah and Fujairah to establish a union of nine emirates. Constitutional wrangles as to what form the union would take and hard bargaining as to who would get what position or who would give up which claim, prevailed throughout the negotiations. Behrain was beset by Iranian claims and had no mind to enter into any agreement before this problem was solved. Qatar did not want to enter any agreement that did not ensure it a dominant position. Eventually Bahrain and Qatar dropped out of the talks and declared themselves independent states in 1971. The other seven emirates entered into serious negotiations that ended, also in 1971, with the formation of a federal state to be called the United Arab Emirates. This book chronicles this process which led to the establishment of the UAE and explains the circumstances which brought it about. It also examines the record of the first fifteen years of the federation and concludes that despite serious problems it has been broadly successful.

  5. Complex degree of mutual anisotropy in diagnostics of biological tissues physiological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Karachevtcev, A. O.; Zabolotna, N. I.

    2011-09-01

    To characterize the degree of consistency of parameters of the optically uniaxial birefringent protein nets of blood plasma a new parameter - complex degree of mutual anisotropy is suggested. The technique of polarization measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of blood plasma is developed. It is shown that statistic approach to the analysis of complex degree of mutual anisotropy distributions of blood plasma is effective in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute inflammation - acute and gangrenous appendicitis.

  6. Complex degree of mutual anisotropy in diagnostics of biological tissues physiological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Karachevtcev, A. O.; Zabolotna, N. I.

    2011-05-01

    To characterize the degree of consistency of parameters of the optically uniaxial birefringent protein nets of blood plasma a new parameter - complex degree of mutual anisotropy is suggested. The technique of polarization measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of blood plasma is developed. It is shown that statistic approach to the analysis of complex degree of mutual anisotropy distributions of blood plasma is effective in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute inflammation - acute and gangrenous appendicitis.

  7. Conformal invariance in noncommutative geometry and mutually interacting Snyder particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir

    2014-11-01

    A system of relativistic Snyder particles with mutual two-body interaction that lives in a noncommutative Snyder geometry is studied. The underlying novel symplectic structure is a coupled and extended version of (single-particle) Snyder algebra. In a recent work by Casalbuoni and Gomis [Phys. Rev. D 90, 026001 (2014)], a system of interacting conventional particles (in commutative spacetime) was studied with special emphasis on its conformal invariance. Proceeding along the same lines, we have shown that our interacting Snyder particle model is also conformally invariant. Moreover, the conformal Killing vectors have been constructed. Our main emphasis is on the Hamiltonian analysis of the conformal symmetry generators. We demonstrate that the Lorentz algebra remains undeformed, but validity of the full conformal algebra requires further restrictions.

  8. Hierarchical multimodal image registration based on adaptive local mutual information.

    PubMed

    De Nigris, Dante; Mercier, Laurence; Del Maestro, Rolando; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new, adaptive local measure based on gradient orientation similarity for the purposes of multimodal image registration. We embed this metric into a hierarchical registration framework, where we show that registration robustness and accuracy can be improved by adapting both the similarity metric and the pixel selection strategy to the Gaussian blurring scale and to the modalities being registered. A computationally efficient estimation of gradient orientations is proposed based on patch-wise rigidity. We have applied our method to both rigid and non-rigid multimodal registration tasks with different modalities. Our approach outperforms mutual information (MI) and previously proposed local approximations of MI for multimodal (e.g. CT/MRI) brain image registration tasks. Furthermore, it shows significant improvements in terms of mTRE over standard methods in the highly challenging clinical context of registering pre-operative brain MRI to intra-operative US images. PMID:20879370

  9. Modeling mutual feedback between users and recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Yeung, Chi Ho; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Recommender systems daily influence our decisions on the Internet. While considerable attention has been given to issues such as recommendation accuracy and user privacy, the long-term mutual feedback between a recommender system and the decisions of its users has been neglected so far. We propose here a model of network evolution which allows us to study the complex dynamics induced by this feedback, including the hysteresis effect which is typical for systems with non-linear dynamics. Despite the popular belief that recommendation helps users to discover new things, we find that the long-term use of recommendation can contribute to the rise of extremely popular items and thus ultimately narrow the user choice. These results are supported by measurements of the time evolution of item popularity inequality in real systems. We show that this adverse effect of recommendation can be tamed by sacrificing part of short-term recommendation accuracy.

  10. Peer pressure: Enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  11. Area laws in quantum systems: mutual information and correlations.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael M; Verstraete, Frank; Hastings, Matthew B; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2008-02-22

    The holographic principle states that on a fundamental level the information content of a region should depend on its surface area rather than on its volume. In this Letter we show that this phenomenon not only emerges in the search for new Planck-scale laws but also in lattice models of classical and quantum physics: the information contained in part of a system in thermal equilibrium obeys an area law. While the maximal information per unit area depends classically only on the number of degrees of freedom, it may diverge as the inverse temperature in quantum systems. It is shown that an area law is generally implied by a finite correlation length when measured in terms of the mutual information. PMID:18352531

  12. Quantifying complex network evolution using mutual entropy and dynamical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montealegre, Vladimir

    The study of the structure and evolution of complex networks plays an important role for a diversity of areas which include computer science, biology, sociology, pattern recognition and cryptography. Here we use methods based on the principles of classical mechanics and statistical physics to study the topology and dynamics of complex networks. Dynamical clustering is used to detect the main structural blocks of networks (communities) and generalized mutual information of the Renyi type is used to rank the detected communities according to how crucial they are for the network's structure. Two approaches to measure the information content of networks are presented. One approach is based on the elements of the connectivity matrix, and the other on the concept of distance between nodes. These methods are applied for simulated networks of the scale-free, random and mixed types and for real world networks. The concept of triangles distribution as an extension to the degree distribution is also considered.

  13. Peer pressure: enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment. PMID:25768472

  14. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  15. Mutually independent cascades in anisotropic soap-film turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-03-01

    Computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that in 2D turbulence the spectrum of longitudinal velocity fluctuations, E11 (k1) , and the spectrum of transverse velocity fluctuations, E22 (k1) , correspond always to the same cascade, consistent with isotropy, so that E11 (k1) ~k-α and E22 (k1) ~k-α , where the ``spectral exponent'' α is either 5/3 (for the inverse-energy cascade) or 3 (for the enstrophy cascade). Here, we carry out experiments on turbulent 2D soap-film flows in which E11 (k1) ~k - 5 / 3 and E22 (k1) ~k-3 , as if two mutually independent cascades were concurrently active within the same flow. To our knowledge, this species of spectrum has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our finding might open up new vistas in the understanding of turbulence.

  16. Galois-unitary operators that cycle mutually-unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hoan; Appleby, Marcus; Bengtsson, Ingemar

    2015-03-01

    Wigner's theorem states that probability-preserving transformations of quantum states must be either unitary or anti-unitary. However, if we restrict ourselves to a subspace of a Hilbert space, it is possible to generalize the notion of anti-unitaries. Such transformations were recently constructed in search of Symmetric Informationally-Complete (SIC) states. They are called Galois-unitaries (g-unitaries for short), as they are unitaries composed with Galois automorphisms of a chosen number field extension. Despite certain bizarre behaviors of theirs, we show that g-unitaries are indeed useful in the theory of Mutually-Unbiased Bases (MUBs), as they help solve the MUB-cycling problem and provide a construction of MUB-balanced states. HD was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship

  17. Mutual coupling effects in antenna arrays, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collin, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Mutual coupling between rectangular apertures in a finite antenna array, in an infinite ground plane, is analyzed using the vector potential approach. The method of moments is used to solve the equations that result from setting the tangential magnetic fields across each aperture equal. The approximation uses a set of vector potential model functions to solve for equivalent magnetic currents. A computer program was written to carry out this analysis and the resulting currents were used to determine the co- and cross-polarized far zone radiation patterns. Numerical results for various arrays using several modes in the approximation are presented. Results for one and two aperture arrays are compared against published data to check on the agreement of this model with previous work. Computer derived results are also compared against experimental results to test the accuracy of the model. These tests of the accuracy of the program showed that it yields valid data.

  18. [Philosophy of the mutual biotic system of man-environment].

    PubMed

    Mertz, D P

    2009-06-01

    With regard to environmental changes, outstanding importance is meanwhile to be attached to the cultural side of human evolution. The evolution both of mankind and of its environment are mutually dependent as processes of change and together they form a complete biotic system. First disorders of balance concerning the close relationship network between mankind and environment eventually developed following man's change from the biosphere to the "noosphere" created by him. In the course of the "neolithic revolution" mankind, while becoming more and more settled, began to become increasingly estranged from its ecological surroundings. Environmental problems caused by man led to climatic changes already about 8,000 years ago. So far they have caused an extraordinary climatic stability following the Ice Age. "Environmental art" i. e. an improved evolution - is required to escape an imminent "collapse" caused by pollution. Nowadays mankind is on the way to being the almost exclusive carrier of future evolution of this planet. PMID:19544720

  19. Mutualism meltdown in insects: Bacteria constrain thermal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting whether and how organisms will successfully cope with climate change presents critical questions for biologists and environmental scientists. Models require knowing how organisms interact with their abiotic environment, as well understanding biotic interactions that include a network of symbioses in which all species are embedded. Bacterial symbionts of insects offer valuable models to examine how microbes can facilitate and constrain adaptation to a changing environment. While some symbionts confer plasticity that accelerates adaptation, long-term bacterial mutualists of insects are characterized by tight lifestyle constraints, genome deterioration, and vulnerability to thermal stress. These essential bacterial partners are eliminated at high temperatures, analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. Recent field-based studies suggest that thermal sensitivity of bacterial mutualists constrains insect responses. In this sense, highly dependent mutualisms may be the Achilles’ heel of thermal responses in insects. PMID:22381679

  20. Mutualism fails when climate response differs between interacting species.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Warren RJ 2nd; Bradford MA

    2014-02-01

    Successful species interactions require that both partners share a similar cue. For many species, spring warming acts as a shared signal to synchronize mutualist behaviors. Spring flowering plants and the ants that disperse their seeds respond to warming temperatures so that ants forage when plants drop seeds. However, where warm-adapted ants replace cold-adapted ants, changes in this timing might leave early seeds stranded without a disperser. We investigate plant seed dispersal south and north of a distinct boundary between warm- and cold-adapted ants to determine if changes in the ant species influence local plant dispersal. The warm-adapted ants forage much later than the cold-adapted ants, and so we first assess natural populations of early and late blooming plants. We then transplant these plants south and north of the ant boundary to test whether distinct ant climate requirements disrupt the ant-plant mutualism. Whereas the early blooming plant's inability to synchronize with the warm-adapted ant leaves its populations clumped and patchy and its seedlings clustered around the parents in natural populations, when transplanted into the range of the cold-adapted ant, effective seed dispersal recovers. In contrast, the mutualism persists for the later blooming plant regardless of location because it sets seed later in spring when both warm- and cold-adapted ant species forage, resulting in effective seed dispersal. These results indicate that the climate response of species interactions, not just the species themselves, is integral in understanding ecological responses to a changing climate. Data linking phenological synchrony and dispersal are rare, and these results suggest a viable mechanism by which a species' range is limited more by biotic than abiotic interactions - despite the general assumption that biotic influences are buried within larger climate drivers. These results show that biotic partner can be as fundamental a niche requirement as abiotic resources.