Science.gov

Sample records for estado confusional agudo

  1. Association learning in the acute confusional state.

    PubMed

    Ptak, R; Gutbrod, K; Schnider, A

    1998-09-01

    The usefulness of cognitive rehabilitative treatment in the acute stages after brain injury seems questionable because patients in severe acute confusional state early after coma clinically seem unable to learn and store new information. Therefore, the capability of patients in acute confusional state to learn and retain associative information was assessed. On two occasions pairs of simple nouns were presented to six patients in severe acute confusional state. Stimuli were presented repeatedly either in written form only or with additional pictorial representations. Immediate and 20 minutes delayed recall was measured. Patients in acute confusional state were able to learn progressively more word pairs across several presentations. They retained some information over an interval of 20 minutes. In addition, they learned and remembered pictorially supported associations better than pure verbal associations. Patients in severe acute confusional state may retain some explicit information and may profit from an imagery mnemonic aid. These results were not expected on the basis of clinical findings alone and they have potential implications for the care of patients in acute confusional state. PMID:9728959

  2. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    PubMed

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabri毛ls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  3. Recurrent confusional episodes associated with hypomagnesaemia due to esomeprazol

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Calleja, Sergio; Suarez, Lorena; Pascual, Julio

    2013-01-01

    In February 2011, the Food and Drug Administration informed that prescription of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drugs may cause low serum magnesium levels if taken for prolonged periods of time. We present an ex-smoker, 76-year-old man, with high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and Barrett's oesophagus (treated with esomeprazole since 2003) admitted due to fluctuating aphasia. Neurovascular and neuroimaging studies were normal. Dyslipidemia and atrial arrhythmia were discovered. The patient was discharged with the diagnosis of left middle cerebral artery transient ischaemic attack and anticoagulation treatment was recommended. The patient returned to the emergency department on further two occasions (confusional episodes) and was admitted in order to complete the neurological study that was normal. The patient was discharged with the diagnosis of probable epileptic seizures. After a week, he was admitted due to generalised temblor and unsteadiness. A complete blood test was performed and showed a severe hypomagnesaemia (not previously performed). PMID:23917371

  4. EEG synchronisation during sleep-related epileptic seizures as a new tool to discriminate confusional arousals from paroxysmal arousals: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, M; Manconi, M; Bizzozero, D; Rundo, F; Stam, C J; Ferini-Strambi, L; Ferri, R

    2005-12-01

    Confusional arousals, paroxysmal arousals (as part of the nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy) and normal arousals and awakenings from NREM sleep are frequently a challenge for differential diagnosis. In this article we describe the course of synchronisation between different EEG channels during nocturnal seizures in 3 patients with sleep-related epileptic seizures and in 1 patient with sleep terrors. The functional interactions between the different EEG channels during the nocturnal seizures were analysed by means of the so-called synchronisation likelihood (SL). SL is a measure of the dynamical (linear and nonlinear) interdependencies between a time series (EEG channel) and one or more other time series. The main results of our study are the confirmation of a significant increase in EEG synchronisation during sleep-related seizures and the indication that clinically similar ictal motor patterns might be generated by different neurophysiological mechanisms, characterised by different patterns of synchronisation involving multiple or single frequency bands. This new approach might be useful to differentiate motor seizures, emerging from NREM sleep, from parasomnias (arousal disorders) when both ictal and interictal EEGs are uninformative. PMID:16331396

  5. Source localization of intermittent rhythmic delta activity in a patient with acute confusional migraine: cross-spectral analysis using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Eun; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Eom, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Acute confusional migraine (ACM) shows typical electroencephalography (EEG) patterns of diffuse delta slowing and frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA). The pathophysiology of ACM is still unclear but these patterns suggest neuronal dysfunction in specific brain areas. We performed source localization analysis of IRDA (in the frequency band of 1-3.5燞z) to better understand the ACM mechanism. Typical IRDA EEG patterns were recorded in a patient with ACM during the acute stage. A second EEG was obtained after recovery from ACM. To identify source localization of IRDA, statistical non-parametric mapping using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was performed for the delta frequency band comparisons between ACM attack and non-attack periods. A difference in the current density maximum was found in the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (ACC). The significant differences were widely distributed over the frontal, parietal, temporal and limbic lobe, paracentral lobule and insula and were predominant in the left hemisphere. Dorsal ACC dysfunction was demonstrated for the first time in a patient with ACM in this source localization analysis of IRDA. The ACC plays an important role in the frontal attentional control system and acute confusion. This dysfunction of the dorsal ACC might represent an important ACM pathophysiology. PMID:26292789

  6. EJERCICIO Y LA DETECCION DEL MAL AGUDO DE MONTA脩A GRAVE

    PubMed Central

    Gar贸foli, Adri谩n; Montoya, Paola; El铆as, Carlos; Benzo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El Mal Agudo de Monta帽a (MAM) es un conjunto de s铆ntomas inespec铆ficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden r谩pidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimataci贸n. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral) pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo est谩 relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompa帽a de mayor hipoxemia y s铆ntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudi贸 el valor predictivo de la saturaci贸n de ox铆geno en reposo y ejercicio subm谩ximo a 2 700m y 4 300m en 63 sujetos que ascend铆an al cerro Aconcagua (6 962m). Se consider贸 desaturaci贸n de ox铆geno con ejercicio a una disminuci贸n >=5% respecto al reposo. Se utiliz贸 la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. 6 sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5%) y requirieron evacuaci贸n. La saturaci贸n de ox铆geno en reposo a 2 700m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociaci贸n de desaturaci贸n durante el ejercicio a 2 700m m谩s la saturaci贸n inapropiada en reposo a 4 300m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el monta帽ismo y sugieren la adici贸n de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicci贸n del MAM grave. PMID:20228017

  7. Assessing the impact of soil management on soil erosion in vineyards in La Rioja (Spain): La Sierra de Los Agudos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galilea Salvador, Ianire; Lana-Renault, Noem; Ruiz Fla駉, Purificaci髇; 羘gel Llorente Ad醤, Jose; Bellido, Nuria Pascual

    2015-04-01

    La Rioja is a predominantly agricultural region located in the northwestern corner of the Ebro Basin in Spain. In this region, vineyards are a crop of historical and economical importance and large extension that traditionally has been relegated to marginal lands, mainly glacis, high fluvial terraces and slopes linking different levels of terraces and glacis. It is well known that vineyards are among the land uses affected by largest soil erosion losses. Surprisingly, many farmers still apply non-conservative practices that contribute to an increase of soil erosion. In spite of the environmental and economic consequences, very little research on this topic has been undertaken in the region. In this study, we assessed the impact of vineyards and soil management practices on soil erosion in La Sierra de Los Agudos, a heavily eroded area located on quaternary silt loam and clay glacis, where vineyards represent 30% of the agricultural land. For this purpose we used an adapted version of the RUSLE model: R was estimated using data from two nearby weather stations following the methodology of Arnoldus and Fournier for a lapse time of five years; K was assessed from 28 soil samples analyzed by the National Institute of Soil Erosion, and the edaphic map of La Rioja which includes 32 taxa; C was calculated from catastral data, the Information System of Land Occupation, and by a detailed study of each subfactor; LS was obtained from a 10 meters/pixel scale DTM from which the slope length and the percentage of inclination of the slopes was calculated; and P was established by observing different tillage practices in each of the plots. Low erosion values (<0,001-2 Mg ha-箉ear-) were estimated for the 43 % of the area, while the 37% was affected by moderate (2-12 Mg ha-箉ear-) and high erosion values (>12 Mg ha-箉ear-) which exceed the soil loss tolerance (T value) established by Renard (1996). In this study we showed that the current support practices accelerate soil degradation and could lead to an unsustainable viticulture. We proposed alternative conservative practices that could decrease soil erosion to moderate and low values.

  8. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative

  9. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infecci贸n por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomend贸 la vacunaci贸n en los Estados Unidos.

  10. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bj鰎ck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; M鰈ler, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Bj鰎ck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bah韆 Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  11. Acute Confusional State: A Manifestation of Toxoplasma and CMV Co-infection in HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Waqas; Sareen, Romil; Sen, Shuvendu; Raoof, Nazar; Yousif, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Context: When dealing with a patient with HIV that presents with an altered mental status, there are various infections and disease etiologies a physician has to rule out that may play a role in complicating the inherent complex nature of HIV. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) affect a large part of the world's population and lead to a varied and broad symptomatology depending upon the severity of HIV, the CD4 count and how early the infection is diagnosed. Case Report: We report an HIV+ patient in his early 50s and with a low CD4 count that presented with severe lethargy and confusion. Imaging studies that were performed after stabilizing the patient revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the brain and after further testing, a diagnosis of reactivated T. gondii with co-infection with CMV was made. Patients infected with T. gondii that are already immune-compromised deteriorate rapidly and the disease diagnosis poses several challenges. Conclusion: Clinicians have to be extremely careful about making a prompt diagnosis and initiate treatment without delay before the infection takes a deadly toll on the patient. Since our patient was not on the required prophylactic medication to prevent infection with T. gondii, it was imperative to start treatment in a timely manner and to monitor the patient for any further decline in functioning. PMID:25489570

  12. [Expression as used in journals to describe acute confusional states in intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Anetth, G

    1994-01-01

    The language of nursing contains many special expressions which are used daily to describe different care situations. The aim of this study is to identify what expressions are used in the patient records to describe the development of acute confusion (intensive care unit syndrom) among the patients in an intensive care unit, comparing different usages by nurses and doctors to interpret these expressions. Descriptions and opinions about the general condition, awareness and mental status of patients were collected from their records. Twelve of the commonest expressions were chosen, as well as words describing different stages in the development of acute confusion, and the nurses and doctors were requested to write down what the expressions signified to them. The results showed that the expressions most often used, like "restless" (disturbed) and "picky" have been variously interpreted. This may mean that the symptoms of acute confusion are not discovered in time, or that they go completely unnoticed, which will lead to delaying, or neglecting, the implementation of care measures designed to prevent the worsening of the symptoms. Recommendations for coping with this problem include the use of a shared medical mental status, or the adoption by nurses of a common definition of these special expressions. PMID:7941217

  13. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for high-grade hydrothermal pitchblende deposits; and highly possible for small, medium- to high-grade despots of carnotite-or copper-uranium bearing sandstone. Recommendations for the Venezuelan uranium program include 1) the systematic collection of a mass general radiometric data by examining sample collections, expanding the gamma-ray program, encouraging the use of Geiger counter by field geologists, and by enlisting the aid of the general public; 2) , the examination of specific areas or localities, chosen on the basis of geologic favorability from the results of the amassing of data, or obtained by hints and rumors; 3), the organization of a unit within the Direccion Tecnica de Geologica to direct, collection, and collate metric data. It is emphasized that to be most fruitful the program requires the application of sounds and imaginative geologic theory.

  14. Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualizaci贸n de los 铆ndices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los c谩nceres m谩s comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  15. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXI脫N

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vay谩, Maria; Mart铆-Bonmat铆, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El an谩lisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magn茅tica funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realizaci贸n de una tarea, la percepci贸n de un est铆mulo o en estado de reposo. Estos an谩lisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matem谩ticos, estad铆sticos, f铆sicos) para seleccionar los v贸xeles activados. El estudio de la se帽al de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a trav茅s del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intr铆nseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad cient铆fica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuir谩n mediante este an谩lisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtenci贸n de diagn贸sticos y tratamientos m谩s precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  16. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped

  17. Informe Anual a la Naci髇 sobre el Estado del C醤cer con una secci髇 especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci髇 sobre el Estado del C醤cer (1975 a 2010), mostr un descenso m醩 acelerado que en a駉s anteriores de los 韓dices de mortalidad por c醤cer de pulm髇. Tambi閚 contiene una secci髇 especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  18. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two鈥

  19. [Men of the sugarcane fields and their hospitals: the architecture of health under the Estado Novo].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcia Rocha

    2011-12-01

    The article explores the emergence of an architectural heritage in the realm of healthcare assistance for workers in the sugarcane agroindustry in Brazil following enactment of the law known as the Estatuto da Lavoura Canavieira (1941), under the auspices of the Instituto do A莽煤car e do 脕lcool and as part of Estado Novo policies (1937-1945). The institute proposed solutions based on surveys conducted at sugarcane mills in cane-producing states and on the medical and hospital system adopted by the institute's enlightened bureaucracy in the 1940s, which took the U.S. system as its model. Special focus is given to the central hospitals in Pernambuco and especially in Alagoas, which opposed institute guidelines. PMID:22240948

  20. Susceptibility mapping in the R铆o El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mej铆a, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.

    2013-12-01

    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The R铆o El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5掳 and 56掳. The stream system of R铆o El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology) to create the susceptibility map. Finally, the model was compared with the reality expressed by the inventory map. The technique and its implementation of each level in a GIS-based technology is presented and discussed.

  1. El Informe a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer (1975-2012) indica que continu贸 la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los c谩nceres juntos, as铆 como de la mayor铆a de los c谩nceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y 茅tnicos principales.

  2. Late Quaternary glaciation history of Isla de los Estados, southeasternmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M鰈ler, Per; Hjort, Christian; Bj鰎ck, Svante; Rabassa, Jorge; Ponce, Juan Federico

    2010-05-01

    Isla de los Estados is a mountainous island southeast of Tierra del Fuego, in southernmost South America. Its central and eastern parts have an alpine topography, transected by U-shaped valleys, small, partly over-deepened fjords, and a multitude of abandoned cirques, all associated with extensive former local glaciations. Traces of glacial erosion generally reach 400-450 m a.s.l., and above that trimline a distinct sharp-edged nunatak derived landscape is present. The westernmost part of the island has a lower, more subdued topography, reflecting its "softer" geology but possibly also over-running and erosion by mainland-derived ice streams. The present study concentrated on glacigenic sediment sequences exposed along coastal erosional cliffs. A combination of OSL and 14C datings show that these sediments mostly date from the latest (Wisconsinan/Weichselian) glacial cycle, i.e. from the last ca. 100 ka with the oldest (glaciolacustrine) deposits possibly as old as 90-80 ka. The upper parts of overlying tills, with associated lateral and terminal moraines from glaciers that expanded onto an eustatically exposed dry shelf north of the island, date from the last global glacial maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon ages of peat and lake sediments indicate that deglaciation began 17-16 cal ka BP.

  3. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  4. Nuevos escenarios de la migraci贸n M茅xico-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migraci贸n M茅xico-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la pol铆tica migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la d茅cada de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provoc贸 el paso de la 鈥榚ra de la contradicci贸n鈥 a la 鈥榚ra de la marginalizaci贸n鈥. Actualmente, un gran n煤mero de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecuci贸n ha alcanzado niveles r茅cord. De manera cada vez m谩s notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represi贸n interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez m谩s extra帽os en una tierra donde la aplicaci贸n de pol铆ticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los d铆as, lo que los sit煤a en una posici贸n de marginalizaci贸n y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  5. Las propiedades de las estrellas extra馻s en el marco de una nueva ecuaci髇 de estado para la materia extra馻

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constitu韉as por materia extra馻 (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuaci髇 de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del n鷐ero medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximaci髇, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extra馻s en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser m醩 masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, adem醩, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relaci髇 per韔do vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresi髇 anal韙ica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, a鷑 con hip髏esis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuaci髇 de estado de la materia extra馻, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deber韆n ser muy diferentes de las aqu expuestas.

  6. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed

  7. Allele frequencies of the 15 AmpF/Str Identifiler loci in the population of Metztitl醤 (Estado de Hidalgo), M閤ico.

    PubMed

    Gorostiza, A; Gonz醠ez-Mart韓, A; Ram韗ez, C L髉ez; S醤chez, C; Barrot, C; Ortega, M; Huguet, E; Corbella, J; Gen, M

    2007-03-01

    The 15 AmpF/STR Identifiler loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were analyzed in the sample of 180 unrelated autochthonous healthy adults born in Meztitl醤 City from the valley of Metztitl醤 (Estado de Hidalgo, M閤ico). The agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all loci. From the forensic point of view, the heterozygosity value, power of discrimination and the a priori chance of exclusion were calculated. PMID:16436322

  8. Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer con una secci贸n especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer (1975 a 2010), mostr贸 un descenso m谩s acelerado que en a帽os anteriores de los 铆ndices de mortalidad por c谩ncer de pulm贸n. Tambi茅n contiene una secci贸n especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  9. Description of the population structure and genetic diversity of tuberculosis in Estado de M閤ico, a low prevalence setting from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Mendoza-Dami醤, Fabiola; Mu駉z, Irving Cansino; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; P閞ez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Ram韗ez-Hern醤dez, Ma Dolores; V醶quez-Medina, Karen; Widrobo-Garc韆, Lorena; Lauzardo, Michael; Enciso-Moreno, Jos Antonio

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify the genetic characteristics of the strains of mycobacteria circulating in the Estado de M閤ico, one of the states with the lowest prevalence of tuberculosis in Mexico, spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing were used to genotype tuberculosis clinical isolates. The average age of the 183 patients analyzed was 50 ( 17) years, drug resistance was noted in 57 (31%) and multidrug resistance in 22 (12%) individuals. The results from the isolates recovered showed that 80% were located in four major Euro-American lineages: Haarlem (17%), LAM (15%), T (20%) and X (29%). Other lineages found in lower proportions were: EAI, S, Beijing, West African, Turkey, Vole and Bovis. Eighteen isolates were orphans. Only 57 isolates were grouped in nine clusters and the SIT119 (X1) showed the highest number of members (23). The LAM lineage showed an increased risk for development of drug resistance (RR=4, IC: 95%: 1.05-14.2, p=0.03). Despite the important prevalence of four major lineages found and the diversity of strains circulating in the population, we found the presence of one of the largest populations of isolates clustered to the X lineage in a setting from a Latin American country. PMID:25257651

  10. Assessing landslide susceptibility, hazards and sediment yield in the R铆o El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Aceves Quesada, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This work provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT # 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, analyze the distribution of landslides, and characterize landforms that are prone to slope instability by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area is the R铆o El Estado watershed that covers 5.2 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano.The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs, fieldwork, and adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 107 gravitational slope failures of six types were recognized: shallow landslides, debris-avalanches, deep-seated landslides, debris flows, earthflows, and rock falls. This analysis divided the watershed into 12 mass-wasting landforms on which gravitational processes occur: inner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, rockfalls, non-rule-identified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, non-rule-identified converging hillslopes and three types of hillslopes classified by their gradient: low, moderate, and high. For each landform the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate were calculated as well as the overall hazard rating. The slope-stability hazard rating has a range that goes from low to very high. The overall hazard rating for this watershed was very high. The shallow slide type landslide was selected and area and volume of individual landslides were retrieved from the watershed landslide inventory geo-database, to establish an empirical relationship between area and volume that takes the form of a power law. The relationship was used to estimate the total volume of landslides in the study area. The findings are important to understand the long-term evolution of the southwestern flank stream system of Pico de Orizaba, and may prove useful in the assessment of landslide susceptibility and hazard in volcanic terrains.

  11. Preparaci贸n de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparaci贸n frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. M茅todos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 a帽os en adelante (n鈥=鈥1鈥304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilaci贸n (HRS por su sigla en ingl茅s). La encuesta recogi贸 datos sobre las caracter铆sticas demogr谩ficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y tambi茅n sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparaci贸n frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuaci贸n global de preparaci贸n mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparaci贸n general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n鈥=鈥1鈥304) fue de 70 a帽os (desviaci贸n est谩ndar [DE]鈥=鈥9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que hab铆an participado en un programa formativo o que hab铆an le铆do materiales sobre la preparaci贸n para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos m茅dicos el茅ctricos que pod铆an correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro el茅ctrico. La puntuaci贸n de preparaci贸n indic贸 que la edad m谩s avanzada, la discapacidad f铆sica y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparaci贸n general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del n煤mero cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atenci贸n en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atenci贸n cl铆nica, a la salud p煤blica y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  12. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado din鈓ico de um aglomerado de gal醲ias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodr悌, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho apresentado um estudo do conte鷇o de massa do aglomerado de gal醲ias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribui玢o espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telesc髉io Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posi玢o dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estat韘tica da distor玢o na forma das gal醲ias de fundo (lentes fracas) e atrav閟 da dispers鉶 de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 gal醲ias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros m閠odos n鉶 dependem do estado din鈓ico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura tamb閙 ser鉶 inclu韉os nessa an醠ise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das t閏nicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribui玢o de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isot閞mica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispers鉶 de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores t鉶 altos quanto 1680 km s-1. J o estudo din鈓ico resultou numa dispers鉶 de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  13. La inserci贸n en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en Espa帽a y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por pa铆s de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este art铆culo compara los resultados econ贸micos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Espa帽a y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selecci贸n por el que la mayor铆a de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Espa帽a proceden de Sudam茅rica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayor铆a de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selecci贸n explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los or铆genes y las caracter铆sticas de los latinoamericanos en ambos pa铆ses, los factores demogr谩ficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos pa铆ses; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acent煤an m谩s entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  14. Medicina integrativa en Am閞ica: De qu forma se est practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros cl韓icos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa est enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atenci髇 al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organizaci髇 sin 醤imo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atenci髇 sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como 搖n enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias f韘icas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias 鷑icas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones m醩 apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas cient韋icas para curar la afecci髇 y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud 髉tima. En las pasadas dos d閏adas, se ha documentado un n鷐ero creciente de centros cl韓icos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el n鷐ero de facultades y escuelas m閐icas que ense馻n estrategias integrativas, el n鷐ero de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el n鷐ero de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconoc韆 si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Adem醩, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los m閐icos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilizaci髇 de terapias MCA individuales, se hab韆 recogido muy poca informaci髇 con respecto a la pr醕tica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definici髇, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encarg una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas m醩 habitualmente; (2) definiendo las pr醕ticas y modelos fundamentales de atenci髇; (3) determinando c髆o se reembolsaban los servicios; (4) identificando los valores y los principios subyacentes a la atenci髇; y (5) determinando los factores principales que impulsan una implementaci髇 satisfactoria.

  15. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called 鈥淟a Compa帽铆a (CC)鈥 in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five years. About 83% of families have a high level of economic vulnerability. Regarding the structural vulnerability, approximately 25% of the structures have high, and 39% moderate vulnerability. These results indicate that the community has a low standard for living and the resilience is very low. Considering an overall vulnerability estimated by summing the results of the four types of analyzed vulnerabilities, we found that 53% of the sampled population has moderate vulnerability, 34% low, about 2% very low, 10% high and less than 1% very high.

  16. An overview of a GIS method for mapping landslides and assessing landslide hazards at R铆o El Estado watershed, on the SW flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Contreras, T.; Polenz, M.; Ram铆rez Herrera, M.; Paredes Mej铆a, L.; Arana Salinas, L.

    2012-12-01

    This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, produce a landslide susceptibility map, and estimate sediment production by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The R铆o El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 0掳 and 56掳. The stream system of R铆o El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis to assess landslide hazards: Stage 1 builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 170 landslides is created from multi-temporal aerial-photo-interpretation and local field surveys to assess landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), and a spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Stage 2 Calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. During this stage, Multiple Logistic Regression and SINMAP) will be evaluated to select the one that provides scientific accuracy, technical accessibility, and applicability. Stage 3 Estimate the potential total material delivered to the main stream drainage channel by all landslides in the catchment. Detailed geometric measurements of individual landslides visited during the field work will be carried out to obtain the landslide area and volume. These measurements revealed an empirical relationship between area and volume that took the form of a power law. This relationship will be used to estimate the potential volume of material delivered to the catchment. The technique and its implementation of each stage in a GIS-based technology is presented and discussed.

  17. Estudio de la fotoabsorci贸n y fotoionizaci贸n de la mol茅cula de alta relevancia atmosf茅rica no a trav茅s de los estados Rydberg con la metodolog铆a MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Mart铆n, I.; Lav铆n, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionizaci贸n son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicaci贸n en un gran n煤mero de contextos cient铆ficos: Astrof铆sica [2], qu铆mica de las radiaciones, biolog铆a. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionizaci贸n parcial, la Fotoabsorci贸n, as铆 como para los procesos de fotofragmentaci贸n en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelizaci贸n [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atenci贸n sobre el oxido n铆trico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la f铆sica y qu铆mica de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar 铆ntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminaci贸n. Los procesos de recombinaci贸n disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionizaci贸n del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versi贸n molecular del m茅todo del orbital de defecto cu谩ntico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionizaci贸n del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a trav茅s del umbral de fotoionizaci贸n, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  18. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Av谩ndaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called 鈥淟a Compa帽铆a鈥. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Av谩ndaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is low. Due to the location of the critical facilities, its global physical vulnerability (sum of the physical vulnerability to the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. Only three facilities have very high physical vulnerability to floods. Churches (six facilities) have the highest operational vulnerability, whereas its structural vulnerability is the lowest. Schools (13 facilities) have the lowest operational vulnerability, nevertheless, there are two schools with very high vulnerability. Regarding the six government facilities, we identified that their structural vulnerability range from moderate to high. As a result of this work, we believe in the importance of strengthening the culture of civil protection within the critical facilities of the communities of Valle de Chalco.

  19. Observatorio Pierre Auger: motivaci髇 y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Etchegoyen, A.; Garc韆, B.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is aiming to understand the origin, nature and acceleration mechanisms of the most energetic cosmic rays (E>10 E18 eV). It will consist of one hybrid detector in each hemisphere, giving a total acceptance of 14200 km2 sr. The southern observatory is being constructed in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina, and will be finished in 2006. No final statement can be made so far about any feature in the most energetic part of the spectrum. However, good candidate events were observed to have a primary energy of about 10 E20 eV.

  20. Sobre el estado evolutivo de ? Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en ? Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. ? Pic est rodeada de un disco asim閠rico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vac韔 a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado l韓eas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la ca韉a de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a ?Pic. Sin embargo, la evaporaci髇 de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparaci髇 entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evoluci髇 y los datos observados en ? Pic indica edades avanzadas para ? Pic. Esta estimaci髇 debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Adem醩 mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evoluci髇 estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para ? Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  1. M鷏tiples estados de desorden en el etanol s髄ido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fern醤dez-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K ser presentado. Se mostrar que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) adem醩 de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases ser醤 presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracci髇 de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los is髆eros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se comparar醤 con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del l韖uido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su din醡ica ser醤 presentadas, tanto de dispersi髇 de neutrones, como de capacidad calor韋ica y de medidas diel閏tricas y comparadas con modelos te髍icos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajaci髇 observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  2. Neurological syndromes of brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bahemuka, M; Shemena, A R; Panayiotopoulos, C P; al-Aska, A K; Obeid, T; Daif, A K

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients with brucellosis presented with neurological features closely simulating transient ischaemic attacks, cerebral infarction, acute confusional state, motor neuron disease, progressive multisystem degeneration, polyradiculoneuropathy, neuralgic amyotrophy, sciatica and cauda equina syndrome. Most patients improved quickly after adequate antibiotic treatment but chronic cases responded poorly. These protean neurological manifestations of brucellosis indicate that the underlying pathological mechanisms are diverse. PMID:3145961

  3. El Estado de la Educacion para los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos (The Condition of Education for Hispanics in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; And Others

    Organized into 4 chapters, the report provides tabular data portraying the educational condition for about 12 million Hispanic Americans in the United States, and shows how Hispanics compare with the majority population on various measures of educational participation and achievement. Providing an overview of Hispanic Americans in the U.S.,

  4. Brain MRI findings in Wernicke encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wicklund, Meredith R; Knopman, David S

    2013-08-01

    A 71-year-old woman with myelofibrosis on chemotherapy experienced an acute illness with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Two weeks later, she developed an acute confusional state characterized by disorientation and fluctuating alertness with normal speech and language. Her neurologic examination demonstrated an upper motor neuron pattern of right hemiparesis. She reported double vision though ophthalmoparesis was not appreciated. Her gait was normal. While hospitalized, she developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Brain MRI revealed a small area of restricted diffusion of the left precentral gyrus (figure). She was diagnosed with a stroke with secondary seizures; however, as the confusional state resolved, she developed profound retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Review of the brain MRI showed high T2 signal in the medial thalamus and contrast enhancement of the mamillary bodies; a diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was entertained and she was started on thiamine replacement. The encephalopathy and hemiparesis resolved though she remains severely amnestic. PMID:24195023

  5. Neuropsychological aspects of disorientation.

    PubMed

    Daniel, W F; Crovitz, H F; Weiner, R D

    1987-06-01

    Patients were asked twelve orientation questions before ECT and during the recovery period (the postictal confusional state) following ECT. Disorientation was more severe in the elderly. The different orientation items did not recover simultaneously; different recovery times may enable patients to give responses that are logical contradictions. While certain models (e.g., "person" versus "place" versus "time") may be useful in describing the differential recovery of orientation items, other models based on memory will probably prove more useful in delineating what causes this differential recovery. Patients gave responses to age and current year that were displaced backwards in years from the correct response. It is suggested that this displacement represents retrograde amnesia. As the postictal confusional state cleared, however, these backwardly displaced responses decreased in years of remoteness, thus showing a pattern of "shrinkage" that is similar to shrinking retrograde amnesia following head-injury. It is suggested that this result supports Ribot's law of regression. PMID:3608515

  6. Parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Leo, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Parasomnias are common in the benign forms such as sleepwalking and sleep talking. The more dramatic forms such as sleep terrors and confusional awakenings occur frequently in childhood, but attenuate in the teen years. REM behavior disorder, seen in the elderly, is an uncommon entity. Generally diagnosis is based upon clinical history with sleep studies reserved for unusual presentation. The focus of treatment is attention to sleep hygiene with medication(s) reserved for more severe and repetitive cases. PMID:12679969

  7. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus or韌enes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Cuentos Hispanos de los Estados Unidos (Hispanic Stories of the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Julian, Ed.

    This anthology of 21 short stories is intended for Spanish-speaking students of Spanish, other students in intermediate and advanced Spanish-language courses, and students commencing study of the Hispanic literature of the United States. Twelve of the 15 authors are, by birth or descent, of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican origin. Eight were born

  9. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the

  10. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the Spanish-Speaking Minority,"

  11. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative

  12. Nebraska State Report Card, 1999-2000 = Tarjeta informativa del Estado de Nebraska, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This report, printed in English and Spanish versions, is the first Nebraska State Report Card. It provides a snapshot of Nebraska schools using statewide averages. Nebraska students scored better than students nationwide in reading, with 60% of Nebraska students in grades 3-4, 7-8, and 10-12 scoring above the median on a standardized reading test.

  13. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  14. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education

  15. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del C谩ncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de c谩ncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo 茅tnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  16. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the鈥

  17. Cirug铆a de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Dami谩n

    2014-01-01

    Introducci贸n: La cirug铆a de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se est谩 convirtiendo en un tratamiento m谩s com煤n desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulaci贸n. M茅todos: Este art铆culo es una revisi贸n no sistem谩tica de la historia, indicaciones actuales, t茅cnicas y blancos quir煤rgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirug铆a y termina con el desarrollo de las t铆cnicas estereot谩cticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. 脡sta se caracteriza por la realizaci贸n de lesiones estereot谩cticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulaci贸n cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en d铆a, la CTC est谩 renaciendo. Los trastornos psiqui谩tricos que se m谩s frecuentemente se tratan con cirug铆a son: depresi贸n refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y s铆ndrome de Tourette. Adem谩s, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quir煤rgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereot谩cticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulaci贸n vagal puede ser usada tambi茅n para depresi贸n. Conclusi贸n: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan m谩s estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selecci贸n de pacientes nos ayudar谩 a realizar un procedimiento m谩s seguro as铆 como tambi茅n a lograr mejores resultados quir煤rgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser m谩s aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigaci贸n en varios temas como: fisiopatolog铆a de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quir煤rgicos. PMID:25165612

  18. Geoqu韒ica org醤ica de los carbones de fila maestra, estado anzo醫egui, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, O.; Martinezy, M.; Escobar, M.

    1995-04-01

    The vertical and lateral variability of organic geochemical parameters was established for the Seam 4 of the Fila Maestra coal deposit (Quebradon Formation, Oligocene-Early Miocene age) through the study of coals and carbonaceous shales collected in different outcrops of the coal seam. Chemical and physical analysis included moisture and ash contents, maceral groups, vitrinite reflectance, total carbon, bitumen and its fractions, as well as characterization of saturated hydrocarbons by gas chromatography ( n-alkane distributions and {pristane}/{phytane} ratios). A production sample, representative of the Seam 4, was further analyzed for S, Cl, C, H, O and its calorific value determined. The data collected allowed us to classify these samples as high-volatile bituminous coals, types B and C, according to ASTM classification. The results of the analysis showed little vertical or lateral variation in the properties studied. A gradual increase in ash content in the westward direction, together with a thinning of the coal seam, suggest a greater proximity of the basin border in this direction. High values in {pristane}/{phytane} ratio (4-7), predominance of heavy alkanes and high contents in vitrinites clearly indicates that primigenic organic matter was essentially continental in character. However, the bimodal n-alkane distribution, together with a nigh sulfur (2.7%) and chlorine (0.12%) contents suggest a marine-influenced environment. In consequence, it is proposed that these coals were formed in a transitional environment, as salt-marshs in coastal lagoons or in low deltaic plains. These results are in agreement with the stratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary unit.

  19. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)

  20. Hacia una adaptaci贸n cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodr铆guez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  1. Bienvenido a los Estados Unidos. Una Guia para Refugiados (Welcome to the United States. A Guide for Refugees). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic and Social Research Council, Edinburgh (Scotland). Centre for Educational Sociology.

    This guidebook provides Spanish-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. This is the Spanish version, and is available in several other languages. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies,

  2. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,

  3. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the

  4. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  5. Guia para su incorporacion a los Estados Unidos de America (A Guide to Resettlement in the United States. Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'鈥

  6. Innovative manure treatments in the USA state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture抯 major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  7. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease as an example of illness presentation in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Paola R; Webar, Javier; Matus, Carla; Vergara, Cristi谩n; Herrera, Michelle; Barthel, Elizabeth M; Vega, Jorge S

    2015-04-01

    Illness presentation in the elderly may be entirely non-specific, with fatigue, loss of function or the presence of geriatric syndromes. We report a 90 years old male consulting in the emergency room for delirium that persisted throughout hospitalization without finding a cause. During the course of hospitalization mild fever appeared and a left knee swelling became apparent. A synovial fluid aspiration showed a leukocyte count of 360 per field with 60% polymorphonuclear cells. The culture was negative. With a presumptive diagnosis of pseudogout, cochicine and celecoxib were started with remission of the confusional state. The patient was discharged 13 days after admission in good conditions. PMID:26204548

  8. [Forensic Implications of Sleep-Associated Behavior Disorders].

    PubMed

    Bumb, J M; Schredl, M; Dre脽ing, H

    2015-11-01

    Parasomnias represent a category of disorders that involve complex behaviors or emotional experiences, arising from or occurring during sleep, which might be also associated with (incomplete) awakening. These phenomena are classified as REM- or Non-REM-parasomnias. In particular the latter, including confusional arousal, sleepwalking and sleep terrors but also REM-sleep behavior disorder might result in criminal consequences. Using polysomnography, the pathophysiological mechanisms of these disorders have been investigated thoroughly. Nevertheless, in German literature, forensic implications of complex behaviors arising from sleep disorders have only been described insufficiently. Here we describe the most relevant parasomnias and also how to proceed in the context of forensic assessments. PMID:26633841

  9. [Drug-induced cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Moeko; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-12-01

    Compared to young people, elderly people are more likely to develop cognitive impairments associated with medications. Dementia and delirium (acute confusional state) are known to be associated with drug toxicity. Anticholinergic medications are important causes of acute and chronic cognitive impairment. Psychoactive drugs, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants can cause delirium and dementia. In addition, non-psychoactive drugs such as histamine H2 receptor antagonists, cardiac medications, and antibiotics may cause acute and chronic cognitive impairments. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent is essential for treating drug-induced dementia and delirium. PMID:23209067

  10. Disorders of Arousal From Sleep and Violent Behavior: The Role of Physical Contact and Proximity

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To review medical and legal case reports to determine how many appear to support the belief that violence against other individuals that occurs during Disorders of Arousal - sleepwalking, confusional arousal, and sleep terrors is triggered by direct physical contact or close proximity to that individual and does not occur randomly or spontaneously. Design: Historical review of case reports in the medical and legal literature. Measurements and Results: A total of 32 cases drawn from medical and legal literature were reviewed. Each case contained a record of violence associated with Disorders of Arousal; in each, details of the violent behavior were available. Violent behaviors associated with provocations and/or close proximity were found to be present in 100% of confusional arousal patients and 81% of sleep terror patients. Violent behaviors were associated with provocation or close proximity in 40%90% of sleepwalking cases, depending on whether the legal verdict and other factors were taken into account. Often the provocation was quite minor and the response greatly exaggerated. The specific manner in which the violence was triggered differed among sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors. Conclusions: In the cases reviewed, violent behavior directed against other individuals associated with Disorders of Arousal most frequently appeared to follow direct provocation by, or close proximity to, another individual. Sleepwalkers most often did not seek out victims, but rather the victims sought out or encountered the sleepwalker. These conclusions are tempered by several limitations: the selection of cases was not random and may not represent an accurate sample of violent behaviors associated with Disorders of Arousal. Also, final verdicts by juries in reported legal cases should not be confused with scientific proof of the presence or absence of sleepwalking. The pathophysiology of Disorders of Arousal with and without violent behavior could be associated with normally occurring deactivation of the frontal lobes during slow wave sleep (SWS) connected via atypically active thalamocortical pathways to the limbic areas. It is not known if the violent sleepwalker, confusional arousal patient, or sleep terror patient differs from other patients with these disorders. The conclusions of this case series await confirmation by the results of future sleep laboratory based studies. Citation: Pressman MR. Disorders of arousal from sleep and violent behavior: the role of physical contact and proximity. SLEEP 2007;30(8):10391047. PMID:17702274

  11. [Delirium caused by nonconvulsive status epilepticus].

    PubMed

    Pittermann, Patrick; Gabriel, Susanne; R鰏chke, Joachim

    2012-05-01

    We report about a patient (66 years) who was referred to our psychiatric hospital because of a progressive confusional state with acute onset. The colleagues of the referring psychiatric hospital considered a first manic episode as the cause of the symptoms and under therapy with haloperidol the confusional state had shown a progression.The clinical examination's findings were a mild central facial paresis on the right side and a mild hemiparesis on the right side with elevated reflex levels.The patient was disoriented, he had cognitive and mnestic deficits. His reasoning was slowed, incoherent and perseverating. The patient had a slight euphoria.An EEG recording showed a continuous regional EEG-seizure pattern. In combination with the clinical symptoms we diagnosed a nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Under anticonvulsive treatment with Lorazepam and Valproic acid the status epilepticus sustended but a control EEG recording showed signs of a Valproate-encephalopathy. Under treatment with Topiramate symptoms ameliorated but due to a vascular dementia the patient still showed fluctuating symptoms of cognitive and mnestic disturbances. PMID:22473464

  12. Parasomnias are more frequent in shift workers than in day workers.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bj酶rn; Mager酶y, Nils; Moen, Bente E; Pallesen, St氓le; Waage, Siri

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different shift work schedules were associated with nonrapid eye movement (NREM)- and/or REM-related parasomnias. A total of 2198 nurses with different work schedules participated in a longitudinal cohort study. The parasomnia questions were included in the fourth wave of the data collection, with a response rate of 74.1%. Logistic regression analyses with the different parasomnias as dependent variables were conducted. Nurses working two shift (day and evening) and nurses working three shift (day, evening and night) rotational schedules had increased risk of confusional arousal, a NREM-related parasomnia, compared to nurses working daytime only (odds ratios鈥=鈥2.10 and 1.71, respectively). Similarly, nurses working two and three shift rotational schedules had increased risk of nightmares, a REM-related parasomnia (odds ratios鈥=鈥1.64 and 1.57, respectively). The other parasomnias were not significantly associated with work schedule. Working night shifts only was not associated with any of the parasomnias. In conclusion, confusional arousal and nightmares were more commonly reported by nurses working rotational shift work schedules compared to nurses working daytime only. This is likely related to the circadian rhythm misalignment and sleep deprivation caused by such shift schedules. PMID:26540469

  13. Estados unidos puede tomar la delantera en la educacion: 50 consejos utiles (The United States Can Take the Lead in Education: 50 Suggestions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Excellence Partnership, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish-language booklet lists ways that parents, employers, teachers, administrators, principals, and grandparents, neighbors, and concerned citizens can help America reach the National Educational Goals. First, the booklet summarizes the National Education Goals in the areas of school readiness; school completion; student achievement and

  14. A Transferencia do Controle da Educacao da Igreja para o Estado (The Transfer of Educational Control from the Church to the State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the principal phases in the historical process of the occidental world that resulted in the transfer of educational control from the church to the state, demonstrating some of the consequences of this historic turn. (BT)

  15. Queridos Padres: En Los Estados Unidos...La Escuela es Nuestra Tambien (Dear Parents: In the United States...It's Our School Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolau, Siobhan; Ramos, Carmen Lydia

    This guidebook for Hispanic parents advises that children's success in school may depend on the home environment during the formative years. Hispanic youth drop out of school at a rate of 40 percent; 25 percent of those who graduate are not qualified for good jobs. In Latin American countries, parents are expected to leave education to the

  16. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12

  17. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement

  18. The Assessment of the Intelligence of Latinos in the United States. (La Medicion de la Inteligencia de los Latinos en los Estados Unidos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana M.; And Others

    Most of the research on the assessment of the intelligence of Latinos in the United States appears to be based on some possibly erroneous or at least dubious assumptions. Among these are the following: (1) the assumption of bilinguality; (2) the assumption of equal proficiency in the English language; (3) the assumption of the equivalence of

  19. Latino Families in the United States. A Resourcebook for Family Life Education = Las Familias Latinas en los Estados Unidos. Recursos para la Capacitacion Familiar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this resource book are to increase family life educators' knowledge and understanding of Latinos and to encourage advocacy by Latinos for appropriate family life programs in their communities. English and Spanish versions of the same text are included. There are six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the book's objectives and

  20. The Assessment of the Intelligence of Latinos in the United States. (La Medicion de la Inteligencia de los Latinos en los Estados Unidos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana M.; And Others

    Most of the research on the assessment of the intelligence of Latinos in the United States appears to be based on some possibly erroneous or at least dubious assumptions. Among these are the following: (1) the assumption of bilinguality; (2) the assumption of equal proficiency in the English language; (3) the assumption of the equivalence of鈥

  1. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12鈥

  2. El Mantenimiento o Desplazamiento Linguistico: El Futuro del Espanol en los Estados Unidos. (Linguistic Maintenance or Replacement: The Future of Spanish in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    What is the probability that Spanish, as a vernacular language, will survive in the U.S. with an increasing usage and prestige? Or will its usage, its speakers and its importance diminish rapidly in number and geographical extension? Can it be retained or will there be a shift into English? This article, written in Spanish, addresses these

  3. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by

  4. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement鈥

  5. [Neuropsychiatric lupus (CNS lupus and PNS lupus)].

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Yoshihiro

    2009-03-01

    Patients with SLE show in a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, although we could not use standardized methods for evaluating and making diagnosis of the syndromes. ACR felt to develop objective and valuable tools for the diagnosis and classification of neuropsychiatric lupus, therefore, they proposed a new tentative set of nomenclatures describing neuropsychiatric lupus syndromes in accordance with 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders provided by American Psychiatric Association. For this purpose, The Ad Hoc Committee collected and evaluated 108 case presentations of neuropsychiatric lupus from USA, Canada, and UK. Re-evaluation of the tentative nomenclatures selected 19 neuropsychiatric syndrome to facilitate and enhance clinical research. They grouped into peripheral and central nervous system lupus, and central nervous system lupus was divided into neurologic syndromes and diffuse psychiatric/ neuropsychological syndromes. Instead of organic brain syndrome, a term of acute confusional state was introduced. PMID:19280928

  6. [Severe hyponatremia during treatment with fluoxetine].

    PubMed

    Miranda, M; Armijo, G; Miranda, P

    1999-03-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, used as antidepressants, may cause hyponatremia due to a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, specially in elders. Thirty cases with such complication have been reported in the last six years. We report a 76 years old female with a hypertensive cardiopathy and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treated with amlodipine and sotalol. Five days after starting fluoxetine, the patient presented with a confusional state, gait instability and tremor. Laboratory assessment disclosed a plasma sodium of 115 meq/L. Fluoxetine was discontinued and fluids were restricted. The clinical condition of the patient improved and hyponatremia abated. Hyponatremia must be born in mind as a potential side effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:10436720

  7. Diagnostic Clues to Human Herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis and Wernicke Encephalopathy After Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sadighi, Zsila; Sabin, Noah D; Hayden, Randall; Stewart, Elizabeth; Pillai, Asha

    2015-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) encephalitis and Wernicke encephalopathy are treatable yet frequently undiagnosed causes of encephalopathy in pediatric recipients of allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review representative cases of both conditions to highlight specific and relevant neurologic features that prompted effective diagnosis and treatment. Two patients with confusion accompanied by seizures, memory changes, or specific visual hallucinations and HHV6 detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid had improvement in viral load with ganciclovir or foscarnet treatment. Two patients had confusion, ataxia, or ocular changes and low serum thiamine levels, which resolved with parenteral thiamine. In all cases, definitive diagnosis and treatment were facilitated by a high index of suspicion and search for specific pathognomonic neurologic deficits accompanying the confusional state. It is critical to clinically differentiate these 2 conditions from other common neurologic syndromes occurring after transplant, allowing potentially improved patient outcomes by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. PMID:25564483

  8. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of methyl iodide

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Mayanil, Tushita S.

    2012-01-01

    Methyl iodide is a monohalomethane and with a chemical formula CH3I. Acute exposures to methyl iodide have frequently occurred in the workplace. Predominantly, neuropsychiatric symptoms of acute exposure to monohalomethanes consist of headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, giddiness, diarrhea, confusion, ataxia, slurred speech, paralysis, convulsions, delirium, coma, and death. We report two cases who presented to our emergency services after accidental exposure to methyl iodide for a short duration. These case reports highlighted concurrence of frankly psychotic features and acute confusional state in workers vulnerable to industrial exposure to toxic chemicals. Understanding the mechanism of neuro-toxicity will perhaps throw some light on co-existence of both psychiatric and neurological symptoms. Awareness of these toxic effects at vulnerable work places will lead to timely and appropriate interventions. Importance of safety precautions and education of both workers and supervisors cannot be overemphasized here PMID:23112506

  9. Mixed myoclonic-absence status epilepticus in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    G閘isse, Philippe; Crespel, Arielle

    2015-03-01

    Myoclonic status epilepticus or mixed absence-myoclonic status is uncommon in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), often precipitated by sleep deprivation, withdrawal of medication, or inadequate antiepileptic drugs (Thomas et al., 2006; Crespel et al., 2013). Such episodes respond well to benzodiazepines or valproate (Crespel et al., 2013). We present the video-EEG of a 24-year-old woman with JME and bipolar disorder. She had a confusional state five days after withdrawal of clonazepam (14 mg/d) and introduction of oxazepam (200 mg/d), followed by catatonic stupor with subtle myoclonus of the face and the arms. The EEG showed absence status (figures 1, 2), which stopped after IV injection of clonazepam (1 mg) (figure 3). Consciousness returned to normal [Published with video sequence and figures (1)]. PMID:25644293

  10. Diagnostic Clues to Human Herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis and Wernicke鈥檚 Encephalopathy after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sadighi, Zsila; Sabin, Noah D.; Hayden, Randall; Stewart, Elizabeth; Pillai, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) encephalitis and Wernicke鈥檚 encephalopathy are treatable yet frequently undiagnosed causes of encephalopathy in pediatric recipients of allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review representative cases of both conditions to highlight specific and relevant neurologic features which prompted effective diagnosis and treatment. Two patients with confusion accompanied by seizures, memory changes, or specific visual hallucinations and HHV6 detectable by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid had improvement in viral load with ganciclovir or foscarnet treatment. Two patients had confusion, ataxia, or ocular changes and low serum thiamine levels, which resolved with parenteral thiamine. In all cases, definitive diagnosis and treatment were facilitated by a high index of suspicion and search for specific pathognomonic neurologic deficits accompanying the confusional state. It is critical to clinically differentiate these two conditions from other common neurologic syndromes occurring after transplant, allowing potentially improved patient outcomes by prompt diagnosis, and effective treatment. PMID:25564483

  11. Cognitive Impairment and Electroconvulsive Therapy in Geriatric Depression, What Could be the Role of Rivastigmine? A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Rhebergen, Didi; Henstra, Marieke Jantien; Kadouch, Daniel J.; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Maximilianus Lourentius

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), albeit highly effective in treating depression, is frequently associated with cognitive impairment, either temporary or more persistent. Especially in older patients, who generally respond even better, serious cognitive impairment during the course of ECT may lead to premature termination of ECT. Treatment of this cognitive impairment is of utmost importance. In this case series report, we present the effect of rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on cognitive impairment in three older, severely depressed patients during or after a course of ECT. An improvement of cognitive functioning, in particular a decline of confusional symptoms, was observed in two patients with structural brain alterations associated with aging. In the other patient, who suffered primarily from amnesia, no effect of rivastigmine was observed. These preliminary results emphasize the need for detailed profiling of cognitive impairment when developing a research design to study the potential benefits of rivastigmine in the prevention or treatment of cognitive impairment in severely depressed patients treated with ECT. PMID:26664715

  12. Cognitive Impairment and Electroconvulsive Therapy in Geriatric Depression, What Could be the Role of Rivastigmine? A Case Series.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Audrey Monica; Rhebergen, Didi; Henstra, Marieke Jantien; Kadouch, Daniel J; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Maximilianus Lourentius

    2015-09-28

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), albeit highly effective in treating depression, is frequently associated with cognitive impairment, either temporary or more persistent. Especially in older patients, who generally respond even better, serious cognitive impairment during the course of ECT may lead to premature termination of ECT. Treatment of this cognitive impairment is of utmost importance. In this case series report, we present the effect of rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on cognitive impairment in three older, severely depressed patients during or after a course of ECT. An improvement of cognitive functioning, in particular a decline of confusional symptoms, was observed in two patients with structural brain alterations associated with aging. In the other patient, who suffered primarily from amnesia, no effect of rivastigmine was observed. These preliminary results emphasize the need for detailed profiling of cognitive impairment when developing a research design to study the potential benefits of rivastigmine in the prevention or treatment of cognitive impairment in severely depressed patients treated with ECT. PMID:26664715

  13. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

  14. Seizures in the life and works of Edgar Allan Poe.

    PubMed

    Bazil, C W

    1999-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the most celebrated of American storytellers, lived through and wrote descriptions of episodic unconsciousness, confusion, and paranoia. These symptoms have been attributed to alcohol or drug abuse but also could represent complex partial seizures, prolonged postictal states, or postictal psychosis. Complex partial seizures were not well described in Poe's time, which could explain a misdiagnosis. Alternatively, he may have suffered from complex partial epilepsy that was complicated or caused by substance abuse. Even today, persons who have epilepsy are mistaken for substance abusers and occasionally are arrested during postictal confusional states. Poe was able to use creative genius and experiences from illness to create memorable tales and poignant poems. PMID:10369317

  15. A large left atrial myxoma causing multiple cerebral infarcts.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Saba; Edmunds, Eiry; Raybould, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old man presented with a history of sudden onset diplopia. On neurological examination, the only abnormality was a right-sided oculomotor (third nerve) palsy. A brain CT was performed and reported as showing no abnormality. He was discharged to be investigated as an outpatient. He presented 1 month later with a new expressive dysphasia and confusional state. MRI was performed which revealed multiple cerebral infarcts. He was discharged on secondary stroke prevention medication. Six months elapsed, before a transthoracic echocardiogram was performed. This showed a large left atrial myxoma. The patient underwent an emergency resection and made a good postoperative recovery. This case report showed the importance of considering a cardiogenic source of emboli in patients who present with cerebral infarcts. Performing echocardiography early will help to detect treatable conditions such as atrial myxoma, and prevent further complications. PMID:24285802

  16. A comparison of idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy-cataplexy using self report measures and sleep diary data.

    PubMed

    Bruck, D; Parkes, J D

    1996-05-01

    Eighteen patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) were compared with 50 patients with the narcoleptic syndrome of cataplexy and daytime sleepiness (NLS) using self report questionnaires and a diary of sleep/wake patterns. The IH group reported more consolidated nocturnal sleep, a lower propensity to nap, greater refreshment after naps, and a greater improvement in excessive daytime sleepiness since onset than the NLS group. In IH, the onset of excessive daytime sleepiness was predominantly associated with familial inheritance or a viral illness. Two variable--number of reported awakenings during nocturnal sleep and the reported change in sleepiness since onset--provided maximum discrimination between the IH and NLS groups. Confusional arousals, extended naps or nocturnal sleep, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, low ratings of medication effectiveness, or side effects of medication were not associated differentially with either IH or NLS. PMID:8778267

  17. Cough, codeine and confusion.

    PubMed

    O Reilly, David; Thomas, Mathew; Moylett, Edina

    2015-01-01

    Codeine is widely prescribed in clinical practice with over the counter (OTC) preparations of codeine freely available for consumption typically as a component of remedies for the common cold/cough. We describe the first reported case of acute confusional state in a previously healthy 14-year-old girl ultimately attributed to inappropriate codeine use. The usage of codeine in the paediatric setting has been highlighted in recent years with many reported deaths--mostly due to respiratory depression. The risks associated with codeine usage may be particularly unnecessary with OTC cough suppressants as evidence of efficacy is absent. Finally, codeine dependence is a common problem among adults and has been reported locally and internationally among adolescents. The combination of lack of efficacy, risk of acute intoxication and dependence, suggests that the use of OTC codeine preparations may be unwarranted. PMID:26701876

  18. Propranolol in the Control of Schizophrenic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yorkston, N. J.; Zaki, Saniha A.; Malik, M. K. U.; Morrison, R. C.; Havard, C. W. H.

    1974-01-01

    All schizophrenic symptoms remitted completely in six out of 14 adults who had not responded to phenothiazine drugs and who were then given propranolol. Another patient improved markedly and four improved moderately. Two had minimal or transient improvement, and one left hospital unchanged after a short, severe, toxic reaction. The six with complete remissions all began to improve within a few days of starting propranolol and the florid symptoms remitted completely after three to 26 days. They were stabilized on a daily dose of 500-3,500 mg of propranolol and at the time of writing had remained well for up to six months. Two patients who stopped propranolol after their symptoms remitted relapsed severely within a few days. Toxic effects (ataxia, visual hallucinations, and confusional states) were related to the rate of increase rather than to the absolute dose of propranolol. After the procedure was modified unwanted effects were usually mild or absent. PMID:4441828

  19. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoac醤 and Estado de M閤ico States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J.; Hern醤dez-Bernal, M.; Corona-Ch醰ez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  20. Un Nuevo Convenio para el Aprendizaje: Una Sociedad para Mejorar los Resultados Educativos en el Estado de Nueva York (A New Compact for Learning: A Partnership To Improve Educational Results in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary, Middle and Secondary Education.

    This Spanish translation of the abridged version of "A New Compact for Learning" acknowledges the current U.S. education system's inadequacy to educate U.S. citizenry and introduces New York State's New Compact for Learning, intended as a plan to reorganize New York's own system. The compact's fundamental principles are: (1) recognizing that all

  1. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Oportunidades en los colegios y universidades independientes en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los programas de oportunidad en educacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on programs that address special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds who attend private colleges and universities in New York State is provided in separate English and Spanish reports. The Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) provides supportive services and financial aid. Information is provided on: eligibility for

  2. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica del Departamento de Educacion de los Estados Unidos, 2003-2004 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and the types of student financial aid that are available. The guide opens with an overview of federal student financial aid, and then discusses how to find out about student aid. A section of general information discusses eligibility and dependency. Types of federal

  3. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its

  4. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web

  5. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Las Oportunidades en las Instituciones Independendientes de Nivel Universitario en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los Programas de Oportunidades Educativas Universitarias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Higher Education Opportunity Programs.

    A guide to the opportunities at private colleges and universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) is presented. The HEOP is designed to meet the special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through screening, testing, counseling, tutoring, teaching, and financial assistance. Generally, students

  6. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, C.G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  7. CURRENT PEACH PRODUCTION PRACTICES INCLUDING NEX TRAINING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. PRACTICAS ACTUALES DE PRODUCCION DE DURAZNO, INCLUYENDO SISTEMAS DE FORMACION EN EL SURESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current production systems used commercially in the Southeastern United States are discussed in relation to their utility for commercial producers in Mexico. Standard southeastern cultural practices are discussed in detail. Topics covered include pre-plant land preparation, fumigation, nematod...

  8. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web鈥

  9. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and

  10. PROGRAMA PARA LA VERIFICACION DE LA TECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL - CULTIVANDO ASOCIACIONES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE LAS SELECCIONES DE TECNOLOGIAS AMBIENTALES A LOS SECTORES PUBLICO Y PRIVADO EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS Y EN EL EXTERIOR (EPA/600/F-97/005A)

    EPA Science Inventory

    La meta del ETV es verificar, a travs de una
    evaluacin de informacin objectiva y de calidad, las caracteristicas del desempeo de tecnologas
    comerciales ambientales. As el ETV proporciona a
    los compradores y los licenciadores potenciales una valoracin imparcial y creble d...

  11. Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias. PMID:20143107

  12. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2012-01-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  13. [Delusion in the critical patient].

    PubMed

    Palencia-Herrej贸n, E; Romera, M A; Silva, J A

    2008-02-01

    Delirium, the acute confusional syndrome, is a common although infradiagnosed problem in the critically ill patient, especially the hypoactive subtype. Risk factors for delirium are previous cognitive disturbances, some comorbidities, ambiental factors and the acute organic alterations of critical illness. Delirium is associated to an increase in short and long term mortality, prolongation of mechanical ventilation, increased Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, and cognitive impairment after hospital discharge. In the last years several tools have been developed to detect delirium in critically ill patients. The Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU patients (CAM-ICU) have been validated and are useful even in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Some interventions on specific risk factors can decrease the incidence of delirium in hospitalized patients. Treatment of delirium is based on the identification and correction of contributing factors, the introduction of support measures, and pharmacological therapy for symptomatic control. Halloperidol is the first line therapy of delirium in the critically ill patient, while experience with atypical neuroleptics and other drugs is limited, precluding to do recommendations about its use. Neuroleptic drugs can produce severe side effects and need careful dosage and monitoring. When agitation is important, can be necessary the simultaneous use of benzodiazepines or propofol, and some times, the temporal and protocolized application of physical restraints. PMID:18405541

  14. Brain atrophy and white-matter hyperintensities are not significantly associated with incidence and severity of postoperative delirium in older persons without dementia.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Michele; Hshieh, Tammy T; Guttmann, Charles R G; Ngo, Long H; Meier, Dominik S; Schmitt, Eva M; Marcantonio, Edward R; Jones, Richard N; Kosar, Cyrus M; Fong, Tamara G; Press, Daniel; Inouye, Sharon K; Alsop, David C

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is a common complication in older people and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, institutionalization, and caregiver burden. Although delirium is an acute confusional state characterized by global impairments in attention and cognition, it has been implicated in permanent cognitive impairment and dementia. The pathogenesis of delirium and the mechanisms leading to these disabling consequences remain unclear. The present study is the first to address the potential predisposing role of brain morphologic changes toward postoperative delirium in a large prospective cohort of patients undergoing elective surgery using state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques conducted before admission. We investigated the association of MRI-derived quantitative measures of white-matter damage, global brain, and hippocampal volume with the incidence and severity of delirium. Presurgical white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs), whole brain, and hippocampal volume were measured in 146 consecutively enrolled subjects, ?70 years old, without dementia who were undergoing elective surgery. These 3 presurgical MRI indices were tested as predictors of incidence and severity of subsequent delirium. Out of 146 subjects, 32 (22%) developed delirium. We found no statistically significant differences in WMH, whole brain, or hippocampal volume between subjects with and without delirium. Both unadjusted and adjusted (age, gender, vascular comorbidity, and general cognitive performance) regression analyses demonstrated no statistically significant association between any of the MRI measures with respect to delirium incidence or severity. In persons without dementia, preexisting cerebral WMHs, general and hippocampal atrophy may not predispose to postoperative delirium or worsen its severity. PMID:25824618

  15. "Neuropeptides in the brain defense against distant organ damage".

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Mike Yoshio; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Cunha, D閎ora Maria Gomes; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira C閟ar; Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano

    2016-01-15

    Delirium, or acute confusional state, is a common manifestation in diseases that originate outside the central nervous system, affecting 30-40% of elderly hospitalized patients and up to 80% of the critically ill, even though it remains unclear if severe systemic inflammation is able or not to induce cellular disturbances and immune activation in the brain. Neuropeptides are pleotropic molecules heterogeneously distributed throughout the brain and possess a wide spectrum of functions, including regulation of the inflammatory response, so we hypothesized that they would be the major alarm system in the brain before overt microglia activation. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we induced acute pancreatitis in 8-10week old rats and collected brain tissue, 12 and 24h following pancreatic injury, to measure neuropeptide and cytokine tissue levels. We found significantly higher levels of ?-endorphin, orexin and oxytocin in the brain of rats submitted to pancreatic injury, when compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, these differences were not associated with increased local cytokine levels, putting in evidence that neuropeptide release occurred independently of microglia activation and may be a pivotal alarm system to initiate neurologic reactions to distant inflammatory non-infectious aggression. PMID:26711566

  16. Acute psychosis associated with dissociated sleep-wakefulness state after mirtazapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Felthous, Alan R; Wenger, Philip J; Hoevet, Rod

    2010-04-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants decrease rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and may suppress sleep atonia. Reports indicate that these agents can induce visual hallucinations, sometimes characterized as hypnopompic or associated with a dissociated sleep-wakefulness state. In addition, disturbing dreams and confusional states were reported during clinical trials and in subsequent studies. To our knowledge, only two cases of nightmares associated with mirtazapine, a tetracyclic antidepressant, have been previously reported. We describe a 43-year-old Caucasian man with major depressive disorder who started mirtazapine 15 mg at bedtime because he had poor symptom control with other antidepressant drugs. Three days later, vivid dream activity was noted, evolving into realistic nightmares that the patient was not able to distinguish from reality on awakening. Acute paranoia was suspected, and haloperidol was started. The dream activity then ended, and within 3 days the patient was able to identify the dreams as unreality. Haloperidol was discontinued, but mirtazapine was continued, and the vivid dream activity persisted; however, reality testing when awake was intact. A short course of haloperidol restored the patient's reality testing, and mirtazapine was eventually replaced with bupropion. The unusual nocturnal activity resolved as a result. Clinicians should be aware of the possible transition from exceptionally vivid dreams to REM sleep behavior disorder and psychosis based on dream content as an adverse effect of mirtazapine. PMID:20334466

  17. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  18. A cerebral abscess at first internist glance.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rita; Patr韈io, Catarina; Moura Valejo Coelho, Margarida; Brotas, V韙or

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred to the neurosurgery ward, with a presumptive diagnosis of cerebral abscess. The case was also discussed with the internists as internal medicine consultants. The neurosurgeons pointed out a right temporal lobe abscedated lesion on CT, but we noticed that the hypodense attenuation that usually surrounds the abscess wall (vasogenic oedema) extended to a broader, well-delimitated area, suggesting medium cerebral artery territory. The patient had left-sided hemiplegia with a confusional state and low-grade fever. Considering possible haematogenous dissemination, an echocardiography was performed, confirming mitral endocarditis. Blood cultures and aspirated pus isolated Escherichia coli. Investigating the patient's medical history, we learned he had been submitted to bladder catheterisation 7?weeks before for acute urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, and empirically medicated for urinary tract infection. E. coli had also been isolated in a urine specimen at the time. The clinical history of the patient cancelled the pathogenesis of cerebral abscess. PMID:26621864

  19. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  20. Distinctive Features of NREM Parasomnia Behaviors in Parkinson鈥檚 Disease and Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Sierra-Pe帽a, Maria; Manni, Raffaele; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Bastin, Julien; Mace, Harrison; Rascol, Olivier; David, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize parasomnia behaviors on arousal from NREM sleep in Parkinson鈥檚 Disease (PD) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA). Methods From 30 patients with PD, Dementia with Lewy Bodies/Dementia associated with PD, or MSA undergoing nocturnal video-polysomnography for presumed dream enactment behavior, we were able to select 2 PD and 2 MSA patients featuring NREM Parasomnia Behviors (NPBs). We identified episodes during which the subjects seemed to enact dreams or presumed dream-like mentation (NPB arousals) versus episodes with physiological movements (no-NPB arousals). A time-frequency analysis (Morlet Wavelet Transform) of the scalp EEG signals around each NPB and no- NPB arousal onset was performed, and the amplitudes of the spectral frequencies were compared between NPB and no-NPB arousals. Results 19 NPBs were identified, 12 of which consisting of 鈥榚lementary鈥 NPBs while 7 resembling confusional arousals. With quantitative EEG analysis, we found an amplitude reduction in the 5-6 Hz band 40 seconds before NPBs arousal as compared to no-NPB arousals at F4 and C4 derivations (p<0.01). Conclusions Many PD and MSA patients feature various NREM sleep-related behaviors, with clinical and electrophysiological differences and similarities with arousal parasomnias in the general population. Significance This study help bring to attention an overlooked phenomenon in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25756280

  1. Sexual behaviors during sleep associated with polysomnographically confirmed parasomnia overlap disorder.

    PubMed

    Cicolin, Alessandro; Tribolo, Antonella; Giordano, Alessandra; Chiarot, Elisabetta; Peila, Elena; Terreni, Anna; Bucca, Caterina; Mutani, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Parasomnia overlap disorder (POD) refers to a sleep disorder characterized by the association of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with NREM sleep parasomnia in the same patient. Sexual behaviors during sleep (SBS) can include most wakeful sexual activities and are classified in the ICSD-2 as a variant of confusional arousals and sleepwalking, both NREM parasomnias. A case of SBS associated with sleepwalking and possible RBD has been previously described, but it was not confirmed by polysomnography (PSG). We report two patients with SBS associated with POD documented by PSG. In one patient (60-year-old female) SBS was video-polysomnographically demonstrated: a few minute episode of masturbation occurring during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and preceded by hypersynchronous delta pattern. During the episode, the EEG pattern showed the persistence of delta rhythms with increasing alpha activity. When awoken by technicians, the patient was not aware of her sexual behavior and did not report any dream. The other patient, a 41-year-old male with a history of sleepwalking and RBD, was legally charged with repeatedly sexually fondling a young girl during the night. The POD was documented by PSG. The parasomnia defense, including sleepsex, was accepted by the Court and the patient was acquitted. This is an unprecedented report of SBS in patients with PSG-confirmed POD and of SBS documented during video-PSG. PMID:21493137

  2. [Pathophysiology of NREM parasomnias].

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Parasomnias are physical, behavioral and experiental phenomena ocurring during entry or along the sleep or on arousal/awakening. The behavior includes movements, emotional, perceptual or dreaming experience, frequently containing manifestations of autonomic nervous system. Parasomnias are devided into primary (ocurring etiher in NREM or REM sleep) and secondary (following organic system disease manifested during sleep). Primary parasomnias are further devided into those that appear during NREM, REM or states of consciousnes that do not respect boundaries between wake and sleep. Parasomnias represent an example of "dissocitaion of sleep stages" with the overlaping of wakefulness and NREM sleep (confusional arousals, somnambulism and night terrors) or wake and REM sleep (REM sleep behavior disorder parasomnia). NREM parasomnias are a significant clinical problem that appears with functional reorganization of the brain as it transits throuh different states of consciousness. Aside from the above dissociation there are other physiological phenomena that render behavior more complex during sleep such as 1) activation of locomotor centers during sleep, 2) sleep intertia (confusion and desorientation during transition from sleep to wakefulness) and 3) instability of sleep stages (rapid oscilation(s) between seleep and wake). PMID:20666115

  3. Audit of hospital transfers January to March 2006 from Sussex police custody.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jane; Mayhew, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this audit was to determine a baseline for timing, numbers and case mix of detainees referred to hospital for medical assessment in order to review the effectiveness of existing custody procedures for the management of medical emergencies. Data was examined for the 3-month period January to March 2006. A total of 12015 detainees were processed during this period, 188 patients identified as requiring hospital assessment, a hospital transfer rate of 1.57% for the period, 80 cases (0.65%) were for potentially life threatening conditions. The health care team assessed 37.7% of all detainees and were recorded as involved in 151 of the 188 cases transferred (80%). The categories of patients sent to hospital included head injury (26/188 or 13.8%), overdose and poisoning (20/188 or 10.6%); chest pain (17/188 or 9.0%), collapse (12/188 or 6.4%), unrousable intoxicated (10/188 or 5.3%), possible drug swallowers (7/188 or 3.72%), breathing problems (4 or 2.12%), acute confusional state (3/188 or 1.6%), 2/188 had a query deep vein thrombosis, one diabetic problem and one acute allergic reaction. The largest category of all was for a miscellany of minor injury unit care. PMID:20083049

  4. [Ring (20) chromosome epileptic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2015-05-01

    Ring (20) chromosome epilepsy syndrome is characterized by highly refractory epilepsy that is often associated with non-pathognomonic, electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. Seizures typically begin during the stage of childhood around the age of 6 years. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is the most common seizure types and is distinguished by a long-lasting, confusional state that is often associated with EEG patterns in the form of prolonged, high-voltage slow waves with occasional spike/sharp components. Patients with this syndrome suffer from intractable seizures with cognitive decline and frequent epileptic episodes. Accompanying features of this rare disorder, such as superficial minor dysmorphic abnormalities if any, mental retardation and behavioral changes are quite variable. Because of the variability in clinical presentation, in particular the lack of clear dysmorphic features, the clinical diagnosis of this disorder can be delayed before being diagnosed genetically. Most patients with this syndrome have chromosomal changes in the form of a mosaic. High levels of mosaicism correlate well with a lower age of onset and severe cognitive impairment. Here, we emphasize the importance of early G-banding chromosomal analysis when patients present with unexplainable severe seizures and repetitive NCSE, even in the absence of any dysmorphic features suggestive of a chromosomal disorder. PMID:25957205

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors for Delirium among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an African Intensive Care Setting: An Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakibuuka, Jane; Ssemogerere, Lameck; Sendikadiwa, Charles; Obua, Daniel; Kizito, Samuel; Tumukunde, Janat; Wabule, Agnes; Nakasujja, Noeline

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Delirium is common among mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). There are little data regarding delirium among mechanically ventilated patients in Africa. We sought to determine the burden of delirium and associated factors in Uganda. Methods. We conducted a multicenter prospective study among mechanically ventilated patients in Uganda. Eligible patients were screened daily for delirium using the confusional assessment method (CAM-ICU). Comparisons were made using t-test, chi-squares, and Fisher's exact test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. Of 160 patients, 81 (51%) had delirium. Median time to onset of delirium was 3.7 days. At bivariate analysis, history of mental illness, sedation, multiorgan dysfunction, neurosurgery, tachypnea, low mean arterial pressure, oliguria, fevers, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, anaemia, physical restraints, marital status, and endotracheal tube use were significant predictors. At multivariable analysis, having a history of mental illness, sedation, respiratory acidosis, higher PEEP, endotracheal tubes, and anaemia predicted delirium. Conclusion. The prevalence of delirium in a young African population is lower than expected considering the high mortality. A history of mental illness, anaemia, sedation, endotracheal tube use, and respiratory acidosis were factors associated with delirium. PMID:25945257

  6. [Transient high-intensity T2 signal in the splenium of the corpus callosum in a non-epileptic patient].

    PubMed

    Nifle, C; Couratier, M; Jallade, C; Sarfati, Y; Mignon, F; Pico, F

    2007-06-01

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum have been mainly reported in epileptic patients. We report the case of a non-epileptic woman with bipolar affective disorder treated by oxcarbazepine which was withdrawn because of a mild hyponatremia (128 mmol/l). A confusional state followed withdrawal and the electroencephalogram was free of spike or sharp waves. Brain MRI showed a single splenial lesion of the corpus callosum revealed by a high intensity T2 signal on FLAIR and diffusion sequences. Because of a major depressive episode, twelve sessions of electroconvulsive therapy were performed and yielded clinical improvement. A second brain MRI performed 5 weeks later was normal. The relevances of this cases are the non-epileptic status of the patient, the drug incriminated (oxcarbazepine), and the normalisation of brain MRI despite electroconvulsive therapy. Different mechanisms of this brain MRI abnormality are discussed including the sudden withdraw of oxcarbazepine. Prognosis of transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum is good. Clinicians should search for recent metabolic disorders and therapeutic modifications. PMID:17607208

  7. The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Nevsimalova, Sona

    2014-08-01

    Narcolepsy in children is a serious disorder marked by a chronic course and lifelong handicap in school performance and choice of employment, by free time activity limitation, and by behavior and personality changes, all of which constitute a major influence on the quality of life. Increased daytime sleepiness may be the only sign at the disease onset, with attacks of sleep becoming longer and lasting up to hours. Also present may be confusional arousals with features of sleep drunkenness. Paradoxically, preschool and young children may show inattentiveness, emotional lability, and hyperactive behavior. Cataplexy may develop after onset of sleepiness and affect mainly muscles of the face. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis are seldom present. Multiple Sleep Latency Test criteria are not available for children younger than 6 years. The haplotype (HLA-DQB1:0602) can be associated with the disorder; however, the best predictor of narcolepsy-cataplexy is hypocretin deficiency. The treatment generally used in adults is regarded as off-label in childhood, which is why the management of pediatric narcolepsy is difficult. PMID:24954623

  8. [Psychopathology of stroke].

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Dieguez, Sebastian; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2005-12-01

    The psychopathology of stroke encompasses several psychiatric and behavioral disorders that have high prevalence in the geriatric population, reduce the patient autonomy and increase the caregiver's burden. These disorders are usually associated with other cognitive and neurological deficits, and are labelled as neuropsychiatric when the whole clinical picture is consistent with the specific dysfunction of a neural system or brain region. Thus the neuropsychiatry of stroke comprises disorders of the perception/identification of the self and the environment (anosognosia of hemiplegia, misidentification syndromes, confabulations, visual hallucinations, delirium and acute confusional state), amotivational syndromes (apathy and athymhormia), disorders of emotional reactivity (blunted affect, emotional incontinence, irritability, catastrophic reactions), poor impulse or ideation control (mania) and personality changes. The clinical profile of the subcortical vascular dementia also points to specific brain dysfunction (frontal-subcortical pathways) that manifests with behavioral (depression, emotionalism, irritability) and cognitive symptoms (psychomotor retardation, attention, executive and memory deficits). However, post-stroke depression and anxiety, which have a more variable clinical presentation and might be assimilated, for several aspects, to post-traumatic or adaptive disorders, are disorders less characterized in their neural correlates. PMID:16316815

  9. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of 鈥渟leepsex鈥 (鈥渟exsomnia鈥) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  10. [Persistent psychotic disorder following bilateral mesencephalo-thalamic ischaemia: case report].

    PubMed

    Predescu, A; Damsa, C; Riegert, M; Bumb, A; Pull, C

    2004-01-01

    A 38-year old male patient with no history of psychiatric illness developed a progressive psychotic disorder after bilateral (predominantly left) mesencephalo-thalamic cerebral ischaemia. The reason of the emergency hospitalization was the sudden onset of a confusional state, culminating in a fluctuating comatose status. The neurological examination found mild right hemiparesia, praxic disorders and reactive left mydriasis with paresia of the downward vertical stare, leading to the hospitalisation in the neurology department for suspicion of a cerebral vascular ischaemic accident. The psychiatric symptoms started with acoustic-verbal hallucinations, poorly structured paranoid delusions, progressively developed over two weeks, followed by behavioural disorders with psychomotor agitation and heteroaggressivity. The patient was transferred to the psychiatric department, because of the heteroaggressive risk and lack of morbid consciousness, in spite of recovering from the confusional status. An intensive psychiatric management was proposed, combining a psychotherapeutic approach with 4 mg of risperidone and adjustable doses of benzodiazepine according to the psychomotor agitation. During the next days, there was a net recovery of the behavioural disorders, in spite of the persistence of the ideas of persecution. All the neurological symptoms also decreased. An anomaly of the polygon of Willis was found on a cerebral arteriography (the posterior cerebral arteries had a foetal origin, dependent on carotidal axes and not on the vertebro-basilar system). The main emboligen risk factor was the presence of a permeable foramen ovale, discovered during a transoesophageal echography. The patient underwent a surgical correction of the permeable foramen ovale. The psychiatric hospitalization for three months was continued by ambulatory follow-up. The initial positive symptoms (delusions, acoustic-verbal hallucinations) progressively diminished while negative symptoms became predominant after few months. One year after the first hospitalization the patient presented a second psychotic decompensation, with delusions of persecution, jealousy and behavioural disorders with heteroaggressivity, that required an emergency psychiatric hospitalization. The wife of the patient decided to divorce, because she was "frightened by the threats of death" from her husband. A neurological assessment during the second hospitalization in psychiatry did not find new ischaemic lesions after the cardiac surgery for the permeable foramen ovale, nor relevant changes in cerebral perfusion. The final diagnosis after the psychiatric follow-up of 14 months was: psychotic disorder with delusional ideas, due to cerebral ischaemia (DSM IV). There are relatively few data in the literature regarding persistent psychotic disorders in the context of ischaemic mesencephalo-thalamic lesions. However, several authors support the hypothesis of a possible disconnection of the thalamic nuclei, the frontal lobes and limbic system as a risk factor or a triggering factor for psychotic disorders in cerebral ischaemia. Observations concerning the occurrence of psychotic disorders following cerebral--especially localised--ischaemia may help to better understand the neuro-physiological mechanisms triggering or accompanying the psychiatric symptomatology. The role of functional cerebral imagery in the detection of possible structural lesions related to clinical observations must be emphasised. The slow progression (over a year) to psychotic disorder with predominantly negative symptoms emphasized the importance for long-term prospective studies. Isolated clinical observations arouse the interest for a specific scale for psychotic disorders occurring after cerebral ischaemia, similar to existing specific scale for post-ischaemic depressive disorders. The necessity of systematic psychiatric examination and re-evaluations in thalamic cerebral ischaemia is to be highlighted, both for the differential diagnosis and for the early psychiatric care. PMID:15538316

  11. Contribution of sedative-hypnotic agents to delirium via modulation of the sleep pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To review the mechanisms of sedative-hypnotic action with respect to the risk of delirium imparted by drugs that act on ?-amino-butyric-acid type A receptors or ?2 adrenoceptors. Source MEDLINE was searched for relevant articles. Principal findings Development of the acute confusional state of delirium is associated with longer intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay, significantly higher risk of functional decline, and increased mortality. Disruption of sleep is a modifiable risk factor that may contribute to delirium and cognitive dysfunction in ICU patients. Among the functions of sleep are repair of defective processes and restoration of the brain to a state in which it is ready to acquire new knowledge. It is logical that disruption of these processes may produce acute confusion. Delirium develops through a complex interaction between the patient抯 baseline vulnerability (patient抯 predisposing risk factors before hospitalization) and precipitating factors or insults (modifiable events that occur during hospitalization). The latter factors include both sleep disruption and sedation. We present a hypothesis that these two factors are causally linked through effects on memory. Our hypothesis explains why patients randomized to receive an ?2 adrenoceptor agonist are less likely to develop delirium (and the attendant cognitive dysfunction) than those randomized to receive benzodiazepines. Conclusion Herein we present our hypothesis that alternate mechanisms of hypnotic action may differentiate the deleriogenic properties of the two classes of sedatives. Future studies should focus on whether a causal relationship can be established between sedative administration, sleep disruption, and delirium. PMID:21170622

  12. Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: current therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Giovanni; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Khamashta, Munther A

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the less understood aspect of the disease. Its recognition and treatment continue to represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Due to the lack of controlled randomized trials, current therapeutic approach is still empirical and based on clinical experience. The therapeutic choice depends on accurate diagnosis, identification of underlying pathogenic mechanism, severity of the presenting neuropsychiatric symptoms, and on prompt identification and management of contributing causes of CNS disease. Mild neuropsychiatric manifestations may need symptomatic treatment only. In more severe CNS disease it is important to distinguish between thrombotic and non-thrombotic mechanisms. Focal CNS manifestations, particularly TIA and stroke, are associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Anticoagulation is warranted in patients with thrombotic disease, particularly in those with the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). Other CNS manifestations, such as demyelinating syndrome, transverse myelitis, chorea, seizures, migraine and/or cognitive dysfunction, when associated with persistent positivity for aPL, may also benefit from anticoagulation in selected patients. Severe diffuse CNS manifestations, such as acute confusional state, generalised seizures, mood disorders and psychosis, generally require corticosteroids in the first instance. Pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy may help when more severe manifestations are refractory to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, generally when response is not seen in 3-5 days. Plasmapheresis may also be added in severe cases of symptoms refractory to conventional treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulins, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, intratecal methotrexate and dexametasone deserve further studies to confirm their usefulness in the treatment of neuropsychiatric SLE. This article reviews the clinical approach to therapy in patients with SLE and neuropsychiatric involvement. PMID:18537650

  13. Incidence and Prevalence of Major Central Nervous System Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A 3-Year Prospective Study of 370 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kampylafka, Eleni I.; Alexopoulos, Haralampos; Kosmidis, Michalis L.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis G.; Dalakas, Marinos C.; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M.; Tzioufas, Athanasios G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of CNS involvement in SLE remains unclear owing to conflicting results in the published studies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of major definite CNS events in SLE patients. Methods 370 SLE patients with no previous history of CNS involvement were prospectively evaluated in a tertiary hospital referral center for 3 years. Major CNS manifestations were codified according to ACR definitions, including chorea, aseptic meningitis, psychosis, seizures, myelopathy, demyelinating syndrome, acute confusional state and strokes. Minor CNS events were excluded. ECLAM and SLEDAI-SELENA Modification scores were used to evaluate disease activity and SLICC/ACR Damage Index was used to assess accumulated damage. Results 16/370 (4.3%) patients presented with a total of 23 major CNS events. These included seizures (35%), strokes (26%), myelopathy (22%), optic neuritis (8.7%), aseptic meningitis (4.3%) and acute psychosis (4.3%). Incidence was 7.8/100 person years. Among hospitalizations for SLE, 13% were due to CNS manifestations. Epileptic seizures were associated with high disease activity, while myelopathy correlated with lower disease activity and NMO-IgG antibodies (P?0.05). Stroke incidence correlated with APS coexistence (P?=?0.06). Overall, CNS involvement correlated with high ECLAM and SLEDAI scores (P<0.001). Conclusions Clinically severe CNS involvement is rare in SLE patients, accounting for 7.8/100 person years. CNS involvement correlates with high disease activity and coexistence of specific features that define the respective CNS syndromes. PMID:23424638

  14. [Disruptive nocturnal behavior in elderly subjects: could it be a parasomnia?].

    PubMed

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Parasomnias are sleep-related abnormal behaviors. They are frequent and overlooked causes of nocturnal disruptive behavior in the elderly, especially when patients are cognitively impaired. Confusion and violence can result in sleep disruption, injuries for the patients or their bed partners, caregivers distress, and they can be a motive for institutionalization. Parasomnias include the NonREM sleep disorders of arousal (sleepwalking, sleep terrors, confusional arousals and sleep-related eating disorder), the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and more rarely the parasomnia overlap syndrome, which associates both NREM and REM parasomnias. Patients with NREM sleep parasomnias are confused, eyes open, with a glazed look during their nocturnal behaviors, and they have a post-episode amnesia. They shout and bolt from the bed (night terrors), look about in a confused manner, walk and speak (sleepwalking), and eat peculiar or inedible food (sleep-related eating disorders). These behaviors, which are frequent in young adults, may be triggered by short-half live hypnotics in elderly. During the parasomnia, the brain is partially awake (enough to perform complex motor and verbal action), and partially asleep (without conscious awareness or responsibility). RBD is characterized by a loss of the normal muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep. Patients have excessive motor activity such as punching, kicking, or crying out in association with dream content. RBD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may precede the cognitive or motor symptoms of these diseases by 5 to 10 years. RBD can also be promoted by antidepressants. When combined with thorough clinical interviews, the video-polysomnography is a powerful tool, especially for discriminating the parasomnia from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, sleep apneas and periodic leg movements. Ensuring safety and withdrawing deleterious treatments are useful in patients with violent activities, potential injurious or bothersome to other household members. Clonazepam and melatonin (3-12 mg) are highly effective for treating RBD. PMID:20525541

  15. A psychoanalytic study of migration: its normal and pathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, L; Grinberg, R

    1984-01-01

    Without maintaining that it always follows the same steps, we could say that the migratory process passes through several phases. The feelings that prevail are those of intense sorrow for all that has been abandoned or lost, fear of the unknown, and the very profound experiences of loneliness, privation, and helplessness. Paranoid, confusional, and depressive anxieties occupy the scene in turn. This stage may be followed or replaced by a manic state in which the immigrant minimizes the transcendental significance of the change in his life or, on the contrary, magnifies the advantages of the change and overvalues everything in the new situation, disdaining what has been lost. After a variable period of time, nostalgia appears, and sorrow for the lost world. The immigrant begins to recognize feelings previously dissociated or denied and becomes capable of "suffering" his pain ("growing pains") while, at the same time, he becomes more accessible to the slow and progressive incorporation of elements of the new culture. The interaction between his internal and external world becomes more fluid. Recovery of the pleasure of thinking and desiring and of the capacity for making plans for the future, in which the past is regarded as such and not as a "lost paradise" where one constantly longs to return. In this period, it could be considered that mourning for the country of origin has been worked through to the maximum extent possible, facilitating integration of the previous culture into the new culture, without the need to renounce the old. All of this promotes an enrichment of the ego and the consolidation of a more evolved sense of identity. PMID:6707429

  16. Delirium in Elderly People: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, S贸nia; Fernandes, Lia

    2012-01-01

    The present review aims to highlight this intricate syndrome, regarding diagnosis, pathophysiology, etiology, prevention, and management in elderly people. The diagnosis of delirium is based on clinical observations, cognitive assessment, physical, and neurological examination. Clinically, delirium occurs in hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed forms, based on psychomotor behavior. As an acute confusional state, it is characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms, fluctuating course and an altered level of consciousness, global disturbance of cognition or perceptual abnormalities, and evidence of a physical cause. Although pathophysiological mechanisms of delirium remain unclear, current evidence suggests that disruption of neurotransmission, inflammation, or acute stress responses might all contribute to the development of this ailment. It usually occurs as a result of a complex interaction of multiple risk factors, such as cognitive impairment/dementia and current medical or surgical disorder. Despite all of the above, delirium is frequently under-recognized and often misdiagnosed by health professionals. In particular, this happens due to its fluctuating nature, its overlap with dementia and the scarcity of routine formal cognitive assessment in general hospitals. It is also associated with multiple adverse outcomes that have been well documented, such as increased hospital stay, function/cognitive decline, institutionalization and mortality. In this context, the early identification of delirium is essential. Timely and optimal management of people with delirium should be performed with identification of any possible underlying causes, dealing with a suitable care environment and improving education of health professionals. All these can be important factors, which contribute to a decrease in adverse outcomes associated with delirium. PMID:22723791

  17. Unexpected Recovery of Function after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: The Limits of Early Neuroimaging-Based Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Giacino, Joseph T.; Hirschberg, Ronald E.; Gerrard, Jason; Wu, Ona; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostication in the early stage of traumatic coma is a common challenge in the neuro-intensive care unit. We report the unexpected recovery of functional milestones (i.e., consciousness, communication, and community reintegration) in a 19-year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. The early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, at the time, suggested a poor prognosis. Methods During the first year of the patient抯 recovery, MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2*-weighted imaging was performed on day 8 (coma), day 44 (minimally conscious state), day 198 (post-traumatic confusional state), and day 366 (community reintegration). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum, cerebral hemispheric white matter and thalamus were compared with clinical assessments using the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Results Extensive diffusion restriction in the corpus callosum and bihemispheric white matter was observed on day 8, with ADC values in a range typically associated with neurotoxic injury (230 to 400 10?6 mm2/sec). T2*-weighted MRI revealed widespread hemorrhagic axonal injury in the cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Despite the presence of severe axonal injury on early MRI, the patient regained the ability to communicate and perform activities of daily living independently at one year post-injury (DRS = 8). Conclusions MRI data should be interpreted with caution when prognosticating for patients in traumatic coma. Recovery of consciousness and community reintegration are possible even when extensive traumatic axonal injury is demonstrated by early MRI. PMID:23860665

  18. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National鈥

  19. Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to鈥

  20. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaracion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York (Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The primary goal of the Regents in their bilingual education program is to provide equal educational opportunity for non-English-speaking children through activities capitalizing on their proficiency in their native language and developing competency in English. Two complementary goals are inherent: (1) a vitally needed national resource, the

  1. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)

  2. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaraccion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York. Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Position Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Large numbers of Puerto Rican and other non-English-speaking students live in school districts throughout New York State. To enable these students to function in an English-speaking society while retaining their own culture, a policy to promote bilingual program planning was established by the Board of Regents of New York State in 1972. In this

  3. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national

  4. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National

  5. Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to

  6. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth

  7. El Derecho de su Hijo(a) a Una Educacion: Una guia para los Padres de Ninos Impedidos en el Estado de Nueva York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Children with Handicapping Conditions in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    Intended for parents of handicapped students, the guide (available in English, Spanish, or Chinese) sets forth the New York State policies for speical education. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential settings), referral, evaluation,

  8. Informe a la naci贸n indica que los 铆ndices de muertes por c谩ncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices de mortalidad por todos los c谩nceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y ni帽os siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, seg煤n el Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer de 1975 a 2008. El 铆ndice general de diagn贸stico

  9. Informe a la Naci贸n de mortalidad por c谩ncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los 铆ndices generales de mortalidad por c谩ncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y 茅tnicos principales y para todo

  10. A meta-analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ho, Roger C; Thiaghu, C; Ong, Huiyi; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Cyrus S; Tam, Wilson W; Zhang, Melvyn W

    2016-02-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is one of the most devastating presentations of SLE and comprises of psychiatric, central and peripheral neurological signs and symptoms. Previous studies suggest the possible associations between various autoantibodies (Abs) and NPSLE. The magnitudes of such association varied between studies. We performed a meta-analysis to pool data on serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels and positivity of Abs in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with NPSLE and SLE. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that fulfilled inclusion criteria. A random-effects model was used to calculate overall combined odd ratio (OR) and mean levels with its corresponding 95% confidence interval to evaluate the relationship between individual Abs and NPSLE patients relative to SLE patients. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in this analysis. There was a significantly greater proportion of NPSLE patients who demonstrated positivity for serum anti-cardiolipin (aCL) Abs (OR=1.63, p=0.016), lupus anticoagulants (LA) Abs (OR=1.91 p=0.01), anti-phospholipid (APL) Abs (OR=2.08, p=0.001), anti-ribosomal P Abs (OR=2.29, p<0.001), anti-neuronal Abs (OR=9.50, p<0.001) as compared to SLE patients. In NPSLE patients, there was a significant increased prevalence of positive titres for CSF anti-neuronal Abs (OR=36.84, p=0.001) as compared to SLE patients. Among the 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes, the positivity of these serum autoantibodies were found specifically significantly associated with the manifestations of mood disorder, psychosis, cerebrovascular disease, seizure disorders, acute confusional state, cognitive dysfunction, headache, movement disorder, demyelinating syndrome and polyneuropathy, with ORs ranging from 1.84 to 4.73. Meta-regression identified proportion of women as significant moderator for the heterogeneity of aCL (p=0.004) and anti-neuronal Abs (p=0.0007); mean age for the heterogeneity of aCL (p=0.042) and LA (p=0.020) Abs, mean duration of illness for the heterogeneity of aCL Abs (p=0.035), and mean SLEDAI scores for the heterogeneity of anti-ribosomal P Abs (p=0.014). NPSLE patients are more likely to have elevated serum levels of aCL, LA, APL, anti-ribosomal P Abs and anti-neuronal Abs compared with SLE patients. Further research is required to evaluate the accuracy of using the above antibodies as an adjunct diagnostic tool in NPSLE. PMID:26497108

  11. A definition and classification of status epilepticus--Report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification of Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Trinka, Eugen; Cock, Hannah; Hesdorffer, Dale; Rossetti, Andrea O; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Shinnar, Shlomo; Shorvon, Simon; Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2015-10-01

    The Commission on Classification and Terminology and the Commission on Epidemiology of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) have charged a Task Force to revise concepts, definition, and classification of status epilepticus (SE). The proposed new definition of SE is as follows: Status epilepticus is a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1 ). It is a condition, which can have long-term consequences (after time point t2 ), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures. This definition is conceptual, with two operational dimensions: the first is the length of the seizure and the time point (t1 ) beyond which the seizure should be regarded as "continuous seizure activity." The second time point (t2 ) is the time of ongoing seizure activity after which there is a risk of long-term consequences. In the case of convulsive (tonic-clonic) SE, both time points (t1 at 5聽min and t2 at 30聽min) are based on animal experiments and clinical research. This evidence is incomplete, and there is furthermore considerable variation, so these time points should be considered as the best estimates currently available. Data are not yet available for other forms of SE, but as knowledge and understanding increase, time points can be defined for specific forms of SE based on scientific evidence and incorporated into the definition, without changing the underlying concepts. A new diagnostic classification system of SE is proposed, which will provide a framework for clinical diagnosis, investigation, and therapeutic approaches for each patient. There are four axes: (1) semiology; (2) etiology; (3) electroencephalography (EEG) correlates; and (4) age. Axis 1 (semiology) lists different forms of SE divided into those with prominent motor systems, those without prominent motor systems, and currently indeterminate conditions (such as acute confusional states with epileptiform EEG patterns). Axis 2 (etiology) is divided into subcategories of known and unknown causes. Axis 3 (EEG correlates) adopts the latest recommendations by consensus panels to use the following descriptors for the EEG: name of pattern, morphology, location, time-related features, modulation, and effect of intervention. Finally, axis 4 divides age groups into neonatal, infancy, childhood, adolescent and adulthood, and elderly. PMID:26336950

  12. Phase 1 study of intravenous rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a novel benzyl styryl sulfone structure producing G2/M arrest and apoptosis, in adult patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Takao; Lehrer, Deborah; Ren, Chen; Cho, Sool Yeon; Maniar, Manoj; Silverman, Lewis; Sung, Max; Gretz, Herbert F; Benisovich, Vladimir; Navada, Shyamala; Akahoho, Eugene; Wilck, Eric; Taft, David R; Roboz, John; Wilhelm, Francois; Holland, James F

    2013-01-01

    Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a synthetic novel benzyl styryl sulfone, was administered to 28 patients with advanced cancer in a Phase I trial in order to characterize its pharmacokinetic profile, determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), define the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) and to document any antitumor activity. Patients with advanced malignant neoplasms refractory to standard therapy were given escalating doses of rigosertib (50, 100, 150, 250, 325, 400, 650, 850, 1,050, 1,375, 1,700 mg/m(2)/24h) as a 3-day continuous infusion (CI) every 2 weeks. An accelerated Fibonacci titration schedule with specified decreases for toxicities was used for escalation until grade ?2 toxicity occurred. Intrapatient dose escalation was allowed if toxicity was grade ?2 and the disease remained stable. Plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) and urinary PK assessments were studied in the 1st and 4th cycles. Twenty-nine patients (12 men and 17 women; age 36-87 y with a median of 63 y) were registered, but one died before study drug was given. Twenty-eight patients received a median of 3 cycles of therapy. Most common grade ?2 toxicities attributable to rigosertib included fatigue, anorexia, vomiting and constipation. DLTs included muscular weakness, hyponatremia, neutropenia, delirium and confusional state. Risk factors for severe toxicities include pre-existing neurological dysfunction or advanced gynecologic cancer after pelvic surgery. Rigosertib pharmacokinetics showed rapid plasma distribution phases and urinary excretion. Elevations in plasma Cmax and AUC due to decreases in plasma clearance were associated with acute grade ?3 toxicities. Of 22 evaluable patients, 9 (41%) achieved a best overall response of stable disease; all other patients (n=13; 59%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 50 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37-80 days). Nine (41%) patients survived for over 1 y. In summary, prolonged IV infusions of rigosertib were generally well tolerated. Nine (41%) patients achieved stable disease and 9 (41%) patients survived for over 1 year. The RPTD appears to be 850 mg/m(2)/24hr CI x 3 days. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01538537). PMID:23841031

  13. Concentration gradients at the mineral-solution interface: implications for understanding dissolution mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Pati駉-L髉ez, Luis David; Putnis, Christine V.; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Dissolution is a key process in fluid-rock interactions, such as in chemical weathering, CO2 carbonation reactions, metasomatism, and metamorphism. Many multicomponent rock-forming minerals are reported to dissolve incongruently, because the elemental molar ratios, measured in the fluid during dissolution experiments, that differ from those in the solid. This frequently results in the formation of chemically and structurally altered zones at the fluid-solid interface of varying thickness that are depleted in some elements relative to the bulk mineral composition. Although the mechanisms of the formation of these altered layers is still a matter of debate (see e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2012 and Schott et al. 2012), recent AFM studies on the dissolution of two multicomponent minerals, dolomite, Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 (Urosevic et al. 2012), and wollastonite, CaSiO3 (Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2012), provide experimental evidence showing that these layers are formed in a two-step process: (i) stoichiometric dissolution of the pristine mineral surfaces and (ii) precipitation of a secondary phase. This occurs despite the fact that the bulk solution is undersaturated with respect to such a phase. It has been suggested that after stoichiometric dissolution of the mineral, a boundary layer of fluid in contact with the surface becomes supersaturated with respect to a secondary phase that then precipitates. Here we present in situ observations of the evolution of the fluid composition at the interface during dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 1.5) of dolomite and wollastonite using real-time phase-shift interferometry. We show that immediately when the sparingly soluble dolomite or wollastonite crystals are in contact with the solution, the refractive index of the solution at the crystal surface sharply increases. A steep refractive index gradient (i.e., concentration gradient) develops as a consequence of mineral dissolution producing an interfacial fluid with a different composition to the bulk. Similar observations have been made during the replacement of KBr by KCl (Putnis et al. 2005). Thus, it seems that incongruent dissolution is essentially similar to any other mineral-fluid equilibration process: when a fluid interacts with a mineral with which it is out of equilibrium the mineral will tend to dissolve. Depending on the fluid composition, the interfacial fluid may become supersaturated with respect to a secondary phase that will eventually nucleate on the parent mineral surface. Ruiz-Agudo E., Putnis, C.V., Rodr韌uez-Navarro, C. and Putnis A. (2012) Geology 40, 947-950 (2012) Urosevic M., Rodr韌uez-Navarro C., Putnis C.V., Cardell C., Putnis A. and Ruiz Agudo, E. (2012) In Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 80, 1-13 Schott J., Pokrovsky O.S., Spalla O., Devreux F., Gloter A. and Mielczarski J.A. (2012) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 98, 259-281 Putnis C.V., Tsukamoto K. and Nishimura Y. (2005) American Mineralogist 90, 1909-1912

  14. Evidence for interfacial dissolution-precipitation during low-temperature mineral weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The dissolution of most common multicomponent minerals and glasses is typically "incongruent" as shown by the nonstoichiometric release of the solid phase components. This frequently results in the formation of so-called surface leached layers. The mechanism of this process has been a recurrent subject of research and debate over the past two decades, due to its relevance to a wide range of natural and technological processes, as well as being crucial in defining rate laws for mineral reactions. Here we report experimental, in situ nanoscale observations that confirm the formation of a cation depleted layer at the mineral-solution interface during dissolution of multicomponent minerals at acidic pH. Our in situ Atomic Force Microscopy studies of the dissolution of wollastonite, CaSiO3, and dolomite, Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3, combined with compositional analysis of reaction products, provide, for the first time, clear direct experimental evidence that cation-depleted (i.e. leached) layers are formed in a tight interface-coupled two step process: stoichiometric dissolution of the pristine mineral surfaces and subsequent precipitation of a secondary phase from a supersaturated boundary layer of fluid in contact with the mineral surface. Such a mechanism presents a new paradigm that differs from the concept of preferential leaching of cations, as postulated by most currently accepted incongruent dissolution models. References Ruiz Agudo, E; Putnis, CV; Rodr韌uez Navarro, C and Putnis, A. (2012) Mechanism of leached layer formation during chemical weathering of silicate minerals. Geology, 40, 947-950 Urosevic, M; Rodr韌uez Navarro,C; Putnis, CV; Cardell, C; Putnis, A and Ruiz Agudo, E (2012) In situ nanoscale observations of the dissolution of [10-14] dolomite cleavage surfaces. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 80, 1-13

  15. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Concei玢o Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente art韈ulo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una ni馻 de 4 a駉s y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realiz fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un ni駉 o una ni馻 pone en el papel a trav閟 de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creaci髇 de la escritura con im醙enes. La ni馻, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intenci髇 de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigaci髇- lo representa de forma circular, poni閚dose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta ni馻 a鷑 no tiene conocimiento que el mundo en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisi髇, dentro de los limites de comprensi髇 de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educa玢o infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conhe鏰 realmente o que uma crian鏰 p鮡 no papel atrav閟 de grafismos e/ou desenhos, necess醨io ouvi-la durante o processo de cria玢o do desenho. A menina apresenta, em rela玢o Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'c閡' paralelo ao solo, conforme j apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com inten玢o de n鉶 provocar 'confus鮡s' desnecess醨ias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superf韈ie. Seus desenhos levaram conclus鉶 que esta crian鏰 ainda n鉶 tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precis鉶, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  16. Astronom韆 para ciegos y ambl韔pes. Proyecto de construcci髇 de un planetario especial en la ciudad de Mar del Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, S.

    ?`Qu es la Astronom韆 para Ciegos?. El trabajo es una adaptaci髇 en base a la escala de magnitudes de Hipparco que cambia el concepto de luz por una adaptaci髇 sonora, donde las estrellas de magnitud 6 se escuchan en 10 dB, m醩 o menos lo que consideramos el umbral de la audici髇 humana. Quienes no escuchan muy bien no pueden escuchar las magnitudes 6, de la misma manera que muchos de nosotros, que no poseemos una visi髇 perfecta, no podemos observar esas mismas estrellas en el cielo (m醩 all de la poluci髇). A los astros de magnitud 5 vamos a relacionarlos a un sonido en 20 dB. Y as sucesivamente. Tambi閚 los colores estar醤 representados en una convenci髇 de graves a agudos y lo mismo algunas caracter韘ticas del cielo. Por ejemplo, la V韆 L醕tea se mostrar como un ``ruido", como bien nos lo hicieron ver nuestros futuros destinatarios. En Mar del Plata nos encontramos ya trabajando en un proyecto que tiene como objetivo final la construcci髇 del Primer Planetario Ac鷖tico del Mundo, una herramienta para la ense馻nza de la astronom韆, un espacio para la lucha contra la discriminaci髇 del discapacitado y una posibilidad de ``ver el cielo de un modo diferente".

  17. MRSA Pediatric clone expressing ermC plus lnuA genes causing nosocomial transmission and healthcare workers colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Faccone, Diego; Togneri, Ana M; Podesta, Laura; Perez, Marcela; Gagetti, Paula; Sanchez, Susana; Romero, Graciela; Corso, Alejandra

    2014-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. We describe an outbreak caused by the MRSA Pediatric clone expressing an unusual lincosamide resistant phenotype. Between January and May 2006, an MRSA outbreak was detected at the Neonatal Unit of Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos "Evita", Buenos Aires Province, Argentina that affected ten patients. Seven isolates from seven patients plus five MRSA recovered from health care workers (nasal carriage) were studied. Two phenotypes were observed: (i) ELCi (10), resistance to erythromycin and lincomycin and inducible resistance to clindamycin; (ii) ELiCi (2), resistance to erythromycin and inducible resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin. All 12 MRSA were resistant to oxacillin, erythromycin and gentamicin. Isolates expressing the ELCi-phenotype showed lincomycin MIC values between 16 and 32mg/L, while the remaining 2 isolates with ELiCi-phenotype presented a MIC value of 0.5mg/L. No differences were observed between the clindamycin MIC values in both phenotypes, ranging 0.25-0.5mg/L. Isolates showing ELCi-phenotype harbored ermC plus lnuA genes, and the other two only ermC gene. All 12 isolates were genetically related and belonged to the Pediatric clone (ST100) harboring a new variant of SCCmecIV. This is the first MRSA outbreak expressing an unusual ELCi phenotype due to a combination of ermC plus lnuA genes. PMID:24747609

  18. Supervivientes de c谩ncer en EE. UU. ascienden casi a 12 millones

    Cancer.gov

    El n煤mero de supervivientes de c谩ncer en Estados Unidos ascendi贸 a 11,7 millones en 2007, de acuerdo a un informe publicado por los Centros para el Control y la Prevenci贸n de Enfermedades, CDC, y el Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer, NCI, el cual forma parte

  19. Visi髇 de un cient韋ico onc髄ogo que aplica la investigaci髇 a la salud humana a trav閟 de las fronteras

    Cancer.gov

    El doctor Jorge G髆ez es el asesor principal del Centro para la Salud Mundial del Instituto Nacional del C醤cer. Dirige la Red de Investigaci髇 del C醤cer de los Estados Unidos y Am閞ica Latina, la cual est realizando un estudio internacional de los factores de riesgo del c醤cer de mama y caracter韘ticas en las mujeres de Am閞ica Latina.

  20. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in鈥

  1. Great Black-Hawk in Snag

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great black-hawk in snag near wetland area of Estancia El Trebol, Bajo Chaco, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Humid Forest, Gallery Forest, Wetlands, and Dry Forest. Estado de ocur...

  2. Great Black-hawk in Snag

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great black-hawk perched in snag near wetland area of Estancia El Trebol Bajo Chaco, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Humid Forest, Gallery Forest, Wetlands, and Dry Forest. Estado ...

  3. Great Black-hawk Perched in Snag

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great black-hawk perched in snag near wetland area of Estancia El Trebol, Bajo Chaco, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Humid Forest, Gallery Forest, Wetlands, and Dry Forest. Estado...

  4. The Educational Narrativity in the First Period of Oliveira Salazar's Government. Women's Voices in the National Assembly (1935-1945)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adao, Aurea; Remedios, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    Oliveira Salazar's accession to the government followed the military coup of 1926, which put an end to the period of democratic republican life. The Constitution approved in 1933 defined the new regime, which came to be known as "Estado Novo". Ideologically sustained by an anti-liberal concept of Catholicism, this political regime would grant

  5. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in

  6. Developing Students' Autonomy and Self-Regulation through a Co-Teaching Research Methods Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Gaeta Gonz醠ez, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    The College of Human Sciences at Oklahoma State University (OSU) and Universidad Popular Aut髇oma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP) decided to offer Pedagogy Doctoral students from Mexico a 3 week co-teaching research methods experience. Two professors, one from each institution (OSU and UPAEP), designed the syllabus to offer a co-teaching experience

  7. Bambuina bambui: a new genus and species of cave cricket from Brazil (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Francisco De A G; Horta, L韑ia S; Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2013-01-01

    Bambuina bambui, um novo g阯ero e esp閏ie de grilo falangops韉eo descrito a partir de esp閏imes obtidos na Gruta do Centen醨io, uma caverna de quartzo localizada na Serra do Inficionado, um subconjunto de montanhas pertencentes ao complexo da Serra do Cara鏰 no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. PMID:24583818

  8. Estaci髇 Astron髆ica Ant醨tica Jos L. S閞sic: reporte 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Mosconi, M.; Lazarte, G.; Cavarra, M.; Daguerre, F.

    Se presenta el estado de avance de los programas de observaci髇 en desarrollo en la estaci髇 ``J.~L.~SERSIC'', en Base Belgrano, a los 78 grados de latitud Sur. Se comentan algunas soluciones a los problemas que impone el riguroso ambiente polar en cuanto al funcionamiento y operaci髇 de los equipos.

  9. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by鈥

  10. Burrowing Owls

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Two burrowing owls perched on ground at Estancia La Graciela near the River Tebicuary, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Grassland, Pasture, Campo Grassland. Estado de ocurrencia: Re...

  11. Burrowing Owls Perched on Ground Near Burrow

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Two burrowing owls perched on ground at Estancia La Graciela near the River Tebicuary, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Grassland, Pasture, Campo Grassland. Estado de ocurrencia: Re...

  12. Mud Nest of Hornero

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Completed mud nest. End of wet season. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding Permanent Resident. Habitat: Pasture, Second-Growth Shrub and Urban Zones. Estado de ocurrencia: Residente nidificante permanente. H醔itat: P...

  13. Lifelines-Pancreatic-Cancer-SPA-2013

    Cancer.gov

    LOS HISPANOS Y EL C罭CER DE P罭CREAS: COSAS PARA SABER por el Instituto Nacional del C醤cer Una de las causas principales de muerte relacionadas con el c醤cer en los hispanos o latinos de los Estados Unidos es una enfermedad poco com鷑 pero con frecuencia

  14. 77 FR 61051 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ..., Sinaloa, Mexico; Sevilla 1526 302 A, Fraccionamiento el Cid, Mazatlan, Sinaloa CP 82110, Mexico; Privada de San Jeronimo, San Jeronimo, Algodones, Baja California CP 21298, Mexico; Privada Puerta de Roble... Sayavedra, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de Mexico CP 52930, Mexico; DOB 24 Oct 1962; POB Culiacan,...

  15. Educational Discourse in Spain during the Early Franco Regime (1936-1943): Toward a Genealogy of Doctrine and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laudo, Xavier; Vilanou, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    In this article an analysis is undertaken of Spanish educational discourse during the early years of the Franco regime, from the Civil War (1936-1939) to the establishment of the "Nuevo Estado" or New State (1939-1943), employing Reinhart Koselleck's principles of conceptual history. Without totally spurning the totalitarian and fascist

  16. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Espa帽ol

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qu茅 los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  17. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compra el veh铆culo o despu茅s del momento de la venta. Pero, las 鈥済arant铆as impl铆citas鈥 de la ley estatal... impl铆citas鈥 de acuerdo a la ley del estado pueden concederle derechos adicionales. EC29SE91.053 EC29SE91.054...

  18. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compra el veh铆culo o despu茅s del momento de la venta. Pero, las 鈥済arant铆as impl铆citas鈥 de la ley estatal... impl铆citas鈥 de acuerdo a la ley del estado pueden concederle derechos adicionales. EC29SE91.053 EC29SE91.054...

  19. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compra el veh铆culo o despu茅s del momento de la venta. Pero, las 鈥済arant铆as impl铆citas鈥 de la ley estatal... impl铆citas鈥 de acuerdo a la ley del estado pueden concederle derechos adicionales. ER12DE12.012 ER12DE12.013...

  20. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compra el veh铆culo o despu茅s del momento de la venta. Pero, las 鈥済arant铆as impl铆citas鈥 de la ley estatal... impl铆citas鈥 de acuerdo a la ley del estado pueden concederle derechos adicionales. EC29SE91.053 EC29SE91.054...

  1. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the鈥

  2. Mud Nest of Hornero

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Completed mud nest. End of wet season. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding Permanent Resident. Habitat: Pasture, Second-Growth Shrub and Urban Zones. Estado de ocurrencia: Residente nidificante permanente. H谩bitat: P...

  3. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevenci髇 de m醩 de 795 000 muertes por c醤cer de pulm髇 en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pa韘 hubiera cesado despu閟 de la publicaci髇 d

  4. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  5. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by

  6. Monk Parakeet Nest on Utility Pole

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Small monk parakeet nest on utility pole. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savannah, Second Growth Forests and Woodlands, Second Growth Scrub, Pasture. Estado de ocurrencia: Residente ni...

  7. Estudio de Salud Agr铆cola

    Cancer.gov

    En 1993, cient铆ficos del Instituto Nacional del C谩ncer, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Ambientales y la Agencia de Protecci贸n Ambiental de Estados Unidos iniciaron un estudio conocido como Estudio de Salud Agr铆cola (AHS).

  8. Reacciones de intercambio de carga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, L. F.

    Se discute la validez de diversas metodolog铆as y su aplicaci贸n al estudio de procesos de intercambio de carga electr贸nico entre iones y blancos at贸micos y moleculares. Para energ铆as de impacto entre 0.05 y 5 eV / amu se emplea el m茅todo cu谩ntico de la Coordenada de Reacci贸n Com煤n (CRC). A mayores energ铆as, se utiliza el m茅todo semicl谩sico iconal con un desarrollo de la funci贸n de onda din谩mica en estados moleculares adiab谩ticos, modificados con un factor de traslaci贸n com煤n (FTC). Estos estados pueden obtenerse con c谩lculos ab initio o empleando potenciales modelo. Cuando la ionizaci贸n compite con la transferencia de carga, la inclusi贸n de pseudoestados en estos desarrollos permite calcular simult谩neamente las secciones eficaces de ambos procesos. Otra t茅cnica utilizada es el m茅todo estad铆stico CTMC. En el tratamiento de colisiones i贸n-mol茅cula (diat贸mica) contrastamos la aplicabilidad de distintos m茅todos, desde la llamada aproximaci贸n Franck-Condon hasta un desarrollo en estados vibr贸nicos, pasando por la aproximaci贸n s煤bita vibro-rotacional, obteni茅ndose secciones eficaces de captura electr贸nica total y a estados individuales, as铆 como secciones de excitaci贸n vibracional a estados ligados y del continuo (disociaci贸n). En todos los casos es necesario calcular superficies de energ铆a y los correspondientes acoplamientos din谩micos entre los estados. La aplicaci贸n de estos m茅todos permite determinar el grado de contaminaci贸n de los haces por estados metaestables en un experimento dado, el cambio en los resultados con diferentes is贸topos, la importancia de procesos de doble captura, seguida de explosi贸n culombiana, todo ello con precisi贸n comparable a la de medidas experimentales, para sistemas de inter茅s en distintos tipos de plasmas.

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sell茅s, Sergio; Fern谩ndez-S谩ez, Jos茅; L贸pez-Lluch, Guillermo; Cejuela, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    El proceso de formaci贸n de futuros deportistas debe ser un trabajo estructurado y planificado para poder alcanzar el m谩ximo nivel deportivo. Es fundamental en este periodo tener presentes los ritmos de desarrollo y maduraci贸n de los j贸venes deportistas para as铆 adecuar las cargas de entrenamientos a sus estados evolutivos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar y analizar la edad morfol贸gica en nadadores y triatletas adolescentes, estableciendo diferencias entre su edad cronol贸gica, grupos y g茅nero. A trav茅s del m茅todo antropom茅trico se determin贸 el estado de maduraci贸n biol贸gica en un grupo de 37 deportistas j贸venes tecnificados. Los resultados muestran que la mayor铆a de la muestra (70,8%) se encuentra en un estado avanzado de desarrollo con respecto a su edad cronol贸gica, siendo m谩s notorio en el caso de los nadadores este estado de madurez avanzado. Tener una edad morfol贸gica m谩s avanzada respecto a su edad cronol贸gica podr铆a favorecer a los deportistas adolescentes a la hora de conseguir mejores marcas y resultados en las competiciones y de esta manera acceder con m谩s facilidad a los programas de tecnificaci贸n. El 铆ndice de desarrollo corporal modificado (IDCm) se presenta como un m茅todo validado, fiable y no invasivo para tener presente el grado de desarrollo y maduraci贸n en la selecci贸n de talentos deportivos y adecuar las cargas de entrenamiento al estado evolutivo de los deportistas. PMID:27019253

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sznajder, Janusz; S Lefarska-Wasilewska, Marta; K艂ek, Stanis艂aw

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: la esclerosis lateral amiotr贸fica (ELA) es una enfermedad cr贸nica, neurodegenerativa que genera malnutrici贸n. El objetivo principal de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la malnutrici贸n en el curso de la enfermedad y la sobrevida a largo plazo.Materiales y m茅todos: se realiz贸 un an谩lisis retrospectivo de 48 pacientes (22 mujeres [45.83%] y 26 hombres [54.17%], con un promedio de edad de 66,2 [43-83]) del 2008 al 2014. El an谩lisis del estado nutricional inicial se midi贸 utilizando el 铆ndice de聽 masa corporal (IMC), el estado nutricional de acuerdo al NRS 2002, la valoraci贸n global subjetiva (VGS) y la concentraci贸n s茅rica de alb煤mina. Los pacientes se dividieron en dos grupos, dependiendo del estado nutricional en el que se encontraban: bien nutridos o malnutridos. Los grupos se crearon por聽 separado, lo que permiti贸 un an谩lisis comparativo adicional de las t茅cnicas utilizadas para la evaluaci贸n del estado nutricional.Resultados: un estado nutricional adecuado se relaciona con mayor sobreviva a largo plazo (456 vs. 679 d铆as, NRS 312 vs. 659 vs. 835 d铆as, IMC respectivamente: 41, 541, 631 d铆as, resultados estad铆sticamente significativos para NRS e IMC). Las concentraciones de alb煤mina no fueron un factor pron贸stico, pero se observ贸 mayor sobrevida si las concentraciones de alb煤mina incrementaban durante el tratamiento nutricional.Conclusiones: el estado nutricional inicial y la respuesta positiva a la alimentaci贸n enteral est谩n asociados a mayor sobrevida en pacientes con ELA, raz贸n por la cual, la terapia nutricional debe de iniciarse lo antes posible. PMID:27019234

  11. The effect of electrolytes on dolomite dissolution: nanoscale observations using in situ Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urosevic, Maja; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.; Cardell, Carolina; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Dissolution of carbonate minerals is one of the main chemical reactions occurring at shallow levels in the crust of the Earth and has a paramount importance for a wide range of geological and biological processes. Calcite (CaCO3), and to a lesser extent dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), are the major carbonate minerals in sedimentary rocks and building stone materials. The dissolution of calcite has been thoroughly investigated over a range of conditions and solution compositions. In contrast, dolomite dissolution studies have been traditionally hampered by its low reaction rates compared to calcite and its poorly constrained relationship between cation ordering and reactivity (Morse and Arvidson, 2002). Yet important questions like the so-called 'dolomite problem' (e.g. Higgins and Hu, 2005) remain unresolved and more experimental work is needed in order to understand the role of other dissolved species, such as soluble salts, on the kinetics and mechanism of dolomite dissolution and precipitation. We have explored the effect of different electrolytes on the dissolution rate of dolomite by using in situ Atomic Force Microcopy (AFM). Experiments were carried out by passing alkali halide, nitrate and sulfate salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, LiCl, NaI, NaNO3 and Na2SO4) with different ionic strengths (IS = 10-3, 10-2 and 10-1) over dolomite {1014} cleavage surfaces. We show that all electrolytes tested enhance dolomite dissolution. Moreover, the morphology and density of etch pits are controlled by the presence of different ions in solution. The etch pit spreading rate and dolomite dissolution rate depend on both (1) the nature of the electrolyte and (2) the ionic strength. This is in agreement with recent experimental studies on calcite dissolution (Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2010). This study highlights the role of electrolytes in dolomite dissolution and points to a common behavior for carbonate minerals. Our results suggest that soluble salts may play a critical role in the weathering of carbonate rocks, both in the natural environment, as well as in stone buildings and statuary, where the amount of solutes in pore waters is significant and can vary depending on evaporation and condensation phenomena. References Higgins, S.R.; Hu, X. Self-limiting growth on dolomite: Experimental observations with in situ atomic force microscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2005, 69 (8), 2085-2094. Morse, J.W.; Arvidson, R.S. The dissolution kinetics of major sedimentary carbonate minerals. Earth-Science Reviews, 2002, 58, 51-84. Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Kowacz, M.; Putnis, C.V.; Putnis, A. The role of background electrolytes on the kinetics and mechanism of calcite dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2010, 74, 1256-1267.

  12. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.Fundamento: Estudos t阭 demonstrado a acur醕ia diagn髎tica e o valor progn髎tico da ecocardiografia com estresse f韘ico na doen鏰 arterial coron醨ia, mas a predi玢o de mortalidade e de eventos card韆cos maiores, em pacientes com teste ergom閠rico positivo para isquemia mioc醨dica, limitada. Objetivo: Avaliar a predi玢o de mortalidade e de eventos card韆cos maiores pela ecocardiografia com estresse f韘ico em pacientes com teste ergom閠rico positivo para isquemia mioc醨dica. M閠odos: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva em que foram estudados 866 pacientes consecutivos, com teste ergom閠rico positivo para isquemia mioc醨dica, submetidos ecocardiografia com estresse f韘ico. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: ecocardiografia com estresse f韘ico negativa (G1) ou positiva (G2) para isquemia mioc醨dica. Os desfechos avaliados foram mortalidade por qualquer causa e eventos card韆cos maiores, definidos como 骲ito card韆co e infarto agudo do mioc醨dio n鉶 fatal. Resultados: O G2 constituiu-se de 205 (23,7%) pacientes. Durante o seguimento m閐io de 85,6 15,0 meses, ocorreram 26 骲itos, sendo seis por causa card韆ca, e 25 casos de infarto agudo do mioc醨dio n鉶 fatais. Os preditores independentes de mortalidade foram idade, diabetes melito e a ecocardiografia com estresse f韘ico + (hazard ratio: 2,69; intervalo de confian鏰 de 95%: 1,20 - 6,01; p = 0,016), com os seguintes eventos card韆cos maiores: idade, doen鏰 arterial coron醨ia pr関ia, ecocardiografia com estresse f韘ico + (hazard ratio: 2,75; intervalo de confian鏰 de 95%: 1,15 - 6,53; p = 0,022) e aus阯cia do incremento de 10% na fra玢o de eje玢o. A mortalidade por qualquer causa e os eventos card韆cos maiores foram significativamente superiores no G2 (p < 0, 001 e p = 0,001, respectivamente). Conclus鉶: A ecocardiografia com estresse f韘ico oferece informa珲es progn髎ticas adicionais em pacientes com teste ergom閠rico positivo para isquemia mioc醨dica. PMID:25352460

  13. Informe trata el descenso del c谩ncer y los tumores cerebrales

    Cancer.gov

    Los 铆ndices de mortalidad en los Estados Unidos de todos los c谩nceres en hombres y mujeres siguieron bajando entre 2003 y 2007, que es el per铆odo m谩s reciente del que se disponen datos, seg煤n el 煤ltimo Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer. El informe encuentra tambi茅n que el 铆ndice general combinado de nuevos diagn贸sticos de c谩ncer en hombres y mujeres decreci贸 un promedio un poco menos de 1% por a帽o en el mismo per铆odo.

  14. Los 铆ndices de mortalidad por c谩ncer de pulm贸n siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Naci贸n sobre el Estado del C谩ncer (1975 a 2010), mostr贸 un descenso m谩s acelerado que en a帽os anteriores de los 铆ndices de mortalidad por c谩ncer de pulm贸n. Tambi茅n contiene una secci贸n especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  15. Ahorre Energ铆a: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energ铆a en el hogar (Spanish Brochure), Energy Savers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    La versi贸n en castellano de la gu铆a del Departamento de Energ铆a de los Estados Unidos que ayuda a consumidores a ahorrar energ铆a y dinero en el hogar y en las carreteras. The Spanish-language version of U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving energy and money at home and on the road.

  16. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevenci贸n de m谩s de 795 000 muertes por c谩ncer de pulm贸n en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pa铆s hubiera cesado despu茅s de la publicaci贸n d

  17. Archivo de placas astrom閠ricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotogr醘icas obtenidas con el Astrogr醘ico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se har por FTP y la misma contendr la siguiente informaci髇: fecha y tiempo de exposici髇, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsi髇 fotogr醘ica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  18. Formaci髇 y evoluci髇 de planetas gigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Brunini, A.

    Presentamos el estado actual del trabajo que estamos realizando en el estudio de la formaci髇 de planetas gigantes. Detallamos los algoritmos num閞icos necesarios para realizar este tipo de c醠culo. Presentamos algunos resultados de la formaci髇 de objetos con masas de hasta una docena de veces la del planeta J鷓iter, resaltando las principales caracter韙icas. Finalmente detallamos los problemas que pensamos abordar en un futuro cercano en este tema de investigaci髇.

  19. Neurobiolog铆a de la impulsividad y los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria*

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis Felipe; Herin, David

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Introducci贸n La impulsividad es un rasgo de personalidad multidimensional relacionado con el control del comportamiento y las emociones. Est谩 presente de manera diversa en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, particularmente, en la bulimia nerviosa (BN). Aunque la relaci贸n entre la impulsividad y BN ha sido objeto de numerosas investigaciones, en la actualidad se desconocen los sustratos neurobiol贸gicos de esta relaci贸n. Objetivos Discutir cr铆ticamente la evidencia que sugiere que las alteraciones en los sistemas neuronales relacio-nados con las funciones ejecutivas, con la formaci贸n de preferencias y con la regulaci贸n de los estados emocionales sirven como base para el rasgo de personalidad impulsiva, as铆 como su estado en subgrupos de pacientes con BN. M茅todos B煤squeda selectiva de la literatura relevante. Resultados y conclusiones Esta discusi贸n ilustra la complejidad de la relaci贸n entre la impulsividad y BN, donde la impulsividad act煤a como un factor de vulnerabilidad que puede sensibilizar al sujeto con BN a estados emocionales negativos, durante los cuales modifica el impacto de est铆mulos internos y externos sobre el comportamiento y su regulaci贸n, favoreciendo as铆 patrones de comportamiento maladaptativos e inflexibles. PMID:19838321

  20. [A 76-year-old man with loss of vision and dementia].

    PubMed

    Miyashita, N; Imai, H; Mori, H; Kodera, M; Shirai, T; Mizuno, Y

    1997-08-01

    We report a 76-year-old man who developed blurred vision and dementia. He was apparently well until April 4, 1990 (70-year-old at that time) when he had a sudden onset of bilateral loss of vision. Corrected vision was 0.1 (right) and 0.09 (left). He was admitted to the ophthalmology service of our hospital on April 9, 1990, and neurological consultation was asked on April 11. Neurologic examination revealed alert and oriented man without dementia. Higher cerebral functions were intact. He had bilateral large visual field defects with loss of vision; he was only able to count the digit number with his right eye and to recognize hand movement with his left eye. Otherwise neurologic examination was unremarkable. General physical examination was also unremarkable; he had no hypertension. Cranial CT scan was normal on April 11; lumber spinal fluid contained 1 cell/microliter, 63 mg/dl of sugar, and 97 mg/dl of protein; myelin basic protein was detected, however, oligoclonal bands were absent. He was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and oral steroid, however, no improvement was noted in his vision. He started to show gaze paresis to left, ideomotor apraxia, agnosia of the body, and dementia. Cranial CT scan on June 11 revealed a low density area in the deep left parietal white matter facing the trigonal area of the lateral ventricle. He was discharged on July 2, 1990. Hasegawa dementia scale was 2/32.5 upon discharge. In the subsequent course, he showed improvement in his mental capacity and Hasegawa dementia scale was 22.5/32.5 in 1991, however, no improvement was noted in his vision. In 1994, he started to show mental decline in that he became disoriented, and showed delusional ideation of self persecution and depersonalization with occasional confusional state. He also showed unsteady gait. Cranial MRI on February 13, 1996 revealed a T2-high signal intensity lesion on each side of the parietal deep white matter more on the left and another T2-high signal intensity lesion in the left pons as well as in the right thalamus. He complained of right hypochondrial pain and was admitted to another hospital on April 22, 1996. He was markedly confused and demented. He continued to show bilateral loss of vision, but no motor palsy was noted. Cranial CT scan on April 23, 1996 revealed diffuse cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation in addition to the low density areas in both parietal deep white matter. He developed jaundice in the middle of May. Abdominal CT scan revealed multiple low-to iso-density areas in the liver and marked iso-to high-density swelling of the right kidney. The patient expired on June 9th, 1996. The patient was discussed in a neurological CPC and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had had a carcinomatous limbic encephalitis with optic neuropathy and a choleduct carcinoma. Other opinions entertained included acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with optic neuritis, and granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system. Some participants thought the primary site of the carcinoma was the right kidney with metastasis to the liver. Post mortem examination revealed a mixed type carcinoma in the right kidney with liver metastases. Neuropathologic examination revealed an incomplete softening in the optic chiasm and the left optic nerve, and in the left parieto-occipital areas. (The right hemisphere was frozen for future biochemical assay.) One of the adjacent cortical arteries had an organized thrombus. Other arteries and arterioles also showed sclerotic changes. Some of the leptomeningeal arteries were positive for Congored staining as well as for beta-amyloid immunostaining. Many senile plaques were seen diffusely in the cerebral cortex and neurofibrillary tangles were seen in the CA1 area and the parahippocampal gylus. No cellular infiltrations or demyelinated foci were seen. The neuropathologic features were consistent with circulatory disturbance based on the amyloid angiopa PMID:9282374

  1. Aplicaci贸n de la metodolog铆a Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cu谩ntico (MQDO) al c谩lculo de intensidades vibr贸nicas y vidas medias de niveles vibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar铆a Velasco Sanz, Ana

    Desde que se formul贸, en 1996, la metodolog铆a Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cu谩ntico (MQDO) [1], se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electr贸nicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares [2]. Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibr贸nicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electr贸nicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros prop贸sitos hemos elegido la mol茅cula de NO, importante en la qu铆mica de la atm贸sfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliograf铆a datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electr贸nicas y vibr贸nicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha mol茅cula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensi贸n de los aspectos te贸ricos de los procesos f铆sicos b谩sicos relativos a la dispersi贸n electr贸nica en mol茅culas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Adem谩s, valores fiables de probabilidades de transici贸n moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrof铆sica, en la modelizaci贸n de procesos fotodin谩micos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar m谩s profundamente la validez de nuestra metodolog铆a te贸rica.

  2. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infecci贸n del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Ch谩vez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevenci贸n, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por m谩s de una d茅cada. Sin embargo, esta poblaci贸n sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma espa帽ol. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisi贸n del VIH entre esta poblaci贸n, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisi贸n sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protecci贸n, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la b煤squeda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos econ贸micos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migraci贸n. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiol贸gicas de Comportamientos han determinado: c贸mo algunas din谩micas en parejas est谩n directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigaci贸n para identificar esas din谩micas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducci贸n de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducci贸n de la trasmisi贸n del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma espa帽ol en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  3. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; P鰌pel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el prop髎ito de observar las l韓eas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor constru韉o en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instal sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las l韓eas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  4. Fotometr韆 CCD en el campo del c鷐ulo abierto Ruprecht 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; V醶quez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.

    La regi髇 de Vela-Puppis contiene varios c鷐ulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos informaci髇 acerca de la cinem醫ica y el estado evolutivo de la poblaci髇 estelar en las zonas externas del disco gal醕tico. A trav閟 de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del c鷐ulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (?2000= 8h 14m 41s, ?2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los par醡etros fundamentales de este c鷐ulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza tambi閚 la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

  5. Investigaci髇 del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atl醤tico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-01-01

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras s髄idas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a trav閟 de procesos naturales de erosi髇, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen h醔itats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradaci髇 mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral est bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organizaci髇 de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos f韘icos y biol骻icos e interacciones que est醤 afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  6. [Milk and modernity: ideology and nutrition policies during the Vargas era].

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, S鰎en

    2014-01-01

    In the 1930s the new science of nutrition was disseminated in Brazil, which also introduced the conviction that cow's milk was the most important of staple foods. Despite the campaign promoted by the Minist閞io de Educa玢o e Sa鷇e P鷅lica (Ministry of Education and Public Health) in the mid-1930s, the consumption of milk in Rio de Janeiro remained far short of the recommendations of experts due to the poor quality of the product and its high price. This paper analyzes the efforts of the Estado Novo to improve the milk supply system of the Brazilian capital as well as to mitigate the causes and effects of its ultimate failure. PMID:24554137

  7. Estudio comparativo de las mol茅culas isovalentes de inter茅s atmosf茅rico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes hal贸genos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Mart铆n, I.; Lav铆n, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los 煤ltimos a帽os un creciente inter茅s entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas t茅cnicas espectrosc贸picas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electr贸nicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorci贸n que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atm贸sfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtenci贸n de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran inter茅s. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las mol茅culas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas mol茅culas presentan id茅ntica estructura electr贸nica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la correcci贸n de nuestros resultados en base a las analog铆as esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones an谩logas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado car谩cter at贸mico en el espectro correspondiente a estas mol茅culas, siendo muy similar a los de los 谩tomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, adem谩s de establecer la comparaci贸n entre ambas mol茅culas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos hal贸genos. Los c谩lculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodolog铆a Mol茅cular de Orb铆tales de Defecto Cu谩ntico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los 谩tomos de Cl y Br se emple贸 la versi贸n relativista del m茅todo (RQDO) [3].

  8. Ensino e divulga玢o de astronomia no Planet醨io de Campinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Projeto desenvolvido em 1981 por professores da Unicamp, sob a coordena玢o do Prof. Dr. Carlos Alfredo Arg黣llo propunha a instala玢o de um Planet醨io em Campinas. Conv阯io firmado em 1982 entre a Unicamp, a Prefeitura de Campinas, a Funcamp e a Academia de Ci阯cias do Estado de S鉶 Paulo, possibilitou a aquisi玢o de um planet醨io Zeiss ZKP2, atrav閟 do MEC, e em 28 de outubro de 1987 foi inaugurado o Planet醨io de Campinas. Desde ent鉶 v醨ias atividades de ensino e divulga玢o da Astronomia foram desenvolvidas regularmente. A verifica玢o dos registros das atividades realizadas mostra um alto 韓dice de atendimento, considerada a capacidade das instala珲es (sala de proje玢o para 60 pessoas, audit髍io com 45 poltronas e hall de exposi珲es). As atividades dirigidas ao p鷅lico, estudantes e professores, atenderam cerca de 400.000 participantes nos quase 16 anos de sua exist阯cia. Al閙 de sess鮡s p鷅licas e escolares, com dura玢o de 1 hora, s鉶 oferecidas 鄐 escolas v醨ios outros tipos de atividades, com dura玢o de 2,5 horas. Abordam diversos temas e s鉶 dirigidas a diferentes n韛eis de escolaridade. Cursos para o p鷅lico e para professores, palestras, exposi珲es e eventos especiais completam o quadro de atividades regulares. Mesmo enfrentando quase sempre dificuldades financeiras e administrativas verifica-se que o Planet醨io de Campinas realizou um trabalho quantitativamente e qualitativamente satisfat髍io, prestando bom servi鏾s comunidade de Campinas e de outras cidades de S鉶 Paulo e outros Estados. Isso tamb閙 atestado pela grande procura de reservas para suas atividades.

  9. Numerical Results for a Polytropic Cosmology Interpreted as a Dust Universe Producing Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Cervantes-Cota, J.; Chauvet, P.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. A nivel cosmol6gico pensamos que se ha estado prodticiendo radiaci6n gravitacional en cantidades considerables dentro de las galaxias. Si los eventos prodnctores de radiaci6n gravitatoria han venido ocurriendo desde Ia epoca de Ia formaci6n de las galaxias, cuando menos, sus efectos cosmol6gicos pueden ser tomados en cuenta con simplicidad y elegancia al representar la producci6n de radiaci6n y, por consiguiente, su interacci6n con materia ordinaria fenomenol6gicamente a trave's de una ecuaci6n de estado politr6pica, como lo hemos mostrado en otros trabajos. Presentamos en este articulo resultados nunericos de este modelo. ABSTRACT A common believe in cosmology is that gravitational radiation in considerable quantities is being produced within the galaxies. Ifgravitational radiation production has been running since the galaxy formation epoch, at least, its cosmological effects can be assesed with simplicity and elegance by representing the production of radiation and, therefore, its interaction with ordinary matter phenomenologically through a polytropic equation of state as shown already elsewhere. We present in this paper the numerical results of such a model. K words: COSMOLOGY - GRAVITATION

  10. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  11. Respostas religiosas 脿 aids no Brasil: impress玫es de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Cat贸lica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gon莽alves Meireles da; Maksud, 脥via; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Lu铆s Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considera莽玫es e informa莽玫es acerca da situa莽茫o da aids no Brasil, das rela莽玫es entre religi茫o, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descri莽茫o mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impress玫es de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresenta莽茫o da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua hist贸ria, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas quest玫es em particular no 芒mbito das rela莽玫es Estado e Igreja, rela莽玫es entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e quest玫es ligadas mais diretamente 脿 sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  12. Evoluci贸n de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detecci贸n directa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde la reciente detecci贸n de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrar谩n en operaci贸n algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos prop贸sitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evoluci贸n planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el c贸digo de evoluci贸n estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuaci贸n de estado. A tales fines hemos inclu铆do la reciente ecuaci贸n de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. Tambi茅n se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotaci贸n planetaria. Con este c贸digo hemos computado la evoluci贸n de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de J煤piter. Utilizando nuestros resultados num茅ricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

  13. Respostas religiosas 脿 aids no Brasil: impress玫es de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gon莽alves Meireles; Maksud, 脥via; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Lu铆s Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considera莽玫es e informa莽玫es acerca da situa莽茫o da aids no Brasil, das rela莽玫es entre religi茫o, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descri莽茫o mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impress玫es de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresenta莽茫o da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua hist贸ria, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas quest玫es em particular no 芒mbito das rela莽玫es Estado e Igreja, rela莽玫es entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e quest玫es ligadas mais diretamente 脿 sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  14. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casta帽o, F.; Fern谩ndez, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; S谩nchez Rayo, M. N.; Mart铆nez, R.

    Entre las 谩reas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Qu铆mica en los 煤ltimos a帽os est谩n los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energ铆a y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares d茅biles, con energ铆as de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relaci贸n con la mol茅cula neutra de la que procede, la energ铆a de ionizaci贸n, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energ铆as de enlace de Van der Waals entre el i贸n y una amplia variedad de otras mol茅culas, sus conf贸rmeros o is贸meros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones qu铆micas est谩n en la ra铆z de la necesidad de la espectroscop铆a conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generaci贸n de plasmas para la fabricaci贸n de semiconductores, memorias magn茅ticas, etc, as铆 como los sistemas astrof铆sicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscop铆a ZEKE es una evoluci贸n de las de fluorescencia inducida por l谩ser, LIF, ionizaci贸n multifot贸nica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscop铆as de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de c谩lculos ab inicio permite determinar las energ铆as de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar conf贸rmeros e is贸meros, obtener energ铆as de ionizaci贸n experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de inter茅s. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros est谩n muy saturados de bandas y su interpretaci贸n es dif铆cil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las mol茅culas o complejos en expansiones supers贸nicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas f铆sicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de 谩tomos, mol茅culas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de 渭 s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscop铆a ZEKE consiste en excitar un 谩tomo, mol茅cula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuaci贸n se aplica un campo el茅ctrico variable que lo ioniza y despu茅s de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo el茅ctrico de extracci贸n, tanto para el electr贸n como para el i贸n. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este 煤ltimo proceso. El estudio de la espectroscop铆a y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscop铆a de la mol茅cula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los conf贸rmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Adem谩s solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la informaci贸n contenida en los espectros con ayuda de c谩lculos cu谩nticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de t茅cnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias mol茅cula de inter茅s qu铆mico general como anilina y sus derivados, as铆 como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el m茅todo es muy vers谩til y puede aplicarse a iones de 谩tomos, iones m煤ltiples, mol茅culas sencillas y sus clusters as铆 como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aqu铆 el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentar谩n espectros ZEKE del ABN y mol茅culas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), as铆 como la determinaci贸n de potenciales de ionizaci贸n precisos, energ铆as de enlace de compuestos del i贸n con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de inter茅s, discutiendo sus resultados.

  15. La enumeraci贸n de la solter铆a femenina en los censos de poblaci贸n: sesgo y propuesta de correcci贸n

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Esteve, Albert; Garcia, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigaci贸n tiene como objetivo investigar el efecto que la disoluci贸n de las uniones consensuales tiene en los niveles de solter铆a que proporciona el Censo de Poblaci贸n, niveles derivados de la variable estado civil. Para ello comparamos los datos censales con los de la Encuestas de Demograf铆a y Salud (de ahora en adelante DHS) en aquellos pa铆ses y a帽os para los que disponemos de ambas fuentes en el mismo a帽o o a帽os adyacentes (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia y Per煤). Los resultados muestran claramente que las proporciones de nunca unidas derivadas de la variable censal 鈥Estado civil鈥 son sistem谩ticamente m谩s elevadas que las estimadas a partir de las DHS. La raz贸n de esta sobreestimaci贸n obedece al hecho de que personas que estuvieron en uni贸n libre en el pasado se declaran solteras en el momento del Censo. La elevada proporci贸n de mujeres solteras que tienen hijos seg煤n el Censo es una prueba de ello y a su vez una soluci贸n efectiva para corregir el sesgo. PMID:25593515

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Deutrich Aydos, Maria Eugenia; Alves Fernandes, Sabrina; Feij贸 Nunes, Fl谩via; Bassani, L铆lian; Rigon Leonhardt, Lara; Lazzarotto Harter, Daniele; Pivato, Bianca; Miranda, Daniella; Augusto Marroni, Cl谩udio

    2016-01-01

    Introducci贸n: la elecci贸n del m茅todo para la evaluaci贸n nutricional es fundamental para el correcto seguimiento del estado nutricional de los pacientes sometidos al trasplante de h铆gado.Objetivos: evaluar y comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes antes y despu茅s del trasplante de h铆gado por el tiempo de un a帽o para los diferentes m茅todos de evaluaci贸n nutricional.M茅todos: se evaluaron los pacientes que se sometieron a un trasplante de h铆gado en diferentes momentos: pretrasplante, 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses despu茅s del procedimiento, en la Hermandad de la Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Los m茅todos utilizados fueron la antropometr铆a, la fuerza de apret贸n de manos por la fuerza de agarre no dominante (FAM), el espesor del m煤sculo aductor del pulgar y el 谩ngulo de fase (AF) por bioimpedancia el茅ctrica (BIA). En todas las evaluaciones se tomaron las mismas medidas.Resultados: las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en 22 pacientes. Los m茅todos que mostraron mayor prevalencia de pacientes desnutridos antes del trasplante fueron la FA por BIA (25%), la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB) (21,9%) y la circunferencia del brazo (CB) (18,8%). Al comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes durante el seguimiento, hubo diferencia significativa en los m茅todos de evaluaci贸n de CB, espesor del pliegue cut谩neo triciptal y AF por la BIA. Al final del seguimiento, los m茅todos de evaluaci贸n nutricional fueron nuevamente comparados y mostraron de diferencias significativas, siendo la FAM el m茅todo de mayor detecci贸n de desnutrici贸n.Conclusiones: se sugiere que podr铆a intensificarse el uso del m茅todo AF por la BIA en esta poblaci贸n, ya que los resultados est谩n en consonancia con los encontrados en la literatura, siendo significativos, fiables y reproducibles. PMID:27019235

  17. Experimental model of cerussite PbCO3 transformation into phosphate phases at pH 3-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwa艣niak-Kominek, Monika; Manecki, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    Bioavailability of lead depends strongly on mineral speciation. Mobility of this toxic element is strongly reduced when lead in the form of relatively soluble phases (carbonates) is transformed into insoluble forms like phosphates. Despite the fact, that in-situ immobilization of Pb by phosphate amendment (phosphate-induced lead immobilization) is widely applied in remediation of polluted soils and waters, the mechanism of transformation of lead carbonate into lead phosphates is only recently under investigation [1]. Our understanding of this mechanism might in future allow for optimization of the methods applied in environmental engineering. Although the transformation of carbonate minerals into phosphate phases has been studied before, little is known of this system with Pb. There is no systematic study of the effect of pH on the mechanism and the reaction product. The mechanism of cerussite reaction with phosphate solution at pH 3 - 11 was studied using fragments of natural gem-quality crystals from Morocco. The mineral was reacted with 0.1M PO43- or a mixture of 0.1M PO43- and 0.03M Cl- either at 140 掳 C in the autoclave for 24 hours or at 8 掳 C in the cooler (for around 6 weeks). Reaction products were identified ex-situ by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and micro Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analysis (EMP) were applied to cut and polished crystals in epoxy. The products of the reaction depend on pH. This dependency is the most pronounced in Cl-free environment. At low pH (below 6) phosphoshultenite PbHPO4 and hydroxylpyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3OH (HPY) are formed while at alkaline range HPY is the only product. Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl (CPY) forms in the wider pH range. The replacement reaction proceeds through coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The lead phosphate coating does not armor the surface resulting in complete replacement of cerussite grain by polycrystalline porous reaction products. There is evidence for formation of precursors at the reaction front, which later undergo transformation into final products. This is probably combine effect of carbonate dissolution associated with relatively slow diffusion of ions though porous coating, affecting both pH and saturation indices. High concentrations of carbonate ions result in CO32- substitution in the structure of precipitating HPY. This is less pronounced or non-existing in the case of CPY precipitating in the presence of Cl-. Monika Kwasniak-Kominek was partially financed from AGH-UST grant No. 15.11.140.329. Maciej Manecki was financed from research grant No. NCN 2011/01/M/ST10/06999. [1] Wang L., Putnis CV, Ruiz-Agudo E., King HE, Putnis A. Coupled Dissolution and Precipitation at the Cerussite-Phosphate Solutions Interface: Implications for Immobilization of Lead in Soils, Environmental Science & Technology, 2013.

  18. El c韗culo meridiano autom醫ico de San Fernando - San Juan. Sus primeros pasos en el hemisferio sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.; Mui駉s, J. L.; Gallego, M.; P閞ez, J. A.; Marmolejo, L.; Navarro, J. L.; Sede駉, J.; Vallejos, M.; Beliz髇, F.

    Se informa sobre el estado actual del C韗culo Meridiano Autom醫ico de San Fernando-San Juan. El instrumento (Grubb-Parson, de 178mm de abertura y 2665 mm de distancia focal) es gemelo del que se encuentra en las Islas Canarias, y fue instalado durante los meses de julio y agosto de 1996 en la estaci髇 astron髆ica ``Dr. C.U.Cesco" (El Leoncito, Barreal), a unos 200 km de distancia de la ciudad de San Juan, merced a un Convenio de Cooperaci髇 Cient韋ica, firmado en 1994 entre el ROA (Espa馻) y el OAFA (Argentina). En la actualidad se est llevando a cabo un programa de prueba cuyos resultados preliminares muestran que el telescopio est en buenas condiciones para observar estrellas de hasta magnitud aproximada 14.5, con buenos errores de observaci髇 (<0.12" en ascensi髇 recta y declinaci髇).

  19. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radi髆etros instalados en el IAR. Entre las caracter韘ticas m醩 importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resoluci髇 (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y cont韓uo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna t閏nica de s韓tesis digital directa. Por 鷏timo, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisici髇 de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selecci髇 de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  20. Funciones de partici髇 at髆icas: Fuentes confiables de datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.; Milone, L. A.

    Se llev a cabo una revisi髇 minuciosa del c醠culo de funciones de partici髇 at髆icas de 醫omos livianos, en estados neutro y una vez ionizados, partiendo del Hidr骻eno y llegando al Sodio, incluyendo tambi閚 al K I y el Ca II. Al respecto, se realiz una investigaci髇 exhaustiva de referencias bibliogr醘icas existentes hasta el presente, las cuales fueron cotejadas con c醠culos propios llevados a cabo mediante el procedimiento de depresi髇 del cont韓uo (0.001 a 0.5 eV). Nuestros resultados muestran un muy buen acuerdo con las expresiones interpolatorias de Traving et al (1966), al presente, la referencia m醩 completa en cuanto a especies at髆icas consideradas. Puntualizamos, adem醩, ciertas deficiencias de estas relaciones de ajuste para decrementos del potencial de ionizaci髇 altos (? ? >= 0.5) eV).

  1. X-ray fluorescence and imaging analyses of paintings by the Brazilian artist Oscar Pereira Da Silva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. H. O. V.; Kajiya, E. A. M.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Neiva, A. C.; Pinto, H. P. F.; Almeida, P. A. D.

    2014-02-01

    Non-destructive analyses, such as EDXRF (Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence) spectroscopy, and imaging were used to characterize easel paintings. The analyzed objects are from the collection of the Pinacoteca do Estado de S鉶 Paulo. EDXRF results allowed us to identify the chemical elements present in the pigments, showing the use of many Fe-based pigments, modern pigments, such as cobalt blue and cadmium yellow, as well as white pigments containing lead and zinc used by the artist in different layers. Imaging analysis was useful to identify the state of conservation, the localization of old and new restorations and also to detect and unveil the underlying drawings revealing the artist's creative processes.

  2. TGS pipeline primed for Argentine growth, CEO says

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-03-01

    Nowhere in Latin America has the privatization process been more aggressively pursued than in Argentina where President Carlos Menem has successfully turned over the bulk of state companies to the private sector. In the energy sector, that meant the divestiture in 1992 of Gas del Estado, the state-owned integrated gas transportation and distribution company. It was split in two transportation companies: Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) and Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), and eight distribution companies. TGS is the largest transporter of natural gas in Argentina, delivering more than 60 percent of that nation`s total gas consumption with a capacity of 1.9 Bcf/d. This is the second in a series of Pipeline and Gas Journal special reports that discuss the evolving strategies of the natural gas industry as it continues to restructure amid deregulation. The article focuses on TGS, the Argentine pipeline system in which Enron Corp. is a key participant.

  3. [Roots of the preinstitucionalization of professional nursing in Recife (PE), Brazil--1922-1938].

    PubMed

    Abr, F醫ima Maria da Silva; de Almeida, Maria Cec韑ia Puntel

    2007-01-01

    This historical-social study aimed to understand the roots of the preinstitutionalization of Professional nursing in a given organizational field. We considered the origins of nursing in the political-social context of the First Republic, Second Republic, beginning of the Estado Novo and the interwar period. The study rests on institutional theory and Bourdieu's notion of field. As an institutional environment, the Hospital do Centen醨io was a demarcation point for the future organizational field of professional nursing. In the period from 1922 to 1938, an emerging organizational field was evidenced, in which the presence of Public Health and the State stand out. Public Health Visitants and Sanitary Educators appear as the forerunners for the professional bases of nursing. We observed the fight of agents involved in the formation of this field, creating and developing alliances and strategies. PMID:17477163

  4. An醠isis fotom閠rico-espectrosc髉ico de un par de binarias en NGC 3532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L.; Gonz醠ez, J. F.

    Presentamos el informe de avance de un proyecto que apunta a la determinaci髇 de masas y radios de precisi髇 en estrellas tempranas de c鷐ulos abiertos mediante el an醠isis fotom閠rico-espectrosc髉ico de sistemas binarios detached con baja rotaci髇. Con ello se pretende determinar el estado evolutivo de estas estrellas y confrontar su estructura con modelos estelares te髍icos con distinto grado de ``overshooting". Los primeros objetos seleccionados son dos sistemas binarios de espectros dobles (BDA27 y BDA363) detectados en el c鷐ulo NGC 3532. Presentamos la 髍bita espectrosc髉ica obtenida para la binaria eclipsante BDA27, para la cual obtuvimos un per韔do de 4.29 d韆s y una raz髇 de masas q=0.62. Derivamos sus par醡etros absolutos preliminares usando nuestra curva de velocidad y datos fotom閠ricos existentes en la literatura, y presentamos estimas del alcance de nuestros resultados una vez que hayamos completado nuestras observaciones con nuevas curvas de luz.

  5. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

  6. Primera aproximaci贸n a la estructura interna de Plut贸n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steren, G. A.; Carranza, G. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    En el presente trabajo se propuso estudiar la estructura interna actual del planeta Plut贸n. El modelo que se plante贸 es del tipo de estructura no-diferenciada. Se incluy贸 como fuente de calor interna la radioactividad y como 煤nico mecanismo de transporte de la energ铆a a la conducci贸n. Se encontr贸 que el planeta estar铆a compuesto por una mezcla de roca (65% en masa) y hielo de agua (35%). Este simple modelo permite inferir que una estructura m谩s realista para Plut贸n deber铆a incluir tambi茅n a la convecci贸n como mecanismo de transporte. Ello adem谩s permitir铆a avanzar de modo m谩s firme en el estado de diferenciaci贸n del planeta, que casi seguramente sea m谩s complejo que el adoptado.

  7. [The coconut baba莽u (Orbignya phalerata martins) as a probable risk of human infection by the agent of chromoblastomycosis in the State of Maranh茫o, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, C M; da Rocha, R M; Moreno, J S; Branco, M R; Silva, R R; Marques, S G; Costa, J M

    1995-01-01

    During a survey of 30 patients with chromoblastomycosis followed at the Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Maranh茫o, the authors observed in 2 (6.6%) patients with lesions on the buttock. This is an uncommon site for the initial lesions of chromoblastomycosis. There is often a history of microtraumatism during the farming job hence the more frequent development of lesions in the lower limbs. Both patients had 10 years disease, with the presence of nodules and vegetant warty lesions in coalescent plaques on the right buttock. Etiologic diagnosis made through histopatologic and culture exams, with Fonsecaea pedrosoi isolated. The epidemiological exposure of the patients, was suggested by the fact that both worked as baba莽u coconut cutters a common activity in Maranh茫o State. The relation between this kind of professional activity and the development of infection merits for the investigation. PMID:7724868

  8. Application of genetics to the development of starch-fermenting yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mattoon, J.R.; Kim, K.; Laluce, C.

    1987-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of direct fermentation of manioc starch were developed by hybridizing strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hybrids were evaluated for speed of alcohol production, and yields and speed of formation of glycoamylase. Up to 6% solutions of Lintner starch could be fermented directly with about 80% conversion to alcohol. Pretreatment of crude 40% manioc starch suspensions with alpha-amylase, followed by fermentations with a starch-fermenting yeast strain, permitted accumulation of 12% ethanol within three days. Starch conversion was almost 100%. A fragment of DNA was cloned from S. diastaticus using the yeast-E. coli shuttle vector, YEp13, and was used to transform a strain of S. cerevisiae to a starch-fermenting state. Supported by National Science Foundation grant INT 7927328 and National Institutes of Health grant GM 27860. Dr. Laluce was supported by a grant from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Sao Paulo and by her university. (Refs. 5).

  9. "Chiriguano" Astronomy - Venus and a Guarani New Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gonzalo

    A Supreme Decree emitted by the government of Bolivia instituted the celebration of the June solstices in view of the fact that the indigenous people, both the Andean highlands and the Amazon and Chaco, "have commemorated this event for thousands of years" (Gobierno del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Decreto Supremo N 0173, June16, 2009, La Paz). In the case of the lowlands' indigenous, particularly the Guarani people, the decree mentions the planet Venus as the argument for this celebration. In this case of study and in light of astronomical and ethnographic evidence, we analyze the relevance of this decree in the case of the Guarani people of the Bolivian Chaco region, known as "Chiriguanos".

  10. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERI蔔CIA DO COMIT DE 蒚ICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SA贒E DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo relatar a experi阯cia do Comit de 蓆ica em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Sa鷇e do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o per韔do de 10 anos a partir de sua funda玢o. Trata-se de uma avalia玢o descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N 052/08) nesse per韔do. As pend阯cias mais freq黣ntes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de or鏰mento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no per韔do de 10 anos revelou, atrav閟 de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de an醠ise 閠ica dos protocolos visando prote玢o dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  11. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  12. Argentina set for privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-12-09

    Buyers are lining up for Argentina's two big state-controlled petrochemical groups, Buenos Aires-based Petroquimica General Mosconi (PGM) and Petroquimica Bahia Blance (PBB). However, feedstock supply contracts with government-owned oil group Yacientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPG) and gas group Gas del Estado hold the key to both sales. Shell Compania Argentina Petroleo SA (CAPSA), Perez Companc, and Global Petroleum have already bought PGM tender documentation. Shell says it will bid for PGM if the feedstock contract with YPF is acceptable. In addition to price and volume, Shell says the length is critical; it wants a 15-year deal, but would settle for 11. YPF initially sought a five-year contract. PGM, which produces 300,000 m.t./year of aromatics, plus oxo alcohols, methanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether, has sales of $150 million/year.

  13. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones num閞icas, que la rotaci髇 de Marte pas repetidamente por estados ca髏icos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - 髍bita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la b鷖queda de manifestaciones de vida f髎il en dicho planeta. El estudio de la din醡ica orbital del sat閘ite m醩 exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teor韆s sobre su or韌en, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten m醩 de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho m醩 robusto que las simulaciones num閞icas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas m醩 severas a la evoluci髇 paleoclim醫ica de Marte.

  14. An醠ise dos Conceitos Astron鬽icos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A raz鉶 para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educa玢o B醩ica (EB) n鉶 lidam com conceitos relacionados astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros did醫icos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como de conhecimento geral a astronomia um dos conte鷇os a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Par鈓etros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de S鉶 Paulo, mas um fato, que v醨ios pesquisadores apontam, a exist阯cia de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o prop髎ito de minimizar algumas dessas defici阯cias foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utiliza玢o de question醨ios pr e p髎 pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extens鉶 Universit醨ia para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mau, Ribeir鉶 Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de S鉶 Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concep珲es alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem ap髎 o curso, adotando-se como refer阯cia, para a an醠ise dos resultados, os dicion醨ios de L韓gua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclop閐ico de Astronomia e Astron醬tica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis quest鮡s foram aplicadas antes e ap髎 o curso, assim pode-se verificar ap髎 a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solst韈io, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorr阯cia das esta珲es do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorr阯cia do equin骳io, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram aster骾de, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% gal醲ia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  15. A new genus of pine-feeding Cochylina from the western United States and northern Mexico (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Euliini).

    PubMed

    Brown, John W

    2013-01-01

    Eupinivora, new genus, is described and illustrated from the montane regions of western United States (Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas) and Mexico (Nuevo Le髇, Durango, and Estado de Mexico). As presently defined, the genus includes seven species: E. ponderosae, n. sp. (USA: Arizona) (type species); E angulicosta, n. sp. (Mexico: Nuevo Le髇); E. albolineana, n. sp. (Mexico: Durango); E. thaumantias (Razowski, 1994), n. comb. (Mexico: Estado de Mexico); E. hamartopenis (Razowski, 1986), n. comb. (Mexico: Durango); E. unicolora, n. sp. (Mexico: Durango); and E. rufofascia, n. sp. (Mexico: Durango). The new genus is most closely related to Henricus Busck, 1943, from which it can be distinguished by the short upturned labial palpi, the presence of a variable cluster of long spine-like external setae from near the middle of the phallus in the male genitalia, the absence of cornuti in the vesica, the absence of the subgenital sex scales in the male, and a forewing pattern that in most of the included species is reminiscent of that of Argyrotaenia ponera Walsingham and its relatives. Four of the new species were reared from the cones of Pinus arizonica var. cooperi Blanco (Pinaceae) and one from Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson; all of the species occur in habitats dominated by conifers at elevations between ca. 1700 and 2750 m. Two specimens from New Mexico were collected in traps baited with a synthetic pheromone for the bud worm Choristoneura lambertiana (Busck, 1915) (Archipini)-90% 92:8E:Z11-14AC, 10% 90:10E:Z11OH--which is consistent with that recorded for other Cochylina. PMID:26000417

  16. A description of the tides in the Eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; G髆ez, Bego馻 P閞ez; S醤chez-Ar関alo, Ignacio Rodr韌uez

    A description of the Eastern North Atlantic tidal dynamics (in a region spanning from 20癗 to 48癗 in latitude and from 34癢 to 0 in longitude) is obtained by means of new in situ measurements and numerical modelling based on TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived data sets. The main source of measurements is the tide gauge network REDMAR (RED de MARe骻rafos de Puertos del Estado), operative since July 1992 and managed by Clima Mar韙imo (Puertos del Estado). Results derived from the harmonic analysis of the first years of measurements are presented and compared with model results. In order to obtain a global picture of the tides in the region, a large compilation of harmonic constants obtained from other institutes is included. The availability of new TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived harmonic constants data sets provides a chance to include the benefits derived from satellite altimetry in high resolution regional applications of numerical models. Richard Ray's tidal model (Ray et al., 1994), based on a response type tidal analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data, was employed within a model of the studied area. The numerical model employed is HAMSOM, a 3-D finite difference code developed both by the Institut f黵 Meereskunde (Hamburg University) and Clima Mar韙imo. Results from simulations of seven major harmonics are presented, providing a comprehensive view of tidal dynamics, including current information. The results of tidal simulations show good agreement between semidiurnal harmonic components and the values measured by both coastal and pelagic tidal gauges and by current meters. The modelled diurnal constituents show larger relative differences with measurements than semidiurnal harmonics, especially concerning the phase lags. The non-linear transfer of energy from semidiurnal to higher order harmonics, such as M 4 and M 6, was mapped. Those transfers were found to be important only in two areas: the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay and the widest part of the African shelf, south of Cabo Bojador.

  17. Responses to, and the short and long-term impacts of, the 1957/1958 Capelinhos volcanic eruption and associated earthquake activity on Faial, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, Rui; Chester, David K.; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Duncan, Angus M.

    2010-10-01

    The 1957/58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial Island in the Azores is well known for being an excellent example of Surtseyan hydromagmatic volcanic activity. Less well known are the responses of the Portuguese authorities to the eruption and subsequent earthquake in May 1958, and the ways in which well-thought-out and generally effective recovery programmes were put in place. At the time Portugal was ruled by a dictatorship, the Estado Novo (New State). Only superficially similar to other fascist governments in Southern Europe, the Estado Novo collected huge amounts of data on the responses of the authorities to the disaster and their programmes of recovery, but never encouraged academic evaluation of policy, although it ensured that the scientific aspects of the eruption and earthquake were meticulously recorded and published. In this paper we remedy this situation by discussing the details of the immediate response to the emergency and the ways in which the island recovered in its aftermath. The study is based not only on archival sources and demographic and economic data, but also on detailed interviews with survivors some of whom were also decision makers. We argue that response, recovery and rehabilitation were generally highly successful and assess the lessons of the 1957/58 emergency which are relevant to future geophysical disasters in Faial and the wider Azores. Since the 1974 revolution Portugal has been a democratic state. We conclude that both the legislation and the civil defence infrastructure, necessary to achieve a similarly strong and successful response, are in place today.

  18. Morphological variation, advertisement call, and tadpoles of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann, 1973), and taxonomic status of B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi, 2004) (Anura, Hylidae, Cophomantini).

    PubMed

    Walker, Marina; Louren鏾, Ana Carolina Calijorne; Pimenta, Bruno V S; Nascimento, Luciana Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973) e B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) pertencem ao grupo de esp閏ies de B. circumdata. A localidade-tipo da primeira esp閏ie a Serra do Cip, Serra do Espinha鏾, e a da segunda o Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Serra da Mantiqueira, ambas no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O padr鉶 de desenhos dorsais, morfologia oral dos girinos e propriedades temporais dos cantos s鉶 indicadas como forma de distinguir essas esp閏ies. Por閙, diversos esp閏imes coletados entre as duas localidades-tipo permanecem sem identifica玢o porque apresentam sobreposi玢o nos caracteres e estados propostos para diagnosticar as duas esp閏ies. Com o objetivo de avaliar a varia玢o desses caracteres, foram realizadas an醠ises de morfologia e morfometria de adultos, vocaliza珲es e morfologia de girinos. Esp閏imes foram divididos em tr阺 unidades taxon鬽icas operacionais: B. nanuzae (Serra do Cip e localidades ao norte, Serra do Espinha鏾), B. cf. nanuzae (Quadril醫ero Ferr韋ero, Serra do Espinha鏾 ao sul da Serra do Cip), e B. feioi (Serra do Ibitipoca, Serra da Mantiqueira). Os padr鮡s de desenhos do dorso e membros apresentam varia玢o clinal e as tr阺 unidades s鉶 muito similares morfometricamente. As propriedades temporais e espectrais do canto apresentam sobreposi玢o entre essas tr阺 unidades. Diferen鏰s diagn髎ticas originalmente propostas para os girinos s鉶 varia珲es intrapopulacionais e ocorrem em esp閏imes de todas as localidades analisadas. Assim, conclu韒os que essas tr阺 unidades s鉶 morfologicamente indistingu韛eis. Portanto, Bokermannohyla feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) designado como um sin鬾imo j鷑ior de Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973), o que estende a distribui玢o geogr醘ica desta para a Serra da Mantiqueira. PMID:25947466

  19. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia 茅 um tema que sempre exerceu fasc铆nio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que h谩 nos 鈥渃茅us鈥, al茅m de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presen莽a dos conte煤dos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da regi茫o Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paran谩, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior compara莽茫o com os Par芒metros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conte煤dos para toda a Educa莽茫o B谩sica brasileira. Tal investiga莽茫o pautou-se na abordagem de car谩ter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da An谩lise de Conte煤dos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a constru莽茫o de quatro categorias, nas quais os conte煤dos astron么micos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via L谩ctea e Universo. Ap贸s a leitura, coleta de dados, constru莽茫o de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresenta莽茫o destes conte煤dos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ci锚ncias e F铆sica dos estados do Paran谩 (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), respons谩veis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paran谩 apresenta conte煤dos ligados 脿 Astronomia desde o sexto ano at茅 o nono ano, como conte煤do do primeiro bimestre, o que tamb茅m 茅 apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, por茅m, este, n茫o divide os conte煤dos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e s茅timo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequ锚ncia de conte煤dos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina n茫o apresenta estes conte煤dos de maneira expl铆cita, n茫o divide dos conte煤dos nem por ano, nem por s茅rie, traz uma sequ锚ncia de conte煤dos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos quatro anos, nos quais, aparecem timidamente alguns conte煤dos de Astronomia. Para o Ensino M茅dio, as propostas curriculares do Paran谩 e de Santa Catarina parecem que se repetem, apresentando apenas o conte煤do Gravita莽茫o Universal, na primeira s茅rie do Ensino M茅dio, j谩 a proposta curricular do Rio Grande do Sul, traz uma sequ锚ncia que 茅 proposta nos PCN (Brasil, 1998; 1999; 2002), na qual aparece o tema em quest茫o, por茅m, em todos os anos, em todas as propostas, n茫o h谩 um detalhamento do que, de como trabalhar os conte煤dos. O detalhamento facilita a pr谩tica pedag贸gica, pois, conte煤dos simples como as Esta莽玫es do Ano, Fases da Lua, sequer s茫o citados nas propostas curriculares pesquisadas. Outro aspecto observado 茅 que os conte煤dos de um modo geral n茫o trazem uma sequ锚ncia e n茫o primam por partir do entorno do aluno, daquilo que ele conhece para estruturar novos conceitos. Tais aspectos dificultam o fazer pedag贸gico, pois, por ser uma regi茫o com caracter铆sticas culturais semelhantes, era esperado que as propostas fossem mais pr贸ximas, o! que facilitaria em muito, por exemplo, transfer锚ncias dentro de um mesmo estado ou interestaduais. Pautando-se no que foi observado, na falta de especificidade dos conte煤dos, clareza, sequ锚ncia dos conte煤dos e propostas de trabalho 茅 proposto uma sequ锚ncia de conte煤dos de Astronomia, com materiais e recursos, pois, como apontado por Langhi e Nardi (2009), 茅 necess谩rio fornecer al茅m da informa莽茫o, do conte煤do, o como fazer. Tal proposta n茫o visa estabelecer-se como regra, mas como suporte ao professor para facilitar sua pr谩tica pedag贸gica e tornar o trabalho com Astronomia presente nas escolas brasileiras. Bardin, L. An谩lise de conte煤do. Tradu莽茫o Lu铆s Antero Reto, Augusto Pinheiro. S茫o Paulo: Edi莽玫es 70, 2011. 279 p. Langhi, R; Nardi, R. Ensino da astronomia no Brasil: educa莽茫o formal, informal, n茫o-formal e divulga莽茫o cient铆fica. Revista Brasileira de Ensino de F铆sica, v. 31, n. 4, p. 4402-1 a 4402-11, 2009.

  20. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the Study of Cultural and Ecological Foundations of the Mind, a 21(st) Century Center of Excellence Program at Hokkaido University. The authors would like to thank Dr. Laura Hern谩ndez-Guzm谩n, three anonymous reviewers, and Robin Cooper, Mark H. B. Radford, and Paul A. Wehr for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this article. They would also like to thank Dr. Chester A. Insko for his kind and valuable advice during the planning of this experiment as well as the interpretation of its results, Kaori Akaishi for her help with data collection, and, finally, colleagues at Hokkaido University who helped to recruit potential participants from their classes. L'effet de discontinuit茅 entre les individus et entre les groupes est la tendance des relations entre les groupes 脿 锚tre plus comp茅titives que les relations entre les individus. Cet effet fut fermement d茅montr茅 dans des 茅tudes men茅es aux 脡tats-Unis, une soci茅t茅 caract茅ris茅e d' 芦individualiste禄. Dans la pr茅sente 茅tude, nous avons explor茅 dans quelle mesure l'effet 茅tait applicable 脿 une soci茅t茅 芦collectiviste禄 comme le Japon. 脌 partir du point de vue traditionnel de la psychologie interculturelle, laquelle met l'emphase sur la nature collectiviste des peuples de l'Asie de l'Est, il 茅tait attendu que l'effet de discontinuit茅 allait 锚tre plus grand au Japon qu'aux 脡tats-Unis. D'un autre c么t茅, se basant sur les donn茅es empiriques r茅centes qui sugg猫rent que les Nord-am茅ricains ne sont pas moins orient茅s vers le groupe que les Asiatiques de l'Est, il 茅tait attendu que l'effet de discontinuit茅 ne serait pas plus important au Japon qu'aux 脡tats-Unis. Cent soixante 茅tudiants universitaires japonais ont pris part 脿 un jeu de dilemme de prisonnier de 10 essais r茅p茅t茅s: 26 sessions entre individus et 18 sessions entre groupes. Suivant exactement la proc茅dure des exp茅riences men茅es pr茅c茅demment aux 脡tats-Unis, les individus et les groupes avaient la permission de communiquer face-脿-face avec leur opposant avant de prendre leur d茅cision. De plus, les participants de la condition entre groupes avaient 茅galement la possibilit茅 de converser librement avec les membres de leur propre groupe. Les r茅sultats se sont r茅v茅l茅s semblables 脿 ceux des 茅tudes ant茅rieures r茅alis茅es aux 脡tats-Unis; les groupes ont fait des choix plus comp茅titifs que les individus. En outre, ni la magnitude de l'effet de discontinuit茅, ni la fr茅quence des choix comp茅titifs faits par les groupes n'茅taient plus grands chez les Japonais comparativement 脿 la majorit茅 des 茅tudes ant茅rieures men茅es aux 脡tats-Unis. Ces r茅sultats soutiennent la robustesse interculturelle de l'effet de discontinuit茅 entre les individus et entre les groupes. Aussi, fait int茅ressant, ils contredisent la simple distinction entre l'individualisme et le collectivisme. Les implications pour des 茅tudes sur les cultures et les processus de groupe sont discut茅es. El efecto de discontinuidad entre individuos y entre grupos es la tendencia a que las relaciones entre grupos sean m谩s competitivas que las relaciones entre individuos. Se ha observado con insistencia en estudios conducidos en Estados Unidos, una sociedad caracterizada como "individualista". En el presente estudio, se explor贸 si el efecto se repet铆a en una sociedad "colectivista" como la japonesa. Desde la perspectiva tradicional de la psicolog铆a trans cultural, que subraya la naturaleza colectivista de los pueblos asi谩ticos, se esperaba que el efecto de discontinuidad fuese mayor en Jap贸n que en Estados Unidos. Por otra parte, con base en los hallazgos emp铆ricos recientes que sugieren que los estadounidenses no est谩n menos orientados al grupo que los de este asi谩tico, se esperaba que el efecto de discontinuidad no fuera mayor en Jap贸n que en los Estados Unidos. Ciento sesenta estudiantes universitarios japoneses participaron en un juego del dilema de un prisionero de diez ensayos repetidos: veintis茅is sesiones entre individuos y diez y ocho entre grupos. Siguiendo exactamente el procedimiento de los experimentos previos en los Estados Unidos, se permiti贸 tanto a los individuos como a los grupos una comunicaci贸n cara a cara con sus oponentes antes de tomar sus decisiones, y se permiti贸 a los participantes en la condici贸n entre grupos que conversaran libremente con los miembros de su propio grupo. Los resultados repitieron los hallazgos previos en los Estados Unidos; los grupos hicieron elecciones m谩s competitivas que los individuos. Adem谩s, ni la magnitud del efecto de discontinuidad ni la frecuencia de las elecciones competitivas de los grupos, fueron mayores en Jap贸n que en la mayor铆a de los estudios previos en Estados Unidos. Estos hallazgos sugieren la robustez trans cultural del efecto de discontinuidad entre individuos y entre grupos. Tambi茅n, de manera interesante, contradicen la simple distinci贸n entre individualismo y colectivismo. Se discutieron las implicaciones para los estudios sobre cultura y procesos grupales. PMID:24274777

  1. Predicting the ocurrence probability of freak waves baed on buoy data and non-stationary extreme value models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, A.; Menendez, M.; Mendez, F. J.; Coco, G.; Losada, I. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades, freak or rogue waves have become an important topic in engineering and science. Forecasting the occurrence probability of freak waves is a challenge for oceanographers, engineers, physicists and statisticians. There are several mechanisms responsible for the formation of freak waves, and different theoretical formulations (primarily based on numerical models with simplifying assumption) have been proposed to predict the occurrence probability of freak wave in a sea state as a function of N (number of individual waves) and kurtosis (k). On the other hand, different attempts to parameterize k as a function of spectral parameters such as the Benjamin-Feir Index (BFI) and the directional spreading (Mori et al., 2011) have been proposed. The objective of this work is twofold: (1) develop a statistical model to describe the uncertainty of maxima individual wave height, Hmax, considering N and k as covariates; (2) obtain a predictive formulation to estimate k as a function of aggregated sea state spectral parameters. For both purposes, we use free surface measurements (more than 300,000 20-minutes sea states) from the Spanish deep water buoy network (Puertos del Estado, Spanish Ministry of Public Works). Non-stationary extreme value models are nowadays widely used to analyze the time-dependent or directional-dependent behavior of extreme values of geophysical variables such as significant wave height (Izaguirre et al., 2010). In this work, a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistical model for the dimensionless maximum wave height (x=Hmax/Hs) in every sea state is used to assess the probability of freak waves. We allow the location, scale and shape parameters of the GEV distribution to vary as a function of k and N. The kurtosis-dependency is parameterized using third-order polynomials and the model is fitted using standard log-likelihood theory, obtaining a very good behavior to predict the occurrence probability of freak waves (x>2). Regarding the second objective of this work, we apply different algorithms using three spectral parameters (wave steepness, directional dispersion, frequential dispersion) as predictors, to estimate the probability density function of the kurtosis for a given sea state. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Ministry of Public Works) for providing the free surface measurement database.

  2. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de F谩tima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the S茫o Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relat贸rio de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relat贸rio de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather than the official, emission inventories are used, ozone and NO concentrations predicted by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) airshed model more closely match observed values.

  3. Tectonic and Diapiric Forcing of Western Puerto Rico Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Macinnes, S.; Hibbert, A.

    2008-12-01

    Puerto Rico's divide bifurcates in the west into a southern higher-elevation divide and a lower-elevation northern divide. The southern divide trends along exposures of weak, low density serpentinized ocean basement of the Monte de Estado Range forming the highest elevations in western Puerto Rico. Evidence of long-term active uplift along the serpentinite-cored divide is abundant. Streams draining Monte de Estado (MdE) radiate outward from an ellipse centered on the serpentinite exposure. The Rio Anasco draining the north flank of MdE is highly asymmetric, displaying a large scale tilt to the north while the Rio Guanajibo draining its south flank is highly asymmetric with tilt to the south. Subbasins of these rivers are asymmetric, tilted away from the core of the serpentinite exposures. Hypsometric integrals of the Anasco and Guanajibo basins are higher than basins of central and eastern Puerto Rico indicating an inequilibrium condition. The concurrence of morphologic indicators of active uplift (stream patterns and basin asymmetry and hypsometry) with the distribution of topographically elevated low-density serpentinite exposures indicates that MdE is experiencing active diapiric uplift. Northwestern Puerto Rico differs morphologically from the rest of the island. Underlain by island arc crust with exposed igneous and sedimentary strata similar to that of the eastern two-thirds of the island, the Atlantic shore has sea cliffs at the base of a coastal plateau west of the Rio Manati. Rivers draining western Puerto Rico have strikingly lower ratio to valley floor widths to valley height than the rivers to the east indicating incision in response to uplift is greater to the west. Western-most rivers have closer outlet spacing, lower distances from outlets to divide and their watershed have higher hypsometric intergrals all indicating that northwest Puerto Rico is actively uplifting at a rate greater than the eastern two-thirds of the island. North and south flowing tributaries to the Rio Culibrinas display drainage asymmetry reflecting an eastward tilt to northwestern Puerto Rico. This tilt and the uplift of northwest Puerto Rico is consistent with its position on the east flank of the Mona Rift footwall uplift.

  4. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish National Project CGL2009-13435/CLI.

  5. Implementation of CGPS at Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona harbours for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Perez, B.; Bosch, E.; Termens, A.; Martinez de Oses, X.

    2009-12-01

    The determination of global and regional mean sea level variations with accura-cies better than 1 mm/yr is a critical problem, the resolution of which is central to the current debate on climate change and its impact on the environment. Highly accurate time series from both satellite altimetry and tide gauges are needed. Measuring the sea surface height with in-situ tide gauges and GPS receivers pro-vides an efficient way to control the long term stability of the radar altimeters and other applications as the vertical land motion and studies of sea level change. L扙startit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l扙startit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from which each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support and delivered to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea level (PSMSL). Periodic surveying campaigns along the year are carried out for monitoring possible vertical movement of the geodetic benchmark adjacent to the tide gauge. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza har-bour in January 2003 and a near GPS reference station. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands (http://www.puertos.es). The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza, Barcelona and l扙startit har-bours is presented.The main objective is the implementation of these harbours as a precise geodetic areas for sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration. Actually is a CGPS with a radar tide gauge from Puertos del Estado and a GPS belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. A precise levelling has been made by the Cartographic Insti-tute of Catalonia, ICC. The instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 3000C device and a Thales Navigation Internet-Enabled GPS Continuous Geodetic Ref-erence Station (iCGRS) with a choke ring antenna, located at the EPSEB of the Technical University of Catalonia, UPC. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS and TIGA networks.

  6. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and a little far away from the geographic location of the pulse and acustic radar location on the Europa bridge. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. An intercomparison of the results of the three different tide gauges is presented and discussed. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish National Project CGL2009-13435/CLI.

  7. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 A脩OS Y M脕S

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducci贸n Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 a帽os y m谩s (MHC) son una minor铆a en Estados Unidos que est谩 a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, caracter铆sticas sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el prop贸sito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervenci贸n apropiada para la 鈥渆dad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodolog铆a Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que resid铆an en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utiliz贸 un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y biling眉es (ingl茅s/espa帽ol). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el an谩lisis de los datos se utiliz贸 estad铆stica descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersi贸n. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 卤 6 a帽os (rango 50鈥76 a帽os). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevenci贸n del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicaci贸n con la pareja. En la muestra se report贸 la presencia de s铆ntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepci贸n de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en t贸picos relacionados con prevenci贸n de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusi贸n Las MHC est谩n a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en t茅rminos de educaci贸n sobre prevenci贸n de VIH. PMID:25242862

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    S谩nchez-Ram铆rez, Carmen A; Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; M V谩squez Garibay, Edgar; Rodr铆guez-Anguiano, Ana K; C谩mara-L贸pez, Mar铆a E

    2016-01-01

    Introducci贸n: la ingesti贸n de c谩usticos (IC) en ni帽os y adolescentes puede ocasionar esofagitis erosiva, estenosis esof谩gica y disfagia, entidades que pueden alterar el proceso de alimentaci贸n y originar desnutrici贸n y retraso en el crecimiento.Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricio de ni帽os con IC y su asociaci贸n con disfagia y estenosis esof谩gica.M茅todos: estudio transversal anal铆tico en el que se incluy贸 a 62 ni帽os atendidos en un hospital pedi谩trico de referencia que sufrieron IC. Lasvariables independientes fueron la presencia/ausencia de disfagia y/o estenosis esof谩gica; las dependientes fueron el crecimiento y el estado nutricio evaluados mediante antropometr铆a. An谩lisis estad铆stico: c2, OR, IC 95%, kappa y t de Student.Resultados: la edad promedio fue 39,7 meses, el 39,7% eran ni帽as. Cuarenta y dos (77,8%) presentaron esofagitis erosiva (II-b, III-a, and III-b) en la endoscopia. En 24 (38,7%) ocurri贸 disfagia y en 40 (64,5%) estenosis esof谩gica. El puntaje z de la talla para la edad fue <-2 DE en cinco ni帽os (8,1%) y el puntaje z del IMC < -2 DE en tres (4,8%). En 24.2% la z-IMC fue > +1 DE. El puntaje z de los indicadores del brazo relacionados a reservas grasa y masa muscular tanto en el grupo de estenosis como de disfagia se localiz贸 en el lado negativo de la curva y ambos fueron significativamente menores a los del grupo sin disfagia o estenosis.Conclusiones: la proporci贸n de esofagitis erosiva, estenosis o disfagia fue elevada. En los ni帽os con disfagia o estenosis esof谩gica se identificaron reservas de grasa y masa muscular menores a las de los ni帽os sin estas complicaciones. PMID:27019238

  9. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Per煤: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco D铆ez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andr茅s G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracci贸n y retenci贸n en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Per煤. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 m茅dicos, enfermeras, obstetras y t茅cnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas m谩s pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen pol铆ticas sistem谩ticas de atracci贸n y retenci贸n de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formaci贸n y capacitaci贸n, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron tambi茅n mejoras en la vivienda y alimentaci贸n, mayor cercan铆a con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al dise帽ar pol铆ticas p煤blicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluaci贸n, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  10. CHOQUES AGREGADOS E INVERSI脫N EN CAPITAL HUMANO: EL LOGRO EDUCATIVO SUPERIOR DURANTE LA D脡CADA PERDIDA EN M脡XICO

    PubMed Central

    Pe帽a, Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    Este art铆culo documenta una respuesta agregada negativa del logro educativo superior (m谩s de 12 a帽os de escolaridad) en M茅xico a la recesi贸n de 1982鈥83 y el estancamiento que le sigui贸. La respuesta no fue homog茅nea entre g茅neros, regiones y entornos familiares. Los hombres experimentaron una ca铆da en el logro mientras que las mujeres experimentaron un crecimiento m谩s lento. En promedio, los estados con un mayor logro antes del choque experimentaron mayores ca铆das. La respuesta entre distintos entornos familiares no presenta un patr贸n claro. Sin embargo, el efecto negativo en el logro se observa incluso entre hermanos. La evidencia sugiere una historia por el lado de la demanda: la ca铆da en el ingreso de los hogares parece ser el determinante de la ca铆da/desaceleraci贸n del logro educativo superior. La conclusi贸n es que la recesi贸n y la falta de crecimiento que le sigui贸 tuvieron un efecto negativo importante y duradero en la formaci贸n de capacidades en M茅xico. PMID:25328251

  11. Science and technology disclosure in the state of Queretaro: Science and Technology for Children program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Flores, Rub茅n; Villeda Mu帽oz, Gabriel

    2007-03-01

    Science and technology disclosure is an integral part of our scientific work as researches; it is an induction process for children, young people and teachers of primary and secondary schools in the state of Queretaro. Education must be offered in a clear and objective way, it allows to the students apply the acquired knowledge to understand the world and improve his quality of life. Nowadays, the Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional Unidad Queretaro (CICATA-IPN Queretaro) together with the Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnologia del Estado de Queretaro (CONCYTEQ) have implemented the "Science and Technology for Children" program (Ciencia y Tecnologia para Ninos - CTN), it allows to the educative sector obtain information through the CONCYTEQ web page. The fist stage of the program was the development of two subjects: the brochure titled "Petroleum, Nonrenewable Natural Resource that Moves the World" and the manual "Experiments of Physics". At the moment we are working with the second stage of the program, it is about the energy generation using renewable sources such as: geothermal, aeolian, solar and biomass. The CTN program allows to students and teachers to create conscience about the importance of the development of the science of technology in our country.

  12. Characterisation of pks15/1 in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Silva-Hern醤dez, Francisco X; Mendoza-Dami醤, Fabiola; Ram韗ez-Hern醤dez, Maria Dolores; V醶quez-Medina, Karen; Widrobo-Garc韆, Lorena; Cuellar-Sanchez, Aremy; Mu耥z-Salazar, Raquel; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; P閞ez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Enciso-Moreno, Jos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectocontagious respiratory disease caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. A 7 base pair (bp) deletion in the locus polyketide synthase (pks)15/1 is described as polymorphic among members of the M. tuberculosis complex, enabling the identification of Euro-American, Indo-Oceanic and Asian lineages. The aim of this study was to characterise this locus in TB isolates from Mexico. One hundred twenty clinical isolates were recovered from the states of Veracruz and Estado de Mexico. We determined the nucleotide sequence of a 400 bp fragment of the locus pks15/1, while genotypic characterisation was performed by spoligotyping. One hundred and fifty isolates contained the 7 bp deletion, while five had the wild type locus. Lineages X (22%), LAM (18%) and T (17%) were the most frequent; only three (2%) of the isolates were identified as Beijing and two (1%) EAI-Manila. The wild type pks15/1 locus was observed in all Asian lineage isolates tested. Our results confirm the utility of locus pks15/1 as a molecular marker for identifying Asian lineages of the M. tuberculosis complex. This marker could be of great value in the epidemiological surveillance of TB, especially in countries like Mexico, where the prevalence of such lineages is unknown. PMID:24037193

  13. Contribui莽玫es para o projeto da c芒mara infravermelha Spartan do telesc贸pio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colabora莽茫o entre a Divis茫o de Astrof铆sica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Mil锚nio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a c芒mara infravermelho Spartan do telesc贸pio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de 贸ptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telesc贸pio SOAR. Projetamos solu莽玫es detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/m谩scaras de Lyot; subsistema de compacta莽茫o do mosaico de detectores em duas vers玫es distintas; subsistema de alimenta莽茫o de Nitrog锚nio l铆quido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervis茫o geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volum茅tricos produzindo solu莽玫es para a integra莽茫o de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribui莽玫es e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  14. Estudio ab initio del mecanismo de la reacci贸n HSO + O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebot Gil, I.

    La reacci贸n entre el radical HSO y el ozono ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista experimental debido a la importancia que tiene el radical HSO en la oxidaci贸n de los compuestos de azufre reductores y a que puede contribuir a la producci贸n de H2SO4 [1-4]. Se realizaron diversos estudios te贸ricos sobre la cin茅tica de la reacci贸n entre el radical HSO y el ozono. La reacci贸n del HSO con el ozono presenta tres canales diferentes : HSO + O3 &rightarrow &HSO2 + O2 &rightarrow &HS + 2 O2 &rightarrow &SO + OH + O2 La controversia existente entre los grupos experimentales sobre cu谩l de las tres v铆as es la predominante, se ha resuelto mediante un estudio te贸rico de todas ellas utilizando m茅todos ab initio. La estructura de todos los reactivos, productos, intermedios y estados de transici贸n ha sido optimizada a nivel ab initio utilizando los m茅todos UMP2 /6-31G** y QCISD/6-31G**.

  15. [WinDiet. Support decision system for the assessment of nutritional status and diet prescription].

    PubMed

    Esteves, E A; Siqueira, A D; Monteiro, J B; Ludwig, A

    1998-09-01

    A "Sistema de Apoio Decis鉶 para Avalia玢o do Estado Nutricional e Prescri玢o de Dietas" called "WinDiet" was developed. The system was developed on a computer compatible to IBM-PC standard. For system processing procedures through the computer, that is, interpretation, compilation, table generation en others, it was selected the Delphi version 1.0 software, from Borland International, for its using facilities, data basis accomplishment, communication environment and mainly an ample availability of mathematic, impression and programming resources besides allowing for all the programming operations to be accomplished on Windows environment. Knowing the procedures for nutritional evaluation and diet prescription was possible by consulting to text books, periodicals and the area experts. This system allows for individual nutritional assessment applying the anthropometric methods such as weight, height, skinfold thickness measurings, the lab methods such as albumin, transferrin, height/creatinin index and others, the dietary methods by food consumption recall, and the clinical methods that give emphasis to pathological antecedents and indicative sings of nutritional status. The software also turns possible to prescribe and calculate diets from recommendation besides having an actual data basis which may be changed or modified. Yet it maintains the individual description from all evaluation and menus, emitting its complete reports. It was verified that it reduce significantly the working time and increase the precision of estimate and nutritional diagnosis. Thus, the WinDiet may be used in nutritionist's offices, ambulatories, hospitals as well as on nutritional researches and education. PMID:9951537

  16. A Utiliza玢o da Astronomia como Tema Interdisciplinar e Aplica珲es de Objetos de Aprendizagem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Este trabalho visa analisar a possibilidade de relacionar conte鷇os aplicados no ensino fundamental e m閐io de forma interdisciplinar por interm閐io da astronomia, com a interven玢o de objetos de aprendizagem que possam integrar as disciplinas e a utiliza玢o de recursos tecnol骻icos. Em uma pesquisa pr関ia com 20 professores de uma escola estadual situada na cidade de Guarulhos foi observado que apenas 25% dos professores utilizam algum recurso tecnol骻ico para o desenvolvimento de conte鷇os pertinentes sua disciplina, tais como sites e softwares educativos, sendo que a maioria absoluta continua ensinando apenas com livros did醫icos. A maior parte dos professores apresenta dificuldades em trabalhar sua disciplina de forma interdisciplinar, ou seja, 75% dos professores preferem aplicar os conte鷇os seguindo uma hierarquia linear de t髉icos, evitando a discuss鉶 de temas que de alguma forma est鉶 relacionados. A astronomia pode vir fascinar o ser humano e despertar sua curiosidade promovendo um maior interesse no aprendizado, podendo favorecer an醠ises interdisciplinares de forma l骻ica e objetiva, desta forma colocar a astronomia como tema motivador interdisciplinar, pode ser relevante no que se refere ao distanciamento da fragmenta玢o dos conte鷇os. No Estado de S鉶 Paulo, a implanta玢o da proposta curricular no ensino fundamental e m閐io mostra claramente a inser玢o da astronomia na maior parte das s閞ies, principalmente na 6陋 s閞ie em que todo o bimestre se fala de astronomia.

  17. The Use of Polliniferous Resources by Melipona capixaba, an Endangered Stingless Bee Species

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees鈥 original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Concei莽茫o do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the S茫o Paulo de Arac锚 district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, 鈥渞uderal鈥 (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants. PMID:23464528

  18. Agregaci髇 de para-H2 en chorros supers髇icos: del d韒ero al s髄ido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar韆 Fern醤dez, Jos

    En este trabajo se mostrar醤 los estudios de expansiones supers髇icas de para-H2 desde toberas criog閚icas, realizados en el laboratorio de Fluidodin醡ica Molecular del IEM. Hemos registrado los espectros Raman de dichas expansiones en el intervalo de frecuencias de 4145 a 4162 cm-1, pr髕imo a la l韓ea Q(0) del mon髆ero no rotante H2, a 4161.18 cm-1. En el espectro Raman, adem醩 de la l韓ea Q(0) del mon髆ero, se observan unos picos d閎iles, que, por su comportamiento con la temperatura de la tobera y la distancia a la misma, asignamos a la transici髇 hom髄oga en agregados de p-H2. Dependiendo de las condiciones, se observan agregados peque駉s (de 2 a 13 mol閏ulas de p-H2), agregados medios y masivos, y se llega incluso al l韖uido y al s髄ido. Las asignaciones se apoyan en un modelo sencillo, basado en la perturbaci髇, debida al potencial intermolecular, de los estados vibracionales v=0 y v=1 en los agregados de p-H2. Se mostrar醤 detalles de la instalaci髇 experimental, ejemplos de los espectros obtenidos en diversas condiciones, y detalles de la interpretaci髇 cuantitativa.

  19. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  20. T鉶 perto de casa, t鉶 longe de n髎: etnografia das novas margens no centro da urbe

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Por Lu韘

    2011-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois , desde 2007, 揜ichard Perry University professor no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Pr醫icas Comunit醨ias na Universidade da Pensilv鈔ia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, Hist髍ia e Medicina Social da Universidade da Calif髍nia, S鉶 Francisco. A publica玢o, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio1 projectaria o seu nome muito para al閙 dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no cora玢o porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de hero韓a em S鉶 Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu 鷏timo livro, Righteous Dopefiend2. Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.a edi玢o do 揈thnografeast. Foi ent鉶 que aproveit醡os a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo pr髉rio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome s vem ao caso por evocar o pa韘 onde passou uma parte da inf鈔cia. PMID:22013286

  1. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors. PMID:20857605

  2. La Observaci贸n Sistem谩tica de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las caracter铆sticas de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un 谩rea de creciente atenci贸n por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en pa铆ses desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodolog铆as para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las m谩s utilizadas es la Observaci贸n Sistem谩tica de Vecindarios 鈥揝ystematic Social Observation SSO, en ingl茅s鈥攑orque permite recolectar informaci贸n acerca de diversas caracter铆sticas del entorno f铆sico, social, ambiental y econ贸mico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este art铆culo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir c贸mo se dise帽贸 e implement贸 la Observaci贸n Sistem谩tica de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) se帽alar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementaci贸n del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodolog铆a ofrecer铆a al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  3. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigaci贸n y la Pr谩ctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas est谩n siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud p煤blica. El objetivo del presente art铆culo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relaci贸n a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigaci贸n y la pr谩ctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociaci贸n del status socioecon贸mico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturaci贸n, inmigraci贸n, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, m谩s estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protecci贸n a poblaciones hispanas no cl铆nicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiolog铆a de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevenci贸n primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  4. PREFACE: Third Congress on Materials Science and Engineering (CNCIM-Mexico 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss, Romeo; Murrieta-Hern谩ndez, Gabriel; Aguayo-Gonz谩lez, Aar贸n; Rubio-Rosas, Efra铆n; Chigo-Anota, Ernesto; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique

    2013-06-01

    The Third Congress on Material Science and Engineering (CNCIM-M茅xico 2012), which took place in M茅rida, M茅xico, from 27 February to 2 March 2012 was organized by three research groups (cuerpos acad茅micos) from the Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n: Ingenier铆a F铆sica (UADY-CA-27), Modelado y Simulaci贸n Computacional de Sistemas F铆sicos (UADY-CA-101) and Qu铆mica Fundamental y Aplicada (UADY-CA-32), in collaboration with the Centro de Investigaci贸n y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav-M茅rida). The First Congress in Material Science and Engineering (CNCIM-2010), was organized in Puebla, M茅xico in February 2010. This was followed by CNCIM-2011 held in Toluca, M茅xico in February 2011. The CNCIM-M茅xico 2012 Conference consisted of plenary talks (8), invited talks (10), oral contributions (54) and poster presentations (70). The topics of the Conference were: Synthesis and Preparation of Materials: Organic and Inorganic Characterization of Materials: Novel Methods and Techniques Applications of Materials: Environment, Medicine, Pharmacy, Technology, Food and Renewable Energy New Materials: Composites, Nanostructures, and from Natural Sources Theory: New Methods and Computer Simulations We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Institutions and Sponsors supporting the Conference, and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their invaluable efforts in order to guarantee the complete success of this conference. Editors Romeo de Coss Centro de Investigaci贸n y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. (Cinvestav-M茅rida) A.P. 73 Cordemex 97310, M茅rida, Yucat谩n, M茅xico decoss@mda.cinvestav.mx Gabriel Murrieta-Hern谩ndez Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n Calle 60 No. 491-A, Centro Hist贸rico, C.P. 97000, M茅rida, Yucat谩n, M茅xico murrieta@uady.mx Aar贸n Aguayo-Gonz谩lez Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n Calle 60 No. 491-A, Centro Hist贸rico, C.P. 97000, M茅rida, Yucat谩n, M茅xico aguayo@uady.mx Efra铆n Rubio-Rosas Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla Ciudad Universitaria, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Puebla, M茅xico efrain.rubio@cuv.buap.mx Ernesto Chigo-Anota Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla Ciudad Universitaria, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Puebla, M茅xico ernesto.chigo@correo.buap.mx Enrique Vigueras-Santiago Universidad Aut贸noma del Estado de M茅xico Instituto Literario No. 100, Col. Centro 50000, Toluca, Edo. de M茅xico, M茅xico vigueras@uaemex.mx Session Chairs Gabriel Canto Santana, Universidad Aut贸noma de Campeche. Enrique Vigueras Santiago, Universidad Aut贸noma del Estado de M茅xico. C茅sar Cab, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Alejandro 谩vila Ortega, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Jes煤s Barr贸n Zambrano, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Maritza de Coss, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Jorge A. Tapia Gonz谩lez, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. David Mu帽oz Rodr铆guez, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Mario P茅rez Cortes, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Jes煤s Garc铆a Serrano, Universidad Aut贸noma del Estado de Hidalgo. Rub茅n Arturo Medina Esquivel, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. C茅sar R. Acosta, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Organizing Committee Aar贸n Aguayo Gonz谩lez, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Gabriel Murrieta Hern谩ndez, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Alejandro Tapia Gonz谩lez, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Cristian Carrera Figueiras, Universidad Aut贸noma de Yucat谩n. Heriberto Hern谩ndez Cocoletzi, Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla. Ernesto Chigo Anota, Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla. Efra铆n Rubio Rosas, Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla. Enrique Vigueras Santiago, Universidad Aut贸noma del Estado de M茅xico. Romeo de Coss, Centro de Investigaci贸n y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav-M茅rida). Organizers: Organizers Sponsors: Sponsors

  5. [Complaint analysis derived from surgical practice].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germ醤; Rodr韌uez-Su醨ez, Francisco Javier; Campos-Castolo, Esther Mahuina; Carrillo-Jaimes, Arturo; Zavala-Su醨ez, Etelvina; Aguirre-Gas, H閏tor Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the analysis of medical complaints presented to the National Commission on Medical Arbitration (Comisi髇 Nacional de Arbitraje M閐ico, CONAMED) between June 1996 and December 2007 to determine its magnitude and to identify the causes of safety problems in medical care. Out of 182,407 complaints presented to CONAMED, 87% were resolved by the Office of Orientation and Management. The remaining 18,443 complaints were presented to the Council Directorate. Of those cases, 48% were resolved by an agreement between the complainants and the physicians, 31% were not resolved by this method, and 3% were irresolute complaints. The highest frequency of complaints was registered in the Federal District (Distrito Federal) and the State of M閤ico (Estado de M閤ico), mainly corresponding to social security institutions and private hospitals. Among the nine most frequently involved specialties, six were surgical specialties. Malpractice was identified in 25% of all cases. The principal demands of those making complaints were the refunding of expenses in patient medical care (51%) and indemnification (40%) and, in those, the average amount of payments was 4.6 times greater. Due to the incidence of medical complaints, it was reasonable to investigate the causes and to take preventive and corrective actions required for its decrease. It was proposed to the Mexican Academy of Surgery that this organization should use their educational leadership and assume the vanguard in the dissemination and promotion of the WHO plan "Safe Surgery Saves Lives" and the implementation in Mexico of the "Surgical Safety Checklist." PMID:19671273

  6. Epidemiological evaluation of apical periodontitis prevalence in an urban Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Berlinck, Teresa; Tinoco, Justine Monteiro Monnerat; Carvalho, Fernanda Leal Fonseca; Sassone, Luciana Moura; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in an urban Brazilian population according to gender, age group and tooth type. Data were collected from clinical files containing the medical and dental histories and periapical radiographs of 1,126 patients treated at the School of Dentistry at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro between March 2000 and December 2010. A total of 15,724 periapical radiographs were evaluated. All the radiographs were evaluated by two independent, previously calibrated endodontists (kappa = 0.88). Periapical areas on the radiographs were classified as N (normal) or AR (apical radiolucency). The frequency of AP and the 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were calculated according to gender, age group and tooth type. Differences between groups were calculated using the Z-test at a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). AP was present in 7.87% of the samples, with 16.70% occurring on previously endodontically treated teeth and 44.65% occurring on teeth referred for endodontic treatment (TR-RCT). The frequency of AP was higher among females (64%) than among males (35%). The central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth. The frequency of AP was higher among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age. In this population, AP was more prevalent among females and among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age, and the central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth. PMID:25760068

  7. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gon莽alves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experi锚ncias pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A an谩lise pretende contribuir para que pol铆ticas p煤blicas dedicadas 脿 promo莽茫o da sa煤de sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promo莽茫o do direito 脿 preven莽茫o. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da regi茫o metropolitana da cidade de S茫o Paulo (comunidades cat贸licas, da umbanda, do candombl茅 e de diferentes denomina莽玫es evang茅licas) sobre inicia莽茫o sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracep莽茫o e preven莽茫o das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tens茫o entre tradi莽茫o e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  8. [Yesterdays and happenings at hospitals of Tehuac醤, Puebla, M閤ico].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The history of the hospital of Tehuac醤, the second city importance in Puebla State, began in 1744, when the Hospital de San Juan de Dios (Hospital of St. John) was founded; in 1820, it was converted into the Municipal of Civil Hospital. The medical establishement continues to provide services to the poor to this day annual also covers health public workers of services for the municipality. The Hospital de la Cruz Roja Mexicana (The Mexican Red Cross Hospital) was created in 1934 provide medical services for accident victims: The hospital services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) began in 1953; an earthquake destroyed the building in 1973, and a new hospital was inaugurated in 1979; at present, it readers services to 98,000 persons. The Sanatorio del Sagrado Coraz髇 (Sacred Heart Sanatorium) is a private religious institution founded at the beginning of the second half the 20th century. In 1996, the Hospital General (General Hospital) began to provide services, takes care of the poor of the geographical region, and is financed with federal funds. The Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para Trabajadores del Estado (Institute of Securtiy and Social Services for the Workers of the State, ISSSTE) has a small hospital with 10 beds, it was founded in 1995. PMID:15087055

  9. [Barriers and Facilitators in the Recruitment and Retention of Heterosexual Couples for Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hern醤dez-Hern醤dez, Alberto L; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2010-01-01

    El Reclutamiento y la Retenci髇 (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el 閤ito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los 韓dices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informati髇, Motivati髇 y Conductas-Espa駉l (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indic que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelaci髇 del estado serl骻ico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinaci髇 adecuada y el seguimiento telef髇ico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantaci髇 de programas de prevenci髇 el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptaci髇 de aspectos log韘ticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  10. V韓culos sobre um modelo de quartess阯cia de Chaplygin usando observa珲es do sat閘ite chandra da fra玢o de massa de g醩 em aglomerados de gal醲ias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observa珲es de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expans鉶 do Universo est acelerando. Segundo as equa珲es de Einstein uma componente com press鉶 negativa (energia escura) necess醨ia para explicar a acelera玢o c髎mica. Al閙 da energia escura usualmente admitido que no Universo h tamb閙 uma mat閞ia ex髏ica com press鉶 zero, que chamada de mat閞ia escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na forma玢o de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que mat閞ia e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas atrav閟 de uma 鷑ica componente, que tem sido denominada de quartess阯cia. Um exemplo de fluido com essas caracter韘ticas o G醩 de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equa玢o de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (g醩 de Chaplygin) e vinculamos par鈓etros do modelo utilizando observa珲es em raios-X do sat閘ite Chandra da fra玢o de massa de g醩 em aglomerados de gal醲ias. Uma compara玢o dos v韓culos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura nula e o par鈓etro a est compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  11. VIII Olimp韆da Brasileira de Astronomia e Astron醬tica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, Jo鉶 Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De F醫ima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, Jos Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motiva珲es pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimp韆da Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astron醬tica, em colabora玢o com a Ag阯cia Espacial Brasileira. Esta amplia玢o contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimp韆da. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimp韆da Brasileira de Astronomia e Astron醬tica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribu韉os por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em n鷐ero de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimp韆da Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em 羐uas de Lind骾a, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reuni鉶 anual da Sociedade Astron鬽ica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em S鉶 Jos dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas quest鮡s de Astron醬tica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as a珲es subseq黣ntes.

  12. Chemical defense in the red seaweed Plocamium brasiliense: spatial variability and differential action on herbivores.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R C; Vasconcelos, M A

    2014-08-01

    Species of Plocamium are known as prolific sources of halogenated secondary metabolites exhibiting few explored ecological roles. In this study the crude extracts from specimens of P. brasiliense collected in two distinct places, Enseada do Forno and Praia Rasa, B煤zios, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, were evaluated as defense against the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus and the crab Acanthonyx scutiformis. These specimens produce a similar amount of crude extract and also halogenated monoterpene compound-types, but individuals of P. brasiliense from Praia Rasa exhibit a major compound representing about 59% of the total chemicals. Natural concentrations of the crude extracts obtained from both specimens of P. brasiliense significantly inhibited the herbivory by the sea urchin L. variegatus, but had no significant effect on the feeding by A. scutiformis, a crab commonly associated to chemically defended host. Crude extract from P. brasiliense collected at Praia Rasa was more efficient as defense against L. variegatus than that crude extract from populations of this alga from Enseada do Forno, probably due to presence of a major secondary metabolite. These two studied population live under different environmental conditions, but they are only about 30 Km apart. However, it is impossible to affirm that environmental characteristics (abiotic or biotic) would be responsible for the difference of defensive potential found in the two populations of P. brasiliense studied here. Further genetic studies will be necessary to clarify this question and to explain why populations of a single species living in different but close locations can exhibit distinct chemicals. PMID:25296201

  13. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gon莽alves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experi锚ncias pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A an谩lise pretende contribuir para que pol铆ticas p煤blicas dedicadas 脿 promo莽茫o da sa煤de sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promo莽茫o do direito 脿 preven莽茫o. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da regi茫o metropolitana da cidade de S茫o Paulo (comunidades cat贸licas, da umbanda, do candombl茅 e de diferentes denomina莽玫es evang茅licas) sobre inicia莽茫o sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracep莽茫o e preven莽茫o das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tens茫o entre tradi莽茫o e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  14. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implanta玢o

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Par鈓etros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a F韘ica como constru玢o humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto se ela est sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino M閐io e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela est sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplica玢o de um question醨io a partir do 2 semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de F韘ica, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeir鉶 Pires e Mau no estado S鉶 Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao question醨io nos munic韕ios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeir鉶 Pires e Mau, 57,4% n鉶 aplicaram nenhum t髉ico de astronomia, 70,2% n鉶 utilizaram laborat髍io, 89,4% n鉶 utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planet醨ios e 38,3% n鉶 indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conte鷇o potencialmente significativo, esta n鉶 fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto s鉶 necess醨ias propostas que visem estrat間ias para a educa玢o continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos espec韋icos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  15. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAF脥O PARA AM脡RICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestaci贸n de los servicios m茅dicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta pr谩ctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los pa铆ses en desarrollo compartir谩n este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en Am茅rica Latina sostienen que ser谩 una herramienta 煤til para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atenci贸n de salud. Aunque Am茅rica Latina quiz谩 se convierta en un lugar para la investigaci贸n e investigaci贸n de estos procedimientos, no est谩 claro c贸mo la telemedicina podr铆a contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atenci贸n de salud p煤blicos cr贸nicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  16. PubMed

    Fernandes, Por Lu韘

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois , desde 2007, "Richard Perry University professor" no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Pr醫icas Comunit醨ias na Universidade da Pensilv鈔ia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, Hist髍ia e Medicina Social da Universidade da Calif髍nia, S鉶 Francisco. A publica玢o, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio(1) projectaria o seu nome muito para al閙 dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no cora玢o porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de hero韓a em S鉶 Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu 鷏timo livro, Righteous Dopefiend(2). Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.(a) edi玢o do "Ethnografeast". Foi ent鉶 que aproveit醡os a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo pr髉rio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome s vem ao caso por evocar o pa韘 onde passou uma parte da inf鈔cia. PMID:22013286

  17. Tend锚ncias De Teses e Disserta莽玫es Sobre Educa莽茫o em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e disserta莽玫es defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produ莽茫o e conhecer as principais tend锚ncias da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 disserta莽玫es de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em fun莽茫o dos seguintes aspectos: isntitui莽茫o, ano de defesa, n铆vel escolar abrangido no estudo, foco tem谩tico do estudo e g锚nero de trabalho acad锚mico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulga莽茫o ampla da produ莽茫o acad锚mica na 谩rea. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investiga莽玫es decorrentes, apontar as contribui莽玫es dessa produ莽茫o para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  18. Fontes bin谩rias supermoles de raios X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as caracter铆sticas f铆sicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados 贸pticos e em altas energias, no 芒mbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de bin谩rias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolom茅tricas. Esse sistemas s茫o compostos por uma an茫 branca realizando fus茫o em sua superf铆cie, a partir de mat茅ria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os res铆duos de fus茫o se acumulam na superf铆cie da an茫 branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cen谩rios propostos para as explos玫es de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunica莽茫o o estado da arte das caracter铆sticas f铆sicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no 芒mbito das VCs. Procuramos tamb茅m situar esses objetos em rela莽茫o 脿s vari谩veis gal谩cticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracer铆sticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada 茅 aquela pedag贸gico-cognitiva cl谩ssica de um trabalho de IC na 谩rea de ci锚ncias exatas.

  19. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determina la esterilidad inducida presentaron un coeficiente de competitividad entre 0.2 y 0.5. Esto sugiere que los machos esteriles compliten exitosamente y son compatibles con moscas de diferentes origenes geograficos. (author)

  20. Simula珲es Num閞icas de Rota玢o Nuclear Comet醨ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Winter, O. C.

    1999-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta os resultados iniciais de simula珲es num閞icas da evolu玢o rotacional, de um n鷆leo comet醨io n鉶 esf閞ico, ao longo de uma passagem peri閘ica, levando-se em conta os torques devido a exist阯cia dos jatos de poeira e de g醩. Inicialmente os autores apresentam um modelo simples (primeira aproxima玢o), com somente um 鷑ico jato na extremidade do semi-eixo maior, para compreender a varia玢o positiva ou negativa que estas for鏰s n鉶 gravitacionais exercem sobre o per韔do de rota玢o comet醨io. Posteriormente incrementa-se o n鷐ero de jatos, os quais s鉶 distribu韉os ao longo da superf韈ie comet醨ia, para observar-se a contribui玢o dos efeitos provenientes dos torques origin醨ios da libera玢o da poeira e g醩 comet醨ios, que provavelmente violar a suposi玢o da livre precess鉶. Os estados rotacionais, sob torques induzidos devido sublima玢o, dependem fortemente da localiza玢o das 醨eas ativas do n鷆leo. Os cometas P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, P/Tempel 2, P/Forbes e C/Meunier-Dupouy ser鉶 observados fotometricamente, pelos autores, no Laborat髍io Nacional de Astrof韘ica (LNA) ao longo de algumas noites consecutivas em abril, junho e julho de 1999. Estas observa珲es ser鉶 comparadas com as simula珲es num閞icas de rota玢o comet醨ia.

  1. A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Ricardo

    Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'脡tat de Guanajuato, situ茅 dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a pr猫s de 17 000 puits profonds, d'o霉 sont extraits pr猫s de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le d茅bit renouvelable estim茅. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administr茅e dans le cadre d'une juridiction f茅d茅rale, le gouvernement de l'脡tat fait tout son possible pour assurer le d茅veloppement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. 脡tant ainsi limit茅 脿 appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau de l'脡tat s'est appliqu茅 脿 d茅velopper une strat茅gie sur deux plans. Tout d'abord, des 茅tudes hydrog茅ologiques de base et des mod猫les math茅matiques d'茅coulement et de transport de nappe ont 茅t茅 r茅alis茅s 脿 partir d'un suivi d'ensemble des puits existants et d'une r茅vision g茅n茅rale du contexte g茅ologique de l'脡tat. Ensuite, on a soutenu une structure de participation des usagers de l'eau aux actions de gestion de l'eau, 脿 partir de la diss茅mination de l'information pour la mise en place de projets pilotes efficaces d'utilisation de l'eau, avec des aides financi猫res, techniques et politiques de l'脡tat. Simultan茅ment, un effort coordonn茅 en vue de l'ach猫vement de l'enregistrement des usagers de l'eau a 茅t茅 fait avec l'autorit茅 f茅d茅rale, en m锚me temps que d'autres mesures de soutien, telles que des programmes de formation et des campagnes de surveillance. Cet article pr茅sente une vue d'ensemble des r茅alisations de projets et des d茅fis. Resumen El Estado de Guanajuato, situado en el centro de M茅xico, ocupa menos del 2% de la superficie del pa铆s. Tiene casi 17.000 pozos profundos, de los cuales se extrae cerca de 4.000 hm3/a, lo que supone un exceso de 1.000 hm3/a respecto a la recarga anual. Puesto que el agua es administrada a nivel federal en M茅xico, el gobierno del Estado afronta el reto de asegurar el desarrollo de la poblaci贸n sin disponer de medios formales de intervenci贸n. Dadas las limitaciones para aplicar pol铆ticas y medidas reguladoras, el programa del agua en el Estado tiene como objetivo principal la implantaci贸n de una doble estrategia. Por un lado, desarrollar estudios hidrogeol贸gicos b谩sicos y modelos matem谩ticos de flujo y transporte de los acu铆feros, bas谩ndose en una campa帽a exhaustiva de pozos existentes y en una revisi贸n del marco geol贸gico del Estado. Por otro lado, promover-con soporte financiero, t茅cnico y pol铆tico-una estructura de participaci贸n de los usuarios en las acciones de gesti贸n, incluyendo desde la difusi贸n de la informaci贸n hasta la implantaci贸n de proyectos piloto para un uso eficiente del agua. Simult谩neamente, se ha llevado a cabo un esfuerzo coordinado con la autoridad federal para completar el registro de usuarios del agua, adem谩s de promover otras medidas de ayuda, como programas de capacitaci贸n y campa帽as de muestreo. En este art铆culo, se ofrece una visi贸n general de los logros y retos del proyecto.

  2. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  3. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J. . E-mail: tormos@usal.es; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Guara, M.

    2007-03-15

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva de T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)

  4. Quality of surgical care in hospitals providing internship training in Kenya: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Mwinga, Stephen; Kulohoma, Colette; Mwaniki, Paul; Idowu, Rachel; Masasabi, John; English, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate services in hospitals providing internship training to graduate doctors in Kenya. Methods A survey of 22 internship training hospitals was conducted. Availability of key resources spanning infrastructure, personnel, equipment and drugs was assessed by observation. Outcomes and process of care for pre-specified priority conditions (head injury, chest injury, fractures, burns and acute abdomen) were evaluated by auditing case records. Results Each hospital had at least one consultant surgeon. Scheduled surgical outpatient clinics, major ward rounds and elective (half day) theatre lists were provided once per week in 91%, 55% and 9%, respectively. In all other hospitals, these were conducted twice weekly. Basic drugs were not always available (e.g. gentamicin, morphine and pethidine in 50%, injectable antistaphylococcal penicillins in 5% hospitals). Fewer than half of hospitals had all resources needed to provide oxygen. One hundred and forty-five of 956 cases evaluated underwent operations under general or spinal anaesthesia. We found operation notes for 99% and anaesthetic records for 72%. Pre-operatively measured vital signs were recorded in 80% of cases, and evidence of consent to operation was found in 78%. Blood loss was documented in only one case and sponge and instrument counts in 7%. Conclusions Evaluation of surgical services would be improved by development and dissemination of clear standards of care. This survey suggests that internship hospitals may be poorly equipped and documented care suggests inadequacies in quality and training. Objectif Evaluer les services dans les h么pitaux offrant des stages de formation 脿 des m茅decins dipl么m茅s au Kenya. M茅thodes Enqu锚te aupr猫s de 22 h么pitaux offrant des stages de formation. La disponibilit茅 des ressources cl茅s incluant infrastructure, personnel, mat茅riel et m茅dicaments a 茅t茅 茅valu茅e par observation. Les r茅sultats et processus de soins pour des affections prioritaires pr茅d茅finies (blessure 脿 la t锚te, blessure 脿 la poitrine, fractures, br没lures et maux d'estomac aigus) ont 茅t茅 茅valu茅s par l'audit des dossiers des cas. R茅sultats Chaque h么pital avait au moins un chirurgien consultant. Les cliniques chirurgicales ambulatoires planifi茅es, les principales tourn茅es dans les chambres d'hospitalisation et des listes d'op茅rations choisies (demi-journ茅e) ont 茅t茅 fournies une fois par semaine dans 91%, 55% et 9% des cas respectivement. Dans tous les autres h么pitaux, cela a 茅t茅 effectu茅 deux fois par semaine. Les m茅dicaments de base n鈥櫭﹖aient pas toujours disponibles (par ex. la gentamicine, la morphine et la p茅thidine dans 50% des h么pitaux, les p茅nicillines anti-staphylococciques injectables dans 5%). Moins de la moiti茅 des h么pitaux disposaient de toutes les ressources n茅cessaires pour fournir de l'oxyg猫ne. 145 sur 956 cas 茅valu茅s ont subi des op茅rations sous anesth茅sie g茅n茅rale ou rachidienne. Nous avons retrouv茅 des notes d'op茅ration pour 99% des cas et des dossiers d'anesth茅sie pour 72%. Les mesures pr茅op茅ratoires des signes vitaux ont 茅t茅 enregistr茅es dans 80% des cas et la preuve du consentement pour l'op茅ration a 茅t茅 trouv茅e dans 78% des cas. La perte de sang a 茅t茅 document茅e dans un seul cas et le comptage des 茅ponges et instruments dans 7% des cas. Conclusions L鈥櫭﹙aluation des services de chirurgie serait am茅lior茅e par le d茅veloppement et la diss茅mination de normes de soins claires. Cette 茅tude sugg猫re que les h么pitaux offrant des stages peuvent 锚tre mal 茅quip茅s et les soins enregistr茅s sugg猫rent des insuffisances dans la qualit茅 et la formation. Objetivo Evaluar los servicios en hospitales que proveen entrenamiento a m茅dicos graduados en Kenia. M茅todos Estudio en 22 hospitales universitarios con entrenamiento de m茅dicos residentes. Se evalu贸 mediante observaci贸n la disponibilidad de recursos claves, incluyendo infraestructura, personal, equipamiento y medicamentos. Se evaluaron los resultados y procesos de cuidados para condiciones prioritarias especificadas previamente (traumatismo craneoencef谩lico, lesi贸n tor谩cica, fracturas, quemaduras y abdomen agudo) mediante la auditor铆a de historias cl铆nicas. Resultados Cada hospital ten铆a al menos un cirujano consultor. Se entregaban una vez por semana las listas de intervenciones quir煤rgicas programadas en cl铆nicas ambulatorias, en las rondas de visitas a las principales salas y las cirug铆as electivas (medio d铆a) en 91%, 55% y 9% de los hospitales, respectivamente. En los dem谩s hospitales se llevaban a cabo dos veces por semana. Los medicamentos b谩sicos no estaban siempre disponibles (ej. gentamicina, morfina y meperidina en 50%, penicilina anti-estafiloc贸cica inyectable 5% de los hospitales). Menos de la mitad de los hospitales ten铆an todos los recursos necesarios para proveer ox铆geno. En 145 de 956 casos evaluados se llev贸 a cabo la cirug铆a con anestesia general o intradural. Encontramos apuntes quir煤rgicos para un 99% y registros de la anestesia para el 72%. Se ten铆an registros de los signos vitales pre-quir煤rgicos en un 80% de los casos y evidencia del consentimiento del paciente a ser intervenido en un 78%. Se documentaba p茅rdida de sangre solo en un caso y conteo de esponjas e instrumental en un 7%. Conclusiones La evaluaci贸n de los servicios quir煤rgicos podr铆a mejorarse mediante el desarrollo y la diseminaci贸n de est谩ndares de cuidados precisos. Este estudio sugiere que los hospitales universitarios podr铆an estar mal equipados y los cuidados documentados sugieren que existen deficiencias tanto a nivel calidad como en el entrenamiento. PMID:25348925

  5. Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Estimative of CO2 and CO Vehicular Emission Contribution from the Megacity of S茫O Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Nogueira, T.; Mart铆nez, P. J.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R. M.; Ynoue, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of S茫o Paulo (MASP) is composed by 39 municipalities with a population of 20 million inhabitants in an area of 8,511 km2. The main source of pollutants to the air is the vehicular emission: exhaust and evaporative fuel. The climate is influenced by the sea breeze from the Southeast direction - MASP is approximately 40 km far from the sea; and by the valley- mountain circulation, due to the presence of the Serra do Mar Mountains in the Northwest part of the city. This wind circulation suffers the influence of the heat island due to the high degree of urbanization. The MASP fleet is composed by approximately 7 million passenger cars and freight vehicles, with 85% light duty vehicles (LDVs), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs, diesel + 5% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 2% use diesel (CETESB, 2013a). The use of gasohol or hydrous ethanol by the flex-fuel is determined by the price of the fuel. Vehicle traffic is the main source of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC), and contributes to the formation of inhalable particulate matter emissions (PM10) as well as being the principal source of carbon dioxide (CO2). 97% of all CO emissions, 85% of HC, 82% of NOx, 36% of sulfur dioxide (SO2), and 36% of all PM10 emissions come from mobile sources (CETESB, 2013b). The official inventory is calculated with the botton-up methodology: calculation of the emission factors in dynamometer, estimation of the average distance each kind of vehicles drives per day and the total number of vehicles in circulation. The values considered a deterioration factor due to the vehicle aging. The top-down methodology was performed from measurements performed in experiments in traffic roads and tunnels. The data presented here compared tunnel measurements performed in 2004 and 2011. The official data estimate an emission of 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles) and 128 million tons per year of CO. The top-down estimative based on tunnel measurements resulted in values approximately 5 times higher, being the difference more attributable to the estimative of the diesel emission factor. The uncertainties are related to the deterioration of the emission factor with time and the driving pattern. The diurnal variation of CO2 atmospheric concentration is characterized by the mobile source emission pattern. CETESB. Relat贸rio Anual de Qualidade do Ar no Estado de S茫o Paulo 2012. Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, S茫o Paulo, Brazil, 2013a. CETESB. Plano de Controle de Polui莽茫o Veicular do Estado de S茫o Paulo 2011 /2013. Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, S茫o Paulo, Brazil, 2013b.

  6. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of S茫o Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient铆fico e Tecno贸gico (CNPq); Coordena莽茫o de Aperfei莽oamento de Pessoal de N铆vel Superior (CAPES); Funda莽茫o de Amparo 谩 Pesquisa do Estado de S茫o Paulo (FAPESP); Funda莽茫o de Amparo 谩 Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de F铆sica (SBF) and Instituto de F铆sica da Universidade de S茫o Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed fifty years of scientific activities at the University of Sao Paulo (USP). He dedicated most of his life to the development of experimental nuclear physics in the country. We had a special session where his life and achievements were remembered. The organization of the XXXVII RTFNB 2014 was one more step in a big effort to build in our part of the world a community of physicists engaged in the difficult problems of fundamental and applied nuclear physics. The international contacts bring new knowledge, provide reference framework and stimulate collaborations that are essential for a true participation in the scientific frontier. The Editors, the Organizing Committee and the whole Brazilian community of nuclear physicists were pleased and very grateful to the visitors that were together with us during the five days in Maresias. The Editors

  7. Groundwater capture processes under a seasonal variation in natural recharge and discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddock, Thomas, III.; Vionnet, Leticia Beatriz

    "Capture" is the increase in recharge and the decrease in discharge that occurs when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system that was in a previous state of approximate dynamic equilibrium. Regional groundwater models are usually used to calculate capture in a two-step procedure. A steady-state solution provides an initial-head configuration, a set of flows through the boundaries for the modeled region, and the initial basis for the capture calculation. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions renders the capture calculation. When seasonality is a modeling issue, the use of a single initial hydraulic head and a single set of boundary flows leads to miscalculations of capture. Instead, an initial condition for each season should be used. This approach may be accomplished by determining steady oscillatory solutions, which vary through the seasons but repeat from year to year. A regional groundwater model previously developed for a portion of the San Pedro River basin, Arizona, USA, is modified to illustrate the effect that different initial conditions have on transient solutions and on capture calculations. R閟um Les "pr閘鑦ements" sont constitu閟 par l'augmentation de la recharge et par la diminution de l'閏oulement qui se produit lorsqu'un pompage est impos猷 un syst鑝e aquif鑢e qui 閠ait auparavant dans un 閠at proche de l'閝uilibre dynamique. Les mod鑜es r間ionaux de nappe sont en g閚閞al utilis閟 pour calculer les pr閘鑦ements dans une proc閐ure deux 閠apes. Une solution en r間ime permanent donne la configuration pi閦om閠rique initiale, un jeu de conditions aux limites pour la r間ion mod閘is閑 et les donn閑s de base pour le calcul des pr閘鑦ements. Les solutions transitoires donnent les modifications globales des conditions aux limites. Lorsque des variations saisonni鑢es sont produites en sortie du mod鑜e, le recours une pi閦om閠rie initiale unique et un seul jeu de donn閑s de conditions aux limites conduit un mauvais calcul des pr閘鑦ements. Il faut alors utiliser une condition de recharge initiale pour chaque saison. Cette approche peut 阾re r閍lis閑 en d閠erminant des solutions permanentes p閞iodiques, variantes au cours des saisons, mais se r閜閠ant d'ann閑 en ann閑. Un mod鑜e de nappe r間ional, pr閏閐emment mis au point pour une partie du bassin de la rivi鑢e San Pedro (Arizona, 蓆ats-Unis), a 閠 modifi pour illustrer l'effet de conditions initiales diff閞entes sur des solutions transitoires et sur le calcul des pr閘鑦ements. Resumen Se define como "captura" al aumento de recarga y descenso de descarga que tiene lugar cuando se impone un bombeo en un acu韋ero en estado de equilibrio din醡ico. Se suelen utilizar modelos regionales de agua subterr醤ea para calcular la captura en un procedimiento que consta de dos etapas. Una soluci髇 en r間imen estacionario proporciona la distribuci髇 inicial de niveles piezom閠ricos, los flujos a trav閟 de los contornos de la regi髇 modelada y el punto de partida para el c醠culo de la captura. Las soluciones transitorias proporcionan los cambios en los flujos a trav閟 de los contornos. La diferencia entre las soluciones estacionaria y transitoria da el valor de la captura. Cuando los cambios estacionales son importantes, la utilizaci髇 de un 鷑ico estado inicial de niveles y de flujos en los contornos da lugar a errores en el c醠culo de la captura. En este caso debe usarse una condici髇 inicial para cada una de las estaciones. Esto se puede conseguir obteniendo soluciones peri骴icas estacionarias, que var韊n a lo largo de las estaciones, pero que se repitan a駉 a a駉. Un modelo regional desarrollado previamente para el estudio de una parte de la cuenca del R韔 San Pedro, en Arizona (EE.UU.) se modific para ilustrar el efecto que las distintas condiciones iniciales tienen en el c醠culo de la captura.

  8. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-03-15

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author) [Spanish] En el presente articulo se aportan los resultados y conclusiones de un estudio, llevado a cabo en Nepal, en el que se abordaron aspectos ecologicos, comportamentales y morfologicos (tanto del ultimo estado de la fase larvaria como del adulto) de Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888. El principal objetivo del estudio radicaba en mostrar las principales diferencias que separan a esta subespecie de la bien estudiada subespecie nominal. Mellinus arvensis obscurus nidifica a gran altitud, en terreno inclinado, con y sin vegetacion, expuesto en mayor o menor medida al sol y en agregaciones muy compactas. Durante la estacion lluviosa la hembras llevan a cabo pocos vuelos de aprovisonamiento. Las presas pertenecen al orden de los dipteros, aunque, en una ocasion se observo el aporte de una arana. Gran numero de las interacciones intraespecificas observadas sugieren un alto grado de intentos de usurpacion de nidos. Los enemigos naturales mas sobresalientes pertenecen al orden de los dipteros y a la familia de los formicidos. Del estudio morfologico del adulto, mencionaremos que la foma del terguito 1 y la escultura del cuerpo, en las hembras de las poblaciones del Nepal, son mas semejantes a los de las hembras de las poblaciones europeas que no a los de las japonesas. De la fase larvaria se describe el ultimo estado larvario, a la vez que se compara con la otra larva madura ya descrita del genero. Las diferencias entre ambas larvas maduras radican en la presencia/ausencia, numero o diferenciacion de las estructuras tegumentarias. El estudio finaliza concluyendo que los rasgos morfologicos son mas importantes, que los aspectos ecologicos y comportamentales, a la hora de establecer una separacion entre las dos subespecies (author)

  9. Habitus furibundo en el gueto estadounidense1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Durante cinco a帽os, un torbellino cotidiano de tiroteos, apu帽alamientos y asaltos afect贸 a la venta de drogas al aire libre en el vecindario puertorrique帽o de Filadelfia, donde resid铆amos y conduc铆amos nuestro trabajo de campo. La industria de los narc贸ticos ha venido a llenar el vac铆o que dej贸 la desindustrializaci贸n, convirtiendo al antiguo distrito fabril de la ciudad en un mercado de narc贸ticos a cielo abierto que emplea en sus niveles m谩s bajos a j贸venes puertorrique帽os y cuyos clientes son principalmente heroin贸manos blancos de bajos recursos. La capacidad para movilizar la furia asegura el 茅xito en la econom铆a de las drogas, garantiza protecci贸n en las c谩rceles y le provee un ingreso m铆nimo a una poblaci贸n de bajos recursos estigmatizada cuyos miembros frecuentemente reciben diagn贸sticos m茅dicos de discapacidad cognitiva. Muchos residentes buscan alianzas en redes sociales que los comprometen a participar en intercambios solidarios de violencia auxiliar. Una din谩mica de acumulaci贸n primitiva corporizada mata, hiere, discapacita o encarcela a la mayor铆a de estos empleados de bajo nivel y a sus clientes. Los inflados m谩rgenes de ganancia alrededor de esta din谩mica dependen de la violencia y la coerci贸n. Un habitus furibundo impulsa a los vendedores callejeros a defender violentamente el micro monopolio de poder de sus jefes en la econom铆a subterr谩nea como si fuese un asunto de diversi贸n. Estos miembros de los niveles m谩s bajos de la industria del narcotr谩fico se apresuran a fraguar transacciones comerciales en ausencia de un marco legal en un ambiente de escasez que sin embargo se ve inundado por enormes flujos de dinero, drogas adictivas y armas autom谩ticas. Tras las dr谩sticas reformas a los programas de seguridad social, la mano izquierda del Estado, en la forma de los servicios sociales, intenta prolongar los subsidios para individuos vulnerables diagnostic谩ndolos como discapacitados cognitivos permanentes necesitados de fuerte medicaci贸n farmac茅utica. La mejor manera de asegurar la continuidad de este fr谩gil subsidio resulta ser los estallidos peri贸dicos de violencia autoinfligida. Simult谩neamente, con la anuencia de la mano derecha del Estado, en las c谩rceles violentas y hacinadas marcadas por formas hostiles de supervisi贸n, la furia se convierte en una valiosa estrategia de protecci贸n f铆sica para los internos. En resumen, la violencia expresiva se convierte en una base pr谩ctica para el sostenimiento econ贸mico y para forjar el sentido de dignidad entre hombres y mujeres. PMID:24532976

  10. Barreras y Facilitadores en el Reclutamiento y la Retenci贸n de Parejas Heterosexuales en Intervenciones Preventivas en VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Hern谩ndez-Hern谩ndez, Alberto L.; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2012-01-01

    Compendio El Reclutamiento y la Retenci贸n (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el 茅xito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los 铆ndices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informati贸n, Motivati贸n y Conductas-Espa帽ol (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indic贸 que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelaci贸n del estado serl贸gico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinaci贸n adecuada y el seguimiento telef贸nico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantaci贸n de programas de prevenci贸n el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptaci贸n de aspectos log铆sticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  11. Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y character铆sticas sociodemogr谩ficas en la poblaci贸n Latina

    PubMed Central

    Jim茅nez-Castro, Lorena; Ravent贸s-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-01-01

    El inter茅s por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagn贸stico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dram谩ticos en el curso cl铆nico del trastorno psic贸tico tales como: mayores reca铆das, re-hospitalizaciones, s铆ntomas m谩s severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsic贸tico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideaci贸n suicida, as铆 como alteraciones en otras 谩reas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimizaci贸n, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagn贸stico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagn贸stico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, as铆 como sus caracter铆sticas sociodemogr谩ficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando 茅nfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagn贸stico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la poblaci贸n latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demogr谩ficos, cl铆nicos y otras caracter铆sticas de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagn贸stico permitir铆a mejorar los m茅todos para la detecci贸n y adecuada valoraci贸n del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia. PMID:21404151

  12. On Ensino de Astronomia nas Cidades de Ribeir鉶 Pires e Rio Grande da Serra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Apesar da astronomia ser um dos temas indicados pelos Par鈓etros Curriculares Nacionais, observa-se que poucas mudan鏰s ocorreram desde a implementa玢o do mesmo em sala de aula. A presente pesquisa diz respeito sobre como os t髉icos de astronomia est鉶 sendo abordados pelos professores no ensino m閐io. Optou-se por aplicar um question醨io com os professores que ministram a disciplina de f韘ica. Os mesmos trabalham em escolas estaduais situadas nas cidades de Ribeir鉶 Pires e Rio Grande da Serra, ambas subordinadas a Diretoria de Ensino de Mau, no Estado de S鉶 Paulo. O question醨io foi aplicado durante o 2 semestre de 2006. At o momento os resultados s鉶 preliminares. Dos 82,0% dos professores que responderam ao question醨io no munic韕io de Rio Grande da Serra, 66,7% n鉶 aplicaram nenhum t髉ico de astronomia, 77,8% n鉶 utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 66,7% n鉶 utilizaram laborat髍io, que 77,8% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planet醨ios e que 66,7% n鉶 indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia aos seus alunos. No munic韕io de Ribeir鉶 Pires, 53,3% dos professores responderam ao question醨io, destes 75,0% n鉶 aplicaram nenhum t髉ico de astronomia, 93,8% n鉶 utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 75,0% n鉶 utilizaram laborat髍io, 81,3% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planet醨io e 56,3% n鉶 indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia ao seus alunos. Apesar da maioria dos professores reconhecerem que o conte鷇o de astronomia influi na forma玢o do jovem, os mesmos n鉶 incluem o tema em seus planejamentos escolares.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Diet and Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Zamb閦ia Province, Mozambique (the ZANE Study): Design, Methods, and Population Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Freese, Riitta; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Selvester, Kerry; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zamb閦ia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zamb閦ia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8). PMID:24598035

  14. Historical Earthquakes As Examples To Assess The Seismic Hazard In The Eastern Region of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Posadas, A.; Avenda駉, J.; Sierra, R.; Bonive, F.

    The North-East region of Venezuela lies on the border of the friction zone between the Caribbean and South-American tectonic plates, a source of great seismicity. The first written news of an earthquake in the American Continent were those of the earth- quake of september 1530 which caused damage to Cuman, the first town of that Continent. Since then a continuous series of earthquakes have been reported, many of them with damaging effects on Cuman; those caused in the 1929 earthquake (17-01- 1929; with IX Mercalli degrees) were well described by Sidney Paige in the Vo. 20 of the B.S.S.A., March, 1930. An earthquake of magnitude 5.9 {11-06-1986; 10.26z N,63.29z W} was the trigger for the Unesco`s intention to declare the Estado Sucre as a pilot zone for seismological studies. In 1991 a report issued by the International Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Matematical Geophysics (Academy of Sciences, U.R.S.S.) stated that the ocurrence of an earthquake of great magnitude which could affect the North-East region of Venezuela was possible. Other studies of the seismicity of the region have been carried out. The interest of the authorities and of the seismologists reached a peak with the earthquake of july 1997 (10.456z N, 63.555z W), with a magnitude of 6.9; there was a death toll of 73, around 528 people injured and more than 2000 houses needed to be completely rebuilt. A study of micro- zonification of the city of Cuman has been carried out recently and the results of this study will be presented also to this Congress.

  15. Mol閏ulas org醤icas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu駉z-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formaci髇 de estrellas, con temperaturas cin閠icas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 醫omos cm-3. Su materia est formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas part韈ulas de polvo est醤 cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 ?m, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos c髎micos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vac韔, P 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposici髇 de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiaci髇 ultravioleta por medio de una l醡para de descarga de hidr骻eno activada con microondas. La evoluci髇 del hielo se observa por medio de un espectr髆etro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composici髇 del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de mol閏ulas a鷑 no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. Tambi閚 es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por mol閏ulas org醤icas complejas, algunas prebi髏icas, como varios 醕idos carbox韑icos, aminas, amidas, 閟teres y en menor proporci髇 mol閏ulas heteroc韈licas y amino醕idos. Algunas de estas mol閏ulas podr韆n detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milim閠ricas y de radio. Tambi閚 podr韆n estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo an醠isis qu韒ico est planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo est llevando a cabo el an醠isis de part韈ulas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiaci髇 del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material org醤ico que contiene ox韌eno.

  16. Estudo de solu珲es locais e cosmol骻icas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar s鉶 a mais simples extens鉶 poss vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padr鉶 a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espa鏾-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma varia玢o na constante de acoplamento da gravita玢o. Tais teorias apresentam solu珲es locais e cosmol骻icas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqncias observacionais da evolu玢o de flutua珲es primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Gra鏰s a esta possibilidade de trazer luz novidades em rela玢o gravita玢o, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para solu珲es dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta solu珲es gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situa珲es, verificando-se em que consiste a diverg阯cia dessas solu珲es dos casos tradicionais poss veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das solu珲es aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma express鉶 geral para diferentes solu珲es cosmol骻icas englobando diferentes tipos de mat閞ia (representados por diferentes equa珲es de estado), e a express鉶 para uma solu玢o local representando um buraco negro com rota玢o, similar solu玢o de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das solu珲es apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos espec ficos, tal como solu珲es cosmol骻icas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as solu珲es dispon veis s鉶, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e tal situa玢o que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  17. Simula玢o de eje珲es de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Eje珲es de massa coronal (EMC) s鉶 bolhas gigantes de g醩 permeadas por campos magn閠icos que s鉶 ejetadas do Sol durante um per韔do de v醨ias horas. Caso estas eje珲es atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma s閞ie de dist鷕bios 鄐 comunica珲es de longa dist鈔cia e navega玢o, al閙 de danos a sat閘ites e transformadores. Portanto, desej醰el que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas eje珲es atingir鉶 a Terra. Para tanto, necess醨io um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das eje珲es e, principalmente, de como se d a propaga玢o das EMC e sua intera玢o com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanet醨io. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equa珲es MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Din鈓ica) que regem a evolu玢o das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condi珲es necess醨ias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacion醨io, que permeia todo o meio interplanet醨io. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equa珲es para o caso do vento isot閞mico, conhecida como a solu玢o de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Ent鉶, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura vari醰el no meio interplanet醨io. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considera珲es necess醨ias para descrever a propaga玢o da Eje玢o de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A 髍bita e a posi玢o da Terra foram inclu韉as no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma an醠ise da evolu玢o da EMC pelo meio interplanet醨io at encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astron鬽ica s鉶 comparados com os dados de sat閘ites reportados na literatura.

  18. Prediction of health risk due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in urban air in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rainho, C R; Velho, A M A; Corr锚a, S M; Mazzei, J L; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a comprehensive estimate of potential effects of contaminants under specific, well-defined, and well-described circumstances, providing quantitative relationships between exposure and effects to identify and to define areas of concern. We investigated the mutagenic activity of particulate matter in air samples collected from three sites in Rio de Janeiro city. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at Avenida Brasil, at Campus of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and at Rebou莽as Tunnel. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains TA98/1.8-DNP(6), YG1021, and YG1024, commonly used in mutagenicity assays, were treated (10-50 碌g/plate), with and without exogenous metabolization. The highest values for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected at Rebou莽as Tunnel. For chrysene, as an example, the concentration was nearly 200 times higher than that established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Frequent traffic jams can place bus drivers who go through the Rebou莽as Tunnel at risk of exposure to up to 0.69 ng/m(3) benzo(a) pyrene. Independent of exogenous metabolization, mutagenicity was detected in strains YG1021 and YG1024 at all the sites, suggesting nitro and amino derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Rebou莽as Tunnel air samples gave the highest values for rev/碌g and rev/m(3). This could be due to the fact that the long, enclosed passageway through a mountain restricts ventilation. The cancer risk estimate in this study was 10(-3) for the benzo(a)pyrene, at the two sites, indicating a high risk. PMID:23479151

  19. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero y mediante la virus neutralizaci??n.

  20. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fia玢o dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg est sendo projetado e constru韉o pelo grupo Gr醰iton. Sua constru玢o est ocorrendo no Laborat髍io de Estado S髄ido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de S鉶 Paulo, na cidade de S鉶 Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esf閞ica de cobre-alum韓io, com 65 cm de di鈓etro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real efic醕ia desse sistema, entretanto, s poder ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromec鈔ico de alt韘sima sensibilidade acoplado massa ressonante. Neste momento, n鉶 s este sistema de isolamento vibracional ser posto em teste, como o do projeto da fia玢o que transporta os sinais de microondas at os transdutores e destes para a pr-amplifica玢o. Apesar dessa fia玢o ter sido projetada para n鉶 apresentar nenhum contato com a superf韈ie esf閞ica da antena, de maneira a n鉶 haver nenhuma transmiss鉶 de ru韉o vibracional do laborat髍io para esta, deve-se minimizar o ru韉o microf鬾ico produzido nessa fia玢o por oscila珲es mec鈔icas, uma vez que ela n鉶 utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual n鉶 ter nenhuma resson鈔cia mec鈔ica na faixa de freqncias de interesse para detec玢o (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibra珲es nessa faixa n鉶 ser鉶 amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Atrav閟 de simula珲es feitas neste programa, determinamos os par鈓etros geom閠ricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior regi鉶 espectral de interesse livre de resson鈔cias.

  1. Strange Stars, Neutron Stars and Pulsar Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha conjeturado que una partlecula de dieciocho quarks, sin Carga, sin espi'n y sin colar (quark-alfa) podri'a ser estable a ba5as tern peraturas y presiones aiTh COfl respecto a materia extrafla. Presentamos en este trabajo la estmctura de estrellas extraflas incluyendo los efectos y apariencia de parti'culas uark-alfa en las capas exteriores. La estruc tura interna ya no es hoinogenea del centro a la superficie, sino que muestra un centro de materia extrafla, capas s6lidas y una costra delgada de materia normal en la superficie. La superficie de materia nonnal permite la fornaci6n de una magnetosfera, la que se piensa sea el sitlo en donde ocurre la emisi6n del pulsar. La superficie de superflui'do ayuda a explicar el fen6rneno de `glitch', el cual ba sido observado en muchos pulsares. Se discute la ecuaci6n de estado para rnateria quark-alfa relevante en este regimen. ABSTIZACT:It has been conjectured that an quark, uncharged, spinless and colorless particle Cquark-alpha) could be stable at low pressures and temperatures even with respect to strange matter. We present in work tlie structure of stars including the effects of the appearance of quark-alpi' particles ii their outer layers. The internal structure is no longer from tlie center to the surface, but show a strange matter core, a solid and superfluid layers and a thin crust of normal matter at the surface. The normal matter surface allows tlie fon tion of a magnetosphere, whicl is to be tl place where pulsar emission occurs. A superfluid layer helps to explain tlie glitch , wlflch has been observed in . equation of state for quark-alpha matter relevant in regime is also discussed. Keq LA)OtL : ARY S - OF STATF - ?.ACT

  2. Estudio te髍ico de la distribuci髇 cati髇ica en la capa octa閐rica de silicatos laminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hern醤dez-Laguna, A.

    Los silicatos laminares son unos minerales de gran extensi髇 en la corteza de nuestro y otros planetas, y se ha detectado su presencia en masas de part韈ulas de polvo interplanatario. Est醤 formados por l醡inas estructuradas en una capa tetraedros de s韑ice y una de octa閐ros de oxihidroxido de aluminio. Seg鷑 el n鷐ero de capas y la disposici髇 aparecen distintos minerales. Adem醩, tambi閚 pueden aparecer distintos minerales como consecuencia de la substituci髇 isom髍fica de cationes en la capas, en particular, Al(III) por Si en la capa tetra閐rica y Fe(III) y/o Mg(II) por Al(III) en la octa閐rica. Cuando el cati髇 substituyente presenta un estado de oxidaci髇 m醩 bajo que al que substituye genera carga negativa que tiene que neutralizarse con cationes que se disponen en el espacio interlaminar. En este trabajo vamos a estudiar, mediante distintos m閠odos computacionales, las distribuciones de dichos cationes de substituci髇 en la capa octa閐rica de silicatos laminares 2:1 (dos capas tetra閐ricas y en medio una octa閐rica), en particular, en los minerales esmectitas e ilitas. En primer lugar, estudiaremos la distribuci髇 de dichos cationes en la capa octa閐rica en un modelo de gas reticular por el m閠odo de Monte Carlo, minimizando el n鷐ero de pares de cationes Al, Fe y Mg de nuestro modelo con respecto a los procedentes de resultados espectrosc髉icos de muestras de minerales. Posteriormente, y mediante un modelo de potenciales emp韗icos, estudiamos la energ閠ica de las distribuciones binarias en dichos minerales, generando unos potenciales de interacci髇 intercambio a dos y tres cationes (extrapolables a cualquier filosilicato) que son la base para una investigaci髇 Monte Carlo-"simulated-annealing" en la que se encuentran las transiciones de fase y las estructuras ordenadas, dependiendo dichas estructuras y la temperatura de cambio de fase de la de la naturaleza y concentraci髇 de los cationes de substituci髇. Tambi閚 se han investigado dichas distribuciones mediante m閠odos mecano-cu醤ticos DFT.

  3. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos par鈓etros no m閠odo Grade of Membership (GoM): considera珲es metodol骻icas e pr醫icas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, Andr Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brond韟io, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O m閠odo Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por dem骻rafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um par鈓etro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correla珲es n鉶-observ醰eis entre as categorias de resposta das vari醰eis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indiv韉uo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam aten玢o para quest鮡s importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM vers鉶 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade solu珲es m鷏tiplas para par鈓etros estimados. Neste artigo, sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solu玢o 鷑ica que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimiza玢o. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econ鬽ico e sociodemogr醘ico de uma popula玢o de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamaz鬾ica, no Estado do Par. Tamb閙 identificou-se a exist阯cia de instabilidade nos par鈓etros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um m閠odo de estabiliza玢o de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usu醨ios do programa GoM 3.4 poder鉶 descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder 鄐 cr韙icas sobre quest鮡s de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas solu珲es emp韗icas s鉶 relevantes por afetarem c醠culos de preval阯cia e de incid阯cia de eventos de interesse, al閙 de trazerem consequ阯cias importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para interven珲es de pol韙icas p鷅licas ou de planejamento prospectivo em an醠ises de proje玢o. PMID:21709732

  4. Time-to-treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in S鉶 Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Fl醰ia Dias; Levy, Debora; Pereira, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for nearly 50% of the cases in the Hematology Department of the Hospital das Cl韓icas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S鉶 Paulo and Instituto do C鈔cer do Estado de S鉶 Paulo. The treatment outcome is influenced by age, abnormal lactate dehydrogenase levels, extranodal infiltration, the disease stage and the patient's performance status. In this study, we sought to report the time-to-treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in S鉶 Paulo's public health system network and its impact on patient outcomes. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of 42 consecutive patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma between 2008 and 2012. RESULTS: Our patients had more advanced disease than that reported in the literature (61.9% vs. 46%). In S鉶 Paulo's public health system network, it took an average of 7.4 months for a diagnosis to be made and an additional 1.4 months to obtain an appointment with a specialist. Once at our Hematology Department, it took less than 20 days for staging, confirmation of the diagnosis and treatment initiation. An interval from signs or symptoms to treatment of more than 6 months was associated with inferior progression-free survival in 3 years (p?=?0.049). CONCLUSION: A delay in the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a public health problem and may be associated with worse progression-free survival. PMID:24838904

  5. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Esp韗ito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics.

    PubMed

    Santos Pacheco, Karina Tonini dos; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Meireles, Naiara Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the C骴igo de 蓆ica Odontol骻ica (CEO-Code of Dental Ethics), this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Esp韗ito Santo (CRO/ES-Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Esp韗ito Santo). The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%), followed by technical error (18.7%), irregular registration (16.8%), patient/professional relationship (11.3%) tax lien foreclosure (6.6%), professional/professional relationship (4.0%), irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%), consumer relations (0.8%), failure to provide care (0.6%), false certification (0.4%), and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%). Most (59.2%) of the dental surgeons (DSs) involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5) years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2%) cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4%) acquittals and 14 (63.6%) convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning+pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%). It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare. PMID:24820427

  6. Precess鉶 do jato de 3C120: simula珲es hidrodin鈓icas 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observa珲es com t閏nicas de interferometria com longa linha de base t阭 mostrado a exist阯cia de um jato relativ韘tico com componentes superluminais na regi鉶 central de 3C 120. Estas componentes s鉶 ejetadas em distintas dire珲es no plano do c閡 e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas caracter韘ticas foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precess鉶 do jato relativ韘tico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simula珲es tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os par鈓etros de precess鉶 determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as caracter韘ticas iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade num閞ica e temperatura. Todas as simula珲es foram feitas com o c骴igo hidrodin鈓ico YGUAZ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiab醫ico descrito por uma equa玢o de estado relativ韘tica. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um c骴igo hidrodin鈓ico, n髎 assumimos que a intensidade do campo magn閠ico e a distribui玢o de part韈ulas, necess醨ios para se calcular a emiss鉶 sincrotron, s鉶 proporcionais press鉶 hidrodin鈓ica. Compara玢o entre dois cen醨ios distintos, nos quais o material do jato ejetado com velocidade constante (jato cont韓uo) e com velocidade modulada por um padr鉶 sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fen鬽enos de precess鉶 e intermit阯cia, com amplitude de varia玢o na velocidade de inje玢o maior que dez por cento da velocidade m閐ia de inje玢o, a hip髏ese bal韘tica, controlada pela intermitencia, mais prov醰el. Por outro lado, para jatos com precess鉶 mas sem intermit阯cia (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precess鉶 na morfologia do jato n鉶 desprez韛el. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precess鉶 e movimentos bal韘ticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  7. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-03-15

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera. Esta informacion es pertinente en determinar el impacto que pueda tener este escarabajo exotico en invernaderos, areas urbanas y otros sistemas forestales donde el escarabajo se establece. (author)

  8. Estudo exaustivo e sistem醫ico de erros nas provas da olimp韆da brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimp韆da Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edi玢o, com a participa玢o de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e m閐io de praticamente todo o territ髍io nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordena玢o nacional possui sobre a corre玢o, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos tr阺 n韛eis nos quais a Olimp韆da realizada. Assim, e dado ao car醫er discursivo das provas da Olimp韆da, a sua coordena玢o nacional disp鮡 de um vasto acervo sobre as concep珲es, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado at o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos n韛eis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das quest鮡s versava sobre a no玢o que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superf韈ie. Fizemos um estudo sistem醫ico das respostas a esta quest鉶. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribui玢o por idade tanto do 韓dice de acerto como da ocorr阯cia e da distribui玢o de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os n韛eis: 1) as concep珲es err鬾eas n鉶 se apresentam distribu韉as aleatoriamente; 2) h uma concentra玢o no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) h uma tend阯cia de progressivo acerto com rela玢o idade quando os dados s鉶 considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tend阯cia nacional fraca ou mesmo n鉶 verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  9. ADIPOQUINAS EN EL NI脩O SANO Y AFECTO DE OBESIDAD

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Kopchick, J.J.; Argente, y J.

    2015-01-01

    El incremento universal de la prevalencia de obesidad en ni帽os y adolescentes durante las 煤ltimas d茅cadas, junto con la evidencia creciente de que el establecimiento de obesidad en etapas precoces de la vida est谩 asociado con un incremento de la prevalencia de comorbilidades y del riesgo de muerte prematura, con gran repercusi贸n econ贸mica en los sistemas sanitarios de los pa铆ses occidentales, ha impulsado la investigaci贸n en este 谩rea. Estos estudios han remarcado la importante actividad endocrina del tejido adiposo, ejercida por medio de la s铆ntesis y secreci贸n de un gran n煤mero de p茅ptidos y citoquinas, denominados adipoquinas. En esta revisi贸n se resume el estado actual de los conocimientos, as铆 como los estudios m谩s relevantes, en relaci贸n con la din谩mica de secreci贸n de las principales adipoquinas en ni帽os, centr谩ndose en el control de la homeostasis energ茅tica, regulaci贸n metab贸lica (fundamentalmente, metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono) e inflamaci贸n. As铆mismo, se analizan las particularidades de la s铆ntesis, secreci贸n y acciones de las adipoquinas desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, rese帽ando el efecto que, sobre ellas, ejerce la instauraci贸n de la obesidad. PMID:23228441

  10. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAF脥O PARA AM脡RICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestaci贸n de los servicios m茅dicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta pr谩ctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los pa铆ses en desarrollo compartir谩n este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en Am茅rica Latina sostienen que ser谩 una herramienta 煤til para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atenci贸n de salud. Aunque Am茅rica Latina quiz谩 se convierta en un lugar para la investigaci贸n e investigaci贸n de estos procedimientos, no est谩 claro c贸mo la telemedicina podr铆a contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atenci贸n de salud p煤blicos cr贸nicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  11. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csan谩d, M.; Cs枚rg艖, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-脜.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, 脕.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Kr谩l, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Li拧ka, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Ma, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Ma拧ek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mike拧, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ru啪i膷ka, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slune膷ka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarj谩n, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tom谩拧ek, L.; Tom谩拧ek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; V茅rtesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zim谩nyi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-12-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient铆fico e Tecnol贸gico and Funda莽茫o de Amparo 脿 Pesquisa do Estado de S茫o Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China, (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat 脿 l'脡nergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucl茅aire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium f眉r Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Republic of Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  12. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csan谩d, M.; Cs枚rg艖, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-脜.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, 脕.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Kr谩l, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Li拧ka, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Maai, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Ma拧ek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mike拧, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ru啪i膷ka, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slune膷ka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarj谩n, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tom谩拧ek, L.; Tom谩拧ek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; V茅rtesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zim谩nyi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-11-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient铆fico e Tecnol贸gico and Funda莽 ao de Amparo 脿 Pesquisa do Estado de S茫o Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat 脿 l'脡nergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucl茅aire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium f眉r Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  13. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  14. C谩lculos ab initio con correlaci贸n electr贸nica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merch谩n Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de car谩cter experimental y de naturaleza te贸rica se ir谩 difuminando progresivamente y la problem谩tica a resolver quedar谩 en escena como el 煤nico actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperaci贸n te贸rico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodolog铆a qu铆mico-cu谩ntica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de car谩cter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodolog铆a qu铆mico-cu谩ntica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos a帽os, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la 煤ltima d茅cada, dentro del campo de la Espectroscop铆a Te贸rica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tama帽o como en complejidad, abordando problem谩ticas espectrosc贸picas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribuci贸n cient铆fica m谩s relevante reside en el car谩cter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectrosc贸picas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los a帽os noventa los resultados ab initio sol铆an presentar para las energ铆as de excitaci贸n de sistemas de tama帽o molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de m谩s de 1 eV. En comparaci贸n con el 茅xito relativo de los m茅todos semiemp铆ricos, la frustraci贸n de la metodolog铆a ab initio quedaba todav铆a m谩s patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensi贸n profunda de los espectros electr贸nicos en sistemas org谩nicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectrosc贸picas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del m茅todo CASPT2 junto al dise帽o de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el car谩cter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran cl谩sicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el campo, y se reflejan en libros publicados recientemente. En la conferencia se analizar谩n ciertos pormenores de las investigaciones realizadas. El tipo de aplicaciones llevadas a cabo hasta la fecha se ilustrar谩 mediante el estudio te贸rico del espectro electr贸nico de ciclooctatetraeno. Dando un paso m谩s en la evoluci贸n de nuestra investigaci贸n, pretendemos en la actualidad describir, desde un formalismo te贸rico y al mismo nivel de exigencia, los mecanismos subyacentes que tienen lugar en las reacciones biol贸gicas fototoinducidas, es decir, reacciones que se inician mediante la absorci贸n de luz[3]. Como muestra de la caracterizaci贸n de los procesos fotof铆sicos y fotoqu铆micos en fotobiolog铆a te贸rica, hemos elegido la descripci贸n de la conversi贸n interna ultrarr谩pida que tiene lugar en los crom贸foros del ADN. Los estados excitados de las mol茅culas de los 谩cidos nucleicos presentan tiempos de vida media que se encuentran en el rango de sub-picosegundos, sugiriendo la presencia de un canal ultrarr谩pido de conversi贸n interna, lo que normalmente se asocia en la fotoqu铆mica contempor谩nea a una intersecci贸n c贸nica entre el estado excitado y el fundamental[4]. De esta forma nuestro ADN previene de forma eficaz posibles reacciones en el estado excitado y se revela como un excelente protector solar.

  15. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugu contenant un polysaccharide du s閞ogroupe A m閚ingococcique et une anatoxine du t閠anos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac) est en cours de d閜loiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la m閚ingite. L exp閞ience avec d autres vaccins conjugu閟 polysaccharide/prot閕ne a montr qu une partie importante de leur succ鑣 a 閠 leur capacit emp阠her l acquisition du portage pharyng et donc arr阾er la transmission et induire une immunit de group. Si PsA-TT doit d atteindre l objectif de pr関enir les 閜id閙ies, il devrait 阾re en mesure d emp阠her l acquisition du portage pharyng ainsi que la m閚ingococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp阠her le portage pharyng devrait 阾re d閠ermin. Pour r閟oudre ce probl鑝e, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage M閚ingococcique) a 閠 閠abli en 2009 pour 閠udier le mode de portage du m閚ingocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la m閚ingite avant et apr鑣 l introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article d閏rit comment le consortium a 閠 閠abli, ses objectifs et les m閠hodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardis閑s qui ont 閠 utilis閑s pour atteindre ces objectifs. L exp閞ience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera planifier les futures 閠udes sur l 閜id閙iologie du portage du m閚ingocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la m閚ingite et d ailleurs. Se est釥utilizando una vacuna meningoc骳ica conjugada (MenAfriVac) de polisac醨ido del serogrupo A / t閠ano toxoide (PsA-TT) en pa韘es del cintur髇 Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisac醨ido/prote韓a han demostrado que una parte importante de su 閤ito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonizaci髇 far韓gea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisi髇, y a la de inducir la protecci髇 de reba駉. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador far韓geo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonizaci髇 far韓gea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuesti髇 se estableci un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en pa韘es del cintur髇 Africano de la meningitis, antes y despu閟 de la introducci髇 de PsA-TT. Este art韈ulo describe como se estableci el consorcio, sus objetivos y los m閠odos estandarizados de campo y de laboratorio que se utilizaron para alcanzarlos. La experiencia del consorcio MenAfriCar ayudar en la planificaci髇 de estudios futuros sobre la epidemiolog韆 del estado de portador de meningococo, tanto en pa韘es del cintur髇 Africano de la meningitis como en otros lugares del mundo. PMID:23682910

  16. A Influ阯cia da Escola e da M韉ia na Obten玢o dos Conhecimentos Astron鬽icos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena propor玢o que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as gal醲ias, quasares, pulsares al閙 da exist阯cia de todos os elementos que preenchem o espa鏾 c髎mico, o v醕uo, n鉶 mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A m韉ia explora esse campo de forma m韘tica e tamb閙 cient韋ica. A difus鉶 adequada e dentro dos padr鮡s educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astron鬽icos, se faz necess醨ia, devido sua presen鏰 nos conte鷇os escolares, centros de ci阯cia e na m韉ia, de modo geral. A reforma do Curr韈ulo B醩ico da Escola P鷅lica da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astron鬽icos desde a pr-escola at o Ensino M閐io. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino M閐io de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se atrav閟 da aplica玢o de um question醨io que abordava conheciment os b醩icos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor j fez alguma apresenta玢o a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou tamb閙 que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astron鬽icos na escola, 28,1% atrav閟 da televis鉶 e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos atrav閟 de outros tipos de m韉ia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que h certo equil韇rio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astron鬽icos, a m韉ia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que n鉶 fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espa鏾. Por閙, em certos casos, a m韉ia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propaga玢o do som no v醕uo observado na maioria dos filmes de f ic玢o cient韋ica ou da exist阯cia das esta珲es do ano em fun玢o da dist鈔cia da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o question醨io aplicado.

  17. Coffee Beverage Quality Assessment Based on ETA/CPTEC-HadCM3 Model (A1B-IPCC/SRES Scenario), Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, A.; Resende, N.; Chou, S. C.; Tavares, P. S.; Rodrigues, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors influence the coffee beverage quality and air temperature has a significant importance in this process. The grain maturation occurs very quickly in regions that present high temperatures and sometimes there is not enough time to complete all this phase adequately. In the other hand, with mild temperatures, the grain maturation occurs more slowly and it promotes a better quality beverage. The aim of this study was to assess the coffee beverage quality in the southeastern Brazil, based on climate projections using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model (HadCM3). The global model ensemble was run over the 21st century according to IPCC SRES, A1B emissions scenario. Each ensemble member presented different climate sensitivity in the analysis. The Eta-CPTEC-HadCM3 model was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over the period of 1961-90 to represent a baseline climate, and over the period of 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes and the effects on the coffee beverage quality. A coffee beverage quality classification, which depends on the annual air temperature proposed by Bressani (2007) and also, a quality coffee beverage sensory classification, based on Camargo and Cortez (1998) were considered in this study. An evaluation of the systematic errors (BIAS) for each member for the period from 1961 to 1990 was made. The results presented by Eta/CPTEC-HadCM3 model indicated that in the case of an occurrence of A1B emission scenario, the coffee beverage quality could be affected in this region due to the fact that the flavor may become stronger and unpleasant caused by rising air temperatures. The BIAS evaluation and subsequent errors removal demonstrated improvement in the scenarios simulations. A short review concerning agronomic techniques to mitigate extreme meteorological events or global warming on coffee crop based on Camargo (2010) also is presented in this study as complementary information. Bressani, E. Guia do Barista. Da origem do caf茅 ao espresso perfeito. Caf茅 Editora, 2007. 210 p. Camargo, M. B. P. The impact of climatic variability and climate change on arabic coffee crop in Brazil. Bragantia, Campinas, v.69, no.1, 2010. Camargo, a. P; Cortez, J. G. Efeito do clima na qualidade de bebida do caf茅 nas condi莽玫es de S茫o Paulo e 谩reas pr贸ximas de outros estados. In 24 Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras. Po莽os de Caldas, Anais... Po莽os de Caldas, Embrapa Caf茅, 1998. p. 42-44.

  18. Onshore and offshore wind resource evaluation in the northeastern area of the Iberian Peninsula: quality assurance of the surface wind observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, A.; Gonz醠ez-Rouco, J. F.; Jim閚ez, P. A.; Navarro, J.; Garc韆-Bustamante, E.; Lucio-Eceiza, E. E.; Mont醰ez, J. P.; Garc韆, A. Y.; Prieto, L.

    2012-04-01

    Offshore wind energy is becoming increasingly important as a reliable source of electricity generation. The areas located in the vicinity of the Cantabrian and Mediterranean coasts are areas of interest in this regard. This study targets an assessment of the wind resource focused on the two coastal regions and the strip of land between them, thereby including most of the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and containing the Ebro basin. The analysis of the wind resource in inland areas is crucial as the wind channeling through the existing mountains has a direct impact on the sea circulations near the coast. The thermal circulations generated by the topography near the coast also influence the offshore wind resource. This work summarizes the results of the first steps of a Quality Assurance (QA) procedure applied to the surface wind database available over the area of interest. The dataset consists of 752 stations compiled from different sources: 14 buoys distributed over the IP coast provided by Puertos del Estado (1990-2010); and 738 land sites over the area of interest provided by 8 different Spanish institutions (1933-2010) and the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR; 1978-2010). It is worth noting that the variety of institutional observational protocols lead to different temporal resolutions and peculiarities that somewhat complicate the QA. The QA applied to the dataset is structured in three steps that involve the detection and suppression of: 1) manipulation errors (i.e. repetitions); 2) unrealistic values and ranges in wind module and direction; 3) abnormally low (e.g. long constant periods) and high variations (e.g. extreme values and inhomogeneities) to ensure the temporal consistency of the time series. A quality controlled observational network of wind variables with such spatial density and temporal length is not frequent and specifically for the IP is not documented in the literature. The final observed dataset will allow for a comprehensive understanding of the wind field climatology and variability and its association with the large scale atmospheric circulation as well as their dependence on local/regional features like topography, land-sea contrast, etc. In future steps, a high spatial resolution simulation will be accomplished with the WRF mesoescale model in order to improve the knowledge of the wind field in the area of interest. Such simulation will be validated by comparison with the observational dataset. In addition, studies to analyze the sensitivity of the model to different factors such as the parameterizations of the most significant physical processes that the model does not solve explicitly, the boundary conditions that feed the model, etc. will be carried out.

  19. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Funda莽茫o de Amparo 脿 Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

  20. Depth Seismic-Migration Modeling Offshore `Tierra Del Fuego', Argentina (54 25' S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Com韓guez, A. H.; Flores, J.; Tassone, A.

    2007-05-01

    Within the framework of the TESAC Project (Tectonic Evolution of the South America-Scotia plate boundary during the Cenozoic), about 900 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were acquired off the Atlantic coast of the Tierra del Fuego Island. The profiles cut across the South America-Scotia plate boundary, a transform margin which traverses in an E-W direction the Island. Data processing and interpretation of a seismic reflection profile is presented in this contribution. A robust post-stack technique involved depth-migration of the seismic section, using an interval-velocity model of the upper Crust adjusted by iterative processing. An interpreted seismic- velocity section (which trends roughly NW-SE), shows a complex superposition of different tectonic structures, with presence of extensional, compressional and transtensional features in the area located to the north of Isla de los Estados. The profile, which crosses the offshore part of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt, images the deep structural framework of part of this tectonic province. The identification of acoustic fabrics and seismic discontinuities allowed us to recognize four main units. Overlaying the acoustic basement (Seismic unit 1), there is another unit (Seismic unit 2) which exhibits some reflector packages of high amplitude; this unit must be related to the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences of Tob韋era/Lemaire Fms. The Seismic Unit 3 displays internal reflector configurations of moderate amplitude and continuity and low-to-moderate frequency; the Yagh醤/Beauvoir Fms must be the onshore equivalent of this unit. An uppermost seismic layer (Unit 4) may be correlated with the Tertiary sediments of the Magallanes foreland basin which were involved in the fold and thrust belt. A major structure identified in the studied seismic profile is a SE structural high (which involves the units 1, 2 and 3) and a NW down-faulted area. The latter display folds of kilometric size (3-4 km). Steeply dipping (mainly to the south) reverse faults cut through the folds. Some of these faults represent old extensional faults of the Middle- Mesozoic Rocas Verdes marginal basin rifting, which have been subsequently inverted by compressional stress fields. In addition, a noticeable flower fault system is recognized in the seismic profile, which involves both the sedimentary cover and the acoustic basement. This fault is interpreted as the result of shear stresses produced along the transcurrent South America-Scotia plate boundary.

  1. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students.

    PubMed

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups.Los prop贸sitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y pr谩cticas de j贸venes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales est谩n incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y var铆an considerablemente entre grupos 茅tnicos. Un dise帽o transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificaci贸n Cultural, y un cuestionario demogr谩fico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente m谩s alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oraci贸n, tambi茅n estuvieron m谩s altas en el grupo Latino. La identificaci贸n con la cultura Latina fue el 煤nico vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados espec铆ficos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermer铆a que involucran la conceptualizaci贸n y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multi茅tnicos. PMID:20165566

  2. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups. Los prop贸sitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y pr谩cticas de j贸venes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales est谩n incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y var铆an considerablemente entre grupos 茅tnicos. Un dise帽o transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificaci贸n Cultural, y un cuestionario demogr谩fico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente m谩s alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oraci贸n, tambi茅n estuvieron m谩s altas en el grupo Latino. La identificaci贸n con la cultura Latina fue el 煤nico vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados espec铆ficos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermer铆a que involucran la conceptualizaci贸n y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multi茅tnicos. PMID:20165566

  3. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en Espa帽a: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Mart铆nez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Guti茅rrez-Colos铆a, Menc铆a Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ram贸n; Martorell, Almudena; Gonz谩lez-Gord贸n, Rodrigo G.; M茅rida-Guti茅rrez, M. Reyes; 脕ngel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodr铆guez, Alicia; Garc铆a-Guti茅rrez, Juan C.; P茅rez-Vicente, Amado; Garc铆a-Ib谩帽ez, Jos茅; Aguilera-In茅s, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducci贸n Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patr贸n diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atenci贸n sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y poblaci贸n general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de poblaci贸n general. Pacientes y m茅todos Se utiliz贸 el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon seg煤n el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utiliz贸 la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la poblaci贸n general. Resultados La muestra con DI present贸 25 veces m谩s casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% present贸 dolor bucal, y existi贸 una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patolog铆as como la diabetes, la hipertensi贸n, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. Tambi茅n presentaron una menor participaci贸n en programas de prevenci贸n y promoci贸n de la salud, un mayor n煤mero de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patr贸n de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la poblaci贸n general, y 茅stas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoci贸n de salud y de formaci贸n profesional espec铆ficamente dise帽ados para la atenci贸n de personas con DI, as铆 como la implementaci贸n de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta poblaci贸n. PMID:21948011

  4. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagn髎tico de gastritis atr骹ica multifocal asociada con la infecci髇 por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, Jos Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, Mar蚢 Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducci髇 El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del est髆ago y el n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica disponibles para evaluaci髇 histopatol骻ica son fuentes importantes de variaci髇 en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradaci髇 de la gastritis cr髇ica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica necesarios para establecer los diagn髎ticos de gastritis atr骹ica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infecci髇 por Helicobacter pylori. Adem醩 evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificaci髇 de estas lesiones precursoras del c醤cer g醩trico. Materiales y m閠odos En una cohorte de 6 a駉s de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenter髄ogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa g醩trica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un 鷑ico pat髄ogo hizo la interpretaci髇 histol骻ica de las 5 biopsias y proporcion un diagn髎tico definitivo global que se utiliz como patr髇 de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa g醩trica examinado condujo a un diagn髎tico individual para cada biopsia que se compar con el patr髇 de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evalu en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagn髎tico de MI y displasia g醩trica aument de manera significativa con el n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica evaluados El sitio anat髆ico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagn髎tico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logr alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa g醩trica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtenci髇 de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagn髎tico de gastritis cr髇ica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusi髇 El n鷐ero de fragmentos de mucosa g醩trica evaluados, el m閠odo de fijaci髇 y la regi髇 del est髆ago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificaci髇 de la gastritis cr髇ica atr骹ica multifocal. PMID:25267864

  5. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Roc铆o; Palma MiIla, Samara; Garc铆a V谩quez, Natalia; Plaza L贸pez, Bricia; Bermejo L贸pez, Laura; Riob贸 Serv谩n, Pilar; Garc铆a-Luna, Pedro Pablo; G贸mez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT庐 or INFORNUT庐 methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoraci贸n del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional treatment, the patient should be followed up. No single marker can be used to monitor progress; interpretations will once again require examination of the patient's medical history, the taking of anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Depending on whether a patient is ambulatory or hospitalised, the follow-up assessment times and variables measured will differ. PMID:25719787

  6. Usina de ci锚ncias: um espa莽o pedag贸gico para aprendizagens m煤ltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia 茅 especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conte煤dos em diversas 谩reas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados 脿 F铆sica, Matem谩tica, Qu铆mica, Computa莽茫o, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumenta莽茫o de Alta Precis茫o, al茅m daqueles pertinentes as 谩reas de Geografia, Hist贸ria e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do car谩ter interdisciplinar que esta ci锚ncia possui, a realidade atual 茅 que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula n茫o foram devidamente capacitados, durante o per铆odo de forma莽茫o acad锚mica, para ministrar conte煤dos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e M茅dio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ci锚ncias praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por depend锚ncia administrativa, o crescimento e a redu莽茫o do n煤mero de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa et谩ria, da escolariza莽茫o, do atendimento, da aprova莽茫o, reprova莽茫o e abandono, de equipamentos e laborat贸rios e o grau de forma莽茫o dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exerc铆cio de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observat贸rio Astron么mico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas a莽玫es implementadas ao longo dos 煤ltimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extens茫o Ensino e Difus茫o de Astronomia, financiado pela Funda莽茫o Vitae, que procura traduzir no l煤dico, no brincar de ci锚ncias, um espa莽o pedag贸gico para aprendizagens m煤ltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laborat贸rio de kits did谩ticos, de f谩cil constru莽茫o e manipula莽茫o (alguns dos quais ser茫o mostrados), perfazem os principais ve铆culos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira t茅cnico-cient铆fica e para sua participa莽茫o cr铆tica e criativa na Sociedade.

  7. The Morelia-Acambay Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vel谩zquez Bucio, M.; Soria-Caballero, D.; Gardu帽o-Monroy, V.; Mennella, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the most actives and representative zones of Mexico geologically speaking. Research carried out in this area gives stratigraphic, seismologic and historical evidence of its recent activity during the quaternary (Martinez and Nieto, 1990). Specifically the Morelia-Acambay faults system (MAFS) consist in a series of normal faults of dominant direction E - W, ENE - WSW y NE - SW which is cut in center west of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fault system appeared during the early Miocene although the north-south oriented structures are older and have been related to the activity of the tectonism inherited from the "Basin and Range" system, but that were reactivated by the east- west faults. It is believed that the activity of these faults has contributed to the creation and evolution of the longed lacustrine depressions such as: Chapala, Zacapu, Cuitzeo, Maravatio y Acambay also the location of monogenetic volcanoes that conformed the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) and tend to align in the direction of the SFMA dominant effort. In a historical time different segments of the MAFS have been the epicenter of earthquakes from moderated to strong magnitude like the events of 1858 in Patzcuaro, Acambay in 1912, 1979 in Maravatio and 2007 in Morelia, among others. Several detailed analysis and semi-detailed analysis through a GIS platform based in the vectorial archives and thematic charts 1:50 000 scaled from the data base of the INEGI which has allowed to remark the influence of the MAFS segments about the morphology of the landscape and the identification of other structures related to the movement of the existent faults like fractures, alignments, collapses and others from the zone comprehended by the northwest of Morelia in Michoac谩n to the East of Acambay, Estado de M茅xico. Such analysis suggests that the fault segments possess a normal displacement plus a left component. In addition it can be associated to an alignment or different structures oblique directed to the principal fault trace which sometimes shows inverted moves suggest that the MAFS is a system with ''en echelon'' geometry which respond to transtensive tectonic activity. Recent research based in cinematic indicators from some of the most important faults of the MAFS concludes with evidence of the existence of a transtensive deformation in the center section of the TMVB, which can be explained through the oblique convergence model of plates Northamerica, Rivera and Cocos added to the division of the subduction angle at the North of the Mesoamerican trench.

  8. PREFACE: X Workshop of the Gravitation and Mathematical Physics Division, Mexican Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The collection of papers in this volume was presented during the X Workshop of the Gravitation and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society (DGFM-SMF), which was held in Pachuca, Hidalgo, M茅xico, December 2-6, 2013. The Workshop is a bi-annual series of conferences sponsored by the DGFM-SMF that started in 1993 with the purposes of discussing and exchanging the research and experience of the gravitational and mathematical physics communities in Mexico. Each Mexican Workshop has been devoted to subjects of broad interest, so that students, in particular, can have access to specialized courses and talks that allow them to raise up their qualifications as professional researchers. Recurrent topics in the Mexican Workshop are supergravity, branes, black holes, the early Universe, observational cosmology, quantum gravity and cosmology and numerical relativity. Following our previous Workshops, distinguished researchers in the field, working in Mexico, were invited to give courses, whereas young researchers were invited for plenary lectures. More specialized talks were also presented in parallel sessions, with ample participation of researchers, and graduate and undergraduate students; most of the presentations have been included in these proceedings. The contributions in this volume have been peer-reviewed, and they represent most of the courses, plenary talks and contributed talks presented during our Workshop. We are indebted to the contributors of these proceedings, as well as to the other participants and organizers, all for making the event a complete success. We acknowledge the professionalism of our reviewers, who helped us to keep high quality standards in all manuscripts. Acknowledgments The organizing committee would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Mexican National Science and Technology Council (CONACyT), the Mexican Physical Society (SMF), as well as several Institutions including: Centro de Investigaci贸n y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Universidad Aut贸noma Metropolitana Iztapalapa (UAM-I), Universidad de Guanajuato (UG), Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico (UNAM). We especially acknowledge the support and the kind hospitality of our host, the Universidad Aut贸noma del Estado de Hidalgo. Ricardo Becerril B谩rcenas, H茅ctor H. Hern谩ndez Hern谩ndez, Miguel Sabido, Carlos A. Soto, Luis Alberto L贸pez, Omar Pedraza, Victoria E. Cer贸n. Editors

  9. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest formation and land cover maps for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest formation types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland formations. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest formations and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each mapping area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. Mapping forest formations with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest formations, without the aid of ecological zone maps, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in maps of forest formations with comparable or better detail than when IKONOS or Landsat imagery was hand-digitized, as it was for the Dominican Republic (7) and Barbados. 1. T. Kennaway, E. H. Helmer. (Intl Inst of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, R韔 Piedras, Puerto Rico, 2006). 2. A. Areces-Mallea et al. (The Nature Conservancy, 1999). 3. E. H. Helmer, O. Ramos, T. Lopez, M. Qui駉nes, W. Diaz, Carib J Sci 38, 165-183 (2002). 4. C. Daly, E. H. Helmer, M. Qui駉nes, Int J Climatology 23, 1359-1381 (2003). 5. T. G. Farr, M. Kobrick, Eos Transactions 81, 583-585 (2000). 6. E. H. Helmer, B. Ruefenacht, Photogrammetric Eng Rem Sens 71, 1079-1089 (2005). 7. S. Hern醤dez, M. P閞ez. (Secretar韆 de Estado de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de la Rep鷅lica Dominicana, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2005).

  10. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

  11. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-03-15

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author) [Spanish] El uso operacional de cepas de la mosca del mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) en las cuales es posible separar los sexos a traves de mecanismos geneticos para su utilizacion en la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), puede ser maximizado con el desarrollo de metodos efectivos para el envio y transporte de huevos. Esto permite que un laboratorio de produccion centralizada mantenga las respectivas colonias responsables por la produccion de huevos para este abastecer laboratorios satelites responsables por la produccion masiva de solamente machos para subsiguiente irradiacion y liberacion. Para ser posible esta alternativa fue evaluada la supervivencia de embriones de diferentes edades despues de su almacenamiento en agua a 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 deg. C por diferentes periodos de tiempo. La supervivencia fue afectada por las 3 variables evaluadas, la edad del embrion, la temperatura del agua y el periodo de almacenamiento. El almacenamiento de los embriones a cualquier temperatura por 120 horas dio como resultado la casi no supervivencia. Una edad controlada de los embriones a tratar es crucial para el exito de este protocolo. Embriones colectados entre 0 a 12 horas despues de la oviposicion y su previa incubacion a 25 deg. C por 12 horas brinda un margen de hasta de 72 horas de duracion del almacenamiento y transporte, siempre y cuando estos se mantengan en una temperatura de entre 10 a 15{sup o}C. En estas condiciones, fue registrada una reduccion no significante de la supervivencia de los diferentes estados de desarrollo. (author)

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Caama帽o Navarrete, Felipe; Osorio Poblete, Aldo; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introducci贸n: la obesidad m贸rbida disminuye considerablemente la esperanza y la calidad de vida.Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los efectos del ejercicio f铆sico con apoyo multidisciplinar sobre el estado nutricional, la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria y la presi贸n arterial de obesos m贸rbidos candidatos a cirug铆a a bari谩trica.Material y m茅todos: doce mujeres y un hombre entre 18 y 60 a帽os candidatos a cirug铆a bari谩trica, 10 con obesidad m贸rbida y 3 con obesidad y comorbilidades, fueron sometidos a un programa de ejercicio f铆sico con educaci贸n nutricional y apoyo psicol贸gico durante 5 meses. Peso corporal, 铆ndice de masa corporal (IMC), contorno de cintura (CC), capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, presi贸n arterial sist贸lica y diast贸lica fueron evaluados antes y posterior a la intervenci贸n.Resultados: el promedio de edad de los participantes de la investigaci贸n fue de 49,92 a帽os, el de altura fue 1,62 m. Todas las variables de estudio mejoraron significativamente (p < 0,05): peso (p = 0,000), IMC (p = 0,000), CC (p = 0,005), capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (p = 0,009), presi贸n sist贸lica (p = 0,006) y presi贸n arterial diast贸lica (p = 0,010). La capacidad cardiorrespiratoria aument贸 un 9,17%, la presi贸n arterial diast贸lica y sist贸lica disminuyeron 5,16% y 7,68% respectivamente. El IMC disminuy贸 un 8,39% y el CC un 6,63%. Conclusiones: el programa mejor贸 los niveles de presi贸n arterial sist贸lica y diast贸lica y la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, esto se vio complementado por la p茅rdida de peso significativa en los participantes de esta investigaci贸n. El ejercicio f铆sico con apoyo multidisciplinar demuestra beneficios para el tratamiento preoperatorio produciendo adaptaciones favorables en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. PMID:27019243

  13. Detecci贸n y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por L谩ser de radicales libres formados por Disociaci贸n Multifot贸nica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; D铆az, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociaci贸n multifot贸nica inducidos por radiaci贸n l谩ser infrarroja (DMI) es la producci贸n de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cin茅ticas y espectrosc贸picas. La disociaci贸n de mol茅culas poliat贸micas en el IR con l谩seres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energ铆a molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formaci贸n de fragmentos en el estado electr贸nico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitaci贸n vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifot贸nicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la t茅cnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por L谩ser (LIF) para la detecci贸n y an谩lisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos l谩seres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociaci贸n mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, as铆 como de la distribuci贸n de energ铆a interna con que 茅stas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociaci贸n de, entre otras, las siguientes mol茅culas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la se帽al LIF obtenida con determinaci贸n de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitaci贸n y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formaci贸n, variaci贸n de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los l谩seres de disociaci贸n y prueba, etc.

  14. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguaz煤, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in M茅rida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, M茅xico (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana Mar铆a Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas (CONICET), Argentina, Agencia Nacional de Promoci贸n Cient铆fica y Tecnol贸gica (ANPCyT), Argentina, Secretar铆a de Estado de Ciencia, Tecnolog铆a e Innovaci贸n, Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, Centro Latinoamericano de F铆sica (CLAF), Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing, The European Physical Journal (EPJ), EDP Science, Societa Italiana di Fisica and Springer. Adriana Serquis, Carlos Balseiro and Pablo Bolcatto

  15. Tend锚ncias de teses e disserta莽玫es sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho s茫o apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e disserta莽玫es defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produ莽茫o e conhecer as principais tend锚ncias da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliogr谩fico junto ao Centro de Documenta莽茫o em Ensino de Ci锚ncias (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educa莽茫o da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES dispon铆vel na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 disserta莽玫es de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em fun莽茫o dos seguintes aspectos: institui莽茫o, ano de defesa, n铆vel escolar abrangido no estudo, foco tem谩tico do estudo e g锚nero de trabalho acad锚mico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupa莽茫o mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produ莽茫o acad锚mica em programas de p贸s-gradua莽茫o no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao n铆vel escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a s茅ries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco tem谩tico das pesquisas, as principais tend锚ncias voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conte煤do e M茅todo; 43,8% para Concep莽玫es do Professor; 37,5% para Curr铆culo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Did谩ticos. Quanto ao g锚nero de trabalho acad锚mico, verificou-se que 43,8% s茫o de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de An谩lise de Conte煤do. Estudos de revis茫o bibliogr谩fica como este visam colaborar com a divulga莽茫o ampla da produ莽茫o acad锚mica em determinada 谩rea, tra莽ando algumas de suas tend锚ncias. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investiga莽玫es decorrentes, apontar as suas contribui莽玫es para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  16. Evoluci贸n de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los 煤ltimos dos a帽os parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evoluci贸n de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretaci贸n de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo m谩s detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos c谩lculos detallados de la evoluci贸n de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un c贸digo de evoluci贸n estelar lo m谩s actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energ铆a es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convecci贸n turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Adem谩s hemos considerado la nueva ecuaci贸n de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las p茅rdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs m谩s masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales est谩n ubicados en las cercan铆as de la correspondiente l铆nea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una regi贸n prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha regi贸n es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado tambi茅n que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las p茅rdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos m谩s masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teor铆a de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versi贸n de la popular teor铆a de la mixing length. Si bi茅n este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de los modelos no son afectados al incluir la nueva teor铆a de convecci贸n.

  17. Extensi贸n del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cu谩ntico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men茅ndez, J. M.; Mart铆n, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de 谩tomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos el茅ctricos ha experimentado un creciente inter茅s durante las dos 煤ltimas d茅cadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas t茅cnicas para crear y estudiar 谩tomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompa帽ando a estas nuevas t茅cnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos te贸ricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista te贸rico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energ茅ticos de un 谩tomo en funci贸n de la magnitud del campo el茅ctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripci贸n del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el c谩lculo de distintas propiedades at贸micas en presencia del campo el茅ctrico tales como intensidades de transici贸n, umbrales de ionizaci贸n de campo el茅ctrico, tiempos de vida, posici贸n y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptaci贸n del m茅todo de orbitales de defecto cu谩ntico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicaci贸n al c谩lculo de los desdoblamientos energ茅ticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los 谩tomos de Li, Na y K. El prop贸sito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar m茅todos fiables para la determinaci贸n de propiedades at贸micas en presencia de campos el茅ctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripci贸n del efecto Stark en sistemas at贸micos.

  18. Pseudomonas yamanorum sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from a subantarctic environment.

    PubMed

    Arnau, V韈tor Gonzalo; S醤chez, Leandro Arturo; Delgado, Osvaldo Daniel

    2015-02-01

    A psychrotolerant strain, 8H1(T), was isolated from soil samples collected in Isla de los Estados, Ushuaia, Argentina. Cells were Gram-negative, aerobic, straight rods, occurring singly or in pairs, non-spore-forming and motile by means of two polar flagella. The isolate was able to grow in the range 4-35 癈, with optimum growth at 28 癈. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?6c and/or C16 : 1?7c), C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1?6c and/or C18 : 1?7c). The polar lipid pattern of strain 8H1(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown phospholipid. Ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) was the predominant lipoquinone. The DNA G+C content was 59.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogeny suggested the affiliation of strain 8H1(T) to the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens group', displaying ?98.5 % sequence similarity to 29 type strains. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) study performed by concatenating 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoD and rpoB gene sequences showed that isolate 8H1(T) could be discriminated from closely related species of the genus Pseudomonas and placed in the 'Pseudomonas gessardii subgroup', including the species with the highest MLSA sequence similarities: Pseudomonas brenneri (96.2 %), P. gessardii (96.1 %), P. proteolytica (96.0 %), P. meridiana (96.0 %) and P. mucidolens (95.4 %). DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between 8H1(T) and the type strains of these closely related species revealed relatedness values of 27.0, 8.8, 41.2, 39.7 and 46.1 %, respectively. These results, together with differences in several phenotypic features, support the classification of a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas yamanorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 8H1(T) (?= DSM 26522(T)?= CCUG 63249(T)?= LMG 27247(T)). PMID:25385990

  19. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)

  20. Physical activity and overweight among adolescents on the Texas-Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    P閞ez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M.; Flores, Maria Isabel Aguirre; Sanderson, Maureen; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in associations between physical activity and overweight for students in two adjacent areas on the border between Mexico and the United States of America: students in the city of Matamoros, Mexico, and Mexican-American students in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) area of southern Texas. Since the extremely high prevalence of overweight among Mexican-American adolescents is well-recognized, we wanted to determine whether overweight has become a problem among Mexican adolescents. Methods Students from 6 schools (n = 669), representing 12% of the ninth-grade students in Matamoros during 2002-2003, and students from 13 high schools (n = 4 736), representing 22% of the ninth-grade students in the LRGV during 2000-2001, completed questionnaires. Polytomous logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk of being at risk of overweight (?85th percentile to <95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) for age and sex) and the risk of being overweight (?95th percentile of BMI-for-age and sex) versus normal weight associated with measures of physical activity. For simplicity normal weight includes underweight. Results A higher percentage of adolescents in the LRGV were at risk of overweight (17.2%) in comparison with adolescents from Matamoros (14.8%). The percentages of LRGV and Matamoros adolescents who were overweight were identical (16.9%). LRGV adolescent boys (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98) who participated in team sports were less likely to be at or above the 85th percentile of BMI-for-age and sex. Although of borderline significance, Matamoros and LRGV adolescent boys who participated in physical education classes were less likely to be at risk of overweight. Neither in Matamoros nor LRGV students were any of the various physical activity categories or levels associated with being at risk of overweight or being overweight. Conclusions Nearly one-third of the students in both Matamoros and the LRGV are at risk of overweight and are overweight. Implementation of interventions on healthful dietary choices and participation in physical education classes and sports teams are essential for reducing the extremely high prevalence of overweight among students on both sides of the Texas/Mexico border. ABSTRACT. Spanish. Objetivo: Investigar si hay diferencias en las asociaciones entre la actividad f韘ica y el sobrepeso observadas en estudiantes de dos zonas colindantes en la frontera mexicanoestadounidense: estudiantes de la ciudad de Matamoros, M閤ico, y estudiantes mexicanoestadounidenses del valle a lo largo de la desembocadura del R韔 Bravo (VRB) en la parte sur del estado de Texas. Dada la consabida prevalencia extremadamente alta de sobrepeso en adolescentes mexicanoestadounidenses, los autores quer韆mos determinar si el sobrepeso tambi閚 se ha convertido en un problema entre adolescentes mexicanos. M閠odos: Estudiantes de 6 escuelas (n = 653), que comprenden 11% de los estudiantes de noveno grado en Matamoros durante 20022003, y estudiantes de 13 bachilleratos (n = 4 736), que comprenden 22% de los estudiantes de noveno grado del VRB durante 20002001, contestaron cuestionarios. Se llev a cabo una regresi髇 log韘tica polit髆ica a fin de calcular el riesgo de estar en riesgo de tener sobrepeso (?85. percentil a <95. percentil de 韓dice de masa corporal (IMC) para la edad y el sexo) y el riesgo de tener sobrepeso (?95. percentil de 韓dice de masa corporal (IMC) para la edad y el sexo), frente a un peso normal, que se asociaban con distintos grados de actividad f韘ica. En aras de la sencillez, en la clasificaci髇 del peso normal tambi閚 se abarc la insuficiencia de peso. Resultados: Un mayor porcentaje de adolescentes estaban en riesgo de sufrir sobrepeso en el VRB (17%) que en Matamoros (15%). Los porcentajes de adolescentes de VRB y de Matamoros que ten韆n sobrepeso fueron id閚ticos (17%). Los varones adolescentes en el VRB (raz髇 de posibilidades [RP] = 0,87; IC95% = 0,77 a 0,98) que participaron en deportes en equipo tuvieron una menor probabilidad de estar en riesgo de tener sobrepeso. No se encontraron asociaciones entre ningunas de las dem醩 categor韆s de actividad f韘ica por un lado, y estar en riesgo de sufrir sobrepeso o tener sobrepeso por el otro, ni en estudiantes de Matamoros ni en los del VRB. Conclusiones: Casi una tercera parte de los estudiantes tanto en Matamoros como en el VRB est en riesgo de tener sobrepeso o tiene sobrepeso. La puesta en pr醕tica de intervenciones para fomentar h醔itos alimentarios sanos y la participaci髇 en clases de educaci髇 f韘ica y en deportes en equipo es una medida esencial para reducir la prevalencia extremadamente alta de sobrepeso observada en estudiantes a ambos lados de la frontera entre M閤ico y Estados Unidos. PMID:16723065

  1. Composition of the humin fraction of Terra Preta de 脥ndios soils by NMR and multivariate curve resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, E. H.; Hayes, M. H. B.; Song, G.; Deazevedo, E. R.; Bonagamba, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    Most of the soils in the Amazon Region are acid, with low cation-exchange capacity (CEC) values, low fertility, and low production potential. There exists a class soils in this environment that have an archeo-anthropedogenic horizon of pre-Columbian origin, called "Terra Preta de 脥ndios" (TPI), also known as Amazonian Dark Earths. These soils are characterized by higher fertility and more stable organic matter (OM) than the surrounding soils. The high fertility of TPI, and especially their sustainability, is attributed to the high levels of OM and to their physical-chemical properties. Up to 35-45% of the organic C in TPI is in the form of pyrogenic carbon (black carbon), compared to 14% in surrounding soils lacking an archeo-anthropedogenic horizon. Pyrogenic carbon derived from the partial carbonization of ligno-cellulosic materials, is composed of hydrogen-deficient condensed aromatic structures and, as the result of chemical and biochemical transformations, has a high charge density from carboxylic groups linked mainly to the aromatic core. Humin is the most recalcitrant and least understood fraction of soil OM. By definition, humin is the fraction that is not soluble in traditional aqueous alkaline soil extractants. It represents more than 50% of the soil organic carbon (OC) in mineral soils and more than 70% of the OC of lithified sediments, and is therefore the most important pool of the soil OM. However, for a study of humin by NMR it is necessary to isolate it and to achieve a degree of fractionation/purification. In this regard, an appropriate procedure1 has been applied to two soil samples from TPI and the material obtained was studied by solid state 13C NMR. The data analyses were carried out by Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR). Results and Discussion MCR resolved the spectral matrix into three components, and these can be attributed to wood, humin, and oxidised charcoal materials The spectrum for the wood component agrees very well with that of eucalyptus wood. On the other hand, the humin spectrum shows an intense signal in the alkyl region (0-40 ppm) with a prominent signal for crystalline polymethylene at 33 ppm. These signals, in association with the carboxyl signal (173 ppm), indicate fatty acid origins for these components. Additionally, some altered aromatic structures (a broad and featureless signal centred at 130 ppm) and cellulosic material (110 and 70 ppm) were also evident. The broad signal at 54 ppm was probably from N-alkyl compounds from proteinaceous material since the corresponding O-aryl signal from the alternative methoxyl contribution was lacking. Finally, the oxidised char component was characterised by the broad and featureless signal at 128 ppm and the carboxyl at 172 ppm. The shoulder at 167 ppm gave evidence for carboxyl directly attached to the aromatic backbone. This char component also had minor contributions from aliphatic compounds, such as alkyl, N-alkyl, methoxyl, and carbohydrates. With regard to the estimated concentrations of each of these components, the coarse char samples and the residual humin (before and after DMSO/H2SO4 extraction) presented a higher content of unaltered wood (cellulose and lignin) material. The humin extracted by DMSO/H2SO4 was very rich in long chain aliphatic compounds (alkyl groups: 0-40 ppm). This lipidic fraction was also extracted by the alkali urea treatment and by soil dispersion using ultrasounic vibration. Greater amounts of oxidised char were also isolated following the ultrasonic treatment. This component remained in the residual humin, and it was also abundant in the coarse char fraction, indicating that the solvent systems adopted were unable to solubilise these materials. The extractable humin probably corresponds to fatty acids associated with the clay fraction and the un-extractable fraction was probably composed of particulate char (partially, and oxidised) and vegetable tissues. In conclusion, the extractable humin in these soils is mainly composed of hydrophobic compounds strongly associated with the mineral fraction. The DMSO/H2SO4 solvent is very efficient for solubilising these lipidic compounds. On the other hand, the disruption of the clay aggregates, by ultrasonication, allows additional oxidised char to be released and solubilised by the DMSO/acid and by the alkaline urea systems. Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful for support from Science Foundation Ireland, from Funda莽茫o Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo 脿 Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, and from Funda莽茫o de Amparo 脿 Pesquisa do Estado de S茫o Paulo - Brazil.

  2. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educaci贸n en Astronom铆a y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educa莽茫o em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a reflection about the use of History of Science in the curriculum of formal education, through the discussion concerning cultural elements of several ethnic groups in Brazil, in actions related to astronomy education. The work was developed in the framework of an extension course and the analysis undertaken here refers to a meeting that discussed didactic sequences relating to that theme, based on the Brazilian law 11.645/2008, which states the obligation to present the subject "African-brazilian and indigenous History and Culture" in the official curriculum. The extension action was developed with teachers who teach Natural Sciences, in S茫o Paulo state, discussing issues related to the use of History of Science and the relationship with cosmogonies from Iorub谩 and Tupi peoples, highlighting how they can enhance the work with Astronomy(ies) in the classroom. It was observed that the participants had not yet presented these themes in their classes and also did not participate in training courses that discussed these subjects. Este art铆culo presenta una reflexi贸n sobre el uso de la historia de la ciencia en el curr铆culo de la educaci贸n formal, a trav茅s de la discusi贸n sobre el uso de los elementos culturales de los grupos 茅tnicos en Brasil, en acciones relacionadas con la educaci贸n en astronom铆a. El trabajo se desarroll贸 en el marco de un curso de extensi贸n y el an谩lisis realizado aqu铆 se refiere a un encuentro en el cual se abordaron secuencias did谩cticas relacionadas con ese tema, sobre la base de la ley brasilera 11.645/2008 que dispone la obligatoriedad del tema "Historia y Cultura africana e ind铆gena en el Brasil" en el curr铆culo oficial. La acci贸n de extensi贸n se desarroll贸 con los profesores de ciencias naturales en el interior del estado de S茫o Paulo, discutiendo temas relacionados con el uso de la historia de la ciencia y la relaci贸n con las cosmogon铆as de los pueblos Iorub谩 y Tupi, que muestra c贸mo se puede mejorar el trabajo con Astronom铆a(s) en la clase. Se observ贸 que los participantes todav铆a no hab铆an presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco hab铆an participado en cursos de formaci贸n que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflex茫o acerca da utiliza莽茫o da Hist贸ria da Ci锚ncia no curr铆culo da educa莽茫o formal, por meio da discuss茫o relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos 茅tnicos em a莽玫es voltadas 脿 educa莽茫o em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no 芒mbito de um curso de extens茫o e a an谩lise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequ锚ncias did谩ticas relativas 脿quele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da tem谩tica "Hist贸ria e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Ind铆gena" no curr铆culo oficial. A a莽茫o de extens茫o ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ci锚ncias da Natureza, no interior do estado de S茫o Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de Hist贸ria da Ci锚ncia e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorub谩 e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda n茫o haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, n茫o participaram de cursos de forma莽茫o que contemplassem a referida tem谩tica.

  3. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une r茅trospective de l'茅volution de l'hydrog茅ologie en Am茅rique du Nord sur les deux derniers si猫cles, et une br猫ve 茅valuation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrog茅ologie est marqu茅e par le d茅veloppement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la m茅canique des sols, les sciences du sol, la g茅ologie 茅conomique, l' ing茅nierie p茅troli猫re, la g茅ologie structurale, la g茅ochimie, la g茅ophysique, la g茅ologie marine et plus r茅cemment l'茅cologie. La science a 茅t茅 enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingu茅s, provenant de toutes ces branches. A pr茅sent, l'hydrog茅ologie est 脿 la transition entre la volont茅 de d茅couvrir de nouvelles ressources et l' exploitation la plus b茅n茅fique au possible, et un management judicieux des ressources finies, interconnect茅es, qui sont vitales pour l' approvisionnement des hommes et autres formes de vie. Le futur de l' hydrog茅ologie sera dict茅 par la balance subtile dans laquelle intervient les cycles de l'hydrologie, de l'茅rosion, de la nutrition, et la d茅cision d'une soci茅t茅 technologique qui s'adapterait aux contraintes de la balance, ou qui continuerait d'exploiter les syst猫mes hydrologiques pour un b茅n茅fice maximum. Par ailleurs il y a une nette tendance 脿 inclure les aspects 茅cologiques, les aspects environnementaux, et les changements humains qui pourraient 锚tre influenc茅s par les modifications hydrog茅ologiques observ茅es depuis une dizaine d'ann茅es. Este articulo es una retrospectiva sobre la evoluci贸n de la hidrogeolog铆a en Norte Am茅rica en los pasados dos siglos, y una breve especulaci贸n de su futuro. La historia de la hidrogeolog铆a est谩 marcada por desarrollos en muchos campos diferentes tal como hidrolog铆a de aguas subterr谩neas, mec谩nica de suelos, ciencia del suelo, geolog铆a econ贸mica, ingenier铆a del petr贸leo, geolog铆a estructural, geoqu铆mica, geof铆sica, geolog铆a marina, y m谩s recientemente, ecolog铆a. El campo se ha enriquecido por las contribuciones de investigadores distinguidos en todos esos campos. Actualmente, la hidrogeolog铆a se encuentra en transici贸n de un estado de descubrir nuevos recursos y explotarlos eficientemente para un beneficio m谩ximo, a un estado de gesti贸n juiciosa de recursos finitos, interconectados, que son vitales para el sustento de humanos y otras cosas vivientes. El futuro de la hidrogeolog铆a posiblemente est茅 determinado por el balance sutil con el cual funcionan los ciclos nutricionales, erosionales e hidrol贸gicos, y la decisi贸n de una sociedad tecnol贸gica para ya sea adaptarse a las restricciones impuestas por el balance o para continuar con la explotaci贸n de los sistemas hidrogeol贸gicos para un beneficio m谩ximo. Aunque existe actualmente una tendencia hacia la conciencia ambiental y ecol贸gica, las actitudes humanas podr铆an cambiar en caso de que grandes partes del mundo poblado est茅n sujetas a las presiones de sequ铆as que duran por muchas d茅cadas.

  4. Scheme for development of monitoring networks for springs in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Steffen; Einsiedl, Florian; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    The present groundwater monitoring network in Bavaria consists mostly of wells and only a small number of natural groundwater springs, all of which are analyzed for mainly the common physical and chemical constituents in groundwater. In order to develop a long-term groundwater management plan for all the groundwater resources of Bavaria, the Bavarian State Office for Water Management intends to establish a separate spring-monitoring network throughout the 11 groundwater provinces of the state. As a first step, significant physicochemical parameters that show considerable annual fluctuation (after monitoring 1-3 years) were determined at 21 springs or spring systems to create a basic data set to guide future monitoring. A selection procedure was developed around four parameters: (1) geological units, which includes the principal aquifers; (2) rate of spring discharge; (3) land utilization within a catchment; and (4) approximate size of the subterranean catchment. However, in the initial phase of the study, only the first three parameters were investigated. These parameters established a matrix for evaluating each groundwater region of Bavaria to aid in the selection of additional springs for the proposed monitoring network. R茅sum茅. Le r茅seau actuel de surveillance des eaux souterraines en Bavi猫re consiste surtout en des puits avec seulement un petit nombre de sources, tous analys茅s pour l'essentiel pour les composants courants physiques et chimiques des eaux souterraines. Afin de d茅velopper un plan de gestion 脿 long terme des eaux souterraines de la Bavi猫re, l'Office bavarois pour la gestion de l'eau cherche 脿 mettre en place un r茅seau s茅par茅 de surveillance des sources dans les onze provinces hydrog茅ologiques du lander. Dans un premier temps, les param猫tres physico-chimiques significatifs qui pr茅sentent des variations annuelles consid茅rables, apr猫s 1 脿 3 ans de surveillance, ont 茅t茅 d茅termin茅s 脿 21 sources ou groupes de sources pour constituer un jeu de donn茅es de base pour guider la future surveillance. Une proc茅dure de s茅lection a 茅t茅 d茅velopp茅e autour de quatre param猫tres: (1) les unit茅s g茅ologiques, comprenant les principaux aquif猫res, (2) le d茅bit des sources, (3) l'occupation du sol dans le bassin, et (4) la dimension approximative du bassin d'alimentation souterrain. Toutefois, dans la phase initiale de l'茅tude, seuls les trois premiers param猫tres ont 茅t茅 茅tudi茅s. Ces param猫tres constituent une matrice d'茅valuation de chaque r茅gion hydrog茅ologique de Bavi猫re pour aider 脿 la s茅lection de sources suppl茅mentaires destin茅es au r茅seau de surveillance propos茅. Resumen. La red de muestreo actual de aguas subterr谩neas en Bavaria (Alemania) est谩 formada sobre todo por pozos, mientras que apenas hay unos pocos manantiales naturales. Los an谩lisis incluyen, principalmente, los par谩metros f铆sico-qu铆micos habituales. Con el objeto de desarrollar un plan de gesti贸n de las aguas subterr谩neas en Bavaria a largo plazo, el Consejo del Estado para la Gesti贸n del Agua pretende establecer una red de muestreo de manantiales diferenciada en las once regiones en que se divide el estado desde el punto de vista de las aguas subterr谩neas. Como primer paso, se determinaron los par谩metros f铆sico-qu铆micos significativos que mostraban una fluctuaci贸n anual considerable (tras un muestreo de 1 a 3 a帽os), con la finalidad de crear una base de datos elemental que canalizara los muestreos futuros. Se desarroll贸 un procedimiento de selecci贸n con base en cuatro par谩metros: (1) unidades geol贸gicas y acu铆feros principales; (2) caudal del manantial; (3) uso del suelo dentro de la cuenca; y (4) tama帽o aproximado de la zona de captaci贸n subterr谩nea. Sin embargo, s贸lo se investigaron los tres primeros par谩metros durante la fase inicial del estudio. Con ellos, se estableci贸 una matriz para evaluar cada zona acu铆fera dentro de Bavaria y ayudar en la inclusi贸n de otros manantiales en la red de muestro propuesta.

  5. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo se plantea el correspondiente modelo de gran senal aplicado a un nuevo prototipo experimental, de mayor tension de entrada y mayores corrientes de salida. El final del Capitulo contrasta los resultados experimentales con los teoricos confirmando la utilidad del modelo de gran senal como una herramienta basica de diseno. Finalmente, en el Capitulo 5, se presentan las conclusiones y la valoracion de los diferentes estudios plateados a lo largo de la Tesis Doctoral.

  6. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jes煤s; Alcolea, Andr茅s; Medina, Agust铆n; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'茅tat du probl猫me inverse des eaux souterraines est synth茅tis茅. L'accent est plac茅 sur la caract茅risation de l'aquif猫re, o霉 les mod茅lisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des mod猫les conceptuels (notamment la variabilit茅 spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'茅chelle, plusieurs inconnues sur diff茅rents param猫tres (transmissivit茅, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non lin茅arit茅, et souvent la sensibilit茅 de plusieurs variables d'茅tat (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propri茅t茅s de l'aquif猫re. A cause de ces difficult茅s, le calibrage ne peut 锚tres茅par茅 du processus de mod茅lisation, comme c'est le cas dans d'autres cas de figure. Par ailleurs, il peut 锚tre vu comme une des 茅tapes dans le processus de d茅termination du comportement de l'aquif猫re. Il est montr茅 que les m茅thodes d'茅valuation des param猫tres actuels ne diff猫rent pas si ce n'est dans les d茅tails des calculs informatiques. Il est montr茅 qu'il existe une large panoplie de techniques d'inversion : codes de calcul utilisables par tout-un-chacun, accommodation de la variabilit茅 via la g茅ostatistique, incorporation d'informations g茅ologiques et de diff茅rents types de donn茅es (temp茅rature, occurrence, concentration en isotopes, 芒ge, etc.), d茅termination de l'incertitude. Vu ces d茅veloppements, la calibration automatique facilite 茅norm茅ment la mod茅lisation. Par ailleurs, il est souhaitable que son utilisation devienne une pratique standardis茅e. Se sintetiza el estado del problema inverso en aguas subterr谩neas. El 茅nfasis se ubica en la caracterizaci贸n de acu铆feros, donde los modeladores tienen que enfrentar la incertidumbre del modelo conceptual (principalmente variabilidad temporal y espacial), dependencia de escala, muchos tipos de par谩metros desconocidos (transmisividad, recarga, condiciones limitantes, etc), no linealidad, y frecuentemente baja sensibilidad de variables de estado (t铆picamente presiones y concentraciones) a las propiedades del acu铆fero. Debido a estas dificultades, no puede separarse la calibraci贸n de los procesos de modelado, como frecuentemente se hace en otros campos. En su lugar, debe de visualizarse como un paso en el proceso de enten dimiento del comportamiento del acu铆fero. En realidad, se muestra que los m茅todos reales de estimaci贸n de par谩metros no difieren uno del otro en lo esencial, aunque s铆 pueden diferir en los detalles computacionales. Se discute que existe amplio espacio para la mejora del problema inverso en aguas subterr谩neas: desarrollo de c贸digos amigables alusuario, acomodamiento de variabilidad a trav茅s de geoestad铆stica, incorporaci贸n de informaci贸n geol贸gica y diferentes tipos de datos (temperatura, presencia y concentraci贸n de is贸topos, edad, etc), explicaci贸n apropiada de incertidumbre, etc. A pesar de esto, a煤n con los c贸digos existentes, la calibraci贸n autom谩tica facilita enormemente la tarea de modelado. Por lo tanto, se sostiene que su uso deber铆a de convertirse en pr谩ctica standard.

  7. Monitoring Sea Level At L'Estartit, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Talaya, J.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Perez, B.

    2007-12-01

    Sea level is an environmental variable which is widely recognised as being important in many scientific disciplines as a control parameter for coastal dynamical processes or climate processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean systems, as well as engineering applications. A major source of sea-level data are the national networks of coastal tide gauges, in Spain belonging to different institutions as the Instituto Geogr醘ico Nacional (IGN), Puertos del Estado (PE), Instituto Hidrogr醘ico de la Marina (IHM), Ports de la Generalitat, etc. Three Begur Cape experiences on radar altimeter calibration and marine geoid mapping made on 1999, 2000 and 2002 are overviewed. The marine geoid has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from l'Estartit harbour to off-shore altimetric data. The necessity to validate and calibrate the satellite's altimeter due to increasing needs in accuracy and long term integrity implies establishing calibration sites with enhanced ground based methods for sea level monitoring. A technical Spanish contribution to the calibration experience has been the design of GPS buoys and GPS catamaran taking in account the University of Colorado at Boulder and Senetosa/Capraia designs. Altimeter calibration is essential to obtain an absolute measure of sea level, as are knowing the instrument's drifts and bias. Specially designed tidegauges are necessary to improve the quality of altimetric data, preferably near the satellite track. Further, due to systematic differences a month instruments onboard different satellites, several in-situ calibrations are essentials to tie their systematic differences. L'Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l'Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. It provides good quality information about the changes in the sea heights at centimetre level, that is the magnitude of the common tides in theMediterranean. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, ref:ESP2001- 4534-PE, the instrumentation of sea level measurements as been improved by providing this site with a radar tide gauge and with a continuous GPS station nearby. This will have a significant incidence in the satellite altimeter calibration activities. The radar tide gauge with data recorder and transmitter is a Datamar 3000C with 26 GHz frequency, 1mm resolution, 8 beam width incorporating a GPS receiver for automatic clock synchronization and a Thales Navigation Internet-Enabled GPS Continuous Geodetic Reference Station (iCGRS) with a choke ring antenna. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. A Partenavia P-68 airborne LIDAR campaign carrying an Optech Lidar ALT-3025 has been made in June 2007 to test the potential of Lidar to connect sea level measurements from tide gauges at the coast with satellite (as Jason-1 or Envisat) altimetry measurements offshore. The calibrated airborne Lidar can then be used over ocean to detect the sea surface height. In consequence, the objective is to check that the coastal sea level can be observed with GPS buoys and may be Lidar campaigns for get detailed regional geoid and sea surface topography models for referencing satellite altimeter measurements.

  8. Monitoring artificially stimulated fluid movement in the Cretaceous Dakota aquifer, western Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, Allen; F鰎ster, Andrea; Merriam, Daniel; Schr鰐ter, J鰎g; Healey, John

    2002-10-01

    Aquifer properties can be evaluated by monitoring artificially stimulated fluid movements between wells, if the fluid is heated. Changes in the temperature profile recorded in observation wells indicate the flow path of the heated fluid, which in effect acts as a tracer. A fluid-flow experiment in the Cretaceous Dakota Formation at the Hodgeman County site, west-central Kansas, demonstrated the advantage of using the distributed optical-fiber temperature sensing method for monitoring transient temperature conditions in this hydrological application. The fluid flow in the aquifer was increased by producing water from a pumping well and injecting heated water in an injection well 13 m (43 ft) distant from the pumping well. The time-temperature series data obtained and compared with results from previous pumping tests point to interwell heterogeneity of the aquifer and to a zone in the sandstone aquifer of high hydraulic conductivity. However, the experiment would have allowed further clarification of aquifer heterogeneity and thermal properties if at least one observation well had been present between the injection and production wells. R閟um. Les caract閞istiques d'un aquif鑢e peuvent 阾re 関alu閑s en effectuant un suivi des mouvements du fluide stimul閟 artificiellement entre des puits, si le fluide est chauff. Les variations de profils de temp閞ature enregistr閟 dans les puits d'observation donnent des informations sur les directions d'閏oulement du fluide chauff, qui en fait se comporte comme un traceur. R閍lis閑 dans la formation cr閠ac閑 de Dakota, sur le site du Comt de Hodgeman (centre-ouest du Kansas), une exp閞ience a d閙ontr l'int閞阾 d'utiliser la m閠hode de d閠ection distribu閑 de temp閞ature par fibres optiques pour suivre les variations de temp閞ature dans cette application hydrologique. L'閏oulement du fluide dans l'aquif鑢e a 閠 favoris en extrayant de l'eau par pompage et en injectant de l'eau chaude dans un puits d'injection distant de 13 m du puits de pompage. La chronique de temp閞ature obtenue et compar閑 aux r閟ultats d'essais de pompage pr閏閐ents fait appara顃re l'h閠閞og閚閕t de l'aquif鑢e entre les puits et l'existence d'une zone de forte conductivit hydraulique dans l'aquif鑢e de gr鑣. Toutefois, l'exp閞ience aurait fourni des 閏laircissements suppl閙entaires sur l'h閠閞og閚閕t de l'aquif鑢e et sur ses propri閠閟 thermiques si au moins un puits d'observation avait 閠 plac entre le puits d'injection et le puits de pompage. Resumen. Se puede evaluar las propiedades de un acu韋ero mediante la observaci髇 del movimiento de un fluido, calentado artificialmente, entre pozos. Los cambios registrados en el perfil de temperatura de los pozos de observaci髇 indican la trayectoria del fluido calentado, el cual act鷄 como un trazador. Un experimento de este tipo que se realiz en la formaci髇 cret醕ica de Dakota, en el condado de Hodgeman (porci髇 occidental del centro de Kansas, Estados Unidos de Am閞ica), demostr la ventaja de utilizar el m閠odo del sensor de temperatura con fibra 髉tica distribu韉a para medir condiciones transitorias de temperatura en esta aplicaci髇 hidrol骻ica. El flujo del fluido en el acu韋ero aument con el bombeo de un pozo y la inyecci髇 de agua caliente en otro sondeo, que distaba 13 m (43 pies) del primero. Las series de temperatura obtenidas y comparadas con resultados de ensayos de bombeo previos resaltan la heterogeneidad del acu韋ero entre ambos pozos, as como la existencia de una zona de elevada conductividad hidr醬lica en el acu韋ero de la arenisca. Sin embargo, el experimento habr韆 proporcionado m醩 informaci髇 sobre la heterogeneidad de la formaci髇 y sus propiedades termales si se hubiera dispuesto al menos de un punto de observaci髇 entre los pozos de inyecci髇 y bombeo.

  9. Qual o Papel da Escola e da M铆dia na Obten莽茫o dos Conhecimentos Astron么micos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    脡 amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral t锚m grande fasc铆nio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conte煤do dessa 谩rea inclu铆do no ensino formal est谩 longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfei莽oar a divulga莽茫o e o ensino n茫o formal de Astronomia atrav茅s da m铆dia aliando a adequa莽茫o do conte煤do 脿 expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Curr铆culo B谩sico da Escola P煤blica da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pr茅-escola at茅 o Ensino M茅dio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino M茅dio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se atrav茅s da aplica莽茫o de um formul谩rio contendo quest玫es que abordavam conhecimentos b谩sicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e 脿 infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor j谩 fez alguma apresenta莽茫o a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou tamb茅m que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astron么micos na escola, 18,4% atrav茅s da televis茫o e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos atrav茅s de outros tipos de m铆dia (internet, livros did谩ticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que h谩 certo equil铆brio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astron么micos, a m铆dia busca n茫o somente sua difus茫o, mas a disponibiliza莽茫o desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que 脿s vezes, n茫o 茅 atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamenta莽茫o e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, 茅 comum encontrar professores que v锚m para as aulas com concep莽玫es pr茅vias, que podem diferir substancialmente das id茅ias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos cient铆ficos. Uma avalia莽茫o criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poder谩 proporcionar uma melhor compreens茫o sobre as concep莽玫es alternativas, presentes no ensino de Astronomia.

  10. Circulation patterns and wave climate along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla 脕lvarez, D.; Garc铆a Codr谩n, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    Evidences of an active erosion (beach retreat, falling cliffs, damaged infrastructures) are observed in many coastal areas around the Iberian Peninsula. Morphogenetic coastal processes result from individual episodes of storminess that can accelerate or mitigate the expected impacts of the global rising trend of average sea levels. Thus, a good understanding of the local forcing processes is required in order to assess the impacts of future sea levels. The spatial and temporal variability of the wave climate along the cost of the Iberian Peninsula and their relationships with regional scale circulation patterns and local-scale winds are the main objectives of this contribution. The oceanographic data set consists of observed hourly data from 7 buoys disseminated along the Spanish coastline, and hindcasted 3-hourly analogous parameters (SIMAR 44 database), provided by Puertos del Estado. Sea level pressure, surface 10m U and V wind components gridded data were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis, while storm tracks and cyclone statistics were extracted from the CDC Map Room Climate Products Storm Track Data (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/st_data.html). The influence of the local conditions was highlighted comparing meteorological data from the buoys and synop reports from coastal stations. To explore the regional atmospheric mechanisms responsible for the wave variability, a regional Eulerian approach (a synoptic typing) were combined with a larger-scale Lagrangian method, based on the analysis of storm-tracks over the area. The synoptic catalogue was obtained following a well-known procedure that combines Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction purposes and clustering (Ward plus K-means) to define the circulation types. As expected, rougher wave climate are observed along the northern and western coast of the Iberian Peninsula, open to the Atlantic storms. The Mediterranean shorelines experiences calmer conditions, although the Gulf of Lions, Catalonian coast and Balearic Islands suffer stormier episodes than Mar de Albor谩n. Moderate wave power conditions occurred frequently by circulation patterns predominately stable and characterized by weak (mostly sea breezes) winds. Synoptic situations dominated by extra-tropical cyclones produced the highest, but least frequent wave power conditions. Depending on the location of the shorelines, three types of storm events are defined: 1. Long winds fetch and locally strong westerly and northwesterly winds expose the northern coast of Iberia to episodes of intense storminess. Extratropical disturbances tracking between the 50-60掳N parallels are the main forcing mechanism of those episodes, many of them result of a cyclogenesis processes along the eastern coast of North America. In some cases, the systems evolves as a secondary cyclon, crossing the area southward of the 50掳N parallel; significant wave heights can be as high as the northernmost cyclones, but the wave period is slightly lower. 2.Cyclones tracking along the 40掳N parallel bring stormy conditions to the western coast and the Gulf of C谩diz area, associated to southwesterly winds. 3. Finally, the Mediterranean shoreline suffer the worst conditions during easterly and northeasterly wind events, usually dominanted by local disturbances formed along the Western Mediterranean basin. Trends observed on the different circulation patterns can explain the temporal evolution of the wave climate along the Spanish coast, characterized by calmer conditions on the south and an increase of the wave period on the north, without discernible wave height trend. The overall results indicated that this synoptic climatological approach provides a viable framework to establish and examine links between weather systems and wave conditions.

  11. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germ谩n

    2014-01-01

    Introducci贸n: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa m谩s frecuente de anomal铆as cong茅nitas, luego de las cardiopat铆as. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la m谩s incapacitante y la m谩s compleja entre todas las dem谩s malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos pa铆ses de Sudam茅rica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones m谩s desarrolladas. Material y M茅todos: Se realiz贸 un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japon茅s (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quir煤rgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales s贸lo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnostic谩ndose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayor铆a fue despu茅s de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localizaci贸n en la regi贸n lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un da帽o neurol贸gico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% ten铆an paraplejia por debajo de la lesi贸n. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos cong茅nitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infecci贸n de la herida (16.6%), f铆stula de l铆quido cefalorraqu铆deo (LCR) (10%) e infecci贸n del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, coloc谩ndose una derivaci贸n ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presi贸n media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o m谩s a帽os, seis presentaron una m茅dula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quir煤rgicamente. Conclusi贸n: En esta serie, el diagn贸stico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivaci贸n al HUJ de los reci茅n nacidos con esta malformaci贸n fue generalmente tard铆a. No hubo predominio de g茅nero y la mayor铆a de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la regi贸n lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros pa铆ses de Sudam茅rica, las falencias en el sistema p煤blico de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pron贸stico en estos ni帽os. Por sus m煤ltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atenci贸n gubernamental, sobre todo de car谩cter preventivo mediante el uso de 谩cido f贸lico en mujeres f茅rtiles, como tambi茅n de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multic茅ntricos en hospitales de Am茅rica Latina, ayudar谩n al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

  12. Birds and people in semiarid northeastern Brazil: symbolic and medicinal relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background At least 511 species of birds occur in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil and many of them interact with human populations in a number of different ways, including their use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs. Objective The present work examined these types of birds/human interactions (use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs) in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte State in northeastern Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 120 local residents. Results A total of 16 wild bird species distributed among 11 families were found to interact directly with humans, with Columbidae being the best represented family. Seven species were identified in the medicinal category, five were related to symbolic aspects, while four species were identified as being related to both categories (medicinal and symbolic). Conclusion The accumulated folk knowledge, beliefs, and practices involving the avifauna in the semiarid region of Brazil, whether symbolic or medicinal, demonstrated the cultural importance of this vertebrate group to local human populations and revealed a belief system intrinsically related to cynegetic practices in the region. Portuguese abstract Introdu莽茫o No semi谩rido do Brasil ocorrem 511 esp茅cies de aves, algumas das quais interagem frequentemente com as popula莽玫es humanas locais de diferentes formas, incluindo o uso como zooter谩pico e a inser莽茫o em cren莽as. Objetivo Esta pesquisa registrou as aves diretamente associadas a essas formas de intera莽茫o (o uso como zooter谩pico e a inser莽茫o em cren莽as) na regi茫o semi谩rida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. M茅todos As informa莽玫es foram obtidas atrav茅s de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 120 moradores locais. Resultados Foram registradas 16 esp茅cies de aves silvestres distribu铆das em 11 fam铆lias, sendo Columbidae a que apresentou o maior n煤mero de representantes. Sete esp茅cies foram indicadas apenas na categoria medicinal, cinco esp茅cies apenas relacionadas a aspectos simb贸licos e quatro foram indicadas como relacionadas a ambas as categorias (medicinal e simb贸lica). Conclus茫o Os conhecimentos, cren莽as e pr谩ticas relacionadas 脿 avifauna no semi谩rido brasileiro, seja no aspecto simb贸lico ou medicinal, demonstra a import芒ncia cultural que esse grupo de vertebrados representa para as popula莽玫es locais, revelando um sistema de cren莽as que est谩 intrinsicamente relacionado 脿s pr谩ticas cineg茅ticas na regi茫o. PMID:23295130

  13. Linking storm surge activity and circulation variability along the Spanish coast through a synoptic pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla 羖varez, Domingo; Garcia Codr髇, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The potentially negative consequences resulting from the estimations of global sea level rising along the current century are a matter of serious concern in many coastal areas worldwide. Most of the negative consequences of the sea level variability, such as flooding or erosion, are linked to episodic events of strong atmospheric forcing represented by deep atmospheric disturbances, especially if they combine with extreme astronomical high tides. Moreover, the interaction between the prevailing flows during such events and the actual orientation of the coast line might accelerate or mitigate such impacts. This contribution analyses sea surge variations measured at five tide-gauge stations located around the Iberian Peninsula and their relationships with regional scale circulation patterns with local-scale winds. Its aim is to improve the knowledge of surge related-coastal-risks by analysing the relationship between surges and their atmospheric forcing factors at different spatial scales. The oceanographic data set consists of hourly data from 5 tide gauge stations (Santander, Vigo, Bonanza, M醠aga, Valencia and Barcelona) disseminated along the Spanish coastline, provided by Puertos del Estado. To explore the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for the sign and magnitude of sea surges, a regional Eulerian approach (a synoptic typing) were combined with a larger-scale Lagrangian method, based on the analysis of storm-tracks over the Atlantic and local information (synop reports) obtained from the closest meteorological stations to the tide gauges. The synoptic catalogue was obtained following a procedure that combines Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction purposes and clustering (Ward plus K-means) to define the circulation types. Sea level pressure, surface 10m U and V wind components gridded data were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis, while storm tracks and cyclone statistics were extracted from the CDC Map Room Climate Products Storm Track Data (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/st_data.html). The second task was to evaluate the performance of each circulation type on the spatial patterns of a daily fire danger risk index (Canadian Fire Weather Index, FWI). Finally, anomaly maps of several surface and low level climate variables, corresponding to the dates of ignition of the very large forest fires within each synoptic pattern, were calculated to provide insight of the specific conditions associated to those extreme events. A principal component analysis upon 6 hourly residuals highlighted the homogeneous behaviour of the tide gauges and provided a regional quantitative index to identify the largest storm surges. The leading PCA displayed a homogeneous spatial pattern, describing the low frequency variability along the entire coast, in spite of different orientations of the coast, accounting for more than 80% of the total variability. The second PCA displayed opposite phases between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the results suggest that surges are a regional rather than local phenomenon, probably related to the same single physical forcing. The comparison between extreme surge events and circulation patterns highlighted that single physical mechanism is represented by extratropical cyclonic disturbances located at the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, responsible for an environment characterized by low pressure readings and westerly-southwesterly winds. That wind pattern acquires an onshore component in the Atlantic coast, but becomes offshore in the Mediterranean. So, the main mechanism responsible for those storm surges is the inverse barometer effect, being the wind dragging secondary. The main physical forcing of the storm surges, the extratropical cyclones, have experience a reduction of this frequency and a marked reduction in their strength since 1950, replaced by stable circulations. Both conditions suggest a long term reduction of the frequency and the magnitude of storm surges.

  14. Condi莽玫es f铆sicas do disco de acr茅scimo da nova-an茫 V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acr茅scimo s茫o aparatos c贸smicos que permitem que mat茅ria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remo莽茫o de momento angular via tens玫es viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radia莽茫o. Sistemas bin谩rios semi-ligados, como Vari谩veis Catacl铆smicas (VCs) n茫o-magn茅ticas, s茫o talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da f铆sica desses discos de acr茅scimo. O desenvolvimento de t茅cnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avan莽os importantes na compreens茫o da f铆sica dos processos de acr茅scimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii 茅 uma VC eclipsante de curto per铆odo orbital (~ 90 min) que n茫o havia sido classificada como nova-an茫 ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a an谩lise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no decl铆nio de erup莽茫o em julho de 1992 e em erup莽茫o em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classifica莽茫o do sistema como uma nova-an茫. A an谩lise, feita sobre os mapas j谩 apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emiss茫o opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiesc锚ncia (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma dist芒ncia de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribui莽茫o radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacion谩rio T碌R-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiesc锚ncia, respectivamente; (iv) a evolu莽茫o da distribui莽茫o de temperatura no decl铆nio de erup莽茫o; (v) estimativa da transfer锚ncia de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M陇/ano em quiesc锚ncia, similar 脿quelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema 茅 comparado 脿 outras novas-an茫s (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiesc锚ncia e erup莽茫o, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em v谩rios aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-an茫s.

  15. Efectos de la irradiaci髇 i髇ica en hielos de mol閏ulas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satorre, M. A.

    En Astrof韘ica podemos encontrar numerosos contextos en los cuales se observan mol閏ulas en estado s髄ido que, en condiciones est醤dar de presi髇 y temperatura, se encontrar韆n como gases o l韖uidos. Dichas mol閏ulas se denominan hielos y han sido observadas en nubes densas del medio interestelar, en envolturas circumestelares, en sat閘ites del Sistema Solar, en cometas, etc. Los hielos pueden ser alterados en su composici髇 qu韒ica debido a diversos factores como por ejemplo variaciones de temperatura o aportes energ閠icos por parte de la irradiaci髇, ya sea tanto de fotones ultravioleta como de iones. Dependiendo del escenario astrof韘ico que analicemos, unos factores cobran m醩 importancia que otros. Los experimentos de laboratorio muestran el efecto que produce sobre la composici髇 de los hielos la irradiaci髇 i髇ica, en particular sobre los que conten韆n alguna mol閏ula con 醫omos de carbono. Dicha composici髇 se analiza con espectroscop韆 IR en el rango de 2 a 25? m. La aplicabilidad de los resultados de los experimentos es distinta dependiendo de la composici髇 qu韒ica inicial de los hielos, del tipo de ion utilizado y de la dosis total de irradiaci髇. Existen efectos generales de la irradiaci髇 sobre la materia en los experimentos de relevancia astrof韘ica como son: - la formaci髇 de nuevas mol閏ulas, que pueden incluir o no el ion incidente; - la progresiva p閞dida de hidr骻eno (carbonizaci髇) cuando irradiamos muestras que originalmente contienen una determinada relaci髇 carbono/hidr骻eno; - la variaci髇 de la temperatura de sublimaci髇 que presentan algunos hielos. Esto puede suceder tanto en hielos que estaban presentes antes de la irradiaci髇 como en hielos formados por 閟ta. Se presentar el papel del ion en la formaci髇 de nuevas mol閏ulas a partir de las que originalmente se encontraban en el hielo. Al penetrar en 閘, el ion provoca distintos procesos como rotura de enlaces y excitaciones electr髇icas. En la mayor parte de los casos las especies producidas por la rotura del enlace, se recombinan volviendo a formar la mol閏ula original. Sin embargo un peque駉 porcentaje es capaz de formar nuevas mol閏ulas. Si el ion queda implantado en el hielo y es reactivo (H+, C+,ldots) podr韆 formar parte de una mol閏ula nueva que incorpora un 醫omo que inicialmente no se encontraba presente en el hielo. Tambi閚 se presentar un contraejemplo para demostrar que no es posible asegurar que siempre que implantemos un ion reactivo, 閟te formar parte de nuevas mol閏ulas en la mezcla. Tambi閚 se presentar la formaci髇 de nuevas mol閏ulas a partir de la irradiaci髇 de hielos de metano, que llevan a la formaci髇 de otros compuestos como acetileno, eteno, etano,... en los cuales la relaci髇 C/H ha variado. Adem醩 de estos compuestos se forma tambi閚 un residuo carbonoso (refractario) que es estable a temperatura ambiente y cuya composici髇 qu韒ica no es bien conocida. Por 鷏timo, el aumento de la temperatura de sublimaci髇 es tambi閚 una consecuencia de la irradiaci髇, aunque la magnitud del aumento depende de la mezcla original y de la irradiaci髇 sufrida. Existen mol閏ulas que llegan a variar su temperatura de sublimaci髇 en decenas de grados. Para el caso de mol閏ulas carbonadas se forman especies por irradiaci髇 que son estables a temperatura ambiente. Con todo ello se muestra que los experimentos de laboratorio pueden ayudarnos a comprender la formaci髇, destrucci髇 y variaci髇 de las propiedades f韘icas de los hielos de inter閟 astrof韘ico con la irradiaci髇.

  16. A combined QC methodology in Ebro Delta HF radar system: real time web monitoring of diagnostic parameters and offline validation of current data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, Pablo; Piedracoba, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Over recent years, special attention has been focused on the development of protocols for near real-time quality control (QC) of HF radar derived current measurements. However, no agreement has been worldwide achieved to date to establish a standardized QC methodology, although a number of valuable international initiatives have been launched. In this context, Puertos del Estado (PdE) aims to implement a fully operational HF radar network with four different Codar SeaSonde HF radar systems by means of: - The development of a best-practices robust protocol for data processing and QC procedures to routinely monitor sites performance under a wide variety of ocean conditions. - The execution of validation works with in-situ observations to assess the accuracy of HF radar-derived current measurements. The main goal of the present work is to show this combined methodology for the specific case of Ebro HF radar (although easily expandable to the rest of PdE radar systems), deployed to manage Ebro River deltaic area and promote the conservation of an important aquatic ecosystem exposed to a severe erosion and reshape. To this aim, a web interface has been developed to efficiently monitor in real time the evolution of several diagnostic parameters provided by the manufacturer (CODAR) and used as indicators of HF radar system health. This web, updated automatically every hour, examines sites performance on different time basis in terms of: - Hardware parameters: power and temperature. - Radial parameters, among others: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), number of radial vectors provided by time step, maximum radial range and bearing. - Total uncertainty metrics provided by CODAR: zonal and meridional standard deviations and covariance between both components. - Additionally, a widget embedded in the web interface executes queries against PdE database, providing the chance to compare current time series observed by Tarragona buoy (located within Ebro HF radar spatial domain) and those measured by the closest radar grid point. A thorough analysis of the temporal evolution of the aforementioned parameters allows to define the standard thresholds for each site within which they are considered to be running optimally. In contrast, a site performance could be categorized as sub-optimal if an erratic and/or anomalous behavior is persistently detected in radial parameters values, related to a significant discrepancy from the mean and clearly outside the limits defined by the associated standard deviations. Consequently, a three colored-based alert system is activated according to each site's current status: green (OK), yellow (acceptable, but issue detected) and red (KO). Since this approach is constrained by the fact that it can not state the intrinsic quality of surface current data, a complementary validation analysis is required: HF radar-derived radial and total vectors are compared with observations from a current meter installed in Tarragona buoy. This validation, conducted for the entire 2014, aims to complete the proposed methodology through the exploration of the existence of bearing errors and the evaluation of intrinsic uncertainties related to HF radar technology by means of objective quality indicators.

  17. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la sintesis de otro nuevo tipo de nanoparticulas, obtenidas a partir de otro polimero de la misma familia, el [FeO8ZnO2(Htrz)3](BF4). Estas nanoparticulas se sintetizaron con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de la dilucion del metal en la muestra. Como resultado se obtuvieron nanoparticulas que tambien presentan una estrecha distribucion de tamanos pero en este caso la transicion de espin no es tan abrupta como en los casos anteriores. Aunque sigue presentando un ciclo de histeresis termica bastante ancho y a temperaturas proximas a la temperatura ambiente. En el capitulo 4 se describiran las estrategias que se han seguido para mejorar la estabilidad y afinidad sobre diferentes sustratos de las nanoparticulas sintetizadas en el capitulo 2. Tambien se hablara de los intentos realizados parar depositarlas en superficies y embeberlas en diferentes matrices organicas e inorganicas. En el capitulo 5 presentaremos la obtencion de un interruptor molecular realizado poniendo en contacto nanoparticulas individuales sintetizadas en el capitulo 2, con unos electrodos separados varios nanometros. Este dispositivo exhibe "switching" y efecto memoria a temperaturas proximas a la temperatura ambiente como consecuencia de la biestabilidad intrinseca de las nanoparticulas. Ademas demostraremos que el estado magnetico de estas nanoparticulas puede ser controlado electricamente, ya que la transicion de espin en este nanodispositivo molecular puede ser inducida simplemente aplicando un voltaje, lo que puede ser de gran interes para la electronica molecular.

  18. Grupos espa帽oles de c谩lculos ab initio de mol茅culas de inter茅s astrof铆sico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y谩帽ez, M.

    Pocos campos de la qu铆mica est谩n tan bien adaptados a la modelizaci贸n por medio de los m茅todos te贸ricos de la Qu铆mica Cu谩ntica como la Astroqu铆mica y la Qu铆mica de la Atm贸sfera, donde las interacciones moleculares son, generalmente, lo suficientemente peque帽as para que el modelo de mol茅cula aislada funcione muy bien. En Espa帽a son varios los grupos te贸ricos que dedican su esfuerzo de investigaci贸n, o parte de 茅l, al estudio de mol茅culas o procesos de inter茅s en Astrof铆sica o en atm贸sferas planetarias. Presentaremos diferentes ejemplos paradigm谩ticos de esta actividad en la que se exploran desde aspectos estructurales, hasta aspectos espectrosc贸picos y din谩micos. Entre los 煤ltimos, cabe destacar estudios en los que se demuestra la importancia de procesos a dos estados, prohibidos por esp铆n, en la formaci贸n astrof铆sica de diversos derivados de inter茅s. En el tratamiento espectrosc贸pico se han hecho esfuerzos interesantes, que han aunado teor铆a y experimento, en el estudio de sistemas relevantes desde el punto de vista atmosf茅rico, como los hidratos de 谩cido n铆trico, o el tratamiento espectrosc贸pico de mol茅culas no r铆gidas. No menos interesantes son los estudios de fotoabsorci贸n de radicales o de procesos multifot贸nicos. Son particularmente abundantes los estudios dedicados a la reactividad espec铆fica de sistemas de inter茅s astrof铆sico o atmosf茅rico, con el objetivo de esclarecer v铆as de formaci贸n de determinados compuestos o de proporcionar mecanismos que permitan identificar las etapas reactivas limitantes de reacciones de inter茅s en esos medios y sobre los que no exist铆a informaci贸n previa. As铆, por ejemplo, se han publicado interesantes estudios sobre la formaci贸n o propiedades de compuestos de f贸sforo, de silico o de azufre o sobre mecanismos de reacci贸n en los que intervienen el ozono, el radical nitrato, el radical OH u otras especies. Finalmente, son tambi茅n particularmente relevantes los estudios que varios grupos espa帽oles han llevado, y siguen llevando a cabo, sobre sistemas d茅bilmente enlazados, como complejos de Van der Waals o complejos por enlace de hidr贸geno, que sin duda juegan un papel importante tanto en medios atmosf茅ricos como interestelares.

  19. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbata铆 Formation, Paran谩 Basin, in the state of S茫o Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbata铆 Formation is a geological unit of the Paran谩 Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tamba煤, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of S茫o Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33脜 in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10脜 in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and Laminated. The clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite occur in portions intermediate and top of the profiles studied in the intercalated and altered lithofacies. The chemical results of major elements by X-ray fluorescence confirmed the mineralogical results, with average values of 63.74 % of SiO2, 12.50 of Al2O3, 4.35% of of K2O, 0.45% of Na2O, 2,72% of CaO and 1,87 of MgO. The results chemical and mineralogical subsidized testing and ceramic formulations due to be executed later so defining the main applications of these clays in the production of ceramic products. The authors acknowledge the finantial support of Funda莽茫o de Amparo 脿 Pesquisa do Estado de S茫o Paulo-FAPESP, (Process, number 2012/24219-9).

  20. Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. We used a modified before鈥揳fter control鈥搃mpact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year study. We located 59 and 185 nests before and after development, respectively, of a 201 MW wind energy facility in Greater Prairie-Chicken nesting habitat and assessed nest site selection and nest survival relative to proximity to wind energy infrastructure and habitat conditions. Proximity to turbines did not negatively affect nest site selection (尾 = 0.03, 95% CI = 鈭1.2鈥1.3) or nest survival (尾 = 鈭0.3, 95% CI = 鈭0.6鈥0.1). Instead, nest site selection and survival were strongly related to vegetative cover and other local conditions determined by management for cattle production. Integration of our project results with previous reports of behavioral avoidance of oil and gas facilities by other species of prairie grouse suggests new avenues for research to mitigate impacts of energy development. Efectos del Desarrollo de la Energ铆a E贸lica sobre la Ecolog铆a de Anidaci贸n de Gallinas de la Gran Pradera en Pastizales Fragmentados Resumen Se calcula que la energ铆a e贸lica aportar谩 el 20% de las necesidades energ茅ticas de los Estados Unidos para el 2030, pero nuevos sitios para el desarrollo de energ铆a renovable pueden traslaparse con h谩bitats importantes de poblaciones declinantes de aves de pastizal. La gallina de la Gran Pradera (Tympanuchus cupido) es una especie de ave obligada de pastizal que se pronostica responder谩 negativamente al desarrollo energ茅tico. Usamos un dise帽o ADCI modificado para probar los impactos del desarrollo de la energ铆a e贸lica sobre la ecolog铆a reproductiva de las gallinas en un estudio de 5 a帽os. Ubicamos 59 y 185 nidos antes y despu茅s del desarrollo, respectivamente, de una instalaci贸n de energ铆a e贸lica de 201 MW en el h谩bitat de anidaci贸n de las gallinas y estudiamos la selecci贸n de sitio de anidaci贸n y la supervivencia de nidos en relaci贸n con la proximidad a la infraestructura y las condiciones de h谩bitat. La proximidad con las turbinas no afect贸 negativamente a la selecci贸n de sitios de anidaci贸n (尾 = -0.3, 95% CI = -0.6鈥0.1). En su lugar, la selecci贸n de sitios de anidaci贸n y la supervivencia estuvieron fuertemente relacionadas con la cobertura vegetal y otras condiciones locales determinadas por el manejo de la producci贸n de ganado. La integraci贸n de los resultados de nuestro proyecto con reportes previos de la evitaci贸n conductual de instalaciones de petr贸leo y gas por otras especies de pastizales sugiere nuevas v铆as para que la investigaci贸n mitigue los impactos del desarrollo energ茅tico. PMID:24628394

  1. Chlorine-36 in groundwater of the United States: empirical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Stanley; Moysey, Stephen; Cecil, DeWayne; Zreda, Marek

    2002-11-01

    Natural production of the radionuclide chlorine-36 (36Cl) has provided a valuable tracer for groundwater studies. The nuclear industry, especially the testing of thermonuclear weapons, has also produced large amounts of 36Cl that can be detected in many samples of groundwater. In order to be most useful in hydrologic studies, the natural production prior to 1952 should be distinguished from more recent artificial sources. The object of this study was to reconstruct the probable preanthropogenic levels of 36Cl in groundwater in the United States. Although significant local variations exist, they are superimposed on a broad regional pattern of 36Cl/Cl ratios in the United States. Owing to the influence of atmospherically transported ocean salt, natural ratios of 36Cl/total Cl are lowest near the coast and increase to a maximum in the central Rocky Mountains of the United States. R茅sum茅. La production naturelle du radionucl茅ide chlore-36 (36Cl) fournit un int茅ressant traceur pour l'茅tude des eaux souterraines. L'industrie nucl茅aire, en particulier les essais de bombes thermonucl茅aires, a 茅galement produit de grandes quantit茅s de 36Cl qui a pu 锚tre d茅tect茅 dans de nombreux 茅chantillons d'eau souterraine. Afin d'en am茅liorer l'usage dans les 茅tudes hydrologiques, la production naturelle avant 1952 doit 锚tre distingu茅e des sources artificielles plus r茅centes. L'objectif de cette 茅tude a 茅t茅 la reconstruction des niveaux probables de 36Cl dans les eaux souterraines des 脡tats-Unis, avant la production anthropique du 36Cl. Bien qu'il existe des variations locales significatives, elles se surimposent 脿 un canevas r茅gional de rapports 36Cl/Cl dans les 脡tats-Unis. Du fait de l'influence du sel oc茅anique transport茅 dans l'atmosph猫re, les rapports naturels de 36Cl/Cl total sont plus faibles pr猫s de la c么te et augmentent jusqu'脿 un maximum dans les Montagnes Rocheuses centrales des 脡tats-Unis. Resumen. La producci贸n natural del radionucleido cloro-36 (36Cl) representa un trazador valioso para estudios de hidrogeolog铆a. La industria nuclear, sobretodo por los ensayos con armas nucleares, tambi茅n ha producido grandes cantidades de 36Cl que pueden ser detectadas en muchas muestras de aguas subterr谩neas. Para que sean lo m谩s 煤tiles posible en estudios hidrol贸gicos, la producci贸n natural anterior al a帽o 1952 debe ser diferenciada de la procedente de fuentes artificiales m谩s recientes. El objeto de este estudio era la reconstrucci贸n de los niveles probables de 36Cl en las aguas subterr谩neas de los Estados Unidos de Am茅rica con anterioridad a las aportaciones de origen antr贸pico. Aunque existen variaciones locales significativas, 茅stas se superponen a un extenso patr贸n regional de la relaci贸n 36Cl/Cl en el pa铆s. Debido a la influencia de la sal transportada en los aerosoles marinos, las proporciones naturales de 36Cl/Cl total son menores cerca de la costa, y alcanzan su m谩ximo en el centro de las Monta帽as Rocosas.

  2. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  3. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Garc铆a Rodr铆guez, Mar铆a; Vaquero Abell谩n, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introducci贸n: un gran n煤mero de encuestas nutricionales en Per煤 han identificado la magnitud y la ubicaci贸n de los diferentes tipos de desnutrici贸n, siendo la forma cr贸nica la m谩s prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (a煤n m谩s en las zonas rurales), s贸lo un trabajo contiene informaci贸n sobre las caracter铆sticas de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las caracter铆sticas gastron贸micas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situaci贸n en cada 谩rea y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazon铆a Peruana, para identificar las causas de la p茅rdida de un estado nutricional saludable.M茅todos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Bas谩ndonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos m谩s com煤nmente consumidos y evaluamos su composici贸n nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Adem谩s, se observ贸 la preparaci贸n y cocci贸n. La composici贸n nutricional media de cada plato se calcul贸 por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. Tambi茅n se calcularon lasganancias o p茅rdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de m谩s alta densidad de energ铆a es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energ铆a es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las m谩s energ茅ticas son el tallar铆n con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la m谩s alta densidad de energ铆a de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los pl谩tanos como el ingrediente principal, el pl谩tano frito y el madurito, son las m谩s energ茅ticas. Las grasas son m谩s elevadas en los platos fritos y son estos platos los que m谩s contribuyen al porcentaje total de grasa consumida. Lo mismo ocurre en las guarniciones, donde 100 g de pl谩tano frito o madurito contienen m谩s del 70% de la dosis diaria recomendada. La res asada y el juane tienen el nivel m谩s alto de sodio.Conclusiones: si se desea ofrecer platos m谩s saludables, es necesario cambiar algunos h谩bitos alimenticios, lo que supone reducir el consumo de alimentos fritos porque probablemente est谩 relacionado con la obesidad y otras enfermedades cr贸nicas cardiovasculares. Tambi茅n se debe reducir la ingesta de sodio. Dos alimentos que podr铆an ser importantes son la menudencia de pollo, rica en vitaminas del grupo B y baja en grasas, y el frijol hervido, rico en prote铆nas vegetales, que con platos de arroz, omnipresentes en esta 谩rea, incrementar铆a el valor biol贸gico de las prote铆nas ingeridas. PMID:27019248

  4. Phytoreovirus-like sequences isolated from salivary glands of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homolodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Katsar, C.S.; Hunter, W.B. . E-mail: Whunter@ushrl.ars.usda.gov; Sinisterra, X.H.

    2007-03-15

    The salivary glands of the Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821, (syn. H. coagulata, Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were collected and used to produce a cDNA library. Examination by BLASTX analyses identified 2 viral sequences, one a 610-base pair fragment and a second 839-base pair fragment, both of which had significant homology to viruses within the genus Phytoreovirus. Resequencing of the fragments confirmed sequence validities. These sequences were used for in silico protein translation and BLASTP analysis confirming the established homology. While the GWSS is the primary vector of Pierce's disease of grapes, this is the first report that GWSS may be a vector of a phytoreoviruses. Phylogenetic and homology comparisons with BLASTX, BLASTP, and PAUP analyses indicated that the viral sequences isolated from GWSS were closely related to the viruses in the Family Reoviridae, Genus Phytoreovirus, specifically Rice Dwarf Phytoreovirus (RDV). RDV is the only plant reovirus that is not limited to the phloem. Phytoreoviruses are transmitted in a propagative manner by cicadellid leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which acquire and transmit them during feeding. Phytoreoviruses have been reported from Agallian, Agalliopsis, Nephotettix, and Recilia, genera of leafhoppers, with evidence for transovarial transmission. The GWSS, although considered to feed primarily from the xylem, ingests from other plant tissues, such as the phloem and mesophyll during probing similar to other leafhoppers. The feeding behavior and wide host range of the GWSS provides an overlapping condition for these two organisms, leafhopper and virus. GWSS will feed from grasses as a transitory host, and on herbaceous and woody plants as primary hosts, which may favor the acquisition and transmission of Phytoreovirus by this leafhopper. Monitoring for an increase of Phytoreovirus spread in graminaceous crops that are in proximity to vineyards or tree crop orchards, where GWSS occurs, such as in southern California, will provide a better understanding of the potential role of the GWSS as a disease vector in the spread of phytoreoviruses and other plant pathogens. The sequences have been deposited in NCBI database under the accession numbers (EF058280) for GWSS-V1, WHSg013C11 and (EF058281) for GWSS-V2, WHSg024H02. (author) [Spanish] Dos fragmentos de 610 y 839 pares de bases fueron aislados apartir de una genoteca de expresion derivada de las glandulas salivales del cucarron de las alas cristalinas (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, Germar 1821 (syn. H. coagulata) el cual es vector de la enfermedad de Pierce de las uvas. Los resultados de alineamiento utilizando BLASTX, BLASTP y el analisis filogenetico utilizando PAUP indicaron que los fragmentos de DNA estaban relacionado de manera mas cercana a viruses en la familia Reoviridae, genero Phytoreovirus, y especificamente a los virus del enanismo del arroz (RDV) y al virus del tumor de las grietas (WTV). El cucarron de las alas cristalinas es un saltahoja que se alimenta no solo del xilema sino tambien del floema y del mesofilo. Saltahojas del genero Agallian, son los principales vectores de WTV, el cual infecta el floema de plantas dicotiledoneas tumoraciones en las hojas y en las raices. WTV es transmitido por saltahojas y es el unico reovirus que es capaz de infectar tanto tejidos del xilema como del floema. El comportamiento alimentario del GWSS y su amplio rango de hospederos que incluye pastos y plantas herbaceas y lenosas podria proveer la interaccion entre estos dos organismos facilitando la adquisicion y tranmision de fitoreovirus por el GWSS. Un adecuado monitoreo de el incremento en la expansion de reoviruses en cultivos de gramineas asociados al los vinedos en donde GWSS ocurre en regiones tales como el sur de California, y en general el sur de los Estados Unidos, podria proveer un mejor entendimiento del papel del GWSS como vector de fitoreovirus y otros patogenos de plantas. Las sequencias se depositaron en la base de datos NCBI con los siguientes numeros de identificacion: (EF058280) para GWSS-V1, WHSg013C11 y (EF058281) para GWSSV2, WHSg024H02. (author)

  5. A review of eating disorders research in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Unikel, Claudia; Bojorquez, Ietza

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize research findings on eating disorders and the current state of the field in Mexico. Papers published in indexed journals and graduate dissertations were retrieved, using "eating disorders," "anorexia nervosa," "bulimia nervosa," "body image," "binge eating," "restrained eating," "weight and shape concern," and "dieting" as keywords. These were combined with the Boolean operator "AND" with "Mexico" and "Latin America." Findings are presented for epidemiology, the validity of assessment instruments, comorbidity, and risk factors. A national representative survey found a prevalence of 1.8% for bulimia nervosa, and no cases of anorexia nervosa. However, the lack of studies with confirmatory clinical interview and other national or regional representative samples makes it difficult to reach conclusions about the actual prevalence. A number of instruments for the detection of eating disorders and disordered eating have been validated for the Mexican population. The comorbidity of eating disorders in Mexico includes drug and alcohol abuse, obesity, and borderline personality disorder. Risk factors found included body weight and cultural pressure to be thin. Future lines of research should include epidemiological studies with representative samples and diagnosis confirmation, longitudinal studies, and the exploration of protective and risk factors specific to this population. We want to acknowledge Dr Richard A. Gordon's encouragement to write this manuscript and his accurate comments on its preliminary and final versions. We also want to thank the participants of the seminar on publications held at the Office of Epidemiological and Psychosocial Studies of the National Institute of Psychiatry for the comments they made to this article. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de resumir los hallazgos de investigaci贸n sobre los trastornos alimentarios y el estado actual del campo en M茅xico. Se recuper贸 la obra publicada en revistas indizadas y tesis de grado, mediante los descriptores "trastorno alimentario," anorexia nervosa," bulimia nervosa," "imagen corporal," "atracones," "restricci贸n alimentaria," "preocupaci贸n por el peso y la figura," y "conducta de dieta." 脡stos se combinaron con el operador Booleano "AND" con "M茅xico" y "Am茅rica Latina." Se presentan los hallazgos para la epidemiolog铆a, la validez de los instrumentos de medici贸n, comorbilidad, y factores de riesgo. Una encuesta nacional representativa encontr贸 una prevalencia de 1.8% para la bulimia nervosa, y ning煤n caso de anorexia nervosa. No obstante, la carencia de estudios con una entrevista cl铆nica confirmatoria y de otras muestras nacionales o regionales dificulta el arribo a conclusiones acerca de la prevalencia real. Varios instrumentos para la detecci贸n de los trastornos alimentarios y de la alimentaci贸n desordenada se han validado en poblaci贸n mexicana. La comorbilidad de los trastornos alimentarios en M茅xico incluye el uso y abuso de alcohol, la obesidad y el trastorno de personalidad lim铆trofe. Los factores de riesgo referidos incluyen el peso corporal y la presi贸n cultural para estar delgado. Las l铆neas de investigaci贸n futuras deber谩n incluir estudios epidemiol贸gicos con muestras representativas y la confirmaci贸n del diagn贸stico, estudios longitudinales, y la exploraci贸n de factores de riesgo y protectores espec铆ficos a esta poblaci贸n. L'objectif de cet article est de r茅sumer les r茅sultats de recherche et l'茅tat actuel des connaissances sur les troubles alimentaires au Mexique. Les articles publi茅s dans des revues index茅es et les th猫ses de doctorat ont 茅t茅 recens茅s en utilisant les mots-cl茅s 芦 eating disorders 禄, 芦 anorexia nervosa 禄, 芦 bulimia nervosa 禄, 芦 body image 禄, 芦 binge eating 禄, 芦 restrained eating 禄, 芦 weight and shape concern 禄 et 芦 dieting 禄. Ceux-ci furent combin茅s, en utilisant la conjonction 芦 AND 禄, avec les termes 芦 Mexico 禄 et 芦 Latin America 禄. Les r茅sultats sont pr茅sent茅s de fa莽on 脿 d茅crire l'茅pid茅miologie, la validit茅 des instruments d'茅valuation, la comorbidit茅 et les facteurs de risque. Une enqu锚te normative nationale a indiqu茅 un taux de pr茅valence de 1,8% pour la n茅vrose boulimique et aucun cas de n茅vrose anorexique. Cependant, le manque d'茅tudes utilisant des entrevues cliniques confirmatoires et d'autres 茅chantillons normatifs nationaux et r茅gionaux limite les conclusions sur la pr茅valence actuelle. Un nombre important d'instruments pour d茅pister les troubles alimentaires et l'alimentation inad茅quate ont 茅t茅 valid茅s aupr猫s de la population mexicaine. Les principaux probl猫mes de comorbidit茅 avec les troubles alimentaires au Mexique incluent l'abus de drogue ou d'alcool, l'ob茅sit茅 et le trouble de personnalit茅 茅tat-limite. Les facteurs de risque incluent le poids corporel et la pression culturelle 脿 锚tre mince. Les avenues de recherche futures devraient inclure des 茅tudes 茅pid茅miologiques aupr猫s d'茅chantillons repr茅sentatifs, de la confirmation de diagnostic, des 茅tudes longitudinales et de l'exploration de facteurs de protection et de facteurs de risque sp茅cifiques 脿 cette population. PMID:24274780

  6. Estudio epidemiol贸gico de sucesos traum谩ticos, trastorno de estr茅s post-traum谩tico y otros trastornos psiqui谩tricos en una muestra representativa de Chile

    PubMed Central

    P茅rez Ben铆tez, Carlos I.; Vicente, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Durante la d茅cada de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estr茅s post-traum谩tico (TEPT) evolucion贸 de estudios espec铆ficos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre v铆ctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiol贸gicos m谩s tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiolog铆a del TEPT en pa铆ses en desarrollo ha sido un 谩rea poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el 谩rea de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traum谩ticos que ocurren en la ni帽ez son m谩s perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren m谩s tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiol贸gico llevado a cabo en Chile. Espec铆ficamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados m谩s frecuentemente con 茅l, as铆 como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiqui谩tricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, as铆 como la exposici贸n a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Adem谩s se compar贸 la prevalencia de trastornos psiqui谩tricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la ni帽ez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiol贸gicos se usaron m贸dulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagn贸stica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS鈥揑II-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiqui谩tricos se us贸 la Entrevista Diagn贸stica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 a帽os. Para estimar los errores est谩ndares (EE) debido al dise帽o de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se us贸 el m茅todo Taylor de linearizaci贸n seriada. Tambi茅n se us贸 un an谩lisis de regresi贸n log铆stica para examinar la relaci贸n entre el TEPT, los factores demogr谩ficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Adem谩s se utiliz贸 la regresi贸n log铆stica multivariada para evaluar si la relaci贸n entre el TEPT y el sexo pudiera ser explicada por medio de otros factores de riesgo, as铆 como para calcular las tasas y la oportunidad relativa (raz贸n de productos cruzados) de trastornos psiqui谩tricos a lo largo de la vida. El primer an谩lisis arroj贸 que la prevalencia de TEPT a lo largo de la vida fue de 4.4% (2.5% para hombres y 6.2% para mujeres). De los hechos traum谩ticos reportados, la violaci贸n sexual tuvo una correlaci贸n m谩s alta con el TEPT que los dem谩s hechos traum谩ticos. Las mujeres tuvieron m谩s probabilidades de experimentar TEPT que los hombres, despu茅s de controlar la variable asalto violento. El segundo an谩lisis evidenci贸 que los que hab铆an sufrido traumas a lo largo de la vida tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener un trastorno psiqui谩trico en comparaci贸n con aquellos que no reportaron traumas. Tambi茅n se encontr贸 que los que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la infancia tuvieron m谩s probabilidad de desarrollar trastornos de p谩nico a lo largo de la vida que aquellos que sufrieron su primer trauma en la edad adulta, independientemente del n煤mero de traumas que sufrieron y de las diferencias demogr谩ficas. Aunque Chile tiene un contexto hist贸rico-cultural y una econom铆a diferente a otros pa铆ses en los que se ha estudiado anteriormente la epidemiolog铆a del TEPT, el presente estudio reflej贸 tendencias similares a las reportadas en estudios previos. Los hallazgos expuestos enfatizan la importancia de investigar la prevalencia del TEPT, los patrones de comorbilidad del TEPT y las diferencias de sexo en la prevalencia del TEPT en diferentes pa铆ses. Tambi茅n estos resultados sugieren que los sucesos traum谩ticos en la infancia (y no en la adultez) pueden estar relacionados con la ocurrencia de trastornos psiqui谩tricos espec铆ficos. PMID:21113425

  7. Accounting for the Impact of Conservation on Human Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Milner-Gulland, EJ; Mcgregor, JA; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, JM; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-01-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideraci贸n del Impacto de la Conservaci贸n sobre el Bienestar Humano Resumen Los conservacionistas cada vez m谩s se comprometen con el concepto del bienestar humano para mejorar el dise帽o y la evaluaci贸n de sus intervenciones. Desde la convenci贸n de la influyente Comisi贸n Sarkozy en 2009, los investigadores del desarrollo han estado refinando las conceptualizaciones y los marcos de trabajo para entender y medir el bienestar humano y est谩n comenzando a convergir con un entendimiento com煤n de cu谩l es la mejor forma de hacer esto. En la conservaci贸n el t茅rmino bienestar humano tiene un uso amplio, pero existe la necesidad de la orientaci贸n en su operaci贸n para medir los impactos de las intervenciones de la conservaci贸n sobre la gente. Presentamos un marco de trabajo para entender el bienestar humano que podr铆a ser 煤til particularmente en la conservaci贸n. El marco de trabajo incluye tres condiciones: cumplir con las necesidades, perseguir objetivos y experimentar una calidad satisfactoria de vida. Resumimos algunas de las complejidades involucradas en la evaluaci贸n de los efectos del bienestar de las intervenciones de la conservaci贸n con el entendimiento de que el bienestar var铆a entre la gente, en el tiempo y con las prioridades del evaluador. Los retos clave para la investigaci贸n de los impactos del bienestar de las intervenciones de la conservaci贸n incluyen la necesidad de crear una colecci贸n de estudios de caso para trazar lecciones generalizables: hacer uso del potencial de la tecnolog铆a moderna para apoyar la investigaci贸n del bienestar; y contextualizar espacial y temporalmente las evaluaciones de los impactos de la conservaci贸n sobre el bienestar dentro del marco m谩s amplio del cambio social. Existen caminos que atraviesan la confusi贸n que rodea al t茅rmino bienestar, y los marcos de trabajo existentes, como el del acercamiento de Bienestar en Pa铆ses en Desarrollo, pueden ayudar a los conservacionistas a negociar los obst谩culos de la operaci贸n del concepto. Los conservacionistas tienen la oportunidad de beneficiarse del frenes铆 reciente de investigaci贸n en el campo del desarrollo para as铆 realizar evaluaciones m谩s matizadas y relevantes localmente de los efectos de sus intervenciones sobre el bienestar humano. PMID:24641551

  8. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    O presente trabalho 茅 parte preliminar de um estudo mais amplo em n铆vel de doutorado sobre o ensino de astronomia mediado pelas tecnologias da informa莽茫o e comunica莽茫o, utilizando dispositivos compactos, m贸veis e pessoais. Este estudo tamb茅m faz parte do projeto institucional do CEFETMG sobre ambientes diversificados de aprendizagem sob fomento da ag锚ncia estadual FAPEMIG (Funda莽茫o de Amparo 脿 Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais). Esta apresenta莽茫o aborda o resultado das concep莽玫es pr茅vias de estudantes em rela莽茫o a conhecimentos b谩sicos de astronomia, ligados 脿 percep莽茫o e observa莽茫o direta do c茅u. Tr锚s turmas de estudantes de 1陋 s茅rie e uma turma de 3陋 s茅rie do ensino integrado m茅dio t茅cnico da Educa莽茫o B谩sica, T茅cnica e Tecnol贸gica (EBTT) do CEFETMG Campus II - Belo Horizonte/MG foram submetidas a uma avalia莽茫o pr茅via atrav茅s de question谩rio estruturado. Este question谩rio foi elaborado de forma a abordar a percep莽茫o dos estudantes em rela莽茫o aos recursos gr谩ficos (figuras e desenhos) representativos de conhecimentos b谩sicos de astronomia, comuns em livros did谩ticos. Ap贸s a an谩lise dos resultados desta avalia莽茫o, organizou-se uma estrat茅gia de interven莽茫o did谩tica em sala de aula sobre o conte煤do de astronomia, utilizando-se de recursos de media莽茫o baseados nas tecnologias da informa莽茫o e comunica莽茫o. Os temas selecionados para esta estrat茅gia did谩tica foram relacionados aos assuntos b谩sicos de astronomia em que ocorreu maior n铆vel de desconhecimento dos estudantes. Os estudantes foram submetidos a avalia莽茫o posterior elaborada com os mesmos pressupostos da avalia莽茫o pr茅via. A an谩lise dos resultados foi realizada a partir dos pressupostos da aprendizagem significativa (Ausubel; Novak e Hanesian, 1983). O ensino de astronomia por media莽茫o das tecnologias da informa莽茫o e comunica莽茫o indica uma alternativa preliminar aos trabalhos de campo usuais orientados na pr谩tica escolar, tais como, visita a planet谩rios e a observat贸rios. Os estudantes ficaram muito sensibilizados pela possibilidade de percep莽茫o do c茅u em tempo real e 脿 luz do dia dentro da sala de aula no contexto escolar. Os resultados deste levantamento preliminar indicam que os n铆veis de ensino fundamental e m茅dio n茫o foram capazes de internalizar conhecimentos b谩sicos de astronomia, a despeito das orienta莽玫es espec铆ficas contidas nos documentos oficiais da educa莽茫o b谩sica brasileira (Brasil, 1997 e 2000). Os estudantes pesquisados apresentaram conhecimentos e concep莽玫es rudimentares sobre o tema astronomia b谩sica, indicando a aus锚ncia de abordagem do tema astronomia, tampouco de observa莽茫o direta do c茅u em trabalhos de campo escolares na educa莽茫o b谩sica. Finalmente, esta abordagem did谩tica suscitou nos estudantes grande interesse para futuros trabalhos de observa莽茫o de campo. D.P. Ausubel; J.D. Novak; H. Hanesian. Psicolog铆a Educativa: un punto de vista cognoscitivo. M茅xico: Trillas, 1983. BRASIL. Secretaria de Educa莽茫o B谩sica. Par芒metros Curriculares Nacionais: Ensino Fundamental (PCN), 1997, e Ensino M茅dio (PCNEM), 2000. Bras铆lia. MEC/SEB.

  9. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. R茅sum茅 A Ta茂wan, l'expansion 茅conomique rapide, l'am茅lioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqu茅, ces derni猫res ann茅es, une tr猫s forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualit茅 et en quantit茅, l'eau souterraine a longtemps 茅t茅 consid茅r茅e comme une ressource en eau s没re pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion int茅grant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a 茅t茅 g锚n茅e par l'absence de donn茅es sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le D茅partement des Ressources en Eau a lanc茅 le programme "Plan pour un r茅seau de suivi des eaux souterraines 脿 Ta茂wan". D'apr猫s ce programme, les donn茅es de base concernant les eaux souterraines, comprenant les mesures de niveau et les donn茅es de qualit茅, ont 茅t茅 acquises ; une base de donn茅es s没re est en cours d'茅laboration, dans le but de g茅rer l'ensemble des ressources en eau. Cet article pr茅sente les buts, les stades de d茅veloppement et une vue d'ensemble de ce plan. Le plan impose la mise en place de 517 stations de mesures hydrog茅ologiques et de 990 pi茅zom猫tres en 17 ans. Selon ce programme, les variations du niveau des nappes doivent 锚tre suivies en continu, tandis que des 茅chantillons pour la qualit茅 de l'eau seront pr茅lev茅s pour analyses uniquement au cours de la phase de foration, puis au moment de la mise en service des pi茅zom猫tres. En 1996, le D茅partement des Ressources en Eau et la Commission de Planification des Ressources en Eau ont 茅t茅 r茅unis pour former l'actuel Bureau des Ressources en Eau. Resumen En Taiwan, el r谩pido crecimiento econ贸mico, el aumento en el nivel de vida y los cambios sociales en los 煤ltimos a帽os han resultado en un aumento en la demanda de agua. Por su estabilidad en t茅rminos de cantidad y calidad, las aguas subterr谩neas han sido durante a帽os la fuente de agua para usos dom茅sticos, agr铆colas e industriales. En los 煤ltimos a帽os, sin embargo, el establecimiento de un programa de gesti贸n conjunta de aguas superficiales y subterr谩neas se ha visto comprometido por la falta de datos correspondientes a estas 煤ltimas. En 1992, el Departamento de Recursos de Agua (DWR) inici贸 un programa titulado "Plan de Red de Control de Aguas Subterr谩neas en Taiwan". Bajo este programa, se est谩n recogiendo datos b谩sicos, incluyendo niveles piezom茅tricos y datos de calidad, y se est谩 construyendo una base de datos con el prop贸sito de gestionar los recursos de agua totales. Este art铆culo presenta el marco, los objetivos y el estado de implantaci贸n del plan, que pretende la construcci贸n de 517 estaciones de medida hidrogeol贸gicas y 990 pozos de observaci贸n durante un periodo de 17 a帽os. Bajo este programa, los niveles de agua se miden continuamente, mientras que las muestras para an谩lisis de calidad se toman s贸lo durante la perforaci贸n y cuando el pozo est谩 en servicio. En 1996, el DWR y la Comisi贸n de Planificaci贸n de los Recursos de Agua se unieron para formar la actual Oficina de Recursos de Agua.5

  10. A thick lens of fresh groundwater in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot; Gingerich, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    A thick lens of fresh groundwater exists in a large region of low permeability in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. The conventional conceptual model for groundwater occurrence in Hawaii and other shield-volcano islands does not account for such a thick freshwater lens. In the conventional conceptual model, the lava-flow accumulations of which most shield volcanoes are built form large regions of relatively high permeability and thin freshwater lenses. In the southern Lihue Basin, basin-filling lavas and sediments form a large region of low regional hydraulic conductivity, which, in the moist climate of the basin, is saturated nearly to the land surface and water tables are hundreds of meters above sea level within a few kilometers from the coast. Such high water levels in shield-volcano islands were previously thought to exist only under perched or dike-impounded conditions, but in the southern Lihue Basin, high water levels exist in an apparently dike-free, fully saturated aquifer. A new conceptual model of groundwater occurrence in shield-volcano islands is needed to explain conditions in the southern Lihue Basin. R閟um. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue (Kauai, Hawaii, USA), il existe une 閜aisse lentille d'eau souterraine douce dans une vaste r間ion faible perm閍bilit. Le mod鑜e conceptuel conventionnel pour la pr閟ence d'eau souterraine Hawaii et dans les autres 頻es de volcans en bouclier ne rend pas compte d'une lentille d'eau douce si 閜aisse. Dans ce mod鑜e conceptuel, les accumulations de lave dont sont form閟 la plupart des volcans en bouclier couvrent de vastes r間ions relativement forte perm閍bilit, avec des lentilles d'eau douce peu 閜aisses. Dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, les laves remplissant le bassin et les s閐iments constituent une r間ion 閠endue faible conductivit hydraulique r間ionale, qui, sous le climat humide du bassin, est satur閑 presque jusqu' sa surface; les surfaces pi閦om閠riques sont plusieurs centaines de m鑤res au-dessus du niveau de la mer quelques kilom鑤res de la c魌e. On pensait jusqu' pr閟ent que des niveaux pi閦om閠riques aussi 閘ev閟 dans des 頻es de volcans en bouclier n'existaient que dans le cas de nappes perch閑s ou de blocage par un dyke, mais dans le sud du bassin de Lihue, des niveaux pi閦om閠riques 閘ev閟 existent dans un aquif鑢e apparemment sans dyke et compl鑤ement satur. Un nouveau mod鑜e conceptuel de pr閟ence d'eau souterraine dans les 頻es de volcans en bouclier est n閏essaire pour expliquer les conditions observ閑s dans le sud du bassin de Lihue. Resumen. Se ha determinado la existencia de un espeso lentej髇 de aguas subterr醤eas dulces en una extensa regi髇 de baja permeabilidad situada al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, en Kauai (Hawaii, Estados Unidos de Am閞ica). El modelo conceptual convencional de las aguas subterr醤eas en Hawai y en otros cinturones de islas volc醤icas no considera la existencia de lentejones tan gruesos de agua dulce. En dicho modelo, las acumulaciones de flujos de lava que constituyen la mayor韆 de los cinturones volc醤icos se desarrollan en grandes 醨eas de permeabilidad relativamente baja y con peque駉s lentejones de agua dulce. En el sur de la cuenca de Lihue, las lavas de relleno y los sedimentos forman una regi髇 extensa de baja conductividad hidr醬lica regional que, con el clima h鷐edo de la zona, est saturada hasta pr醕ticamente la superficie del terreno, mientras que el nivel fre醫ico se encuentra centenares de metros por encima del nivel del mar a pocos kil髆etros de la l韓ea de costa. Se cre韆 hasta ahora que, en los cinturones de islas volc醤icas, tales niveles s髄o ten韆n lugar en acu韋eros colgados o en condiciones de confinamiento por diques, pero, al sur de la cuenca de Lihue, se dan en acu韋eros completamente saturados que no est醤 limitados por diques. Se necesita un nuevo modelo conceptual de las aguas subterr醤eas en cinturones de islas volc醤icas para explicar las condiciones halladas en la cuenca meridional de Lihue.

  11. Spanish Network on Effects of Wildfires on Soils. The view after 5 years of networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jord醤, Antonio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerd, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    1. WHAT IS FUEGORED? The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" (FUEGORED, http://grupo.us.es/fuegored) has been working for over 5 years at becoming a point of reference for the study of fire-affected soils and restoration strategies. FUEGORED started in 2007, originally scheduled to run three years, as a result of the interest of Spanish researchers for developing better strategies and scientific interchange of ideas, people and collaboration between research groups. The first steps towards the establishment of a working group were a series of fieldtrips through Spain (2003), USA (2004) and Portugal (2005), where discussions about problems and research strategies arised. In its early years the network was supported by the former Ministry of Science and Innovation. This is a project to review scientific knowledge developed to date and discuss and propose future developments in scientific research about the effects of wildfires on soils. The objectives of the network are to promote and disseminate scientific research findings, provide technical and management information, and facilitate transference of knowledge between scientists, forest managers, students and society. 2. WHO IS IN THE NETWORK? The research group consists of the leading names of Spanish science in the topic and young talents, which are currently developing the most innovative research lines. Currently, the network is formed by 245 members, researchers from over 30 Spanish universities and research centers to provide the experience of decades of scientific and technical work in areas affected by forest fires and outstanding foreign researchers from Europe, Australia and America, including countries such as Australia, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, UK, USA and others. Forest managers and technicians from various institutions are also present. 3. MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS Four international congresses have been promoted by the network in Valencia, 2008, Seville, 2009, Santiago de Compostela, 2010 and Tenerife, 2012 (the next meeting will be held in Barcelona in 2014). In addition, several contributions, courses and workshops have been celebrated in Spanish or international forums as the EGU General Assembly, the International Meeting of Fire Effects on Soil Properties (FESP2011 and forthcoming FESP2013) and the International Conference on Geomorphology have been also sponsored. Other activities include the publication of book series (two volumes have been published: Cerd and Jord醤, 2010; Cerd and Mataix-Solera, 2009. The third one is currently in preparation), books of abstracts (D韆z-Ravi馻 et al., 2010; Jord醤 et al., 2009), a series of technical reports (in preparation) and special issues in international journals (in, for example, Catena, Geoderma, Environmental Research or the International Journal of Wildland Fire). A four-monthly journal (FLAMMA; http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/flamma) is published regularly since 2010 with an increasing audience and issues scheduled until 2014. Also, the network has promoted voluntary environmental actions and educational activities. 4. MAIN CHALLENGES The next challenges are to continue promoting the interaction between scientists, decision makers, forest management staff and end-users and to establish new connections with European institutions and research groups. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" was supported between 2007 and 2009 by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projects CGL2007-28764-E 2007-2008 and CGL2008-01632-E 2009). REFERENCES Cerd, A. Jord醤, A. (Eds.). 2010. Actualizaci髇 de M閠odos y T閏nicas para el Estudio de los Suelos Afectados por Incendios Forestales [Updated methods and techniques for the study of soils affected by wildfires; in Spanish]. C醫edra de Divulgaci de la Ci鑞cia, Universitat de Val鑞cia, FUEGORED 2010. Valencia. 521 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Cerd, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (Eds). 2009. Efectos de los incendios forestales sobre los suelos en Espa馻. El estado de la cuesti髇 visto por los cient韋icos espa駉les [Effects of wildfires on soils in Spain. The state of the question as seen by Spanish scientists; in Spanish]. C鄑edra de Divulgaci de la Ci鑞cia. Universitat de Valencia. 529 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-7653-9. D韆z Ravi馻, M., Benito, E., Carballas, T., Font鷕bel, M.T., Vega , J.A.(Eds.). 2010. Research and post-fire Management: Soil Protection and Rehabilitation Techniques for Burnt Forest Ecosystems. IIAG (CSIC). Santiago de Compostela. 326 pp. ISBN: 978-84-8408-583-6. Jord醤, A., Zavala, L.M. de la Rosa, J.M., Knicker, H., Gonz醠ez-P閞ez, J.A., Gonz醠ez-Vila, F.J. (Eds.). 2009. Advances in forest fire effects on soils 2009. IRNAS-CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla. Sevilla. 144 pp. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/18162. FUEGORED INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS FUEGORED2008. I International Meeting Effects of Wildfires son Soils. 03-05 December 2008. Valencia/Enguera/Alcoi, Spain. FUEGORED2009. II International Meeting Effects of Wildfires son Soils. 04-06 November 2009. Sevilla/Cortegana, Spain. FUEGORED2010. III International Meeting Effects of Wildfires son Soils Research and post-fire Management: Soil Protection and Rehabilitation Techniques for Burnt Forest Ecosystems 06-08 October 2010. Santiago de Compostela, Spain. FUEGORED2012. IV International Meeting Effects of Wildfires son Soils 24-27 October 2012. Puerto de la Cruz, Spain.

  12. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    The XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place from 8-12 November, 2010, in the colonial city of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. The format of the school was such that the morning sessions were devoted to theoretical and experimental reviews, whereas parallel thematic sessions were held in the afternoons. All the reviews and seminars were delivered by experts of international prestige on subjects which are of current interest to the global scientific community and are also actively pursued within Mexico. In order to equip the attending graduate students and post docs with the necessary introductory tools to allow them to benefit substantially from the specialized seminars, a series of mini-courses were offered prior to the event from 4-7 November 2010, in the Auditorium of the Faculty of Science of the University of Michoacan (UMSNH). The length of each course was about 5 hours, English being the language of instruction. An informal and friendly atmosphere was encouraged during the courses so that the students could overcome their inhibitions and actively participate in the discussions. A novel feature of this event was a colloquium aimed at the general public and younger students of pre-undergraduate level, which allowed the expert scientists to reach out to a wider community and raise their awareness and interest in one of the most fascinating and vital fields of knowledge. The XIV-MSPF was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnol贸gico (COECyT) del Estado de Michoac谩n, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicol谩s de Hidalgo, Universidad de Sonora, Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico, Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad de Sinaloa, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog铆a (CONACyT), la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and, most importantly, the Red Nacional de F铆sica de Altas Energ铆as. At a personal level, we are very grateful to Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo (President of the Red Nacional de F铆sica de Altas Energ铆as), Dr Pedro Mata V谩zquez (Director of COECyT), Dr Ricardo Becerril B谩rcenas (Director of the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, UMSNH), Dr Rigoberto Vera Mendoza (Director of the Faculty of Science, UMSNH) and Dr Jos茅 Napole贸n Guzm谩n 脕vila (Coordinator of Scientific Research, UMSNH) for their invaluable support in all organizational matters, which enabled the school to become a reality. We gratefully acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the organizing committee: Alexis Aguilar, Alejandro Ayala, Wolfgang Bietenholz, Alberto G眉ijosa, Gabriela Murgu铆a, Sarira Sahu (UNAM), Eduard de la Cruz Burelo, Abdel P茅rez-Lorenzana (CINVESTAV), Elena C谩ceres (UCOL), David Delepine (UG), Mariana Kirchbach (UASLP), Ildefonso Le贸n (UAS), Juan Carlos Arteaga-Vel谩zquez (for his impeccable work in managing the web page of the school) and V铆ctor Villanueva (UMSNH). Most of them contributed to the extra work involved in refereeing the contributions submitted for this publication. Many thanks also go to all the student volunteers for the efficiency and dedication with which they carried out their duties. At the registration desk, we relied on the hard work of Xiomara Guti茅rrez, Enif Guti茅rrez (UMSNH) and Mara Diaz Pancardo. Several post docs and PhD students provided invaluable support in all organizational matters: Adolfo Huet, Cliffor Compe谩n, Roc铆o Berm煤dez, Sa煤l S谩nchez, Anabel Trejo, Ira铆s Rubalcava, Kh茅pani Raya, Jos茅 Juan Gonz谩lez, Sa煤l Hern谩ndez Ortiz (UMSNH), Alfredo Galaviz, and Alan Aganza (USON). Their help in carrying out the organization of the school was essential and without their collaboration, this school would not have been the same. We also acknowledge the help of the administrative secretary Maria Esperanza Jaramillo of IFM (UMSNH). We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the speakers for delivering excellent lectures and seminars which made this event a success. We are grateful to all the participants for providing their write-ups in time, including the notes of the mini-courses, the review articles, the contributions stemming from the parallel talks and the summarized versions of the posters presented by students. In conclusion, we cannot resist the temptation to comment that to our utmost delight, the students participated very enthusiastically and we hope that this school will contribute considerably towards their academic development. The future of scientific endeavour always rests upon the students. Adnan Bashir (UMSNH, Morelia)Guillermo Contreras (CINVESTAV, M茅rida)Alfredo Raya (UMSNH, Morelia)Maria Elena Tejeda-Yeomans (UNISON, Hermosillo) Group photograph鈥団嘝articipants photograph鈥団嘝osters photograph Lecture photograph鈥団嘝articipants photograph鈥団嘙eal photograph

  13. Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The unconfined High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer is the largest aquifer in the USA and the primary water supply for the semiarid southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Analyses of water and soils northeast of Amarillo, Texas, together with data from other regional studies, indicate that processes during recharge control the composition of unconfined groundwater in the northern half of the southern High Plains. Solute and isotopic data are consistent with a sequence of episodic precipitation, concentration of solutes in upland soils by evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration beneath playas and ditches (modified locally by return flow of wastewater and irrigation tailwater). Plausible reactions during recharge include oxidation of organic matter, dissolution and exsolution of CO2, dissolution of CaCO3, silicate weathering, and cation exchange. Si and 14C data suggest leakage from perched aquifers to the High Plains aquifer. Plausible mass-balance models for the High Plains aquifer include scenarios of flow with leakage but not reactions, flow with reactions but not leakage, and flow with neither reactions nor leakage. Mechanisms of recharge and chemical evolution delineated in this study agree with those noted for other aquifers in the south-central and southwestern USA. R茅sum茅. L'aquif猫re libre des Hautes Plaines (Ogallala) est le plus vaste aquif猫re des 茅tats-Unis et la ressource de base pour l'eau potable de la r茅gion semi-aride du sud des Hautes Plaines du Texas et du Nouveau-Mexique. Des analyses de l'eau et des sols pr茅lev茅s au nord-est d'Amarillo (Texas), associ茅es 脿 des donn茅es provenant d'autres 茅tudes dans cette r茅gion, indiquent que des processus intervenant au cours de l'infiltration contr么lent la composition de l'eau de la nappe libre dans la moiti茅 septentrionale du sud des Hautes Plaines. Les donn茅es chimiques et isotopiques sont compatibles avec une s茅quence de pr茅cipitation 茅pisodique, avec la reconcentration en solut茅s dans les sols des hautes terres par 茅vapotranspiration, avec le ruissellement et l'infiltration dans les playas et les foss茅s (modifi茅e localement par l'茅coulement en retour des eaux us茅es et des laisses d'irrigation). Des r茅actions probables intervenant au cours de la recharge sont l'oxydation de la mati猫re organique, la dissolution et le d茅gazage du CO2, la dissolution du CaCO3, l'alt茅ration des silicates et l'茅change de cations. Les donn茅es concernant Si et 14C laissent penser qu'il existe une drainance descendante 脿 partir d'aquif猫res perch茅s vers l'aquif猫re des Hautes Plaines. Des mod猫les vraisemblables de bilan de mati猫re pour l'aquif猫re des Hautes Plaines prennent en compte des sc茅narios d'茅coulement avec drainance mais sans r茅actions, des 茅coulements avec r茅actions mais sans drainance et des 茅coulements sans r茅actions ni drainance. Les m茅canismes de recharge et d'茅volution chimique d茅termin茅s dans cette 茅tude sont en accord avec ceux mis en 茅vidence dans d'autres aquif猫res du centre sud et du sud-ouest des 茅tats-Unis. Resumen. El acu铆fero libre de High Plains (Ogallala) es el mayor de los Estados Unidos y supone la fuente principal de abastecimiento en la regi贸n semi谩rida del sur de High Plains (Texas) y de Nuevo M茅xico. Los an谩lisis de agua y suelos realizados al nordeste de Amarillo (Texas), junto con los datos de otros estudios regionales, indican que los procesos que tienen lugar durante la recarga del acu铆fero controlan la composici贸n de las aguas subterr谩neas en la mitad septentrional de los High Plains del Sur. Los datos isot贸picos y hidroqu铆micos son coherentes con una secuencia de episodios de precipitaci贸n, concentraci贸n de solutos en la parte superior del suelo por evapotranspiraci贸n, escorrent铆a, e infiltraci贸n a trav茅s de 'playas' y zanjas (modificadas localmente por los flujos de retorno de aguas residuales y de excedentes de riego).

  14. Assessment of Management to Mitigate Anthropogenic Effects on Large Whales

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Hoop, Julie M; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Cole, Timothy VN; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Henry, Allison G; McAlpine, Donald F; McLellan, William A; Wimmer, Tonya; Solow, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5癗 to 48.0癗), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can provide managers with direction for modifying regulated measures and can be applied globally to mortality-driven conservation issues. Evaluaci髇 del Manejo para Mitigar Efectos Antropog閚icos sobre Ballenas Mayores Resumen Los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y Canad han respondido a requerimientos legales para reducir la mortalidad de ballenas inducida por humanos por medio de impacto con embarcaciones y enmara馻miento en artes de pesca mediante la implementaci髇 de un conjunto de acciones reguladoras. Analizamos los patrones espaciales y temporales de la mortalidad de ballenas mayores en el Atl醤tico Noroccidental (23.5癗 a 48.0癗), de 1970 a 2009, en el contexto de cambios de manejo. Utilizamos un modelo log韘tico multinomial ajustado por la m醲ima probabilidad de detecci髇 de tendencias en mortalidades por causa espec韋ica en el tiempo. Comparamos el n鷐ero de muertes provocadas por humanos con los niveles de remoci髇 biol骻ica potencial (i.e., mortalidad espec韋ica provocada por humanos sustentable). De 1970 a 2009, hubo 1762 muertes (conocidas) y lesiones serias (casi fatales) involucrando 8 especies de ballenas mayores. Determinamos la causa de 43% de todas las muertes; de ellas, 67% (502) resultaron de interacciones humanas. El enmara馻miento en artes de pesca fue la causa principal de muerte en todas las especies (n = 323), seguida de causas naturales (n = 248) e impacto de embarcaciones (n = 171). Los niveles sustentables de mortalidad establecidos fueron excedidos consistentemente hasta en 650% en 2 especies. Las probabilidades de muerte por enmara馻miento y por impacto de embarcaciones incrementaron significativamente de 1990 a 2009. No hubo cambio significativo en la intensidad local de mortalidad por todas las causas o por impacto de embarcaciones antes y despu閟 de 2003, a駉 en el que se implementaron numerosos esfuerzos de mitigaci髇. Hasta ahora, los esfuerzos regulatorios no han reducido los efectos letales de las actividades humanas sobre las ballenas a nivel de poblaci髇, aunque no excluimos la posibilidad de 閤ito de medidas enfocadas a h醔itats locales espec韋icos que no estuvieron dentro de la resoluci髇 de nuestro an醠isis. No es claro como se relacionan con nuestros resultados las deficiencias en el dise駉 o implementaci髇 del manejo. An醠isis como el que realizamos son cruciales para la evaluaci髇 cr韙ica de decisiones para el manejo de vida silvestre, y los resultados de estos an醠isis pueden proporcionar directrices a los manejadores para que modifiquen medidas regulatorias y puedan ser aplicadas globalmente en temas de conservaci髇 relacionadas con mortalidad. PMID:23025354

  15. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guill茅n, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guill茅n, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The barline extraction was accomplished through an automated alongshore tracking of the intensity maxima across each beach section (Van Enckevort and Ruessink, 2001). The mean Hs during the study period was 0.71 m and the averaged peak period was 5.7 s. The wave height time series shows a cyclic behaviour, with storm periods (October-April) separated by periods of low storm activity (May-October). The two most energetic periods affecting the beaches were from October 2001 to May 2002 and from October 2003 to April 2004 (wave data were obtained from a WANA node [virtual buoy] and direct measurements of the Barcelona-Coastal buoy). Approximately 25 storm events have been identified during the study period (following Ojeda and Guill茅n [2008], significant storms were defined as those with Hs higher than 2.5 m during the peak of the storm and a minimum duration of 12 h with Hs greater than 1.5 m). The morphological responses of the beach to the storm action determine the morphodynamic state. These responses were grouped into five categories: shoreline advance or retreat, beach rotation, sandbar migration, formation of megacusps, and changes in the sandbar configuration (linear or crescentic shape). The intensity and frequency of these modifications were different in both beaches. Regarding the changes in the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the bar at Bogatell switched more frequently among the four intermediate morphodynamic states during the study period than the bar at La Barceloneta. The bar at La Barceloneta only underwent the complete "reset" of the nearshore morphology (i.e., abrupt change of the plan-view shape of the beach towards a Longshore Bar and Trough state) once, associated with the high-energy wave event occurring on November 2001. At this beach, the strongest storm events produced the offshore migration of the bar and a certain decrease in the bar sinuosity, but did not generate an alongshore parallel bar. Similar storms caused different effects on the two adjacent beaches and, furthermore, the effect of storms of similar characteristics at the same beach, were also different. In the final paper, we will focus on these differential behaviours in an attempt to attain a certain predictability of the beach behaviour after a storm depending on the wave characteristics and the morphodynamic configuration of the beach prior to the storm. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology within the project SEDMET (CTM2006-06919). The work of E. Ojeda and F. Ribas was partially supported by the Spanish government through the FPU and Juan de la Cierva programs, correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Dr. Gerben Ruessink for providing the BLIM software and Puertos del Estado for the wave data. REFERENCES Holman, R.A., Stanley, J., 2007. The history and technical capabilities of Argus. Coast. Eng. 54, 447-491. Ojeda, E., Guill茅n, J., 2008. Shoreline dynamics and beach rotation of artificial embayed beaches. Mar. Geol. 253, 51-62. Short, A.D., Masselink, G., 1999 Embayed and structurally controlled beaches, in: Short, A.D. (Ed.), Handbook of beach and shoreface morphodynamics. John Wiley & Son, Chichester, pp. 230-250. Van Enckevort, I.M.J., Ruessink, B.G., 2001. Effect of hydrodynamics and bathymetry on video estimates of nearshore sandbar position. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16969-16979. Wright, L.D., Short, A.D., 1984. Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: a synthesis. Mar. Geol. 56, 93-118.

  16. 鈥楨verybody knows鈥, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen 鈥楾odos lo saben鈥, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un s铆ndrome de p茅rdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores n贸madas saharauis del S谩hara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e informaci贸n para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del S谩hara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hip贸tesis cient铆fica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del S谩hara. M茅todos Entre los a帽os 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la Rep煤blica 脕rabe Saharaui Democr谩tica, S谩hara Occidental, mediante un dise帽o de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores n贸madas saharauis describieron un s铆ndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisi贸n literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hip贸tesis: 1) brotes espor谩dico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (g茅neros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en 谩rboles de Acacia se pueden presentar despu茅s de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del S谩hara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingesti贸n, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de cr铆as debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hip贸tesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento anal贸gico con s铆ndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un s铆ndrome de p茅rdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insin煤a que estos s铆ndromes son m谩s comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales para poner a prueba nuestra hip贸tesis. Finalmente, se destaca la importancia de estudios de las enfermedades del ganado en pueblos de pastores n贸madas porque pueden revelar fen贸menos biol贸gicos a煤n desconocidos y merecen ser investigados. PMID:23305273

  17. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. R茅sum茅 De nombreuses 茅tudes ont 茅t茅 r茅alis茅es pour 茅valuer le degr茅 de pollution des aquif猫res par les pesticides aux 脡tats-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les r茅sultats des 茅tudes concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet article est d'illustrer par des exemples la biotransformation des pesticides dans les nappes. Bien qu'il faille la consid茅rer avec pr茅caution, la base de donn茅es sur les pesticides dans les eaux souterraines de l'Agence am茅ricaine pour la protection de l'environnement a 茅t茅 utilis茅e pour centrer la discussion sur le potentiel de biotransformation du dibromo茅thane (EDB), de l'atrazine, des d茅sherbants ac茅tanild茅s et de l'aldicarb, qui tous ont 茅t茅 d茅tect茅s dans les nappes des 脡tats-Unis. Les r茅sultats de plus de deux douzaines d'茅tudes indiquent qu'il existe un potentiel de biotransformation de ces pesticides dans les nappes, bien qu'entre chacun de ces pesticides il existe des diff茅rences tr猫s nettes dans la biotransformation. Ces variations sont en fait dues 脿 la fois 脿 des diff茅rences dans les m茅thodes exp茅rimentales et dans les h茅t茅rog茅n茅it茅s dans les mat茅riaux 茅tudi茅s. Cependant, parce que les m茅canismes de la biotransformation ne sont pas bien 茅tudi茅s, il est en g茅n茅ral impossible d'extrapoler les pr茅dictions du potentiel de biotransformation 脿 des sites d'茅tude sp茅cifiques. Ces r茅sultats soulignent la n茅cessit茅 de mieux comprendre la r茅gulation g茅n茅tique microbienne des processus de biotransformation, pour que l'information g茅n茅tique puisse 锚tre efficacement prise en compte dans les futures recherches sur le potentiel de biotransformation dans le sous-sol. Resumen Se han llevado a cabo un gran n煤mero de estudios para evaluar la contaminaci贸n por pesticidas en los acu铆feros de los Estados Unidos de Am茅rica. Sin embargo, las investigaciones sobre biotransformaci贸n de pesticidas en la zona saturada son mucho menos numerosas que en suelos. Como los resultados obtenidos en suelos no son directamente transladables a la zona saturada, el objetivo de este art铆culo es mostrar ejemplos de biotransformaci贸n de pesticidas en la zona saturada. Aunque debe tomarse con cautela, la base de datos "Pesticides in Ground Water Database (Base de Datos de Pesticidas en Aguas Subterr谩neas)" perteneciente a la US EPA (Agencia de Protecci贸n Ambiental de los EEUU) se us贸 para centrar la discusi贸n en la biotransformaci贸n potencial de diversos compuestos org谩nicos detectados en diversos acu铆feros de los EEUU. Los resultados de m谩s de dos docenas de estudios indican que la biotransformaci贸n potencial de estos pesticidas en la zona saturada es posible, aunque para un pesticida dado pueden presentarse grandes diferencias, debidas tanto a diferencias en los m茅todos experimentales como a la heterogeneidad de los materiales. Sin embargo, no es posible en general extrapolar las predicciones de biotransformaci贸n potencial m谩s all谩 de las zonas espec铆ficas estudiadas, al no haberse investigado en detalle sus mecanismos. Los resultados del estudio indican la necesidad de entender mejor la regulaci贸n gen茅tica de los procesos de biotransformaci贸n, para que la informaci贸n gen茅tica pueda incorporarse de manera efectiva en las investigaciones futuras de biotransformaci贸n potencial en acu铆feros.

  18. Establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen

    2007-03-15

    The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [Spanish] El parasitoide Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introducido como L. scutellaris Mackauer) fue importado de Guam, evaluado en cuarentena, criado en masa y liberado en huertos de citricos en un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de citricos, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Se hicieron liberaciones de 20,200, 12,100, y 1,260 adultos de L. oregmae a traves de la Florida durante los anos de 2000, 2001, y 2002, respectivamente. Para determinar si L. oregmae ha logrado en establecer, se realizaron sondeos a traves del estado empezando en el verano del 2001 y continuando hasta el final del verano del 2003. El parasitismo durante 2001 y 2002 fue evaluado con el mantenimiento de individuos del afido pardo de los citricos en el laboratorio hasta que los adultos emergieron. Lipolexis oregmae fue encontrado en 10 sitios en 7 condados y con tasas de parasitismo en 4 sitios en 3 condados entre 0.7 a 3.3% en el 2001 y 2002, respectivamente. Las pruebas del laboratorio indicaron que las tasas altas de mortalidad fueron posibles si los afidos con parasitos recolectados en el campo fueron mantenidos en bolsas plasticas, entonces un ensayo molecular fue usado con lo que permitio la deteccion de inmaduros de L. oregmae dentro de los hospederos de afidos inmediatamente despues de la recoleccion. El ensayo molecular fue usado en el 2003 con individuos del afido pardo de los citricos y con otras especies de afidos recolectados sobre citricos, malezas y hortalizas cerca de los sitios donde los parasitoides fueron liberados anteriormente; inmaduros de L. oregmae fueron detectados en individuos del afido negro de los citricos, el afido del caupi, el afido spirea y el afido del melon, ademas del afido pardo de los citricos en 4 de los 8 condados muestreados, con la tasa del parasitismo entre 2.0 a12.9%, indicando que L. oregmae estaba estabecido y ampliamente distribuido. Las muestras tomadas en el Condado de Polk durante octobre del 2005 indicaron que L. oregmae ha persistido. La capacidad de L. oregmae para parasitar otras especies de afidos sobre citricos y otros afidos sobre otras plantas hospederas, incrementa la capacidad de L. oregmae para persistir cuando las poblaciones del afido pardo de los citricos estan bajas. (author)

  19. Economic wealth and soil erosion in new Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain or how to explain the Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim茅nez-Morera, Antonio; Cerd脿, Artemio; Pereira, Pauloq

    2014-05-01

    We use to accept the idea that the best oranges are coming from Valecia Region in Eastern Spain. Although the oranges are originally from Eastern Asia, Valencia is having a mild climate in winter, with a low recurrency of frost and is strategically located close to the largest market of citrus: Western Europe. This resulted in a continuous growth of production and trade of citrus, and contributed to make the Valencia Region the largest World exporter (Bono, 2010). This economical success reached the highest point after the EU and Spain agreement in 1986. This expansion of citrus plantations were done on steep slopes allowed by the drip irrigation systems that does not need leveling the land as it was done by new farmers with large properties. The traditional farming of oranges was done in small properties, flood irrigation and leveled land. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerd脿 et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). Land This research evaluate the relations between the investment (economic wealth) of the owners of citrus plantations and the soil erosion rates on their orchards. The economic wealth of the onwers was measured on the size of their properties and after an interview. The soil erosion rates were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1). The results show that the soil losses in the new plantations are extremely high (> 10 Mg ha-1 y-1), and that we can show three types of orchards: < 0.99 ha; 1-10 ha and > 10.1. The soil erosion rates where positively related to the size of the farms. The higher erosion rates are shown also by the scientific literature review. Chemically treated plantations (Cerd脿, 2002) show high erosion rates due to the road construction too (Cerd脿, 2007) and is higher than rainfed agriculture soil (Garc铆a Orenes et al., 2009). Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Bono, E. 2010. Naranja y desarrollo. La base agr铆cola exportadora de la econom铆a del Pa铆s Valenciano y el modelo de crecimiento hacea afuera. PUV, Valencia, 203 pp. Cerd脿, A. 2001. Erosi贸n h铆drica del suelo en el Territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuesti贸n a trav茅s de la revisi贸n bibliogr谩fica. Geoforma Ediciones, Logro帽o, 79 pp. Cerd谩, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. Cerd脿, A., Morera, A.G., Bod铆, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. Garc铆a-Orenes, F., Cerd脿, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bod铆, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250.

  20. Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; White, William B.

    Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quickflow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm. L'enregistrement en continu du d閎it, de la conductivit et de la temp閞ature de l'eau a 閠 r閍lis au cours d'une s閞ie de crues deux sources 閙ergeant de calcaires, Fort Campbell (Kentucky occidental, Tennessee, 蓆ats-Unis). Des 閏hantillons d'eau, pr閘ev閟 de courts pas de temps lors de ces crues, ont 閠 analys閟 pour le calcium, le magn閟ium, les bicarbonates, le carbone organique total et le pH. Les chimiogrammes de calcium, d'indice de saturation de la calcite et de la pression partielle en CO2 ont 閠 superpos閟 aux hydrogrammes de crue. La concentration en calcium et la conductivit de l'eau se suivent bien et passent par un minimum correspondant au pic de l'hydrogramme ou l間鑢ement retard. La pression partielle en CO2 continue de cro顃re au cours de la r閏ession de l'hydrogramme de m阭e que l'indice de saturation de la calcite d閏ro顃. Ces r閟ultats sont interpr閠閟 comme 閠ant dus l'infiltration dispers閑 au travers de sols riches en CO2, d閏al閑 par rapport l'arriv閑 de l'閏oulement rapide provenant de la recharge, partir d'une perte, de l'閏oulement de crue vers les sources. Les hydrogrammes de sources karstiques ne refl鑤ent pas seulement le m閘ange variable de l'閏oulement de base et de l'閏oulement de crue, mais 間alement un changement d'origine de l'eau de la recharge au cours de l'閜isode de crue. Se ha registrado en continuo la descarga, conductancia espec韋ica y temperatura de una serie de episodios de tormenta en dos manantiales en calizas ubicados en Fort Campbell, en el oeste de Kentucky/Tennessee (Estados Unidos de Am閞ica). Se ha analizado muestras de agua recogidas en breves intervalos de tiempo durante los episodios de tormenta, determinando el calcio, magnesio, bicarbonato, carbono org醤ico total y pH. Se ha superpuesto quimiogramas de calcio, 韓dice de saturaci髇 en calcita y presi髇 parcial de di髕ido de carbono en los hidrogramas de las tormentas. La concentraci髇 de calcio y la conductancia espec韋ica se comportan de forma similar y presentan un m韓imo que coincide tambi閚 con un pico del hidrograma o que se retrasa ligeramente con respecto a 閘. La presi髇 de di髕ido de carbono sigue aumentando en la rama de recesi髇 del hidrograma y, como consecuencia, disminuye el 韓dice de saturaci髇 de la rama de recesi髇 del hidrograma. Se interpreta que estos resultados son debidos a la infiltraci髇 dispersa a trav閟 de suelos enriquecidos en di髕ido de carbono que retrasan el flujo r醦ido desde la recarga en los sumideros hasta su afloramiento en los manantiales. Los hidrogramas en manantiales k醨sticos reflejan no s髄o la mezcla cambiante del flujo de base y el de tormenta, sino tambi閚 el cambio en el origen del agua de recarga durante el curso de la tormenta.

  1. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    Ionic liquids are molten salts which are liquid at room temperature or at low temperatures and present a unique combination of properties. In the present work, we focus on their use as lubricants in complex tribological problems such as the lubrication of metals that slide against themselves, the development of water based lubricants and new self-lubricated surfaces. When it is difficult to reduce friction and wear by lubrication, as in the case of magnesium alloys, ionic liquids are studied as protective coatings precursors. Surface interactions and corrosion processes with protic and aprotic ionic liquids on copper and steel have been determined in order to develop new lubricants and lubricant additives. In the copper/copper contact, all ionic liquids present better tribological performance than the polyalphaolefin synthetic oil, except for the oleate derivative. New protic ionic liquids are not only exceptional lubricants of the steel/sapphire contact as neat lubricants, but when they are used as additives in water, the formation of a boundary layer after water evaporation occurs, thus reducing friction and wear. The formation of this boundary layer on steel under static conditions is described in order to prevent the running-in period with respect to the solution of ionic liquid in water. The best lubricating behaviour for the copper/copper contact and also for the steel/sapphire contact is obtained for the diprotic ammonium dianionic adipate, that has two carboxylate groups in its anion. A higher polarity and a higher number of ammonium protons, carboxylate and hydroxyl groups would give rise to stronger surface interaction with the metal surfaces and more stable boundary films. The tribological performance of new aprotic thiazolium ionic liquids and commercial aprotic imidazolium ionic liquids has been compared as lubricants of the steel/sapphire contact, obtaining the best results for the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide derivatives, and also preventing tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos hidroxilo y carboxilato con la superficie metalica y los puentes de hidrogeno entre cation y anion podrian ser los responsables del buen comportamiento tribologico. Se ha comparado el comportamiento tribologico de los liquidos ionicos aproticos derivados de imidazolio y tiazolio como lubricantes del contacto acero/zafiro, obteniendose los mejores resultados para los derivados del anion bis(trifluorometanosulfonil)imida, que evita a su vez los procesos de tribocorrosion. Se han generado recubrimientos sobre aleaciones de magnesio con tres liquidos ionicos derivados del anion fosfonato, tanto por inmersion como mediante cronoamperometria. Los nuevos recubrimientos reducen el dano superficial por deslizamiento o abrasion de la aleacion magnesio-aluminio pero no de la aleacion magnesio-cinc, que impide la formacion de recubrimientos continuos.

  2. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants鈥 self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptaci贸n del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para Atender el Cambio Clim谩tico Resumen Los manejadores de recursos naturales est谩n buscando herramientas para ayudarles a atender los efectos actuales y futuros del cambio clim谩tico. Presentamos un modelo para la planificaci贸n colaborativa enfocada a identificar formas para adaptar las acciones de manejo para atender los efectos del cambio clim谩tico en paisajes que cruzan l铆mites jurisdiccionales p煤blicos y privados. La Iniciativa Sudoccidental de Cambio Clim谩tico (ISCC) puso a prueba el m茅todo de planificaci贸n de Adaptaci贸n para Metas de Conservaci贸n (AMC) en talleres en cuatro paisajes del suroeste de E. U. A. Este m茅todo de planificaci贸n increment贸 exitosamente la capacidad de los participantes para atender el cambio clim谩tico al proporcionarles un mejor entendimiento de los efectos potenciales y guiar la identificaci贸n de soluciones. Los talleres promovieron el di谩logo trans-jurisdiccional y multidisciplinario sobre cambio clim谩tico mediante la participaci贸n activa de cient铆ficos y manejadores en la evaluaci贸n de efectos del cambio clim谩tico, la discusi贸n de implicaciones de esos efectos para determinar las metas y actividades de manejo y desarrollar oportunidades para la coordinaci贸n regional de la adaptaci贸n de planes de manejo. La aplicaci贸n simplificada del marco AMC llev贸 las discusiones de grupo m谩s all谩 de la evaluaci贸n de los efectos a la concepci贸n de opciones para mitigar los efectos del cambio clim谩tico sobres determinadas especies, funciones ecol贸gicas y ecosistemas. Los participantes abordaron la incertidumbre de las condiciones futuras al considerar m谩s de un escenario de cambio clim谩tico. Delinearon oportunidades e identificaron los siguientes pasos para la implementaci贸n de varias acciones, y asociaciones locales han comenzado a implementar acciones y realizar planificaci贸n adicional. Se requiere inversi贸n continua en la adaptaci贸n de planes y acciones de manejo para atender los efectos del cambio clim谩tico en el suroeste de Estados Unidos y la extensi贸n de los m茅todos utilizados en este proyecto en paisajes adicionales si se quiere mantener la diversidad biol贸gica y los servicios de los ecosistemas en un mundo que cambia r谩pidamente. PMID:23110636

  3. Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity are among the top public health priorities in Brazil, being quite high, especially among the most disadvantage women. A case control study was developed to identify risk factors for severe maternal morbidity in Sao Luis, one of the poorest Brazilian State Capitals. Methods The case鈥揷ontrol study was carried out between 01/03/2009 and 28/02/2010 in two public high-risk maternities facilities and in two intensive care units (ICUs) for referral of obstetric cases. All cases hospitalized due to complications during gestation period, childbirth or up to 42 days of puerperium and who fulfilled any of Mantel's and/or Waterstone's criteria were identified. Two controls per case were randomly selected among patients of the same clinics discharged for other reasons. Data were obtained through a structured interview as well as from medical charts and prenatal cards and included sociodemographic variables, clinical and obstetric histories, behavioral factors and exposure to stress factors during pregnancy, pre-natal assistance and obstetric complication and childbirth care. Results In the final model of the unconditional logistic regression analysis, being older than 35 years (OR=3.11; 95% CI:1.53-6.31), previous hypertension (OR=2.52; 95% CI:1.09-5.80), history of abortion (OR=1.61; 95% CI:0.97-2.68), 4鈥5 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.78; 95% CI:1.05-3.01) and 1鈥3 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.89; 95% CI:1.03-3.49) were independently associated with severe maternal morbidity. Conclusions The results corroborate the importance of reproductive healthcare, of identifying a high-risk pregnancy and of a qualified and complete prenatal care to prevent severe morbid events. Resumo Introdu莽茫o A mortalidade e morbidade maternas est茫o entre os t贸picos priorit谩rios da Sa煤de P煤blica brasileira, especialmente na popula莽茫o de menor n铆vel socioecon么mico. Um estudo caso-controle foi desenvolvido para identificar os fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave em S茫o Lu铆s, capital de um dos estados mais pobres do Brasil. M茅todo Estudo caso-controle realizado em duas maternidades p煤blicas de alto risco e duas UTIs de refer锚ncia aos casos obst茅tricos entre 01/03/2009 e 28/02/2010. Foram inclu铆das todas as pacientes internadas por complica莽茫o do per铆odo gr谩vido-puerperal e que preenchiam os crit茅rios de Waterstone e/ou Mantel para morbidade materna grave. Foram selecionados para cada caso, dois controles por sorteio aleat贸rio dentre as pacientes internadas no mesmo per铆odo e mesma maternidade que o caso. As informa莽玫es de dom铆nio sociodemogr谩fico, cl铆nico, obst茅trico, comportamental, exposi莽茫o a eventos estressores na gesta莽茫o, assist锚ncia ao pr茅-natal, intercorr锚ncias obst茅tricas e aten莽茫o ao parto, foram obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. As vari谩veis foram analisadas por modelo de regress茫o log铆stica m煤ltipla n茫o condicional, baseado em modelo hierarquizado a priori. Resultados Foram identificados como fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave: idade >35 anos (OR=3,11; IC 95%:1,53-6,31), hipertens茫o pr茅via 脿 gesta莽茫o (OR=2,52; IC 95%:1,09-5,80), antecedente de aborto (OR=1,61; IC 95%:0,97-2,68), ter realizado 4鈥5 consultas pr茅-natais (OR=1,78; IC 95%:1,05-3,01) ou 1鈥3 consultas (OR=1,89; IC 95%:1,03-3,49). Conclus茫o Os resultados do estudo corroboram a import芒ncia da assist锚ncia 脿 sa煤de reprodutiva e o pr茅-natal completo e qualificado na preven莽茫o de eventos m贸rbidos graves durante o ciclo gr谩vido-puerperal. PMID:23399443

  4. The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. E.

    The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. R茅sum茅 La migration, la dissolution et l'茅volution cons茅cutive des rejets de solvants chlor茅s dans les vall茅es alluviales du sud-ouest des 脡tats-Unis paraissent d茅termin茅es par un m锚me ensemble de processus hydrog茅ologiques et g茅ochimiques intervenant dans des formations de d茅p么ts clastiques terrig猫nes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le pi茅geage des solvants par des s茅diments fins sous les centres des vall茅es urbanis茅es, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqu茅s par le pompage 脿 l'茅chelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, 茅tendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de solvants chlor茅s pi茅g茅s. Malgr茅 leur faible solubilit茅 dans l'eau, ces solvants denses sont suffisamment mobiles et solubles pour avoir produit, dans le sud-ouest des vall茅es alluviales, des panaches aqueux qui ont migr茅 de plusieurs kilom猫tres dans les alluvions plus profondes et ont contamin茅 des champs captants pour l'eau potable en Californie, en Arizona et au Nouveau-Mexique. La longueur de ces panaches et la pr茅sence d'eau souterraine en conditions oxiques indiquent qu'il est peu probable que la d茅croissance naturelle soit un recours pratique de d茅contamination dans les vall茅es alluviales du sud-ouest ou dans d'autres syst猫mes alluviaux dans lesquels existent des conditions hydrog茅ologiques et g茅ochimiques semblables. Resumen La migraci贸n, disoluci贸n y transporte de compuestos clorados en valles aluviales urbanos del sudoeste de los Estados Unidos de Am茅rica parecen estar gobernados por un conjunto 煤nico de procesos hidrogeol贸gicos y geoqu铆micos que tienen lugar en los dep贸sitos cl谩sticos. El relleno aluvial y lacustre de las cuencas, la inmovilizaci贸n de los solutos en sedimentos de grano fino bajo las zonas urbanizadas, los condiciones 贸xicas t铆picas del aluvial profundo y las direcciones de transporte regidas por los fuertes bombeos en las cuencas se combinan para producir grandes penachos en fase acuosa procedentes de la disoluci贸n de los compuestos clorados atrapados en el medio. Aunque la solubilidad de estos compuestos clorados densos es peque帽a, es suficiente para producir penachos que en algunos casos se han desplazado varios kil贸metros a trav茅s del aluvial profundo y han llegado a contaminar zonas de extracci贸n muy productivas en California, Arizona y Nuevo M茅xico. La longitud de estos penachos y la presencia de agua subterr谩nea oxidante indican que es improbable que la degradaci贸n natural sea un buen m茅todo de limpieza de estos acu铆feros o de otros sistemas aluviales que presenten caracter铆sticas hidrogeol贸gicas y geoqu铆micas semejantes.

  5. The influence of faults in basin-fill deposits on land subsidence, Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    The role of horizontal deformation caused by pumping of confined-aquifer systems is recognized as contributing to the development of earth fissures in semiarid regions, including Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. In spite of stabilizing water levels, new earth fissures continue to develop while existing ones continue to lengthen and widen near basin-fill faults. A three-dimensional granular displacement model based on Biot's consolidation theory (Biot, MA, 1941, General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. Jour. Applied Physics 12:155-164) has been used to evaluate the nature of displacement in the vicinity of two vertical faults. The fault was simulated as (1) a low-permeability barrier to horizontal flow, (2) a gap or structural break in the medium, but where groundwater flow is not obstructed, and (3) a combination of conditions (1) and (2). Results indicate that the low-permeability barrier greatly enhances horizontal displacement. The fault plane also represents a location of significant differential vertical subsidence. Large computed strains in the vicinity of the fault may suggest high potential for failure and the development of earth fissures when the fault is assumed to have low permeability. Results using a combination of the two boundaries suggest that potential fissure development may be great at or near the fault plane and that horizontal deformation is likely to play a key role in this development. R茅sum茅. On consid猫re que la d茅formation horizontale provoqu茅e par un pompage dans un aquif猫re captif joue un r么le dans le d茅veloppement des fissures du sol en r茅gions semi-arides, comme la vall茅e de Las Vegas (Nevada). Malgr茅 des niveaux d'eau stabilis茅s, de nouvelles fissures du sol continuent de se d茅velopper en longueur et en largeur au voisinage de failles dans les bassins s茅dimentaires. Un mod猫le de d茅placement granulaire tri-dimensionnel, bas茅 sur la th茅orie de la consolidation de Biot (Biot, M A, 1941, General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. Jour. Applied Physics 12:155-164), a 茅t茅 utilis茅 pour 茅valuer la nature du d茅placement au voisinage de deux failles verticales. La faille a 茅t茅 simul茅e comme 1) une barri猫re de faible perm茅abilit茅 pour l'茅coulement horizontal, 2) une rupture structurale dans le milieu, mais sans obstruction de l'茅coulement, et 3) une combinaison des deux pr茅c茅dentes conditions. Les r茅sultats indiquent que la barri猫re de faible perm茅abilit茅 favorise fortement le d茅placement horizontal. Le plan de faille constitue aussi un lieu de subsidence diff茅rentielle verticale significative. Les fortes contraintes calcul茅es au voisinage de la faille laissent penser qu'il existe un fort potentiel de rupture et le d茅veloppement de fissures du sol quand on suppose que la faille poss猫de une faible perm茅abilit茅. Les r茅sultats utilisant une combinaison des deux conditions sugg猫rent que le d茅veloppement potentiel de fissures peut 锚tre grand sur ou 脿 proximit茅 du plan de faille et que la d茅formation horizontale joue vraisemblablement un r么le cl茅 dans ce d茅veloppement. Resumen. Se conoce la contribuci贸n que la deformaci贸n horizontal causada por el bombeo de sistemas acu铆feros confinados tienen en el desarrollo de fisuras en regiones semi谩ridas, como es el caso del Valle de Las Vegas (Nevada, Estados Unidos de Am茅rica). A pesar de la estabilizaci贸n de los niveles, se contin煤a desarrollando nuevas fisuras, mientras las ya existentes se alargan y ensanchan cerca de las fallas de relleno de cuenca. Se ha utilizado un modelo tridimensional de desplazamiento granular basado en la teor铆a de consolidaci贸n de Biot (Biot, M.A., 1941. General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. J. Applied Physics, 12: 155-164) para evaluar la naturaleza del desplazamiento junto a dos fallas verticales. Se ha simulado cada falla como (1) una barrera de baja permeabilidad al flujo horizontal, (2) un hueco o ruptura estructural en el medio pero sin obstrucci贸n al flujo de aguas subterr谩neas, y (3) una combinaci贸n de las dos condiciones anteriores. Los resultados indican que la barrera de baja permeabilidad incrementa enormemente el desplazamiento horizontal. El plano de falla tambi茅n representa una situaci贸n de subsidencia diferencial vertical significativa. Los valores elevados que se han calculado para la deformaci贸n en la proximidad de la falla pueden sugerir que existe un alto potencial de fallo y desarrollo de fisuras cuando se supone que la falla posee una baja permeabilidad. Si se combinan los dos contornos, los resultados sugieren que el desarrollo potencial de fisuras puede ser mayor en o cerca de el plano de falla, y que es probable que la deformaci贸n horizontal desempe帽e un papel clave en 茅l.

  6. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35掳-55掳E fractures were identified as tensile and N35掳-55掳W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35掳-55掳E and N35掳-55掳W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. R茅sum茅. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosit茅 primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'alt茅ration sont les sites o霉 l'eau souterraine est pr茅sente et s'茅coule. Pour 茅tudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la r茅gion de socle sujette 脿 la s茅cheresse du bassin de la rivi猫re Niva (sud de l'脡tat d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des donn茅es photographiques de Landsat 5 ont 茅t茅 utilis茅es pour pr茅parer une carte hydro-g茅omorphologique. Le mod猫le int茅gr茅 de d茅formation de Larssons a 茅t茅 mis en 艙uvre pour identifier les diff茅rents syst猫mes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux r茅servoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densit茅 de fractures pour la prospection de l'eau souterraine. Dans la r茅gion 茅tudi茅e, les fractures N35掳-55掳E ont 茅t茅 identifi茅es comme 茅tant en extension, et les fractures N35掳-55掳W comme 茅tant 脿 la fois en extension et en cisaillement. Ces fractures sont apparemment les fractures ouvertes les plus jeunes. Partout o霉 la densit茅 des fractures N35掳-55掳E et N35掳-55掳W est 茅lev茅e, la zone alt茅r茅e est plus 茅paisse, les fluctuations de la nappe sont faibles et les rendements des puits sont forts. Des zones 脿 potentiel en eau souterraine ont ainsi 茅t茅 d茅limit茅es et class茅es en excellent, bon 脿 tr猫s bon, assez bon et m茅diocre. Resumen. Las zonas de fracturaci贸n y de meteorizaci贸n son las que condicionan el flujo de agua subterr谩nea en rocas duras, debido a la falta de porosidad primaria en la matriz rocosa. Se utilizaron cinco conjuntos de datos fotogr谩ficos del sat茅lite Landsat con el fin de preparar un mapa integrado hidrogeomorfol贸gico de la cuenca del r铆o Niva, al sur del estado Andhra Pradesh (India). El objetivo era estudiar el potencial de aguas subterr谩neas en esta regi贸n, que es propensa a per铆odos de sequ铆a, en la que predominan las rocas duras. Se aplic贸 el modelo de deformaci贸n integrado de Larsson a la identificaci贸n de los sistemas de fracturaci贸n. El prop贸sito era, por un lado, identificar los conjuntos de fracturas de tracci贸n m谩s j贸venes, que desempe帽an un papel principal como reservorios de aguas subterr谩neas. Por otro lado, se quer铆a comprender la importancia de la densidad de fracturaci贸n en el desarrollo de las aguas subterr谩neas. Se identific贸 una familia de fracturas de tracci贸n con orientaci贸n N35掳-55掳E y otra familia N35掳-55掳W que conten铆a tanto bandas de cizalla como fracturas de tracci贸n. Aparentemente, se trataba de las fracturas abiertas m谩s recientes. El espesor de la zona de meteorizaci贸n es grande cuando la densidad de fracturas de estas dos familias es elevada, hecho que est谩 asociado a fluctuaciones peque帽as del nivel fre谩tico y a caudales elevados. Se estableci贸 una clasificaci贸n de las aguas subterr谩neas como zona muy buena, buena-muy buena, moderadamente buena, y regular.

  7. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    Groundwater flow influences hydrochemical patterns because flow reduces mixing by diffusion, carries the chemical imprints of biological and anthropogenic changes in the recharge area, and leaches the aquifer system. Global patterns are mainly dictated by differences in the flux of meteoric water passing through the subsoil. Within individual hydrosomes (water bodies with a specific origin), the following prograde evolution lines (facies sequence) normally develop in the direction of groundwater flow: from strong to no fluctuations in water quality, from polluted to unpolluted, from acidic to basic, from oxic to anoxic-methanogenic, from no to significant base exchange, and from fresh to brackish. This is demonstrated for fresh coastal-dune groundwater in the Netherlands. In this hydrosome, the leaching of calcium carbonate as much as 15m and of adsorbed marine cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) as much as 2500m in the flow direction is shown to correspond with about 5000yr of flushing since the beach barrier with dunes developed. Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. R茅sum茅 Les 茅coulements souterrains influencent les diff茅rents types hydrochimiques, parce que l'茅coulement r茅duit le m茅lange par diffusion, porte les marques chimiques de changements biologiques et anthropiques dans la zone d'alimentation et lessive le syst猫me aquif猫re. Ces types dans leur ensemble sont surtout d茅termin茅s par des diff茅rences dans le flux d'eau m茅t茅orique traversant le sous-sol. Dans les "hydrosomes" (masses d'eau d'origine d茅termin茅e), les lignes marquant une 茅volution prograde (s茅quence de faci猫s) se d茅veloppent normalement dans la direction de l'茅coulement souterrain : depuis des fluctuations fortes de la qualit茅 de l'eau vers une absence de fluctuations, de pollu茅es vers non pollu茅es, d'acides vers basiques, d'oxyg茅n茅es vers anoxiques et m茅thanog猫nes, depuis des 茅changes de base inexistants vers des 茅changes significatifs, de l'eau douce vers l'eau saum芒tre. Ceci est montr茅 pour une nappe d'eau douce dans une dune c么ti猫re des Pays-Bas. Dans "l'hydrosome", on montre que la disparition du carbonate de calcium par lessivage 脿 plus de 15m et celle de cations adsorb茅s d'origine marine (Na+, K+ et Mg2+) 脿 plus de 2500m vers l'aval-gradient correspond 脿 environ 5000 ans d'茅coulement, depuis que la barri猫re de la plage avec les dunes s'est mise en place. Les zones d'alimentation ponctuelle dans les dunes sont mises en 茅vidence par l'eau souterraine montrant une plus faible 茅volution prograde de sa qualit茅 que l'eau souterraine de la dune alentour. L'eau du Rhin utilis茅e pour la r茅alimentation artificielle dans les dunes a fourni des types hydrochimiques distincts, qui marquent l'茅coulement, le m茅lange et les 芒ges de l'eau souterraine. Resumen El flujo subterr谩neo tiene una gran importancia sobre la hidroqu铆mica de un sistema ya que reduce la mezcla por difusi贸n, transporta las huellas qu铆micas y biol贸gicas de las acciones antr贸picas en la zona de recarga y drena el sistema acu铆fero. Las tendencias globales vienen regidas por las diferencias en el flujo de agua mete贸rica que atraviesa el subsuelo. En un hidrosoma individual (cuerpo de agua de un origen espec铆fico), se suele desarrollar la siguiente l铆nea de evoluci贸n (secuencia de facies) en la direcci贸n del flujo: de gran a nula fluctuaci贸n en la calidad del agua, de agua contaminada a no contaminada, de 谩cida a b谩sica, de 贸xica a an贸xica-metanog茅nica, de nulo a importante cambio de base y de agua dulce a salobre. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las aguas dulces presentes en las dunas costeras de Holanda. En este hidrosoma, el lixiviado de carbonato c谩lcico, hasta 15m, y de cationes de adsorci贸n marina (Na+, K+ and Mg2+), hasta 2500m en la direcci贸n del flujo corresponde a unos 5000 a帽os de lavado desde que se desarroll贸 la barrera de dunas. 脕reas de recarga concentrada en las dunas se evidencian porque el agua subterr谩nea muestra un bajo estado de evoluci贸n dentro de la l铆nea de evoluci贸n antes presentada, si se compara con el agua circundante. La recarga artificial en las dunas con agua del R铆o Rin proporciona caracter铆sticas hidroqu铆micas diferenciadas, lo que permite caracterizar el flujo subterr谩neo, la mezcla y las edades de las aguas.

  8. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. R茅sum茅 La g茅ologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nig茅ria) est constitu茅e d'un socle cristallin d'芒ge pr茅cambrien et de roches dat茅es du Cr茅tac茅 au Tertiaire. Dans cette r茅gion, l'exploration des eaux souterraines n茅cessite une analyse syst茅matique pour obtenir les meilleurs r茅sultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particuli猫rement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destin茅s au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'茅chec a atteint 80%. Afin de d茅limiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos a茅riennes en noir et blanc ont 茅t茅 utilis茅es pour mettre en 茅vidence certains ph茅nom猫nes hydrologiques et hydrog茅ologiques en certains points de la r茅gion 茅tudi茅e. L'analyse des r茅seaux de lin茅aments et de drainage a port茅 sur la densit茅 de leurs longueurs et sur leur fr茅quence. La densit茅 de longueur des lin茅aments s'茅tend de 0,04 脿 1,52 et la fr茅quence des lin茅aments de 0,11 脿 5,09 ; la densit茅 des longueurs de drainage est comprise entre 0,17 et 0,94, et la fr茅quence du drainage entre 0,16 et 1,53. Ces gammes de valeurs rendent compte des diff茅rences dans la probabilit茅 des potentiels en eau souterraine. Ces r茅sultats ont ensuite 茅t茅 utilis茅s pour d茅limiter les zones 脿 potentiel en eau souterraine fort, moyen et faible. Les r茅sultats de l'茅tude indiquent aussi qu'il existe des corr茅lations entre les r茅seau de lin茅aments et de drainage, la lithologie, la temp茅rature de l'eau, la conductivit茅 de l'eau, le rendement des puits, la transmissivit茅, la conductance longitudinale et la pr茅sence d'eau souterraine. Resumen Bajo el Estado de Cross River, Nigeria, subyace un complejo basal cristalino del Prec谩mbrico, as铆 como rocas de edad entre Cret谩cica y Terciaria. La exploraci贸n hidrogeol贸gica en esta 谩rea requiere una t茅cnica sistem脿tica para poder alcanzar resultados 贸ptimos, pero la falta de medios y de infraestructura ha hecho extremadamente dif铆cil el poder realizar investigaciones previas a la perforaci贸n de los pozos, de manera que el porcentaje de fallos se eleva al 80%. Para poder delinear las 谩reas adecuadas para el posterior desarrollo hidrogeol贸gico, se han usado im谩genes de radar en blanco y negro y fotograf铆as a茅reas, con el objetivo de definir algunos rasgos hidrol贸gicos e hidrogeol贸gicos en partes del 谩rea de estudio. Se analizaron los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje usando densidad y frecuencia de longitudes. La densidad de longitudes de lineamiento oscila entre 0.04-1.52 y la frecuencia entre 0.11-5.09. La densidad de longitud de drenaje oscila entre 0.17-0.94 y su frecuencia entre 0.16-1.53. Estos rangos de valores reflejan las diferencias en el grado potencial de extracci贸n de aguas subterr谩neas, que se dibuja en unos mapas siguiendo la clasificaci贸n de potencial alto, medio o bajo. Los resultados del estudio indican que existen correlaciones entre los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje, litolog铆a, temperatura y conductividad del agua, descenso en el pozo, transmisividad, conductancia longitudinal y la presencia de agua subterr谩nea.

  9. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of S茫o Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in S茫o Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sert茫ozinho and 脕guas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in 未2H and 未18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of 未13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of 未13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0鈥) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with 未13C about -3.0鈥. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. R茅sum茅. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'茅volution de la g茅ochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unit茅 br茅silienne du syst猫me aquif猫re du Guarani (aquif猫res de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans l'脡tat de Sao Paulo (Br茅sil). L'茅volution des concentrations des esp猫ces dissoutes et la mod茅lisation g茅ochimique ont fait appara卯tre le r么le notable des 茅changes de cations et de la dissolution des carbonates de l'amont vers l'aval des nappes. La perte de calcium par 茅change de cation avec le sodium pilote la dissolution des carbonates et donne naissance 脿 des eaux souterraines 脿 faci猫s Na-HCO3. Le front d'茅change de cation se d茅place vers l'aval probablement plus lentement que la vitesse d'茅coulement de l'eau souterraine et est actuellement situ茅 脿 proximit茅 des villes de Sertaozinho et de Aguas de Santa Barbara (respectivement puits PZ-34 et PZ-148), dans une zone captive proche de la surface, 脿 50-70 km de la zone de recharge. Une partie du sodium provient probablement du syst猫me aquif猫re du Guarani, associ茅e aux chlorures et aux sulfates de la formation Piramboia sous-jacente, par diffusion li茅e 脿 la dissolution d'茅vaporites comme la halite et le gypse. De fortes concentrations en fluorures (jusqu'脿 13,3 mg/L) peuvent 锚tre expliqu茅es par la dissolution d'un min茅ral fluor茅 茅galement pilot茅e par l'茅change de cations. Cependant, on ne sait pas bien si la dissolution intervient directement dans le syst猫me aquif猫re du Guarani ou dans la formation basaltique sus-jacente de Serra Geral. Les valeurs de 未2H et 未18O d茅croissent vers l'aval de la nappe. Les valeurs de 未13C du carbone min茅ral dissous sont enrichies vers l'aval, indiquant qu'il se produit une dissolution de calcite en syst猫me ferm茅. Les valeurs de 未13C du carbone min茅ral dissous dans les puits g茅othermaux profonds sont tr猫s 茅lev茅es (sup茅rieures 脿 -6,0鈥) et rendent probablement compte d'茅changes isotopiques avec des carbonates poss茅dant un 未13C d'environ -3,0鈥. De prochaines 茅tudes devront s'attacher 脿 茅valuer les flux verticaux et le potentiel de p茅n茅tration de contamination du syst猫me aquif猫re du Guarani. Resumen. El prop贸sito de este informe es explicar las tendencias geoqu铆micas y de los is贸topos estables en la unidad brasile帽a del Sistema Acu铆fero Guaran铆 (acu铆feros de Botucatu y Piramboya), en el Estado de Sao Paulo. Las concentraciones de especies disueltas y los resultados de modelaciones geoqu铆micas indican que el intercambio cati贸nico y la disoluci贸n de carbonatos desempe帽an un papel importante en la evoluci贸n aguas abajo del acu铆fero. La disminuci贸n de calcio por el intercambio con sodio origina la disoluci贸n de carbonatos, dando lugar a aguas subterr谩neas de tipo bicarbonatado s贸dico. El frente de intercambio cati贸nico se desplaza a una velocidad probablemente mucho m谩s lenta que la del flujo de agua; actualmente, se halla cerca de las ciudades de Sertaozinho y Aguas de Santa B谩rbara (pozos PZ-34 y PZ-148, respectivamente), en una zona confinada somera que dista entre 50 y 70 km del 谩rea de recarga. Parte del sodio entra probablemente en el Sistema Acu铆fero Guaran铆 junto con el cloruro y el sulfato procedentes de la Formaci贸n Piramboia inferior, debido a la difusi贸n relacionada con la disoluci贸n de evaporitas como la halita y los yesos. Se puede explicar las elevadas concentraciones de fl煤or (hasta 13,3 mg/L) por la disoluci贸n de fluoruro mineral, que sucede tambi茅n por intercambio cati贸nico. Sin embargo, no est谩 claro si la disoluci贸n ocurre directamente en el Sistema Acu铆fero Guaran铆 o en la Formaci贸n bas谩ltica superior de Serra Geral. Hay una reducci贸n de 未2H y de 未18O a favor del gradiente hidr谩ulico. Hay un enriquecimiento en 未13C inorg谩nico aguas abajo, lo que indica que la calcita se disuelve en condiciones de sistema cerrado. Los valores de 未13C inorg谩nico en pozos geot茅rmicos profundos son muy altos (mayores que -6,0鈥), y probablemente apuntan a un intercambio isot贸pico con carbonatos de 未13C que tiene un valor del orden del -3,0鈥. Las l铆neas de investigaci贸n deber铆an centrarse en evaluar los flujos verticales y el potencial de penetraci贸n de contaminantes en el Sistema Acu铆fero Guaran铆.

  10. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    Juan Barranco Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) jbarranc@fisica.ugto.mx Guillermo Contreras Departamento de Fisica Aplicada Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Merida (Mexico) jgcn@mda.cinvestav.mx David Delepine Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) delepine@fisica.ugto.mx Mauro Napsuciale Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) mauro@fisica.ugto.mx The XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields (MWPF) took place from 20-26 October 2011, in the city of Le贸n, Guanajuato, M茅xico. This is a biennial meeting organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society designed to gather specialists in different areas of high energy physics to discuss the latest developments in the field. The thirteenth edition of this meeting was hosted by the Department of Cultural Studies of Guanajuato University in a nice environment dedicated to the Arts and Culture. The XIII MWPF was organized by three working groups who organized the corresponding sessions around three topics. The first one was Strings, Cosmology, Astroparticles and Physics Beyond the Standard Model. In this category we included: Cosmic Rays, Gamma Ray Bursts, Physics Beyond the Standard Model (theory and experimental searches), Strings and Cosmology. The working group for this topic was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra and Myriam Mondrag贸n. The second topic was Hadronic Matter which included Perturbative QCD, Jets and Diffractive Physics, Hadronic Structure, Soft QCD, Hadron Spectroscopy, Heavy Ion Collisions and Soft Physics at Hadron Colliders, Lattice Results and Instrumentation. The working group for this topic was integrated by Wolfgang Bietenholz and Mariana Kirchbach. The third topic was Electroweak and Flavor Physics in whose classification we had Quark masses and mixing, Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Heavy Quark Physics, Neutrinos, CP Violation, CKM and Rare Decays. The working group for this topic was formed by David Delepine, Lorenzo D铆az, Gerardo Herrera and Olga F茅lix Beltr谩n. The three topics included invited talks dedicated to reviewing theoretical and experimental aspects of the corresponding topic. We had also plenary topical sessions during the mornings and early afternoons and parallel thematic sessions were held late in the afternoons. The reviews sessions were delivered by invited speakers of international prestige on the corresponding subjects and having an active collaboration with the Mexican scientific community. The plenary topical sessions and parallel thematic sessions were given by active researchers both from abroad and working in M茅xico. The program included also a permanent poster session and the organizing committee awarded the best poster - a decision made by the three working groups - with a silver medal. On Sunday 23 October, we had an excursion to the ancient archaeological site of Plazuelas near Penjamo (Guanajuato). Plazuelas is a prehispanic archaeological site located just north of San Juan el Alto, some 2.7 kilometers north of federal highway 90 (Penjamo-Guadalajara), and about 11 kilometers west of the city of Penjamo in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The site has been recently opened to the public. This site is a very complex city, it was edified following the natural landscape surrounding it. This city was occupied between 600 and 900 a.C. After spending some time at this very interesting archaeological site, we went to Hacienda Corralejo, an hacienda where Tequila Corralejo is produced and we had a guided visit of the 'Tequilera' where the famous Corralejo blue bottle of Tequila is made. Hacienda Corralejo is very close to the orginal Hacienda where Miguel Hidalgo (a Mexican independence hero) was born which now is just a set of foundations and a portal, considered national monuments. There, we enjoyed a delicious meal in the cellars of the Corralejo Hacienda before returning to Leon. The XIII MWPF was sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog铆a (CONACyT) through the Red Nacional de F铆sica de Altas Energ铆as and individual research projects, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnol贸gico del Estado de Guanajuato (CONCyTEG), Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico, Universidad de Guanajuato, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Universidad Michoacana de San Nicol谩s de Hidalgo, Benem茅rita Universidad Aut贸noma de Puebla and Universidad Aut贸noma de San Luis Potos铆. Also, we wish to thak to those who helped in the process of getting financial support for the meeting, specially Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo, President of the Red Nacional de F铆sica de Altas Energ铆as and Dr Jos茅 Luis Lucio Mart铆nez, Rector of Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Le贸n. These proceedings have been published thanks to the support of PIFI 2011. This meeting was possible due to the commitment of the working groups and we wish to thank to their members for the decisive collaboration with the organizing committee. At the local level, we thank our graduate students: Carolina Luj谩n, Vannia Gonz谩lez, Selim Gomez and Carlos Alberto Vaquera for their invaluable contribution in the organization of the large amount of small but important things around the meeting. Finally, we would like to thank all the speakers for delivering excellent talks which contributed to the success of the event. We are also grateful to all the participants for the nice academic and social atmosphere during the meeting and for providing their write-ups on time. The National organizing committee was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda (CINVESTAV-DF) Guillermo Contreras (CINVESTAV-M茅rida) David Delepine (DF-UG) Axel de la Macorra (IAC/IF-UNAM) Lorenzo D铆az (BUAP) Gerardo Herrera (CINVESTAV-DF) Mariana Kirchbach (IF-UASLP) Oscar Loaiza (DF-UG) Myriam Mondrag贸n (IF-UNAM) Mauro Napsuciale (DF-UG) Humberto Salazar Ibarguen (BUAP) Andr茅s Sandoval (IF-UNAM) Juan Carlos D_Olivo (ICN-UNAM) Wolfgang Bietenholz (ICN-UNAM) Olga F茅lix Beltr谩n (BUAP) Dinner at Hacienda Corralejo Dinner in the cellars of Hacienda Corralejo. Visit to Hacienda Corralejo Visit to Hacienda Corralejo. The PDF contains the conference programme.

  11. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim茅nez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerd脿, Artemi; 脕ngel Gonz谩lez Pe帽aloza, F茅lix

    2013-04-01

    Eastern Spain has been worldwide well known by the high quality citrus production (Piqueras, 2012). During the last century, the export of Val猫ncia's oranges contributed to a high income in Spain albeit during the last decade the revenues for the small farmers were short (Bono, 2010). The orange agricultural specialization in Val猫ncia begun at the end of the eighteenth century in the town of Carcaixent, close to the X煤quer river, where the first commercial orange groves were planted. This was due to the climatic conditions (no frosts) and the traditional flood irrigation systems. The orange trade was not important until the second half of the nineteenth century, due to a combination of factors: i) the increasing demand of oranges from the United Kingdom, first, and then from Germany, France and other north-european industrialized countries; ii) the highly productive capacity of the Valencian soil thanks to its mild weather and irrigated fields; iii) the open mindedness of Valencian farmers towards innovation; and, iv) the developemnt of a railways network which made it possible to bring the oranges into the shipment ports (Bono, 2010; Piqueras, 2012). The Valencian orange trade knew its peak during the period 1925-1930 but later it experienced an economic crisis because of wars (both in Spain and Europe) and did not recover until the 1960's (Piqueras, 1999; Bono, 2010). After Spain's EEC (European Economic Community) membership (1986) and the creation of EU (1993) Valencian citrus sector grew: new orange groves were planted, new commercial varieties (especially mandarins) were promoted, and exports increased. Nevertheless, nowadays Valencian orange sector suffers from a structural problem: the small farm size and the lack of a good commercial network of distribution. But in spite of the current crisis, the orange groves' impact on landscape is still huge in Valencia, since it creates a thick forest of orange trees stretching not only the floodplains but also their neighboring mountain slopes. The interest of orange groves is not only economic, but also environmental. Although the traditional farming developed a beautiful man made landscape of terraces and irrigation ditches, the development of new irrigation systems by means of drips contributed to new plantations that removed the ditches and the terraces. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerd脿 et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). This research evaluates the production and the cost of production, the economic investment in the establishment of the new citrus plantations and the revenues of 5 farms in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain. The soil erosion rates measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1) and by five-year survey by means of topographical measurements. The results show that the soil losses in the new plantation are extremely high, that the investments in the new plantation reached 18352 鈧 ha-1 and that the revenues do not cover the expenses of production. Soil erosion measured since 2007 to 2011 show values that range from 7.54 to 56.76 Mg ha-1 year-1 and show a mean value of 28.45 Mg ha-1 year-1. Rainfall simulation experiments shown that the soil losses were very high as other researched found in new citrus plantations. The comparison with other land uses and agriculture crop and managements shown that soil erosion is higher in then new chemically treated plantations (Cerd脿, 2002), and even higher that on road embankments (Cerd脿, 2007) and rainfed agriculture soil (Garc铆a Orenes et al., 2009), although the water repellency found was very low in comparison to organic farming orange plantations (Gonz谩lez et al., 2012). The current situation of a high investment to develop the new plantations, an income lower than the expenses, the removal of terraces, drainage and irrigation ditches and the high erosion rates show a Desertification process triggered by the commercial agriculture of citrus. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bono, E. 2010. Naranja y desarrollo. La base agr铆cola exportadora de la econom铆a del Pa铆s Valenciano y el modelo de crecimiento hacea afuera. PUV, Valencia, 203 pp. Cerd脿, A. 2001. Erosi贸n h铆drica del suelo en el Territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuesti贸n a trav茅s de la revisi贸n bibliogr谩fica. Geoforma Ediciones, Logro帽o, 79 pp. Cerd谩, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. Cerd脿, A., Morera, A.G., Bod铆, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. Garc铆a-Orenes, F., Cerd脿, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bod铆, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Gonz谩lez-Pe帽aloza, F.A., Cerd脿, Zavala, L.M., Jord谩n, A. 2012. Do conservative agriculture practices increase soil water repellency? A case study in citrus-cropped soils. Soil & Tillage Research 124, 233 - 239. Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Piqueras, J. 1999. El espacio Geogr谩fico valenciano. Una s铆ntesis geogr谩fica. Valencia, 356 pp. Piqueras, J. 2012. Geograf铆a del Territorio Valenciano. Departament de Geografia, Universitat de Val猫ncia (Valencia, Espa帽a). 256 pp. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250.

  12. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other groundwater basins in Jordan. This participatory management approach would also be useful in other parts of the world that are experiencing similar groundwater over-exploitation problems. La surexploitation des eaux souterraines prend de l'importance en Jordanie. Les demandes en concurrence ont augment face des d閒icits permanents d'eau, situation qui a 閠 exacerb閑 par la s閏heresse de la derni鑢e d閏ennie. Cet article rend compte de l'aboutissement d'un projet dans lequel des options de gestion portant sur la surexploitation ont 閠 d関elopp閑s pour l'un des principaux syst鑝es aquif鑢es de Jordanie, le bassin d'Amman Zarqa. Des options pour aborder cette situation ont 閠 d関elopp閑s gr鈉e une approche participative qui implique des fonctionnaires du gouvernement et des groupes d'int閞阾s vari閟 des secteurs public et priv. Des efforts particuliers ont 閠 faits pour impliquer les irrigants utilisant des puits, qui sont probablement ceux qui ont le plus fort impact sur les changements attendus permettant de remettre le syst鑝e en 閝uilibre. partir des informations obtenues de campagnes rapides d'関aluation, telles que des r閡nions de communaut閟 et des entrevues avec des experts techniques du gouvernement, un large jeu d'options a 閠 identifi pour l'関aluation. Bas閑s sur une analyse hydrog閛logique, sociale et 閏onomique, cinq options compl閙entaires de gestion ont 閠 recommand閑s pour la r閍lisation. Ce sont la cr閍tion d'un Service Consultatif d'Irrigation, achetant les puits agricoles, fixant des limites fermes aux pr閘鑦ements des puits et aux zones irrigu閑s, 閏hangeant les eaux us閑s trait閑s avec des eaux souterraines, et la mise en place de mesures pour accro顃re l'efficacit des usages collectifs et industriels. Des combinaisons et des niveaux vari閟 de ces options ont 閠 regroup閟 en sc閚arios, pr閟entant les strat間ies possibles de mise en 渦vre. Les sc閚arios ont 閠 mis au point pour assister les d閏ideurs, les propri閠aires de puits et les autres acteurs pour atteindre progressivement un r間ime de pr閘鑦ement durable. Les aspects sociaux et 閏onomiques de chaque option et de chaque sc閚ario ont 閠 analys閟 et pr閟ent閟 aux acteurs, en m阭e temps qu'un r閟um des ramifications l間ales, institutionnelles et environnementales. En combinant une analyse scientifique une approche participative du bassin d'Amman Zarqa, la gestion des eaux souterraines a 閠 imagin閑 comme un prototype pouvant 阾re utilis pour la gestion d'autres bassins aquif鑢es de Jordanie. Il peut 間alement 阾re utile d'autres r間ions du monde qui sont concern閑s par des probl鑝es similaires de surexploitation des eaux souterraines. La sobreexplotaci髇 de las aguas subterr醤eas ha ido en aumento en Jordania, donde las demandas en competici髇 han crecido frente a una escasez perenne de agua, situaci髇 que ha sido agravada por el estado de sequ韆 de la 鷏tima d閏ada. Este art韈ulo presenta los hallazgos de un proyecto en el que se han desarrollado opciones de gesti髇 para hacer frente a la sobreexplotaci髇 en uno de los principales sistemas acu韋eros de Jordania: la cuenca de Amm醤-Zarga. Se ha elaborado opciones para afrontar la situaci髇 mediante un enfoque participativo que incluye a personal del gobierno y a diversos grupos de inter閟 de los sectores p鷅lico y privado. En particular, se ha intentado involucrar a los regantes que se sirven de aguas subterr醤eas, quienes tienen m醩 probabilidad de ser directamente afectados por los cambios requeridos para devolver el sistema a un balance equilibrado. A partir de la informaci髇 obtenida en r醦idas campa馻s de valoraci髇, as como de encuentros con la comunidad y entrevistas con los expertos t閏nicos del gobierno, se ha identificado un amplio conjunto de opciones para su evaluaci髇. Bas醤dose en un an醠isis integrado de los aspectos hidrogeol骻icos, sociales y econ髆icos, se ha recomendado la implementaci髇 de cinco opciones complementarias de gesti髇: establecimiento de un Servicio Asesor de Riego; adquisici髇 de pozos de granjas; imposici髇 de l韒ites estrictos en las extracciones de pozos y superficies de riego; substituci髇 de las aguas subterr醤eas con aguas residuales depuradas; y medidas para incrementar la eficiencia de los usos municipales e industriales del agua. Se ha agrupado varias combinaciones y niveles de dichas opciones en escenarios, representando estrategias posibles de implementaci髇. Los escenarios han sido dise馻dos para ayudar a los gestores en la toma de decisiones, a los propietarios de pozos y a otros agentes para que se vaya consiguiendo de forma gradual un r間imen de extracciones sustentable. Se ha analizado los aspectos sociales y econ髆icos de cada opci髇 y de cada escenario, present醤dolos a los diversos agentes, adem醩 de generar un resumen de ramificaciones legales, institucionales y medioambientales. Se ha concebido la combinaci髇 de un an醠isis cient韋ico con un enfoque participativo en la cuenca de Amm醤-Zarga como un prototipo de gesti髇 de las aguas subterr醤eas que puede ser aplicado a la gesti髇 de otras cuencas en Jordania. Tambi閚 ser韆 鷗il en otros lugares del mundo que est閚 experimentando problemas similares de sobreexplotaci髇 de los recursos h韉ricos subterr醤eos.

  13. The evolution of groundwater rights and groundwater management in New Mexico and the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuMars, Charles T.; Minier, Jeffrie D.

    Historically, rights in water originated as public property and only later became individualized rights to utilize the public resource, in a manner consistent with the public welfare needs of society, but protected by principles of property law. Five basic regulatory systems for rights in groundwater in the United States have evolved to date. The problems raised by the hydrologic differences between groundwater hydraulically connected to stream systems and groundwater in non-replenished aquifers have been resolved to some extent by a couple of leading court cases. Numerical modeling and other technical methodologies have also evolved to evaluate the scientific issues raised by the different hydrologic conditions, but these are not immune from criticism. The current role of aquifers is evolving into that of storage facilities for recycled water, and their utilization in this manner may be expanded even further in the future. The policy implications of the choices relating to joint management of ground and surface water cannot be overstated. As this paper demonstrates, proactive administration of future groundwater depletions that affect stream systems is essential to the ultimate ability to plan for exploitation, management and utilization of water resources in a rational way that coordinates present and future demand with the reality of scarcity of supply. The examples utilized in this paper demonstrate the need for capacity building, not just to develop good measurement techniques, or to train talented lawyers and judges to write good laws, but also for practical professional water managers to keep the process on a rational course, avoiding limitless exploitation of the resource as well as conservative protectionism that forever precludes its use. Historiquement, les droits d'eau 茅taient 脿 l'origine un bien public; ils sont devenus plus tard des droits individualis茅s pour utiliser la ressource publique conform茅ment aux besoins de salut public de la soci茅t茅, mais prot茅g茅s par des principes de lois de propri茅t茅. Cinq syst猫mes de r茅glementation de base pour les droits sur les eaux souterraines aux 脡tats-Unis ont 茅volu茅 jusqu'脿 aujourd'hui. Les probl猫mes pos茅s par les diff茅rences hydrologiques entre les eaux souterraines hydrauliquement connect茅es aux cours d'eau et celles d'aquif猫res non r茅aliment茅s ont 茅t茅 r茅solus jusqu'脿 un certain point par quelques cas de jugement. La mod茅lisation num茅rique et d'autres m茅thodologies techniques ont 茅galement 茅volu茅 pour 茅valuer les r茅sultats scientifiques apport茅s dans diff茅rentes conditions hydrologiques, mais ne sont pas 脿 l'abri de critiques. Le r么le courant des aquif猫res 茅volue entre celui des possibilit茅s de stockage pour l'eau recycl茅e et leur utilisation dans ce but peut 锚tre m锚me 茅tendue plus loin dans le futur. Les implications politiques des choix relatifs 脿 la gestion simultan茅e des eaux souterraines et de surface ne doivent pas 锚tre exag茅r茅es. Comme le montre cet article, la gestion active de l'茅puisement futur des nappes qui affecte les syst猫mes fluviaux est essentielle pour la capacit茅 finale 脿 planifier l'exploitation, la gestion et l'utilisation des ressources en eau d'une mani猫re rationnelle qui coordonne la demande actuelle et future 脿 la r茅alit茅 de la raret茅 de l'alimentation. Les exemples utilis茅s dans cet article d茅montrent le besoin d'une capacit茅 d'茅laboration, non seulement pour d茅velopper de bonnes techniques de mesure, ou pour former d'excellents avocats et juges pour 茅crire de bonnes lois, mais aussi pour que des praticiens gestionnaires de l'eau maintiennent le processus dans un cours rationnel pour 茅viter une exploitation sans limite des ressources aussi bien qu'un protectionnisme conservateur qui emp锚che son usage 脿 jamais. Hist贸ricamente, los derechos del agua se originaron como un bien p煤blico que se transformaron despu茅s en derechos individualizados para usar los recursos p煤blicos, de forma coherente con las necesidades de bienestar social, pero protegidos por los principios de la ley de propiedad. Hasta el momento, cinco sistemas reguladores b谩sicos han evolucionado en los Estados Unidos de Am茅rica en relaci贸n a los derechos en las aguas subterr谩neas. Los problemas surgidos por las diferencias hidrol贸gicas entre las aguas subterr谩neas conectadas a corrientes superficiales y las aguas subterr谩neas en acu铆feros sobreexplotados han sido resueltos hasta cierto punto por un par de casos judiciales notables. La modelaci贸n num茅rica y otras metodolog铆as t茅cnicas han evolucionado tambi茅n para evaluar aspectos cient铆ficos asociados a diversas circunstancias hidrol贸gicas, pero no son inmunes a las cr铆ticas. El papel actual de los acu铆feros est谩 evolucionando hacia el de instalaciones de almacenamiento de agua reciclada y su utilizaci贸n de esta forma puede expandirse incluso m谩s en el futuro. Las implicaciones pol铆ticas de las decisiones relativas a la gesti贸n conjunta de las aguas superficiales y subterr谩neas no pueden ser exageradas. Como este art铆culo demuestra, una administraci贸n proactiva de las extracciones futuras de aguas subterr谩neas con efectos en los ecosistemas superficiales es esencial para la capacidad final de planificar la explotaci贸n, gesti贸n y utilizaci贸n de los recursos h铆dricos de forma racional, coordinando las demandas presentes y futuras con la realidad de la escasez de suministro. Los ejemplos empleados en este art铆culo demuestran la necesidad de construir capacidad y no 煤nicamente de desarrollar buenas t茅cnicas de medida, o la de educar reguladores y jueces de talento que redacten buenas leyes, pero tambi茅n de gestores profesionales y aplicados del agua que mantengan el proceso en un compromiso entre evitar la explotaci贸n ilimitada del recurso y ejercer un proteccionismo conservador que impida su uso para siempre.

  14. Groundwater demand management at local scale in rural areas of India: a strategy to ensure water well sustainability based on aquifer diffusivity and community participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Himanshu; Vijay Shankar, P. S.; Deolankar, S. B.; Shah, Mihir

    Watershed development programmes provide an opportunity for sustainable management strategies, although currently, they remain largely `supply-side' mechanisms of water resources development. Hydrogeological conditions, community participation and status of groundwater usage are important in evolving strategies on `demand-side' groundwater management. Neemkheda aquifer is a typical low-storage, low-hydraulic conductivity aquifer from a watershed in the dryland regions of Madhya Pradesh State of central India. A shallow unconfined aquifer, it consists of an upper coarse, calcareous sandstone unit underlain by a fine-grained sandstone unit. A `well commune' of seven wells is poised to test the concept of joint groundwater management, wherein wells are mechanisms of tapping a common water source, the Neemkheda aquifer. The strategy for systematic groundwater management in the Neemkheda well commune is based upon the relationship between Transmissivity (T) and Storage coefficient (S), i.e. aquifer diffusivity, and its variation within the aquifer. Wells within a high diffusivity domain tend to dewater more quickly than wells within a low diffusivity domain. A well-use schedule during the dry season, based upon aquifer diffusivity forms the basis of the groundwater management concept. The distribution of local aquifer diffusivities governs the relationship between local and regional aquifer depletion times and forms the basis of the groundwater management exercise being proposed for the Neemkheda aquifer. Los programas de desarrollo de una cuenca h铆drica son una oportunidad para el uso de estrategias de gesti贸n sostenible, aunque hoy en d铆a estas siguen siendo principalmente mecanismos para el desarrollo de recursos h铆dricos con 茅nfasis en la ``oferta''. Las condiciones hidrogeol贸gicas, la participaci贸n comunitaria y la condici贸n de utilizaci贸n del agua subterr谩nea, son importantes en el desarrollo de estrategias para la gesti贸n del agua subterr谩nea, desde el punto de vista de la ``demanda''. El acu铆fero de Neemkheda es un acu铆fero t铆pico de almacenamiento bajo y conductividad hidr谩ulica baja, perteneciente a una cuenca h铆drica ubicada en las regiones secas del Estado de Madhya Pradesh, en la parte central de India. Un acu铆fero de tipo libre, somero, formado por una unidad superior de arenisca calc谩rea de grano grueso, subyacida por una unidad de arenisca de grano fino. Un campo de pozos comunitario compuesto por siete pozos, pone a prueba el concepto de gesti贸n conjunta del agua subterr谩nea, dentro del cual los pozos son mecanismos para usar una fuente de agua com煤n: El acu铆fero de Neemkheda. La estrategia usada para la gesti贸n sistem谩tica del agua subterr谩nea, en el campo de pozos comunitario de Neemkheda, se basa en la relaci贸n existente entre Transmisividad (T) y Coeficiente de Almacenamiento (S), es decir en la Difusividad del Acu铆fero y en su variaci贸n observada dentro del mismo acu铆fero. Los pozos cuya difusividad esta dentro de un rango alto, tienden a experimentar un descenso en su nivel mas r谩pidamente que aquellos pozos con una difusividad baja. El concepto de gesti贸n de agua subterr谩nea se basa en un programa especial de operaci贸n para cada pozo durante la estaci贸n seca, el cual a su vez se basa en la difusividad del acu铆fero. La distribuci贸n de difusividades locales del acu铆fero rige las relaciones entre las 茅pocas de descensos de nivel en el acu铆fero a escala regional y local, y adem谩s constituyen la base del ejercicio de la gesti贸n del agua subterr谩nea que se esta proponiendo para el acu铆fero de Neemkheda. Les programmes de d茅veloppement des bassins versants offrent une occasion de d茅velopper des strat茅gies pour une gestion durable, bien qu' 脿 pr茅sent elles restent en grande mesure `le terme source' dans le m茅canisme de d茅veloppement de la ressource en eau. Les conditions hydrog茅ologiques, la participation de la communaut茅 et l'usage des eaux souterraines sont importants pour le `terme demande' dans les strat茅gies de gestion des eaux souterraines. L'aquif猫re de Neemkheda presents des caract茅ristiques typiques pour un bassin versant dans les r茅gions arides de l'茅tat Madhya Pradesh de l'Inde centrale en ce qui concerne les faible valeurs de la conductivit茅 hydraulique et du co茅fficient d'emmagasinement. Il s'agit d'un aquif猫re phr猫atique dont la partie sup茅rieure est constitu茅 par des gr猫s calcaire qui restent sur des gr茅s plus fins. Afin d'essayer le concept de gestion integr茅e, on a r茅alis茅 dans l'aquif猫re de Neemkheda un captage ayant sept forages qui forment la ressource en eau communale. La strat茅gie de la gestion syst茅matique du captage est bas茅e sur la relation entre la transmissivit茅 (T), le co茅fficient d'emmagasinement (S), donc la diffusivit茅 hydraulique ainsi que sa variation spatiale. Les puits for茅s dans les zones 脿 grande diffusivit茅 tendent 脿 s'ass猫cher plus vite que ceux creus茅s dans des zones 脿 faible diffusivit茅. Le concept de la gestion des eaux souterraines est donc bas茅 sur la distribution spatiale des diffusivit茅s. 脌 partir de ce concept on a d茅velopp茅 un programme d'exploitation des forages pendant les saisons s猫ches. La relation entre les temps d' 茅puissment locaux et r茅gionaux est determin茅 par la distribution spatiale de la diffusivit茅e et forme la base de l'exercice sur la gestion des eaux propos茅e pour l'aquif猫re de Neemkheda.

  15. PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de M茅canique Th茅orique et Appliqu茅e, Nancy-Universit茅) LMS (Laboratoire de M茅canique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Math茅matiques Appliqu茅es, UTC Compi猫gne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocin茅tique, Universit茅 de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Soci茅t茅 Fran莽aise de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see composition below) and additional reviewers we wish to thank here for their kind help. Among the 194 abstracts initially received, 121 communications have been accepted for presentation, 109 of which having been actually presented (oral or poster form) at the conference, as well as 4 invited plenary lectures. The presentations for each session topic, and the geographic distribution of the delegates, are given in tables below. It is our hope that ICIPE 2008 has contributed to maintaining existing interactions and fostering new ones. We take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their valuable contributions and the excellent atmosphere of the meeting. The next ICIPE conference is planned to take place in the USA in May 2010. It will be organized by Alain J Kassab of the University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, and will take place on the UCF campus. Further details regarding ICIPE 2010 conference will be made available on the ICIPE 2008 website during the fall of 2008, and will also be disseminated directly to individuals having attended previous ICIPE meetings. The editorial committee of ICIPE 2008, Marc Bonnet - Guest Editor St茅phane Andr茅 - Associate guest editor Andrei Constantinescu - Associate guest editor Abdellatif El Badia - Associate guest editor Yvon Jarny - Associate guest editor Denis Maillet - Associate guest editor Scientific Committee: ICIPE 2008 ChairmanM. Bonnet (Ecole Polytech., France) SecretariesS. Andr茅 (Nancy-U., France) A. Constantinescu (Ecole Polytech., France) Honorary membersO. M. Alifanov (Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia) J. V. Beck (Mich. State U., USA) Members G. Alessandrini (U. Trieste, Italy)R. Kress (U. Goettingen, Germany) J. S. Alves (Inst. Sup. Tecnico, Portugal) S. Kubo (Osaka U., Japan) S. Andrieux (EDF, France) K. J. Langenberg (U. Kassel, Germany) S. Arridge (U. College, London, UK) C. Leniliot (U. Provence, France) M. Azaiez (U. Bordeaux, France) D. Lesnic (U. Leeds, UK) J.-C. Batsale (U. Bordeaux, France) W. Lionheart (U. Manchester, UK) M. Bertero (U. Genova, Italy) D. Maillet (Nancy-U., France) J. Blum (U. Nice, France) W. Marquardt (RWTH Aachen, Germany) H. D. Bui (Ecole Polytech., France) P. A. Martin (Col. School of Mines, USA) T. Burczynski (Silesian Tech. U., Gliwice, Poland) A. Michalak (U. of Michigan, USA) G. Dassios (U. Patras, Greece) A. Nenarokomov (Moscow Aviation Inst., Russia) D. Delaunay (U. Nantes, France) D. Murio (U. Cincinnati, USA) H. Dinh Nho (Hanoi Inst. Maths, Vietnam) A. J. Nowak (Silesian Tech. U. Gliwice, Poland) A. El Badia (U. Tech. Compi猫gne, France) H. R. B. Orlande (Federal U. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) J. Frankel (U. Tennessee, USA) L. P盲iv盲rinta (U. Helsinki, Finland) O. Ghattas (Carnegie Mellon U., USA) D. Petit (U. Poitiers, France) B. Guzina (U. Minnesota, USA) L. Pronzato (U. Nice, France) A. Hasanov (Kocaeli U., Turkey) M. Prud'homme (Ecole Polytech. Montr茅al, Canada) F. Hild (ENS Cachan, France) O. Scherzer (U. Innsbruck, Austria) C.-H. Huang (National Cheng Kung U., Taiwan) V. Shutyaev (Inst. Num. Maths, Russia) M. Ikehata (Gunma U., Japan) A. J. Silva Neto (U. Estado Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) M. Jaoua (Ecole Nat. Ing茅. Tunis, Tunisia) V. Steffen Jr (U. Federal Uberlandia, Brazil) Y. Jarny (U. Nantes, France) G. Uhlmann (U. Washington, USA) S. Kabanikhin (Sobolev Inst. Maths., Russia) K. A. Woodbury (U. Alabama, USA) J. Kaipio (U. Kuopio, Finland) A. Yagola (Moscow State U., Russia) Kyung Youn Kim (Cheju National U., South Korea) E. Zuazua (U. Complutense Madrid, Spain) Additional Reviewers H. Ammari (ESPCI and Ecole Polytech., France) Y. Favennec (U. Poitiers, France) S. Avril (Ecole Mines St. Etienne, France) O. Fudym (Ecole Mines Albi, France) G. Bal (U. Columbia, USA) M. Girault (U. Poitiers, France) J.-L. Battaglia (U. Bordeaux, France) F. Hemez (Los Alamos Natl. Lab., USA) F. Bauer (Johannes Kepler U., Linz, Austria) M. Janicki (RICAM, Linz, Austria & T.U. Lodz, Poland) C. Bissieux (U. Reims, France) N. Laraqi (U. Paris X, France) F. Ben Belgacem (U. Tech. Compi猫gne, France) P. Le Masson (U. Bretagne Sud, Lorient, France) L. Bourgeois (ENSTA, Paris, France) D. Lemonnier (U. Poitiers, France) M. Burger (U. M眉nster, Germany) A. Louis (U. Saarbr眉cken, Germany) F. Cakoni (U. Delaware, USA) C. Moyne (Nancy-U., France) S. Chaabane (ENIT, Tunisia) B. R茅my (Nancy-U., France) L. Cordier (U. Poitiers, France) J.-J. Serra (DGA, Odeillo, France) A. Degiovanni (Nancy-U., France) D. Stemmelen (Nancy-U., France)

  16. Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Agweyu, Ambrose; Kibore, Minnie; Digolo, Lina; Kosgei, Caroline; Maina, Virginia; Mugane, Samson; Muma, Sarah; Wachira, John; Waiyego, Mary; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya. Methods We followed up children aged 2鈥59聽months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (SP) and very severe pneumonia (VSP) for up to 5聽days for TF using two definitions: (i) documentation of pre-defined clinical signs resulting in change of treatment (ii) primary clinician's decision to change treatment with or without documentation of the same pre-defined clinical signs. Results We enrolled 385 children. The risk of TF varied between 1.8% (95% CI 0.4鈥5.1) and 12.4% (95% CI 7.9鈥18.4) for SP and 21.4% (95% CI 15.9鈥27) and 39.3% (95% CI 32.5鈥46.4) for VSP depending on the definition applied. Higher rates were associated with early changes in therapy by clinician in the absence of an obvious clinical rationale. Non-adherence to treatment guidelines was observed for 70/169 (41.4%) and 67/201 (33.3%) of children with SP and VSP, respectively. Among children with SP, adherence to treatment guidelines was associated with the presence of wheeze on initial assessment (P聽=聽0.02), while clinician non-adherence to guideline-recommended treatments for VSP tended to occur in children with altered consciousness (P聽<聽0.001). Using propensity score matching to account for imbalance in the distribution of baseline clinical characteristics among children with VSP revealed no difference in TF between those treated with the guideline-recommended regimen vs. more costly broad-spectrum alternatives [risk difference 0.37 (95% CI 鈭0.84 to 0.51)]. Conclusion Before revising current pneumonia case management guidelines, standardised definitions of TF and appropriate studies of treatment effectiveness of alternative regimens are required. Objectif D茅terminer l'ampleur et les caract茅ristiques de l鈥櫭ヽhec du traitement (ET) chez les enfants hospitalis茅s avec une pneumonie acquise dans la communaut茅 dans un grand h么pital tertiaire du Kenya. M茅thodes Nous avons suivi des enfants 芒g茅s de 2 脿 59 mois avec une pneumonie s茅v猫re (PS) et une pneumonie tr猫s s茅v猫re (PTS) telles que d茅finies par l鈥橭MS, sur un maximum de cinq jours pour l鈥橢T, en utilisant deux d茅finitions: (a) documentation des signes cliniques pr茅d茅finis ayant entra卯n茅 un changement du traitement, (b) d茅cision primaire du clinicien de changer de traitement avec ou sans documentation des m锚mes signes cliniques pr茅d茅finis. R茅sultats Nous avons recrut茅 385 enfants. Le risque d鈥橢T variait de 1,8% (IC95%: 0,4 脿 5,1) 脿 12,4% (IC95%: 7,9 脿 18,4) pour la PS et de 21,4% (IC95%: 15,9 脿 27) 脿 39,3% (IC95%: 32,5 脿 46,4) pour la PTS selon la d茅finition appliqu茅e. Des taux plus 茅lev茅s 茅taient associ茅s 脿 des changements pr茅coces du traitement par le clinicien en l'absence d'une justification clinique 茅vidente. Le non-respect des directives de traitement a 茅t茅 observ茅 pour 70/169 (41,4%) et 67/201 (33,3%) enfants avec une PS et une PTS respectivement. Chez les enfants avec une PS, le respect des directives de traitement 茅tait associ茅 avec la pr茅sence d'une respiration sifflante au cours l鈥櫭﹙aluation initiale (P = 0,02) tandis que le non respect par les cliniciens des traitements recommand茅s pour la PTS tendait 脿 se produire chez les enfants avec une alt茅ration de la conscience (P <0,001). L'utilisation du score de propension correspondant pour tenir compte du d茅s茅quilibre dans la r茅partition des caract茅ristiques cliniques de base chez les enfants avec une PTS n'a r茅v茅l茅 aucune diff茅rence dans l鈥橢T entre ceux trait茅s avec le r茅gime recommand茅 par les directives et ceux trait茅s par des alternatives plus co没teuses 脿 large spectre (diff茅rence de risque: 0,37 (IC95%: -0,84 脿 0,51). Conclusion Avant la r茅vision des directives actuelles de prise en charge des cas de pneumonie, des d茅finitions standard d鈥橢T et des 茅tudes appropri茅es de l'efficacit茅 des traitements alternatifs sont n茅cessaires. Objetivo Determinar la extensi贸n y el patr贸n del fallo en el tratamiento (FT) en ni帽os hospitalizados con una neumon铆a adquirida en la comunidad, ingresados en un gran hospital terciario de Kenia. M茅todos Hemos seguido a ni帽os con edades entre los 2-59 meses con una neumon铆a severa (NS) y neumon铆a muy severa (NMS) seg煤n definici贸n de la OMS de hasta cinco d铆as para FT utilizando dos definiciones: (a) documentaci贸n de signos cl铆nicos pre-definidos que resultaron en un cambio de tratamiento (b) decisi贸n del cl铆nico principal de cambiar el tratamiento con o sin documentaci贸n de los mismos signos cl铆nicos pre-definidos. Resultados Incluimos a 385 ni帽os. El riesgo de FT vari贸 entre un 1.8% (IC 95% 0.4 a 5.1) y 12.4% (IC 95% 7.9 a 18.4) para NS y 21.4% (IC 95% 15.9 a 27) y 39.3% (IC 95% 32.5 a 46.4) para NMS dependiendo de la definici贸n que se aplicase. Unas mayores tasas estaban asociadas con cambios tempranos en la terapia por el cl铆nico y en ausencia de un razonamiento cl铆nico obvio. Se observaba una no adherencia a las gu铆as de tratamiento en 70/169 (41.4%) y 67/201 (33.3%) de los ni帽os con NS y NMS respectivamente. Entre los ni帽os con SP, la adherencia a las gu铆as de tratamiento estaba asociada con la presencia de sibilancias en la evaluaci贸n inicial (P=0.02) mientras que la no adherencia del cl铆nico a los tratamientos recomendados por las gu铆as para NMS tend铆an a ocurrir en ni帽os con un estado alterado de consciencia (P<0.001). Utilizando el pareamiento por puntaje de propensi贸n para equilibrar los grupos en la distribuci贸n de las caracter铆sticas cl铆nicas de base de los ni帽os con NMS, se observ贸 que no exist铆an diferencias en FT entre aquellos tratados con el r茅gimen recomendado por las gu铆as versus alternativas m谩s costosas de amplio espectro (diferencias de riesgo 0.37 (IC 95% -0.84 a 0.51). Conclusi贸n Antes de revisar las actuales gu铆as de manejo de casos de neumon铆a, se requieren definiciones estandarizadas de FT y estudios apropiados de la efectividad del tratamiento de reg铆menes alternativos. PMID:25130866

  17. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonz谩lez-Pelayo, 脫scar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerd脿, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Mart铆 et al., 2012; Fern谩ndez et al., 2012; Gu茅non, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", K枚ppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerd谩 and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerd脿 et al., 1995; Cerd脿 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerd脿, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerd脿 and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; Gonz谩lez-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fay贸s, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; Gonz谩lez-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bod铆 et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-Garc铆a et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fay贸s et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor et al., 2007; Gonz谩lez-Pelayo et al., 2010b). The knowledge achieved on post-fire erosion must very valuable for new insights and new strategies for landscape management. This research will review the State-of-the-Art of the contribution of the research on soil erosion as a consequence of forest fires in the Valencia Region. The review will show the contribution of the pioneers in the 80's when the USLE and mapping was the main too, the use of plots under simulated and natural rainfall, and also the strategies to control the soil erosion. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Abad, N., Bautista, S., Blade, C., Caturla, R.N. 2000. Seeding and mulching as erosion control techniques after wildfires in the Valencia region. En P. Balabanis, D. Peter, A. Ghazi y M. Tsogas (Eds.), Mediterranean Desertification Research Results and Policy Implications. Directorate-General Research, vol. 2. European Commission, Brussels, 419-429. Andreu, V., Imeson, A.C., Rubio, J.L. 2001. Temporal changes in soil aggregates and water erosion after a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine forest. Catena. 44, 69-84. Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mataix-Beneyto, J., Garc铆a-Orenes, F., 2008. Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Catena 74, 219-226. Bautista, S., Bellot, J., Vallejo, R. 1996. Mulching treatment for postfire soil conservation in a semiarid ecosystem. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10, 235-242. Bod铆, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Stefan H. Doerr, S.H., Cerd脿, A. 2012. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Boix-Fayos, C. 1997. The roles of texture and structure in the water retention capacity of burnt Mediterranean soils with varying rainfall. Catena 31, 219-236. Boix-Fayos, C., Mart铆nez-Mena, M., Calvo-Cases, A., Castillo, V.M., Albadalejo, J. 2005. Concise review of interrill erosion studies in SE Spain (Alicante and Murcia): erosion rates and progress of knowledge from the 1980s. Land Degradation and Developement 16, 517-528. Calvo-Cases, A., Boix-Fay贸s, C., Imeson, A.C. 2003. Runoff generation, sediment movement and soil water behaviour on calcareous (limestone) slopes of some Mediterranean environments in southeast Spain. Geomorphology 50, 269-291. Campo, J., Andreu, V., Gimeno-Garc铆a, E., Gonz谩lez-Pelayo, O., Rubio, J.L. 2008. Aggregation of under canopy and bare soils in a Mediterranean environment affected by different fire intensities. Catena 74 (3), 212-218. Campo, J., Andreu, V., Gimeno-Garc铆a, E., Gonz谩lez, O., Rubio, J.L. 2006. Occurrence of soil erosion after repeated experimental fires in a Mediterranean environment. Geomorphology 82, 376-387. Cerd脿 A. 2001. Erosi贸n h铆drica del suelo en el territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuesti贸n a trav茅s de la revisi贸n bibliogr谩fica. Geoforma Ediciones: Logronho. A. 2001. Cerd谩, A, Mataix-Solera, J. 2009. Incendios forestales en Espa帽a. Ecosistemas terrestres y suelos. En: Cerd谩 y Mataix-Solera (Eds.), Efectos de los incendios forestales sobre los suelos en Espa帽a. Universidad de Valencia, 2009. Cerd脿, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Zeitschrift f眉r Geomorphologie, 42 (3) 373-398. Cerd脿, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerd脿, A., Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256- 263. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00027-9 Cerd脿, A., Imeson, A.C., Calvo, A. 1995. Fire and aspect induced differences on the erodibility and hydrology of soils at La Costera, Valencia, Southeast Spain. Catena 24, 289-304. Fern谩ndez, C., Vega, J. A., Jim茅nez, E., Vieira, D. C. S., Merino, A., Ferreiro, A., Fonturbel, T. 2012. Seedingand mulching + seeding effects on post-fire runoff, soil erosion and species diversity in Galicia (NW Spain). Land Degradation & Development, 23: 150- 156. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1064 Gimeno-Garc铆a, Andreu, V., Rubio, J.L. 2000. Changes in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and cations in soils as a result of fire and water erosion in a Mediterranean landscape. European Journal of Soil Science 51, 201-210. Gimeno-Garc铆a, E., Andreu, V.,, Rubio, J.L., 2007. Influence of vegetation recovery on water erosion at short and medium-term after experimental fires in a Mediterranean shrubland. Catena 69, 150-160. Gonz谩lez-Pelayo, O, Andreu, V., Gimeno-Garc铆a, E., Campo, J., Rubio, J.L. 2010a. Effects of fire and vegetation cover on hydrological characteristics of a Mediterranean shrubland soil. Hydrological Processes 24, 1504-1513. Gonz谩lez-Pelayo, O., Andreu, V., Campo, J., Gimeno-Garc铆a, E., Rubio, J.L. 2006. Hydrological Properties of Mediterranean Soils Burned with Different Fire Intensities. Catena 68 (2-3), 186-193. Gonz谩lez-Pelayo, O., Andreu, V., Campo, J., Gimeno-Garc铆a, E., Rubio, J.L. 2010b. Rainfall influence on plot-scale runoff and soil loss from repeated burning in a Mediterranean-shrub ecosystem, Valencia, Spain. Geomorphology 118, 444-452. Gu茅non, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115- 128. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1109 Guerrero, C., Mataix-Solera, J., Navarro-Pedre帽o, J., Garc铆a-Orenes, F. G贸mez, I. 2001. Different patterns of aggregate stability in burned and restored soils. Arid Land Research and Management 15, 163-171. Llovet, J., Bautista, S., Giovanardi, F., Vallejo, V. R., 1998. Sediment production in burned catchments of eastern spain. Annales Geophysicae. C531. Mart铆n, A., D铆az-Ravi帽a, M., Carballas, T. 2012. Short- and medium-term evolution of soil properties in Atlantic forest ecosystems affected by wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 427- 439. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1078 Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. 2004. Hydrophobic and aggregate stability in calcareous topsoils from fire-affected pine forest in southeastern Spain. Geoderma 118, 77-88. Mayor, A.G., Bautista, S., Llovet, L., Bellot, J. 2007. Post-fire hydrological and erosional responses of a Mediterranean landscape: Seven years of catchment-scale dynamics. Catena 71, 68-75. Pausas, J.G. 2004. Changes in fire and climate in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Mediterranean basin). Climatic Change 63: 337-350. Rubio, J.L., Andreu, V., Cerni, R. 1994. A monitoring system for experimental soil erosion plots. In: Rickson, R.J. (Ed.), Conserving Soil Resources: European Perspectives. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 127-135. Rubio, J.L., Forteza, J., Andreu,V., Cern铆, R. 1997. Soil profile characteristics influencing runoff and soil erosion after forest fire: A case of study (Valencia, Spain). Soil Technology 11, 67-78. Sanroque, P., Rubio, J.L., Mansanet, J. 1985. Efectos de los incendios forestales en las propiedades del suelo, en la composici贸n flor铆stica y en la erosi贸n h铆drica de zonas forestales de Valencia (Espa帽a). Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 22 (2), 131-147.

  18. Some current methods to represent the heterogeneity of natural media in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marsily, G.; Delay, F.; Teles, V.; Schafmeister, M. T.

    We have known for a long time that the material properties of the subsurface are highly variable in space. We have learned that this variability is due to the extreme complexity and variation with time of processes responsible for the formation of the earth's crust, from plate tectonics to erosion, sediment transport, and deposition, as well as to mechanical, climatic, and diagenetic effects. As geologists, we learned how to "read" this complex history in the rocks and how to try to extrapolate in space what we have understood. As physicists, we then learned that to study flow processes in such media we must apply the laws of continuum mechanics. As mathematicians using analytical methods, we learned that we must simplify by dividing this complex continuum into a small number of units, such as aquifers and aquitards, and describe their properties by (constant) equivalent values. In recent years, as numerical modelers, we learned that we now have the freedom to "discretize" this complex reality and describe it as an ensemble of small homogeneous boxes of continuous media, each of which can have different properties. How do we use this freedom? Is there a need for it? If the answer is "yes," how can we assign different rock-property values to thousands or even millions of such little boxes in our models, to best represent reality, and include confidence levels for each selected rock property? As a tribute to Professor Eugene S. Simpson, with whom the first author of this paper often discussed these questions, we present an overview of three techniques that focus on one property, the rock permeability. We explain the motivation for describing spatial variability and illustrate how to do so by the geostatistical method, the Boolean method, and the genetic method. We discuss their advantages and disadvantages and indicate their present state of development. This is an active field of research and space is limited, so the review is certain to be incomplete, but we hope that it will encourage the development of new ideas and approaches. R茅sum茅 On sait depuis longtemps que les propri茅t茅s des roches en profondeur sont 茅minemment variables dans l'espace. On sait que cette variabilit茅 est due 脿 la complexit茅 extr锚me et 脿 la variation au cours du temps des processus responsables de la formation de la cro没te terrestre, de la tectonique des plaques 脿 l'茅rosion, au transport s茅dimentaire et au d茅p么t, sans oublier les effets m茅caniques, climatiques et de diagen猫se. En tant que g茅ologues, nous avons appris a "lire" cette histoire complexe au sein des roches, et 脿 tenter d'extrapoler dans l'espace notre compr茅hension. En tant que physiciens, nous avons ensuite appris que pour 茅tudier les 茅coulements dans de tels milieux, nous devions appliquer les concepts de la m茅canique des milieux continus. En tant que math茅maticiens utilisant des m茅thodes analytiques pour r茅soudre les probl猫mes d'茅coulement, nous avons de plus appris que nous devions simplifier cette r茅alit茅 complexe en un tr猫s petit nombre d'unit茅s, tels que les aquif猫res et les aquitards, dont chacune est d茅crite par des propri茅t茅s 茅quivalentes constantes. Enfin, dans les ann茅es r茅centes, en tant que num茅riciens, nous avons appris que nous avions d茅sormais la libert茅 de "discr茅tiser" cette r茅alit茅 complexe, et de la d茅crire comme un ensemble de petites "bo卯tes" homog猫nes de milieu continu, chacune d'entre elles pouvant avoir des propri茅t茅s diff茅rentes. Comment utilisons nous cette libert茅 nouvellement acquise? En avons-nous r茅ellement besoin? Si la r茅ponse est "oui", comment pouvons nous attribuer des propri茅t茅s diff茅rentes aux roches des milliers ou m锚me millions de petites "bo卯tes" dans nos mod猫les, pour repr茅senter au mieux la r茅alit茅, et comment d茅terminer les intervalles de confiance des propri茅t茅s choisies pour chaque roche? En hommage au Professeur Eug猫ne S. Simpson, avec lequel le premier auteur de cet article a eu souvent l'occasion de discuter de ces questions, nous pr茅sentons ici un survol g茅n茅ral de quelques techniques de g茅n茅ration de telles propri茅t茅s se focalisant sur une seule d'entre elles, la perm茅abilit茅 des roches. Nous expliquons d'abord quels sont les raisons qui engagent 脿 tenter de d茅crire la variabilit茅 spatiale, puis nous illustrons trois m茅thodes pour le faire, la m茅thode g茅ostatistique, la m茅thode Bool茅enne et la m茅thode g茅n茅tique. Nous pr茅sentons leurs avantages et inconv茅nients respectifs, et donnons l'茅tat actuel de leur d茅veloppement. Ces m茅thodes constituant un domaine de recherche actif, et la place 茅tant ici limit茅e, ce survol est n茅cessairement incomplet, mais nous esp茅rons qu'il encouragera l'essor de nouvelles id茅es et de nouvelles approches. Resumen Sabemos desde hace tiempo que las propiedades del subsuelo son altamente variables espacialmente. Hemos aprendido que esta variabilidad es debida a la extrema complejidad y variabilidad temporal de los procesos responsables de la formaci贸n de la corteza terrestre, desde la tect贸nica de placas a la erosi贸n, transporte de sedimentos y deposici贸n, as铆 como a efectos mec谩nicos, clim谩ticos y diagen茅ticos. Como ge贸logos, hemos aprendido a "leer" esta compleja historia en las rocas y a c贸mo tratar de extrapolar en el espacio lo que ya sabemos. Como f铆sicos, aprendimos despu茅s que para estudiar los procesos en este tipo de medios debemos aplicar las leyes de la mec谩nica de los medios continuos. Como matem谩ticos que usan m茅todos anal铆ticos, hemos aprendido que debemos simplificar el medio dividi茅ndolo en un n煤mero menor de unidades, como ser铆an los acu铆feros y acuitardos, y describiendo sus propiedades mediante valores equivalentes (constantes). En los 煤ltimos a帽os, como modelistas, tambi茅n hemos aprendido que tenemos la libertad de "discretizar" esta realidad compleja y describirla como un conjunto de peque帽as cajas homog茅neas de medio continuo, cada una con propiedades diferentes. 驴C贸mo usamos esta libertad?驴Tenemos necesidad de ella? Si la respuesta es "s铆", 驴c贸mo podemos asignar valores de las distintas propiedades de las rocas a miles e incluso millones de estas peque帽as cajas en nuestros modelos, con la pretensi贸n de representar la realidad, y a la vez dar intervalos de confianza para cada propiedad seleccionada? Como un tributo al Profesor Eugene S. Simpson, con quien el autor de este art铆culo a menudo discuti贸 sobre estas cuestiones, se presenta una recopilaci贸n de tres t茅cnicas que se centran en una propiedad, la permeabilidad de la roca. Se explica la motivaci贸n para describir la variabilidad espacial y se ilustra c贸mo hacerlo mediante el m茅todo geoestad铆stico Booleano y mediante el m茅todo gen茅tico. Para cada m茅todo se discuten sus ventajas e inconvenientes y se indica su estado actual de desarrollo. Se trata 茅ste de un campo activo de investigaci贸n y el espacio es limitado, por lo que la revisi贸n es incompleta, pero esperamos que pueda servir para animar el desarrollo de nuevas ideas.

  19. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: En los 煤ltimos quince a帽os diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakist谩n, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turqu铆a, Malasia, Ceil谩n, T煤ez, la Rep煤blica Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la raz贸n fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentar铆a la tasa de crecimiento econ贸mico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas t铆picamente en t茅rminos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el prop贸sito de Pakist谩n de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas espec铆ficas para un determinado mes a a帽o, considerando personal, la adquisici贸n de anticonceptivos, y el n煤mero de usarios por m茅todo. Las metas espec铆ficas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiw谩n, Corea, T煤nez, Pakist谩n e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medici贸n de los que contin煤an utiliz谩ndolos. El programa de evaluaci贸n en Taiw谩n, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El prop贸sito de la evaiuaci贸n de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las 谩reas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) pr谩ctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluaci贸n deber铆a incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estad铆sticas de servicio presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por 谩reas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de car谩cter permanente o de larga duraci贸n (al presente, esterilizaci贸n y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes caracter铆sticas del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (n煤mero de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enter贸 del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educaci贸n de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupaci贸n del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); pr谩cticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener m谩s hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribuci贸n de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, p铆ldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompa帽ados de un registro de las caracter铆sticas del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrar谩n s贸lo en volumen bruto. Esto tambi茅n se aplicar谩 al ritmo, donde 茅ste m茅todo se ense帽e a un n煤mero considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de m茅dicos privados, como una estimaci贸n del efecto catal铆tico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr 谩reas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cu帽as radiates y televisadas, avisos en los peri贸dicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para prop贸sitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuaci贸n y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci m茅todo, otras). Las mue.stras podr铆an ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribu铆bles directamente al programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par 谩reas principales y cinco a seis categor铆as de costos importantes tales coma: adminietraci贸n, personal de campo, publicidad, suministros, etc. C. Un buen conjunto de dates globales sobre la distribuci贸n de los suministros comerciales que puedan llegar tan cerca como sea posible del 煤ltimo consumidor, to cual significa probablemente obtener informaci贸n de los mayoristas. D. Una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y pr谩cticas (KAP) para una evaluaci贸n general cada dos a帽os. Las preguntas b谩sicas (adem谩s de las antes mencionadas y estatus marital y 茅tnico cuando sea pertinente) son: actitud hacia e inter茅s por la anticoncepci贸n, n煤mero de ni帽os por sexo, deseo de tener m谩s hijos, pr谩cticas anticonceptivas, experiencia sobre abortos, tal vez historia de embarazo (especialmente si esta producir谩 una tasa de fecundidad v谩lida), aprobaci贸n del programa gubernamental (para uso politico), y si est谩 actualmente embarazada (la 煤nica y mejor pregunta cuya respuesta habla del efecto sobre la tasa de natalidad). Administrativamente, la responsabilidad por la evalucion debe estar cerca al director, se debe tomar provisiones para obtener informes regulares (meneulaes) y especiales dirigidos a preguntar sobre pol铆tica. El corolario es que el jefe de evaluaci贸n debe tener la confianza del director y debe estar al d铆a en cuanto a las decisiones sabre la politics a seguir. Su trabajo consiste en extractar los aspectos principales que funcionan bien y los no operantes. En cuanto a costos, la evaluaci贸n debe hacerse sobre no m谩s del 10 par ciento del costa del programa en paises peque帽os (de menos de 30 milliones) y sabre no m谩s del 5 per ciento en paises m谩s grandes.Para medir en que forma el programa satisface el criterio final-la magnitud en que cambia la fecundidad-se debe realizar un trabajo m谩s elaborado en el centro (Universidades, Consejos de poblaci贸n, etc.) para desarrollar una forma (a formas) segura de traducir las estad铆sticas de servicio en pr谩ticas y tal vez a煤n datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco a帽os-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevenci贸n de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakist谩n de calcular tasas coma "a帽os de protecci贸n de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762

  20. Trends, prospects and challenges in quantifying flow and transport through fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2005-03-01

    Among the current problems that hydrogeologists face, perhaps there is none as challenging as the characterization of fractured rock (Faybishenko and Benson 2000). This paper discusses issues associated with the quantification of flow and transport through fractured rocks on scales not exceeding those typically associated with single- and multi-well pressure (or flow) and tracer tests. As much of the corresponding literature has focused on fractured crystalline rocks and hard sedimentary rocks such as sandstones, limestones (karst is excluded) and chalk, so by default does this paper. Direct quantification of flow and transport in such rocks is commonly done on the basis of fracture geometric data coupled with pressure (or flow) and tracer tests, which therefore form the main focus. Geological, geophysical and geochemical (including isotope) data are critical for the qualitative conceptualization of flow and transport in fractured rocks, and are being gradually incorporated in quantitative flow and transport models, in ways that this paper unfortunately cannot describe but in passing. The hydrogeology of fractured aquifers and other earth science aspects of fractured rock hydrology merit separate treatments. All evidence suggests that rarely can one model flow and transport in a fractured rock consistently by treating it as a uniform or mildly nonuniform isotropic continuum. Instead, one must generally account for the highly erratic heterogeneity, directional dependence, dual or multicomponent nature and multiscale behavior of fractured rocks. One way is to depict the rock as a network of discrete fractures (with permeable or impermeable matrix blocks) and another as a nonuniform (single, dual or multiple) continuum. A third way is to combine these into a hybrid model of a nonuniform continuum containing a relatively small number of discrete dominant features. In either case the description can be deterministic or stochastic. The paper contains a brief assessment of these trends in light of recent experimental and theoretical findings, ending with a short list of prospects and challenges for the future. Parmis les probl猫mes aucquels font face les hydrog茅ologues, il y a celui de la caract茅risation des roches fractur茅es (Faybishenko and Benson, 2000). Cet article discute des solutions associ茅es aux quantifications des 茅coulements et des transports 脿 travers les roches fractur茅es 脿 l'茅chelles des essais de puits et des essais de tra莽age. Une part importante de la lit茅rature traite des roches cristallines, des roches s茅dimentaires consolid茅es telles les gr茅s, les calcaires (exept茅s les karsts) et la craie. De fait, cet article traitera la m锚me panoplie de roches. La quantification directe des 茅coulements et du transport dans de tels milieux est g茅n茅ralement abord茅e via la g茅om茅trie des fractures, les donn茅es de pression et de tra莽age, qui d茅slors sont les objets principaux de notre 茅tude. La g茅ologie, la g茅ophysique et la g茅ochimie (incluant la g茅ochimie isotopique) sont criticables car elles donnent des informations qualitatives sur l'茅coulement et le transport des aquif猫res fractur茅s, et son int茅gr茅es graduellement dans des mod猫les qualitatifs. La mani猫re d'int茅grer ces donn茅es d茅passe malheureusement cet article. L'hydrog茅ologie des aquif猫res de fractures et les autres sciences de la terre s'int茅ressant aux roches fractur茅es m茅ritent des tra卯tements diff茅rents. En toute 茅vidence il est sugg茅r茅 que rarement un mod猫le d'茅coulement et de transport dans une roche fractur茅e puisse 锚tre trait茅 comme un milieu isotropique continu, uniforme ou moyennement non-uniforme. Par ailleurs, il est admis la d茅pendance entre la forte h茅t茅rog茅n茅it茅 erratique et la vari茅t茅 de natures et de comportements des roches fractur茅es. Une mani猫re de r茅gler le probl猫me est de consid茅rer le milieu comme un r茅seau de fractures discr猫tes (avec une perm茅abilit茅 de matrice ou de bloc). Une autre est de l'envisager comme un milieu non-uniforme (simple, double ou multiple) continu. Une troisi猫me mani猫re est de combiner ceci dans un mod猫le hybride d'un milieu non-uniforme, contenant un relativement petit nombre de fractures dominantes et discr猫tes. Dans d'auters cas la description peut 锚tre d茅terministe ou stochastique. L'article contient un br猫ve apper莽u de ces tendances 脿 la lumi猫re d'exp茅riences r茅centes et de nouvelles th茅ories, et se termine par une courte liste de 芦challenge禄 et de priorit茅s pour le futur. Entre los problemas actuales que enfrentan los hidroge贸logos, quiz谩 no hay uno tan desafiante como la caracterizaci贸n de roca fracturada (Faybishenko y Benson, 2000). Este art铆culo discute problemas asociados con la cuantificaci贸n de flujo y transporte a trav茅s de rocas fracturadas en escalas que no exceden las t铆picas asociadas con presi贸n (o flujo) en un solo pozo o varios pozos y pruebas con trazadores. Debido a que mucha de la literatura del tema se ha enfocado en rocas cristalinas fracturadas y rocas sedimentarias duras tal como areniscas, calizas (excluyendo karst) y creta, tambi茅n en contumacia lo hace este art铆culo. La cuantificaci贸n directa del flujo y transporte en tales rocas se hace com煤nmente en base a datos geom茅tricos de fracturas acoplados con pruebas de presi贸n (o flujo) y trazadores, los cuales por lo tanto constituyen nuestra principal orientaci贸n. Datos geol贸gicos, geof铆sicos y geoqu铆micos (incluyendo is贸topos) son cr铆ticos para la conceptualizaci贸n cuantitativa de flujo y transporte en rocas fracturadas, y se han estado incorporando gradualmente en modelos cuantitativos de flujo y transporte, en formas que desafortunadamente este art铆culo solo puede describir de paso. La hidrogeolog铆a de rocas fracturadas y otros aspectos de ciencia de la tierra de hidrolog铆a de rocas fracturadas amerita tratamientos separados. Toda la evidencia sugiere que uno raramente puede modelizar flujo y transporte en una roca consistentemente fracturada si la considera como una unidad continua isotr贸pica uniforme o poco uniforme. En vez de adoptar este enfoque, uno tiene generalmente que explicar la heterogeneidad altamente err谩tica, dependencia direccional, naturaleza doble o multicomponente y comportamiento multiescalar de las rocas fracturadas. Una manera de lograr esto consiste en considerar que la roca contiene una redde fracturas discretas (con bloques de matriz permeable o impermeable) y otro modo en considerar la roca como una unidad continua no uniforme (sola, doble o m煤ltiple). Un tercer procedimiento consiste en combinar las dos maneras anteriores en un modelo h铆brido el cual consiste de un continuo no uniforme conteniendo un n煤mero relativamente peque帽o de fracturas principalmente discretas. En ambos casos la descripci贸n puede ser determin铆stica o estoc谩stica. El art铆culo contiene una evaluaci贸n breve de estas tendencias en base a descubrimientos recientes te贸ricos y experimentales, terminando con una lista corta de prospectos y desaf铆os para el futuro.

  1. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Rivero, 脕ngel J.; de Celis, Reyes; Garc铆a-Moreno, Jorge; Jim茅nez-Comp谩n, Elizabeth; Alan铆s, Nancy; Cerd脿, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jord谩n, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Soil sustainability and recovery after fire depend on physical, chemical and biological processes and fire severity (Neary et al., 1999; Mataix-Solera and Guerrero, 2007). Fire effects on soils are divided in two types: direct effects, as a consequence of combustion and temperature reached and indirect effects (Neary et al., 1999) as consequence of changes in other ecosystem components, such as decrease in vegetal coverage or ash and partially burned litter contribution including changes in flora (Pausas and Verd煤, 2005; Trabaud, 2000). Low intensity fires, during which high temperatures are not reached, affect vegetal coverage but will not cause major impacts on soil. In contrast, prolonged, recurrent, or high-intensity fires may cause important impacts on the soil system functioning (De Celis et al., 2013; DeBano, 1991; Mataix-Solera et al., 2009; Zavala et al., 2014), aggregation (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), organic matter content and quality (Sevink et al., 1989), water repellency (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al., 2000), soil nutrients (Stark, 1977), soil erosion (Larsen et al., 2009) and others. In these cases, the restoration period of the initial conditions can be very long and changes may become permanent (DeBano, 1991). During combustion, fuel (biomass, necromass and soil organic matter) is transformed in materials with new physical and chemical properties. After burn, the soil surface is covered by a layer of ash and charred organic residues. Ash has important ecological, hydrological and geomorphological effects, even after being rearranged or mobilized by runoff or wind (Bod铆 et al., 2014). Ash properties will depend on the burned species, the amount of affected biomass, fuel flammability and structure, temperature and the residence time of thermal peaks (Pereira et al., 2009). Some studies have emphasized the role of ash on soil protection during the after fire period, in which the vegetable coverage could be drastically decreased (Cerd脿 and Doerr, 2008; Woods and Balfour, 2008; Zavala et al., 2009). The presence of an ash layer may be ephemeral, as it often is quickly removed or redistributed by water and wind erosion, animals or traffic (Zavala et al., 2009a). Many authors have observed that the capacity of ash to protect soil depends on properties as the topography, the meteorological conditions and the thickness of ash coverage (Cerd脿 and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2013; Woods and Balfour, 2010; Zavala et al., 2009). Taking this into account, in this study we hypothesized that the wettability / hydrophobicity of the ash layer may have a significant effect on the soil response to splash erosion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dispersion of sediments produced by the impact of raindrops in function of ash wettability after a prescribed fire at plot scale. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 20 November 2012, a prescribed fire was carried out in an area located in the public mount "Las Navas", near Almaden de la Plata, Sevilla (approx. 37掳 50' 44.44'' N / 6掳 3' 7.44''W and 428 masl). Soils are acidic and shallow, developed from acidic metamorphic rocks (schists, slates and pyrophyllites). Vegetation is dominated by shrub legumes (Calicotome villosa and several species of Ulex and Genista). The experimental area was framed and plowed to eliminate the risk of fire spreading during the experiment. Previously to burn, level staffs were installed for determination of flame height. The temperature reached in the soil was monitored during the fire by a set of six thermocouples which were buried in soil (2 cm depth) and connected to a data-logger for monitoring the topsoil temperature every 60 s. The environmental conditions were also monitored during the experiment by a mobile weather station. At the moment of the ignition, the temperature was around 20 掳C and the wind speed was near 0.0 m/s. After ignition, the experimental area was allowed to burn during 2.5 h. During burning, flames reached 200 cm height, although thermal peaks recorded 2 cm depth were relatively low (not surpassing 80 掳C). After burning, the soil surface was covered by a pattern of white and black ash, indicating varying degrees of fire severity, and areas covered by water repellent or hydrophilic ash were selected using the ethanol percentage test (EPT). The EPT provides an indirect measurement of the surface tension of the ground and, therefore, indicates the intensity of soil water repellency and is based on the different surface tension of a number of standardized solutions of ethanol in water. The procedure consists in applying drops (0.05 mL) of different ethanol solutions with different concentrations onto the surface of the ash layer observing if infiltration occurs in a period that not exceed 5 s (Jord谩n et al., 2010) . Every drop is allowed to fall from a distance not bigger than 15 mm to avoid the excess of kinetic energy that can affect infiltration. Applying drops with decreasing surface tension (that is, with concentrations of increasing ethanol) until a drop resists the infiltration allows the classification of the ground in a particular class of surface tension between two concentrations of ethanol: that in which infiltration occurs immediately (in less than 5 s) and the above solution of weaker concentration. Thus, it is assumed that solution whose drop is infiltrated within the first 5 s after application has a lower surface tension than soil surface. Fifteen representative points were selected at wettable or water-repellent ash zone. At each selected point, surrounded by white/wettable or dark/water-repellent ash to a minimum distance of 0.5 m, splash sediment collection device was installed. This system consist on a couple of funnels (100 mm in diameter) arranged one inside the other, with a paper filter beween both. Each device was inserted in soil until only 10 mm protruding the ground surface in order to avoid capturing runoff sediments. Sediments collected at each point of study were collected monthly and determined gravimetrically after oven drying between November 2012 and May 2013. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Depending on the intensity of the water repellency, the ash layer fluctuated between wettable and very strongly water repellent. The ash has a high permeability and water storage. However, its hydrophilic character has been emphasized rarely (Cerd脿 and Doerr, 2008). Different authors have described hydrophobic behaviors depending on the burned vegetation such as oak (Gabet and Sternberg, 2008) or pine forest (Stark, 1977) in the United States, eucalyptus forest in Australia (Khanna et al., 1996 ) or Mediterranean tree and shrub species in Spain (Bod铆 et al., 2011). In the latter case, Bod铆 et al. (2011) observed that ash has different properties depending on the combustion conditions, organic carbon content and color. This variability of behavior agrees with the results obtained in the present work. Significant differences between splash erosion from wettable and water-repellent ash zones were found (p < 0.0001). In the water-repellent ash zone, large differences were found among samples. The amount of sediment displaced by splash increased rapidly up to 264.10% (from 3.90 卤 0.44 to 14.20 卤 1.75 g) during the first four months after burn (November 2012 - February 2013). In contrast, during the last three months (March - May 2013), the amount of displaced sediments remained high, but with low growing rate (28.11%, from 16.97 卤 1.66 to 21.74 卤 3.27 g). In the wettable ash zone, the amount of sediment displaced was much smaller, with mean values between 1.29 (November 2012) and 6.14 g (May 2013). During the first two sampling dates after burn, data did not differ significantly among sites (1.38 卤 0.18 g on average), but the amount of sediment collected grew slowly during the experimental period between 3.06 卤 0.39 and 6.14 卤 0.69 g (January - May 2013). Several authors have suggested that ash acts protecting soil from the direct impact of raindrops and thus reduce sediment dispersion by splash (Cerd脿 and Doerr, 2008, Larsen et al, 2009; Woods and Balfour, 2008, Zavala et al, 2009). However, there is very little information about the effect of hydrophobicity on splash erosion. In a rainfall simulation experiment under laboratory conditions, Bod铆 et al. (2012) observed that splash erosion was at least two times higher in samples of water repellent soil than in hydrophilic soil, but no differences in ash loss or thickness of ash layer were observed. 4. CONCLUSIONS Our results highlight the role played by ash water repellency and the influence of burn severity on the development of a pattern of splash erosion intensities. Splash erosion was reduced in one order of magnitude on wettable ash zones. In contrast, the presence of a water-repellent ash layer increases the mobilization of sediments at plot scale. Further research should focus on the impacts of ash wettability on splash erosion at hillslope scale in the post fire. REFERENCES Bod铆 MB, Doerr SH, Cerd脿 A, Mataix-Solera J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191, 14-23. Bod铆 MB, Martin DA, Balfour VN, Sant铆n C, Doerr SJ, Pereira P, Cerd脿 A. Mataix-Solera J. 2014. Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Sciece Reviews 130, 103-127. Cerd脿 A, Doerr, SH. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena 74, 256-263. De Celis R, Jord谩n A, Zavala LM. 2013. Efectos del fuego en las propiedades biol贸gicas, f铆sicas y qu铆micas del suelo. In: Bento-Gon莽alves A, Vieira A (Eds.), Grandes inc锚ndios florestais, eros茫o, degrada莽茫o e medidas de recupera莽茫o dos solos. N煤cleo de Investiga莽茫o en Geografia e Planeamento (NIGP), Universidade do Minho. Guimaraes. Pp.: 145-160. DeBano LF. 1991. The effect of fire on soil. In: Harvey AE; Neuenschwander LF.(Eds.), Management and productivity of western-montane forest soils. General Technical Report INT-280. Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Ogden, UT. DeBano LF. 2000. Water repellency in soils: a historical overview. Journal of Hydrology 231-232, 4-32. Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RPD. 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews 51, 33-65. Larsen I, MacDonald LH, Brown E, Rough D, Welsh MJ, Pietraszek JH, Libohava Z, Benavides-Solorio JD, Schaffrath K. 2009. Causes of post-fire runoff and erosion: water repellency, cover or soil heating?. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 1393-1407. Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C. 2007. Efecto de los incendios forestales sobre las propiedades ed谩ficas. In: J. Mataix-Solera (Ed.) Incendios Forestales, Suelos y Erosi贸n H铆drica. Caja Mediterr谩neo CENACAM Font Roja-Alcoi. Alicante. Pp.: 5-40. Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C, Arcenegui V, B谩rcenas G, Zornoza R, P茅rez-Bejarano A, Bod铆 MB, Mataix-Beneyto J, G贸mez I, Garc铆a-Orenes F, Navarro-Pedre帽o J, Jord谩n MM, Cerd脿 A, Doerr SH, 脷beda X, Outeiro L, Jord谩n A, Zavala LM. 2009. Los incendios forestales y el suelo: un resumen de la investigaci贸n realizada por el Grupo de Edafolog铆a Ambiental de la UMH en colaboraci贸n con otros grupos. In: Cerd脿 A, Mataix-Solera J. (Eds.). El efecto de los incendios forestales sobre los suelos en Espa帽a. El estado de la cuesti贸n visto por los cient铆ficos espa帽oles. Universitat de Valencia. Valencia. Pp.: 185-218. Mataix-Solera J, Cerd脿 A, Arcenegui V, Jord谩n A, Zavala LM. 2011. Fire efects on soil aggregation: a review. Earth-Science Reviews 109, 44-60 Neary DG, Klopatek CC, DeBano LF, Ffolliott PF. 1999. Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. Forest Ecology and Management 122, 51-71. Pausas JG, Verd煤 M. 2005. Plant persistence traits in fire-prone ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin: a phylogenetic approach. Oikos 109, 196-202. Pereira P, 脷beda X, Outeiro L, Martin D. 2009. Factor analysis applied to fire temperature effects on water quality. In: G贸mez E, 脕lvarez K (Eds.), Forest Fires: Detection, Suppression and Prevention. Series Natural Disaster Research, Prediction and Mitigation, Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY. Pp.: 273-285 Pereira P, Cerd脿 A, 脷beda X, Mataix-Solera J, Martin D, Jord谩n A, Burguet M. 2013. Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania. Solid Earth 4, 153-165. Sevink J, Imeson AC, Verstraten JM. 1989. Humus form development and hillslope runoff, and the effects of fire and management, under Mediterranean forest in N.E. Spain. Catena 16, 461-475. Stark NM, 1977. Fire and nutrient cycling in a Douglas-fir/larch forest. Ecology, 58, 16-30. Trabaud L. 2000. Post-fire regeneration of Pinus halepensis forest in the west Mediterranean. In: Ne'eman G, Trabaud L (Eds.), Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and P. brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin. Backhuys Publishers. Leiden. Pp.: 257-268. Woods SW, Balfour VN. 2008. Vegetative ash: an important factor in the short term response to rainfall in the post-fire environment. Geophysical Research Abstracts 10, EGU2008-A-00556. Woods SW, Balfour VN. 2010. The effects of soil texture and ash thickness on the post-fire hydrological response from ash-covered soils. Journal of Hydrology 393, 274-286. Zavala LM, Jord谩n A, Gil J, Bellinfante N, Pain C. 2009. Intact ash and charred litter reduces susceptibility to rain splash erosion post-wildfire Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1522-1532. Zavala LM, De Celis R, Jord谩n A. 2014. How wildfires affect soil properties. A brief review Cuadernos de Investigaci贸n Geogr谩fica 40, 311-331. AKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is part of the POSTFIRE Project (ref. CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. The authors are also grateful to the Environmental Management Centre (Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania) and the Michoacan University (Morelia, Mexico) for their support.

  2. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L谩szl贸, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Braz铆l. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Bras铆lia-DF, Braz铆l in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introduc谩o: I