Science.gov

Sample records for estado pelos atos

  1. The Advanced Technology Operations System: ATOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Laue, H. A.; Poulter, K.; Smith, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mission control systems supporting new space missions face ever-increasing requirements in terms of functionality, performance, reliability and efficiency. Modern data processing technology is providing the means to meet these requirements in new systems under development. During the past few years the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has carried out a number of projects to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced software technology, in particular, knowledge based systems, to support mission operations. A number of advances must be achieved before these techniques can be moved towards operational use in future missions, namely, integration of the applications into a single system framework and generalization of the applications so that they are mission independent. In order to achieve this goal, ESA initiated the Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) program, which will develop the infrastructure to support advanced software technology in mission operations, and provide applications modules to initially support: Mission Preparation, Mission Planning, Computer Assisted Operations, and Advanced Training. The first phase of the ATOS program is tasked with the goal of designing and prototyping the necessary system infrastructure to support the rest of the program. The major components of the ATOS architecture is presented. This architecture relies on the concept of a Mission Information Base (MIB) as the repository for all information and knowledge which will be used by the advanced application modules in future mission control systems. The MIB is being designed to exploit the latest in database and knowledge representation technology in an open and distributed system. In conclusion the technological and implementation challenges expected to be encountered, as well as the future plans and time scale of the project, are presented.

  2. How does the solvation unveil AtO+ reactivity?

    PubMed

    Ayed, Tahra; Seydou, Mahamadou; Réal, Florent; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    The AtO(+) molecular ion, a potential precursor for the synthesis of radiotherapeutic agents in nuclear medicine, readily reacts in aqueous solution with organic and inorganic compounds, but at first glance, these reactions must be hindered by spin restriction quantum rules. Using relativistic quantum calculations, coupled to implicit solvation models, on the most stable AtO(+)(H2O)6 clusters, we demonstrate that specific interactions with water molecules of the first solvation shell induce a spin change for the AtO(+) ground state, from a spin state of triplet character in the gas phase to a Kramers-restricted closed-shell configuration in solution. This peculiarity allows rationalization of the AtO(+) reactivity with closed-shell species in aqueous solution and may explain the differences in astatine reactivity observed in (211)At production protocols based on "wet" and "dry" processes. PMID:23537101

  3. 78 FR 67141 - Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... AGENCY Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity... Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for ATO... CONTACT: For technical information contact: Stan Barone, Jr., Risk Assessment Division (7403M), Office...

  4. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  5. The Candida albicans ATO Gene Family Promotes Neutralization of the Macrophage Phagolysosome.

    PubMed

    Danhof, Heather A; Lorenz, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from superficial mucosal to life-threatening systemic infections, the latter particularly in patients with defects in innate immune function. C. albicans cells phagocytosed by macrophages undergo a dramatic change in their metabolism in which amino acids are a key nutrient. We have shown that amino acid catabolism allows the cell to neutralize the phagolysosome and initiate hyphal growth. We show here that members of the 10-gene ATO family, which are induced by phagocytosis or the presence of amino acids in an Stp2-dependent manner and encode putative acetate or ammonia transporters, are important effectors of this pH change in vitro and in macrophages. When grown with amino acids as the sole carbon source, the deletion of ATO5 or the expression of a dominant-negative ATO1(G53D) allele results in a delay in alkalinization, a defect in hyphal formation, and a reduction in the amount of ammonia released from the cell. These strains also form fewer hyphae after phagocytosis, have a reduced ability to escape macrophages, and reside in more acidic phagolysosomal compartments than wild-type cells. Furthermore, overexpression of many of the 10 ATO genes accelerates ammonia release, and an atoATO1(G53D) double mutant strain has additive alkalinization and ammonia release defects. Taken together, these results indicate that the Ato protein family is a key mediator of the metabolic changes that allow C. albicans to overcome the macrophage innate immunity barrier. PMID:26351284

  6. The Candida albicans ATO Gene Family Promotes Neutralization of the Macrophage Phagolysosome

    PubMed Central

    Danhof, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from superficial mucosal to life-threatening systemic infections, the latter particularly in patients with defects in innate immune function. C. albicans cells phagocytosed by macrophages undergo a dramatic change in their metabolism in which amino acids are a key nutrient. We have shown that amino acid catabolism allows the cell to neutralize the phagolysosome and initiate hyphal growth. We show here that members of the 10-gene ATO family, which are induced by phagocytosis or the presence of amino acids in an Stp2-dependent manner and encode putative acetate or ammonia transporters, are important effectors of this pH change in vitro and in macrophages. When grown with amino acids as the sole carbon source, the deletion of ATO5 or the expression of a dominant-negative ATO1G53D allele results in a delay in alkalinization, a defect in hyphal formation, and a reduction in the amount of ammonia released from the cell. These strains also form fewer hyphae after phagocytosis, have a reduced ability to escape macrophages, and reside in more acidic phagolysosomal compartments than wild-type cells. Furthermore, overexpression of many of the 10 ATO genes accelerates ammonia release, and an atoATO1G53D double mutant strain has additive alkalinization and ammonia release defects. Taken together, these results indicate that the Ato protein family is a key mediator of the metabolic changes that allow C. albicans to overcome the macrophage innate immunity barrier. PMID:26351284

  7. 78 FR 14530 - ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of ATO Power,...

  8. Rationalization of the solvation effects on the AtO+ ground-state change.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Tahra; Réal, Florent; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2013-09-12

    (211)At radionuclide is of considerable interest as a radiotherapeutic agent for targeted alpha therapy in nuclear medicine, but major obstacles remain because the basic chemistry of astatine (At) is not well understood. The AtO(+) cationic form might be currently used for (211)At-labeling protocols in aqueous solution and has proved to readily react with inorganic/organic ligands. But AtO(+) reactivity must be hindered at first glance by spin restriction quantum rules: the ground state of the free cation has a dominant triplet character. Investigating AtO(+) clustered with an increasing number of water molecules and using various flavors of relativistic quantum methods, we found that AtO(+) adopts in solution a Kramers restricted closed-shell configuration resembling a scalar-relativistic singlet. The ground-state change was traced back to strong interactions, namely, attractive electrostatic interactions and charge transfer, with water molecules of the first solvation shell that lift up the degeneracy of the frontier π* molecular orbitals (MOs). This peculiarity brings an alternative explanation to the highly variable reproducibility reported for some astatine reactions: depending on the production protocols (with distillation in gas-phase or "wet chemistry" extraction), (211)At may or may not readily react. PMID:23944251

  9. 75 FR 76036 - Bostik, Inc. Formerly Known as ATO Findley Marshall, MI; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7033). At the request of the State Agency, the... production of adhesives and sealants. New information shows that Bostik, Inc. was formerly known as ATO... adhesives and sealants to the United Kingdom. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,310 is hereby...

  10. 78 FR 70584 - ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... for the subject firm. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 6, 2013 (78 FR... Employment and Training Administration ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages are Reported Through Siemens IT Solutions...

  11. Electrochemical and microstructural characterization of magnetron-sputtered ATO thin films as Li–ion storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Pan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Li, Zhicheng

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Nano-structured ATO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at 25 °C, 100 °C and 200 °C, respectively. • ATO thin films show a high reversible capacity and high rate performance. • Electrochemical reaction mechanism of the ATO thin film was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. - Abstract: Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} (ATO) nanostructured thin films were prepared by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering at the substrate temperatures of 25 °C, 100 °C and 200 °C, respectively. All the ATO thin films have the similar redox characteristics in the cyclic voltammetry measurements. The ATO thin film sputtered at 200 °C shows the lowest charge transfer resistance and best electrochemical performance, and has a high reversible capacity of 679 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 200 charge–discharge cycles and high rate performance of 483 mA h g{sup −1} at 800 mA g{sup −1}. The electrochemical mechanisms were investigated by analyzing the phase evolution of the ATO electrodes that had been electrochemically induced at various stages. The results reveal that the ATO underwent reversible lithiation/delithiation processes during the electrochemical cycles, i.e., the SnO{sub 2} reacted with Li{sup +} to produce metallic Sn and followed by the formation of the Li{sub x}Sn alloys during discharge process, and then Li{sub x}Sn alloys de-alloyed, Sn reacted with Li{sub 2}O, and even partially formed SnO{sub 2} during charge process.

  12. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian . E-mail: Liangaoc@online.sh.cn

    2004-12-02

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m{sup 2}/g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6.

  13. Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) cooperates with All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) to enhance MAPK activation and differentiation in Human Myeloblastic Leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Satyaprakash; Shen, Miaoqing; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) synergistically promotes retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, a PML-RARα negative cell line. In PML-RARα positive myeloid leukemia cells, ATO is known to cause degradation of PML-RARα with subsequent induced myeloid differentiation. We find now that ATO by itself does not cause differentiation of the PML-RARα negative HL-60 cells, but enhances RA’s capability to cause differentiation. RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells is known to be propelled by an induced hyperactive/persistent MAPK signal. ATO augmented RA induced RAF/MEK/ERK axis signaling and expression of CD11b, an integrin receptor that is a myeloid differentiation marker. p47PHOX, a component of the respiratory burst machinery and inducible oxidative metabolism, functional differentiation marker were also enhanced. However, ATO did not enhance RA-induced CD38 expression, an early cell surface differentiation marker. ATO enhanced RA-induced population growth retardation without evidence of apoptosis or an enhanced G1/0 growth arrest. But compared to RA, ATO plus RA showed reduced pAKT, suggesting that an overall biosynthetic/metabolic retardation was seminal to the apparent enhanced growth retardation due to ATO. In sum, our results indicate that ATO can augment action of RA in causing differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells through promoting MAPK signaling and independent of PML-RARα. PMID:20615082

  14. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked..., acetone oxime-blocked (PMN P-88-1658) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  15. United States Coast Guard AtoN battery scientific assessment. Final report, October 1993--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, J.; Borener, S.

    1997-12-01

    The USCG maintains about 12,000 fixed lighted aids to navigation (AtoNs). Historically, many of these lights were powered by primary batteries containing small amounts of mercury. These batteries were sometimes disposed of at the AtoN sites. The assessment of the potential impact of the mercury, as well as lead, zinc, and copper from these batteries was performed at five aquatic and two terrestrial locations by the Volpe Center and CH2M Hill between October 1993 and December 1997. This work includes laboratory studies of the batteries upon which was based on a fate and transport model and a plan for onsite investigations. Thses site characterizations took place in the Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, the Tennessee River, Puget Sound, Midway Island, and the Channel Islands near Santa Barbara, CA. The studies included substrate and biological sampling at locations before and after batteries were removed. Comparisons to background levels established based upon the literature and onsite sample collection were made to determine whether any environmental or human health risk was presented by batteries. Estimates of the percent of mercury found in elemental and methylated form were made to determine the potential for biological impacts.

  16. AToMS: A Ubiquitous Teleconsultation System for Supporting AMI Patients with Prehospital Thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Bruno S. P. M.; Gonçalves, Bernardo; Teixeira, Iuri M.; Gomes, Antônio T. A.; Ziviani, Artur

    2011-01-01

    The latest population-based studies in the medical literature worldwide indicate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients still experience prolonged delay to be rescued, which often results in morbidity and mortality. This paper reports from a technological standpoint a teleconsultation and monitoring system named AToMS. This system addresses the problem of prehospital delivery of thrombolysis to AMI patients by enabling the remote interaction of the paramedics and a cardiologist available at a Coronary Care Unit (CCU). Such interaction allows the diagnosis of the patient eligibility to the immediate application of thrombolysis, which is meant to reduce the delay between the onset of symptoms and the eventual application of proper treatment. Such delay reduction is meant to increase the AMI patient's chances of survival and decrease the risks of postinfarction sequels. The teleconsultation is held with the support of wireless and mobile technologies, which also allows the cardiologist to monitor the patient while he/she is being taken to the nearest CCU. All exchanged messages among paramedics and cardiologists are recorded to render an auditable system. AToMS has been deployed in a first stage in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where the medical team involved in the project has conducted commissioned tests. PMID:21772839

  17. Collaborative experiments of small autonomous systems at the SOURCE ATO capstone experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Jason; Baran, David; Rogers, John; Fink, Jonathan; Delmerico, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    Autonomous systems operating in militarily-relevant environments are valuable assets due to the increased situational awareness they provide to the Warfighter. To further advance the current state of these systems, a collaborative experiment was conducted as part of the Safe Operations of Unmanned Systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) Army Technology Objective (ATO). We present the findings from this large-scale experiment which spanned several research areas, including 3D mapping and exploration, communications maintenance, and visual intelligence. For 3D mapping and exploration, we evaluated loop closure using Iterative Closest Point (ICP). To improve current communications systems, the limitations of an existing mesh network were analyzed. Also, camera data from a Microsoft Kinect was used to test autonomous stairway detection and modeling algorithms. This paper will detail the experiment procedure and the preliminary results for each of these tests.

  18. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-03-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  19. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Metformin Hydrochloride — Compritol 888 ATO Solid Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, SC; Patil, SA; Kuchekar, BS; Chabukswar, AR

    2011-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MET) sustained-release solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation and closed melt method, using compritol 888 ATO as the polymer with five different drug-carrier ratios. Characterization of solid dispersion was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The FTIR and UV studies suggested that no bond formation had occurred between the polymer and the drug. DSC and XPRD results ruled out any interaction or complex formation between the drug and the polymer. The formulated SD had acceptable physicochemical characters and SD with a 1 : 4 drug : Polymer ratio, which released the drug over an extended period of eight-to-ten hours. The data obtained from the in vitro release studies were fitted with various kinetic models and were found to follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The prepared SD showed good stability over the studied time period. The solvent evaporation method was found to be more helpful than the closed melt method, giving the sustained release action. The SD with a 1 : 4 ratio of drug to polymer, by the solvent evaporation method, was selected as the most effective candidate for the subsequent development of a well-timed, sustained-release dosage form of the drug. PMID:21897658

  1. In vitro controlled release of colon targeted mesalamine from compritol ATO 888 based matrix tablets using factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J.K.; Patel, N.V.; Shah, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    A controlled release matrix formulation for mesalamine was designed and developed to achieve a 24 h release profile. Using compritol 888 ATO (glyceryl behenate) as an inert matrix-forming agent to control the release of mesalamine, formulation granules containing the solid dispersions were investigated. Pectin, a polysaccharide, was used as bacterial dependent polymer for colon targeting. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in vitro release tests were carried out. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the amounts of glyceryl behenate (X1) and pectin (X2) as independent variables and percentage drug released at 2 (Q2), 16 (Q16) and 24 (Q24) h as dependent variables. Drug release from the matrix tablets formulations lasted for over 24 h. Images of the tablet surface and cross-section were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to show the formed pores and channels in the matrices. These may provide the release pathway for the inner embedded drugs. The co-mixing of polysaccharide pectin, into the waxy matrices played a meaningful role in targeting the tablets to colon. The drug release from the novel formulation may be attributed to the diffusion-controlled mechanism. The results of the full factorial design indicated that an optimum amount of compritol ATO 888 and a high amount of pectin favors the colon targeting and controlled release of mesalamine from dosage form. PMID:21589801

  2. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked... substance identified generically as a polymer of alkane-polyol and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomonocy-...

  3. Prediction of the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of self-assembled antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles into ordered structures in PMMA/ATO nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youngho; Gerhardt, Rosario A

    2014-12-24

    Electrical percolation in nanocomposites consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles was investigated experimentally using monosize and polydisperse polymer particles. The nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding at 170 °C. The matrix PMMA was transformed into space filling polyhedra while the ATO nanoparticles distributed along the sharp edges of the matrix, forming a 3D interconnected network. The measured electrical resistivity showed that percolation was achieved in these materials at a very low ATO content of 0.99 wt % ATO when monosize PMMA was used, whereas 1.48 wt % ATO was needed to achieve percolation when the PMMA was polydispersed. A parametric finite element approach was chosen to model this unique microstructure-driven self-assembling percolation behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to solve the effects of phase segregation between the matrix and the filler using a 2D simplified model in the frequency domain of the AC/DC module. It was found that the percolation threshold (pc) is affected by the size ratio between the matrix and the filler in a systematic way. Furthermore, simulations indicate that small deviations from perfect interconnection result mostly in changes in the electrical resistivity while the minimum DC resistivity achievable in any given composite is governed by the electrical conductivity of the filler, which must be accurately known in order to obtain an accurate prediction. The model is quite general and is able to predict percolation behavior in a number of other similarly processed segregated network nanocomposites. PMID:25427537

  4. Influence of Formulation Factors and Compression Force on Release Profile of Sustained Release Metoprolol Tablets using Compritol® 888ATO as Lipid Excipient

    PubMed Central

    Patere, Shilpa N.; Kapadia, Chhanda J.; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2015-01-01

    Tablets containing metoprolol succinate and Compritol® 888ATO in the ratio of 1:2 yielded the desired sustained release profile in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 when evaluated using USP type II paddle apparatus and was selected as the optimized formulation. Robustness of optimized formulation was assessed by studying the effect of factors like varying source of metoprolol succinate and Compritol® 888ATO, compression force and hydroalcoholic dissolution medium on the release profile. No significant difference (P>0.05) in release profile was observed when metoprolol succinate from three different sources and Compritol® 888ATO from two different batches were used. Release profile of sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate in media containing various concentrations of ethanol was comparable with media devoid of ethanol as evaluated by f2 test. This indicated that release profile of sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate was reliable with no significant change due to variation in source of active pharmaceutical ingredient, particularly due to particle size distribution. Sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate yielded release pattern within specifications irrespective of presence or absence of ethanol in the medium indicating that release properties of Compritol® 888ATO matrix are not affected by ethanol. Tablets compressed at compression force of <100 kg/cm2 exhibited low hardness with total porosity of 15.39% and significantly increased (P<0.05) metoprolol succinate release as compared to tablets compressed at 2000 kg/cm2 with 6.90% of total porosity revealing influence of compression force. Compritol® 888ATO holds great potential in providing reliable and controlled release profile of highly water soluble metoprolol succinate. PMID:26798179

  5. Safe operations of unmanned systems for reconnaissance in complex environments Army technology objective (SOURCE ATO): a year later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, N. Joseph, III; Mottern, Edward; Keys van Lierop, Tracy; Gray, Jeremy P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the testbed autonomy system, software technologies developed or enhanced, and an overview of the Enhanced Experiment during the second year of the SOURCE ATO. Over the past year, the Safe Operations of Unmanned systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) program continued to make enhancements to LADAR and image based Perception, Intelligence, Control and Tactical Behavior technologies. These are required for autonomous collaborative unmanned systems. The hardware and software technologies are installed on a TARDEC developed testbed, the Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD). Ultimately, soldiers will be utilized to conduct safe operation testing scenarios in cluttered dynamic environments using Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) perception and processing hardware as well as software. Soldier testing will take place during October 2012 at Camp Lejeune MOUT facility in North Carolina.

  6. Study on the fabrication of transparent electrodes by using a thermal-roll imprinted Ag mesh and anATO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Choi, Kyoon; Choi, Se Young

    2016-03-01

    Transparent conductive films have been widely studied because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices such as paper displays, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), organic lighting-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic solar cells and so on. In this paper, we report on a low-resistance, a high-transparents conductive film that can be applied as It a flexible device substrate. In order to the fabricate transparent conductive film, we used a high-resolution roll imprinting method. The following steps were performed: The design and manufacture of an electroforming stamp mold, the fabrication of high resolution roll imprinted on flexible film, and the manufacture of an Ag grid that was filled by using a doctor blade process with a nano-sized Ag paste. Then on patterned Its films, antimony tin oxide was coated with ATO sol solution by using bar the coating method. The fabricated ATO/Ag mesh electrode showed good flexibility, and It exhibited a high optical transmittance of 85.3% in the visible wavelength and a sheet resistance of 41 Ω/sq. Furthermore, the bending test for mechanical properties showed that the ATO/Ag thin film had good flexibility.

  7. Compritol®888 ATO a lipid excipient for sustained release of highly water soluble active: formulation, scale-up and IVIVC study.

    PubMed

    Patere, Shilpa N; Desai, Neha S; Jain, Ankitkumar S; Kadam, Prashant P; Thatte, Urmila M; Gogtay, Nithya; Kapadia, Chhanda J; Farah, Nabil; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2013-10-01

    The potential of Compritol(®)888 ATO as a release modifier to retard the release of highly water soluble drug, metoprolol succinate (MPL) was exploited. Different ratios of Compritol(®)888 ATO versus MPL were utilized and the effect of various formulation methods was evaluated to sustain the release of MPL. MPL: Compritol(®)888 ATO in 1:2 ratio could successfully retard the release of MPL. Melt granulation method "as hot process" was found to be effective when compared to direct compression and wet granulation. The in vitro release characteristics of tablets were studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer at 50 rpm using USP Type II apparatus. Formulation F7 retarded MPL release with ~90% release after 20 h. Stability studies showed no significant difference (f2>50) in MPL release profile after three months of storage period at 25 ± 2°C/60 ± 5% RH and 40 ± 2°C/75 ± 5% RH. The bioavailability of sustained release tablets, F7 was compared with commercially available tablets, MetXL50 in 12 healthy human volunteers in a crossover design. Plasma concentration of MPL was determined using HPLC with fluorescence detector. IVIVC correlation was obtained by deconvoluting the plasma concentration-time curve using a model independent Wagner-Nelson method. Correlations of fraction of drug dissolved in vitro and fraction of drug absorbed in vivo displayed a significant linear relationship for sustained release tablets of MPL. PMID:23607649

  8. Lyophilised Vegetal BM 297 ATO-Inulin lipid-based synbiotic microparticles containing Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197: design and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Amakiri, A C; Kalombo, L; Thantsha, M S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the manufacturing and characterisation of Vegetal BM 297 ATO-inulin-Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 microparticles prepared by freeze drying. Emulsions containing 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 3.5% or 5% w/v inulin were prepared, with or without centrifugation before freeze drying. Morphological properties, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency of the microparticles and their ability to preserve viability of the enclosed B. longum LMG 13197 cells were evaluated. The microparticles produced from both formulations without a centrifugation step were irregular, porous with concavities and contained high number of bacterial cells. Formulations with or without inulin had average particle sizes of 33.4-81.0 μm with encapsulation efficiencies of 82% and 88%, respectively. Vegetal-inulin microparticles have the morphology and size that will enable their even distribution in final food products, and hence, they have the potential for use as a functional food additive because they are likely to deliver sufficient numbers of viable bacteria. PMID:26458011

  9. Geological control of canopy structure and function in Panamanian forests as identified by CAO-AToMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geological formations and their edaphic properties are known to control plant species composition in tropical forests. It has been speculated that these edaphic and compositional patterns might also be translated into functional patterns, but this has been difficult to test due to a lack of broad-scale but detailed canopy structural and functional data. Here we use the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), which combines a 480-band visible-to-shortwave imaging spectrometer (VSWIR) with dual waveform LiDAR, to generate ultra-high resolution data on geomorphology, canopy structure, and canopy chemistry for forests in the vicinity of the Panama Canal. Using these remotely-sensed data, in conjunction with field data on soils and plant species composition, we demonstrate that geological formations regulate forest structure and chemistry in these forests via changes in soils and plant species composition. These chemical properties, moreover, correspond to canopy functional properties including photosynthetic investment and anti-herbivore defenses. Together, our findings indicate that forest canopy structure and function in these forests are an expression their geological history, over which variations due to contemporary variables such as climate are overlaid.

  10. Mapping the geographic distribution of canopy species communities in lowland Amazon rainforest with CAO-AToMS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping regional canopy diversity will greatly advance our understanding as well as the conservation of tropical rainforests. Changes in species composition across space and time are particularly important to understand the influence of climate, human activity and environmental factors on these ecosystems, but to date such monitoring is extremely challenging and is facing a scale gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. Advances were recently made in the field of spectroscopic imagery for the estimation of canopy alpha-diversity, and an original approach based on the segmentation of the spectral space proved its ability to estimate Shannon diversity index with unprecedented accuracy. We adapted this method in order to estimate spectral dissimilarity across landscape as a proxy for changes in species composition. We applied this approach and mapped species composition over four sites located in lowland rainforest of Peruvian Amazon. This study was based on spectroscopic imagery acquired using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), operating a unique sensor combining the fine spectral and spatial resolution required for such task. We obtained accurate estimation of Bray-Curtis distance between pairs of plots, which is the most commonly used metric to estimate dissimilarity in species composition (n=497 pairs, r=0.63). The maps of species composition were then compared to topo-hydrographic properties. Our results indicated a strong shift in species composition and community diversity between floodplain and terra firme terrain conditions as well as a significantly higher diversity of species communities within Amazonian floodplains. These results pave the way for global mapping of tropical canopy diversity at fine geographic resolution.

  11. Effective bond orders from two-step spin-orbit coupling approaches: the I2, At2, IO(+), and AtO(+) case studies.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Vallet, Valérie; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin-orbit wave functions resulting from spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin-orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I2, At2, IO(+), and AtO(+) species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At2 even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin-orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems. PMID:25747079

  12. Effective bond orders from two-step spin-orbit coupling approaches: The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Vallet, Valérie; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin-orbit wave functions resulting from spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin-orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At2 even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin-orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems.

  13. The RNA surveillance complex Pelo-Hbs1 is required for transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu; Zhao, Rui; Fang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Huanwei; Xuan, Yang; Ma, Yanting; Chen, Hongyan; Cai, Tao; Qi, Yijun; Xi, Rongwen

    2015-01-01

    Silencing of transposable elements (TEs) in the metazoan germline is critical for genome integrity and is primarily dependent on Piwi proteins and associated RNAs, which exert their function through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we report that the evolutionarily conserved Pelo (Dom34)-Hbs1 mRNA surveillance complex is required for transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline. In pelo mutant gonads, mRNAs and proteins of some selective TEs are up-regulated. Pelo is not required for piRNA biogenesis, and our studies suggest that Pelo may function at the translational level to silence TEs: This function requires interaction with Hbs1, and overexpression of RpS30a partially reverts TE-silencing defects in pelo mutants. Interestingly, TE silencing and spermatogenesis defects in pelo mutants can also effectively be rescued by expressing the mammalian ortholog of Pelo. We propose that the Pelo-Hbs1 surveillance complex provides another level of defense against the expression of TEs in the germline of Drosophila and possibly all metazoa. PMID:26124316

  14. Bis(μ-hydroxido-κ(2) O:O)bis[bis(5-car-boxy-pyridine-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N,O (2))iron(III)] dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhai

    2013-10-31

    The complete binuclear complex in [Fe2(C7H4NO4)4(OH)2]·2H2O, is generated by the application twofold symmetry. The Fe(III) atom is coordinated by the O atoms of two bridging hydroxyl groups and by two N and two O atoms from two pyridine-2,5-di-carboxyl-ato ligands, forming a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The Fe⋯Fe separation within the dinuclear complex is 3.0657 (4) Å. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions connect the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. PMID:24454049

  15. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  16. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  17. Crystal structure of bis­[μ-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)methane­thiol­ato-κ2 S:S]bis­[chlorido­(η6-1-isopropyl-4-methyl­benzene)­ruthenium(II)] chloro­form disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Stíbal, David; Süss-Fink, Georg; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the title complex, [Ru2(C8H9OS)2Cl2(C10H14)2]·2CHCl3 or (p-MeC6H4Pri)2Ru2(SCH2-p-C6H5-OCH3)2Cl2·2CHCl3, shows inversion symmetry. The two symmetry-related RuII atoms are bridged by two 4-meth­oxy-α-toluene­thiol­ato [(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)methane­thiol­ato] units. One chlorido ligand and the p-cymene ligand complete the typical piano-stool coordination environment of the RuII atom. In the crystal, the CH moiety of the chloro­form mol­ecule inter­acts with the chlorido ligand of the dinuclear complex, while one Cl atom of the solvent inter­acts more weakly with the methyl group of the bridging 4-meth­oxy-α-toluene­thiol­ato unit. This assembly leads to the formation of supra­molecular chains extending parallel to [021]. PMID:26594410

  18. Crystal structure of [μ2-3,3-dimethyl-4-(propan-2-yl­idene)thietane-2,2-dithiol­ato-κ4 S:S′:S:S′]bis[tricarbonyl­iron(I)](Fe—Fe)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peihua; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    The title complex, [Fe2(C8H12S3)(CO)6] or [{Fe(CO)3}2(μ-L)] [L = 3,3-dimethyl-4-(propan-2-yl­idene)thietane-2,2-bis­(thiol­ato)], consists of two Fe(CO)3 moieties double-bridged by a di­thiol­ate ligand. Each of the two FeI atoms has a distorted anti-prismatic coordination environment consisting of three carbonyl groups, two S atoms of the di­thiol­ate ligand and the neighboring FeI atom [Fe—Fe = 2.4921 (4) Å]. Weak C—H⋯O inter­molecular inter­actions result in the formation of dimers. This is the second crystal structure reported with the 3,3-dimethyl-4-(propan-2-yl­idene)thietane-2,2-bis­(thiol­ate) ligand and the first in which it bridges two metal atoms. PMID:26594495

  19. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  20. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  1. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  2. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor activity of water-soluble (arene)ruthenium(II) derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-4-acylpyrazolon-5-ato ligands. First example of Ru(arene)(ligand) antitumor species involving simultaneous Ru-N7(guanine) bonding and ligand intercalation to DNA.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Monti, Elena; Matthews, Julian; Rossi, Miriam; Gariboldi, Marzia Bruna; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Marchetti, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel water-soluble [(arene)Ru(II)(Q)Cl] and [(arene)Ru(II)(Q)(X)]BF4 compounds (arene = p-cymene, benzene, hexamethylbenzene; HQ = 1,3-dimethyl-4-R-(C═O)-5-pyrazolone, HQ(Me), R = methyl, HQ(Ph), R = phenyl, HQ(Naph), R = naphthyl; X = H2O, 9-ethylguanine), and their in vitro antitumor activity toward the cell lines MCF7 (HTB-22, human breast adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (CCL-247, human colorectal carcinoma), A2780 (human ovarian carcinoma), A549 (CCL-185, human lung carcinoma), and U87 MG (HTB-1, human glioblastoma). The X-ray crystal structures of two complexes were determined. One of them, {chlorido-(p-cymene)-[(1,3-dimethyl-4-(1-naphthoyl)-pyrazolon-5-ato]ruthenium(II)}, was also studied with density functional theory methods and was selected for docking on a DNA octamer showing intercalation between DNA bases by the naphthyl moiety and for Ru-N7(guanine) bonding. PMID:24611608

  4. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  5. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  6. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  7. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  8. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two…

  9. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    PubMed

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there. PMID:27065035

  10. Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

  11. Susceptibility mapping in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.

    2013-12-01

    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology

  12. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  13. Late Quaternary glaciation history of Isla de los Estados, southeasternmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Hjort, Christian; Björck, Svante; Rabassa, Jorge; Ponce, Juan Federico

    2010-05-01

    Isla de los Estados is a mountainous island southeast of Tierra del Fuego, in southernmost South America. Its central and eastern parts have an alpine topography, transected by U-shaped valleys, small, partly over-deepened fjords, and a multitude of abandoned cirques, all associated with extensive former local glaciations. Traces of glacial erosion generally reach 400-450 m a.s.l., and above that trimline a distinct sharp-edged nunatak derived landscape is present. The westernmost part of the island has a lower, more subdued topography, reflecting its "softer" geology but possibly also over-running and erosion by mainland-derived ice streams. The present study concentrated on glacigenic sediment sequences exposed along coastal erosional cliffs. A combination of OSL and 14C datings show that these sediments mostly date from the latest (Wisconsinan/Weichselian) glacial cycle, i.e. from the last ca. 100 ka with the oldest (glaciolacustrine) deposits possibly as old as 90-80 ka. The upper parts of overlying tills, with associated lateral and terminal moraines from glaciers that expanded onto an eustatically exposed dry shelf north of the island, date from the last global glacial maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon ages of peat and lake sediments indicate that deglaciation began 17-16 cal ka BP.

  14. [Proposal for early detection of ethanol consumption in students of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos].

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Sara; Erazo-Mijares, Miguel; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo D; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined through analytic techniques the quantification of some biomarkers that have been useful to detect early ethanol consumption in a college population. A group of 117 students of recent entry to the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos was analyzed. The enzyme determination of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase as metabolic markers of ethanol, as well as the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) detected by high chromatographic liquid (up to 1.8% of CDT), allowed us to identify that 6% of the college population presented a potential risk of alcohol consumption. The use of the biochemical-analytical method overall with the psychological drug and a risk factor instrument established by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos permit us to identify students whose substance abuse consumption puts their terminal efficiency at risk as well as their academic level. The timely detection on admission to college can monitor and support a student consumer's substance abuse. PMID:27160612

  15. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  16. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  17. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  18. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  19. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  20. Assessing landslide susceptibility, hazards and sediment yield in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Aceves Quesada, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This work provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT # 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, analyze the distribution of landslides, and characterize landforms that are prone to slope instability by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area is the Río El Estado watershed that covers 5.2 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano.The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs, fieldwork, and adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 107 gravitational slope failures of six types were recognized: shallow landslides, debris-avalanches, deep-seated landslides, debris flows, earthflows, and rock falls. This analysis divided the watershed into 12 mass-wasting landforms on which gravitational processes occur: inner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, rockfalls, non-rule-identified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, non-rule-identified converging hillslopes and three types of hillslopes classified by their gradient: low, moderate, and high. For each landform the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate were calculated as well as the overall hazard rating. The slope-stability hazard rating has a range that goes from low to very high. The overall hazard rating for this watershed was very high. The shallow slide type landslide was selected and area and volume of individual landslides were retrieved from the watershed landslide inventory geo-database, to establish an empirical relationship between area and volume that takes the form of a power law. The relationship was used to estimate the total volume of landslides in the study area. The findings are important to understand the long-term evolution of the southwestern flank stream system of Pico de

  1. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  2. Crystal structure of fac-aquatricarbonyl[(S)-valin-ato-κ(2) N,O]-rhenium(I).

    PubMed

    Piletska, Kseniia O; Domasevitch, Kostiantyn V; Shtemenko, Alexander V

    2016-04-01

    In the mol-ecule of the title compound, [Re(C5H10NO2)(CO)3(H2O)], the Re(I) atom adopts a distorted octa-hedral coordination sphere defined by one aqua and three carbonyl ligands as well as one amino N and one carboxyl-ate O atom of the chelating valinate anion. The carbonyl ligands are arranged in a fac-configuration around the Re(I) ion. In the crystal, an intricate hydrogen-bonding system under participation of two O-H, two N-H and one C-H donor groups and the carboxyl-ate and carbonyl O atoms as acceptor groups contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. PMID:27375894

  3. Poly[μ6-(naphthalene-2,6-di-carboxyl-ato)-bis-(aqua-lithium)].

    PubMed

    Fédèle, Lionel; Sauvage, Frédéric; Becuwe, Matthieu; Chotard, Jean-Noël

    2014-08-01

    The title compound, [Li2(C12H6O4)(H2O)2] n , crystallizes with one half of the molecular entities in the asymmetric unit. The second half is gererated by inversion symmetry. The crystal structure has a layered arrangement built from distorted edge-sharing LiO3(OH)2 tetra-hedra parallel to (100), with naphthalenedi-carboxyl-ate bridging the LiO3(OH)2 layers along the [100] direction. Hydrogen bonding between the water molecule and adjacent carboxylate groups consolidates the packing. PMID:25249875

  4. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the ATRA and ATO era

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Safaa M.; Di Veroli, Ambra; Camboni, Agnese; Breccia, Massimo; Iori, Anna Paola; Aversa, Franco; Cupelli, Luca; Papayannidis, Cristina; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Arcese, William; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The role of allogeneic stem cell transplant in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received standard first- and second-line therapy is still unknown. We report the outcome of 31 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients (median age 39 years) who underwent allogeneic transplant in second remission (n=15) or beyond (n=16). Sixteen patients were real-time polymerase chain reaction positive and 15 negative for PML/RARA pre-transplant. The 4-year overall survival was 62% and 31% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.05), and 64% and 27% for patients with pre-transplant negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.03). The 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 32% and 44% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.37), and 30% and 47% for patients transplanted with negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.30). Transplant-related mortality was 19.6%. In conclusion, allogeneic transplant is effective in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide era, and should be considered once relapse is diagnosed. PMID:22689684

  5. Achieving Space Shuttle ATO Using the Five-Segment Booster (FSB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauvageau, Donald R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the continuing effort to identify approaches to improve the safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system, a Five-Segment Booster (FSB) design was conceptualized as a replacement for the current Space Shuttle boosters. The FSB offers a simple, unique approach to improve astronaut safety and increase performance margin. To determine the feasibility of the FSB, a Phase A study effort was sponsored by NASA and directed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. This study was initiated in March of 1999 and completed in December of 2000. The basic objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the FSB design concept and also estimate the cost and scope of a full-scale development program for the FSB. In order to ensure an effective and thorough evaluation of the FSB concept, four team members were put on contract to support various areas of importance in assessing the overall feasibility of the design approach.

  6. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic weather forecasts. Lincoln Laboratory studies and prototype demonstrations in this area are helping to define the weather-assimilated decision-making system that is envisioned as a key capability for the multi-agency Next Generation Air Transportation System [1]. The Laboratory's work in this area has involved continuing, operations-based evolution of both weather forecasts and models for weather impacts on the NAS. Our experience has been that the development of usable ATM technologies that address weather impacts must proceed via rapid prototyping at facilities whose users are highly motivated to participate in system evolution.

  7. Hexakis(μ(2)-2-amino-ethanethiol-ato)-triiron(III) tris(perchlorate).

    PubMed

    Igashira-Kamiyama, Asako; Konno, Takumi

    2008-01-01

    In the title salt, [Fe(3)(C(2)H(6)NS)(6)](ClO(4))(3), the trinuclear cation lies on a special position of site symmetry; the central Fe atom is coordinated by six thiol-ate groups from the two flanking fac-(S)-[Fe(C(2)H(6)NS)(3)] units. In the flanking units, the three C(2)H(6)NS groups each chelate to the metal atom. The cations inter-act with the perchlorate anions through weak N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds resulting in a three-dimensional network. In the asymmetric unit two cations are present, one of which is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.75 and 0.25. PMID:21581137

  8. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  9. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria. PMID:23032283

  10. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  11. Records of environmental changes during the Holocene from Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Fernandez, Marilen; Björck, Svante; Ljung, Karl; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    Southernmost Patagonia, located at the relatively narrow passage between Antarctica and South America, is a highly sensitive region for recording meridional and zonal changes in the pattern of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The island of Isla de los Estados, situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinean Tierra del Fuego, provides an exceptional possibility, to investigate terrestrial records of atmospheric conditions in an oceanic setting during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. Here we present geochemical and diatom analyses from 10 600 to c. 1500 cal BP of one sequence (LGB) with peat, lake sediments and lagoon deposits at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment sequence (CAS) 3 km further inland. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating on both cores. Diatom analysis of the CAS record complements the geochemical proxies. During the Holocene, our two sites have been impacted by two different forcings: changes in the regional climate regime largely influenced by the varying strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies (SHW), while relative sea-level changes affected the deposits of the coastal site. In concert with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum, our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation on the island c. 10 600 cal BP. Between 8500 and 4500 cal BP geochemistry and diatoms from the CAS record indicate stronger Westerlies at this latitude, which means higher wind speed or higher storm frequency and more precipitation, resulting in more pronounced surface run-off. After 4500 cal BP, the geochemical proxies and large changes in diatom assemblages indicate a decrease in precipitation, weaker winds and possibly cooler conditions, probably as an effect of weaker SHW and/or a latitudinal shift. The depositional environment of CAS changed from gyttja to peat around 1000

  12. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  13. Poly[[penta­aqua­(μ4-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)(μ3-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)disamarium(III)] mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yong-Wei; Zhu, Hong-lin

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Sm2(C8H2NO6)2(H2O)5]·H2O}n, contains two independent SmIII ions, two pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxyl­ate (ptc) ligands, five aqua ligands and one lattice water mol­ecule. One SmIII ion is nine-coordinated by one N and five O atoms from the three ptc ligands and three aqua ligands in a distorted monocapped square antiprismatic geometry, and the other is eight-coordinated by one N and five O atoms from three ptc ligands and two aqua ligands in a 4,4′-bicapped trigonal anti­prismatic geometry. The ptc ligands brigde the SmIII ions into a three-dimensional polymeric framework. Extensive O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure. PMID:22412433

  14. Poly[tetra-n-butyl­ammonium [(μ5-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl­ato)(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl­ato)-μ3-hydroxido-trizincate] 0.25-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Xiao-Chun

    2011-01-01

    In the asymmetric unit of title coordination polymer, {(C16H36N)[Zn3(C9H3O6)2(OH)]·0.25H2O}n, there are three independent Zn2+ cations, two benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl­ate ligands and a μ3-bridging hydroxide group, together with a tetra-n-butyl­ammonium counter-cation and a partially occupied water molecule of solvation (occupancy 0.25). Each Zn ion is coordinated by three carboxyl­ate O atoms and one O atom from the bridging hydroxide ion, displaying a slightly distorted tetra­hedral stereochemistry [overall Zn—O range = 1.875 (3)–1.987 (2) Å]. An intra­molecular hydrogen bond involving the hydroxide H atom and a carboxyl­ate O-atom acceptor is also present in the complex unit. The bridging benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl­ate anions generate a three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:22219862

  15. Poly[aqua­(μ-pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ3 N,O:O)(μ-pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ3 N,O:O′)lead(II)

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The polymeric structure of the title compound, [Pb(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)]n, is built up from centrosymmetric [Pb(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)]2 dimers, which are bridged by ligand carboxyl­ate O atoms. The PbII ion adopts an irregular PbN2O5 coordination polyhedron; it is chelated by one N,O-bidentate ligand and also bonds to a water O atom. A second N,O-bidentate ligand forms the dimer bridge and another bridging O atom from a nearby dimer also bonds to the PbII ion, leading to layers propagating in (100). A network of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds operates between water O atoms (donors) and carboxyl­ate O atoms (acceptors). PMID:21579020

  16. Bis(μ-pyridazine-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 O:O′)bis­[aqua­dioxido(pyridazine-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 2,O)uranium(VI)] dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Leciejewicz, Janusz; Starosta, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the binuclear title complex, [U2(C5H3N2O2)4O4(H2O)2]·2H2O, is composed of centrosymmetric dimers in which each UO2 2+ ion is coordinated by two ligand mol­ecules. One donates its N,O-bonding group and the other donates both carboxyl­ate O atoms. Each of the latter bridges adjacent uranyl ions. The coordination environment of the metal center is a distorted penta­gonal bipyramid. The dimers are inter­connected by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between coordinated and uncoordinated water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. An intra­molecular O—H⋯N inter­action is also present. PMID:21581557

  17. Poly[μ6-(naphthalene-2,6-di­carboxyl­ato)-bis­(aqua­lithium)

    PubMed Central

    Fédèle, Lionel; Sauvage, Frédéric; Becuwe, Matthieu; Chotard, Jean-Noël

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Li2(C12H6O4)(H2O)2]n, crystallizes with one half of the molecular entities in the asymmetric unit. The second half is gererated by inversion symmetry. The crystal structure has a layered arrangement built from distorted edge-sharing LiO3(OH)2 tetra­hedra parallel to (100), with naphthalenedi­carboxyl­ate bridging the LiO3(OH)2 layers along the [100] direction. Hydrogen bonding between the water molecule and adjacent carboxylate groups consolidates the packing. PMID:25249875

  18. Crystal structure of fac-aquatricarbonyl[(S)-valin­ato-κ2 N,O]­rhenium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Piletska, Kseniia O.; Domasevitch, Kostiantyn V.; Shtemenko, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, [Re(C5H10NO2)(CO)3(H2O)], the ReI atom adopts a distorted octa­hedral coordination sphere defined by one aqua and three carbonyl ligands as well as one amino N and one carboxyl­ate O atom of the chelating valinate anion. The carbonyl ligands are arranged in a fac-configuration around the ReI ion. In the crystal, an intricate hydrogen-bonding system under participation of two O—H, two N—H and one C—H donor groups and the carboxyl­ate and carbonyl O atoms as acceptor groups contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. PMID:27375894

  19. Diaqua­bis(pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, G. S.

    2008-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, [Co(C6H4NO2)2(H2O)2], the coordination environment around the CoII atom is distorted octahedral; two N and two O atoms of the pyridine-2-carboxylate ligands lie in the equatorial plane and the two water O atoms in the axial positions. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules, forming a supra­moleular network structure. PMID:21202222

  20. Poly[[triaqua-(μ(3)-4-oxidopyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)holmium(III)] mono-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhu-Qing; Lv, Dong-Yu; Gu, Jin-Zhong; Li, Hong-Jin

    2011-06-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[Ho(C(7)H(2)NO(5))(H(2)O)(3)]·H(2)O}(n), the Ho(III) atom is eight-coordinated by a tridentate 4-oxidopyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate trianion, two monodentate anions and three water mol-ecules, forming a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic HoNO(7) coordination geometry. The anions bridge adjacent Ho(III) ions into double chains. Adjacent chains are further connected into sheets. O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both coordinated and uncoordinated water mol-ecules generate a three-dimensional supra-molecular framework. PMID:21754633

  1. Poly[(μ3-biphenyl-3,3′-dicarboxyl­ato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yu-E

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cd(C14H8O4)(C12H8N2)]n, the CdII ion is seven-coordinated in a distorted penta­gonal–bipyramidal coordination geometry by five O atoms from bridging biphenyl-3,3′-dicarboylate (dpda) ligands and two N atoms from a 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-phen) ligand. In the crystal, dinuclear units with a Cd⋯Cd separation of 3.8208 (7) Å are observed. Each of these dinuclear units is bridged via 3,3′-bpda in a chelating/chelating and bridging fashion, generating a zigzag chain along the c axis. Neighboring chains are further packed via weak π–π inter­actions between inter­chain parallel 1,10-phen rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5197 (9) Å] into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:22219798

  2. catena-Poly[diaqua­(cis-cyclo­hexane-1,2-dicarboxyl­ato)cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Xiao-Chun

    2011-01-01

    In the title polymer, [Cd(C8H10O4)(H2O)2]n, the CdII cation is coordinated by five carboxyl­ate O atoms from three different cyclo­hexane-1,2-dicarboxyl­ate anions and two O atoms from two water mol­ecules, displaying a distorted CdO7 pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry. Each anion acts as a μ3-bridge, linking symmetry-related CdII ions into a layer parallel to (010). In the crystal, numerous O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur. The coordinated water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms act as donors or acceptors in the formation of these hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. PMID:22219843

  3. trans-Diaqua­(pyridazine-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 2,O)lithium

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title complex, [Li(C5H3N2O2)(H2O)2], is built of monomeric mol­ecules. In each, an Li+ ion is N,O-chelated by the pyridazine-3-carboxyl­ate ligand and two water O atoms. The coordination geometry of the metal ion is distorted tetra­hedral. The monomers are linked by a system of hydrogen bonds in which water mol­ecules act as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms act as acceptors. O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is also present. PMID:21522867

  4. Diaqua-bis-(1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N (3),O (4))manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-Yong; Li, Lin; Zhao, Xiang-Jie; Chen, Hai-Ming

    2013-03-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C4H3N2O2)2(H2O)2], the Mn(II) ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and displays a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment, defined by two N,O-bidentate 1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate ligands in the equatorial plane and two water mol-ecules in axial positions. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. π-π stacking inter-actions between the imidazole rings [centroid-centroid distances = 3.5188 (15) and 3.6687 (15) Å] further stabilize the structure. PMID:23476512

  5. Diaqua­bis­(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxyl­ato)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yue; Gao, Qian; Wang, Huan-Huan; Wang, Lin; Xie, Ya-Bo

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C10H5O4)2(H2O)2], the CuII atom lies on a crystallographic inversion center and exhibits an octa­hedral coordination defined by two O atoms from water mol­ecules in the axial positions and by four O atoms from two deprotonated coumarin-3-carb­oxy­lic acid ligands in the equatorial positions. The angles around the CuII atom vary between 85.32 (6) and 94.68 (6)°. The Cu—O bond distances between the CuII atom and the O atoms vary between 1.9424 (14) and 2.3229 (15) Å. The layers inter­digitate via face-to-face aromatic inter­actions [3.6490 (8) Å] between coumarin moieties such that the inter­layer separation is 10.460 (2) Å, i.e. the length of the c axis. O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the H atoms of coordinated water mol­ecules and the O atoms of carboxyl­ate groups link the complex mol­ecules into layers parallel to the ab plane. PMID:21754664

  6. Poly[[tris­(μ3-2-oxidopyridinium-3-carboxyl­ato)manganese(II)sodium(I)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing-Yu; Nie, Jing-Jing; Xu, Duan-Jun

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, {[MnNa(C6H4NO3)3]·H2O}n, the MnII cation is located on a threefold rotation axis and is chelated by three 2-oxidopyridinium-3-carboxyl­ate (opc) anions in an octa­hedal coordination. The NaI cation is located on a threefold rotation axis and is surrounded by six O atoms from three opc anions. The opc anions link the Mn and Na cations, forming a three-dimensional polymeric structure. The uncoordinated water mol­ecule, located on a threefold rotation axis, is equally disordered over two sites. The three-dimensional network is consolidated by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21579675

  7. Bis(9-amino­acridinium) bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)cuprate(II) trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Ahmadvand, Shabnam; Mirzaei, Masoud; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C13H11N2)2[Cu(C7H3NO4)2]·3H2O or (9-aminoAcr)[Cu(pydc)2]·3H2O, contains a Cu(pydc)2 (pydc = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate) anion, two protonated 9-amino­acridine (9-aminoAcr)+ counter-ions and three uncoordinated water mol­ecules. The anion contains a six-coordinated Cu(II) atom within a distorted octa­hedral geometry. Non-covalent inter­actions i.e. N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and inter­molecular π–π contacts between the pyridine rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7773 (13) Å] and acridine rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.4897 (13), 3.7784 (14) and 3.8627 (15) Å] result in the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:21587453

  8. Crystal structure of bis-(1-hexyl-N,N-di-methyl-pyridinium) bis-(maleo-nitrile-dithiol-ato)nickelate(II).

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C13H23N2)2[Ni(C4N2S2)2], consists of a 1-hexyl-N,N-di-methyl-pyridinium cation and one half of a [Ni(mnt)2](2-) dianion (mnt(2-) = maleo-nitrile-dithiol-ate) in which the Ni(2+) cation lies on a crystallographic inversion centre. The square-planar coordination about Ni(2+) comprises four S atoms from two bidentate chelate mnt(2-) ligands [Ni-S = 2.1791 (9) and 2.1810 (8) Å, and S-Ni-S bite angle = 91.93 (3)°]. The hydro-carbon chains of cations show trans-planar conformations and lie approximately parallel to the long mol-ecular axis of the [Ni(mnt)2](2-) anions, giving stacks along the c axis. The anions and cations form layers lying parallel to the bc plane. Only weak C-H⋯Ni and C-H⋯π associations are present in the crystal packing. PMID:27536413

  9. Hepta-carbonyl-bis-(μ-propane-1,3-di-thiol-ato)triiron(I,II)(2 Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingqiang; Ma, Chengbing; Wen, Huimin; Cui, Honghua; Chen, Changneng

    2014-04-01

    The trinuclear title compound, [Fe3(C3H6S2)2(CO)7], is a mixed-valent Fe(I)/Fe(II) complex and crystallizes with two mol-ecules of similar configuration in the asymmetric unit. The three Fe atoms in each mol-ecule display a bent arrangement [Fe-Fe-Fe = 156.22 (4) and 157.06 (3)°]. Both outer Fe(I) atoms are six-coordinated in a distorted ocahedral coordination geometry defined by the bridging Fe(II) atom, three carbonyl C atoms and two bridging S atoms. The coordination number of the central Fe(II) atom is seven and includes bonding to the two outer Fe(I) atoms, four bridging S atoms and one carbonyl C atom. The resulting coordination polyhedron might be described as a highly distorted monocapped trigonal prism. In the crystal packing, the mol-ecules exhibit a chain-like arrangement parallel to [100] and [001], and the resulting layers are stacked along [010]. The cohesion of the structure is dominated by van der Waals inter-actions. PMID:24826090

  10. Hexakis(μ2-2-amino­ethanethiol­ato)­triiron(III) tris(perchlorate)

    PubMed Central

    Igashira-Kamiyama, Asako; Konno, Takumi

    2008-01-01

    In the title salt, [Fe3(C2H6NS)6](ClO4)3, the trinuclear cation lies on a special position of site symmetry; the central Fe atom is coordinated by six thiol­ate groups from the two flanking fac-(S)-[Fe(C2H6NS)3] units. In the flanking units, the three C2H6NS groups each chelate to the metal atom. The cations inter­act with the perchlorate anions through weak N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds resulting in a three-dimensional network. In the asymmetric unit two cations are present, one of which is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.75 and 0.25. PMID:21581137

  11. An overview of a GIS method for mapping landslides and assessing landslide hazards at Río El Estado watershed, on the SW flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Contreras, T.; Polenz, M.; Ramírez Herrera, M.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Arana Salinas, L.

    2012-12-01

    This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, produce a landslide susceptibility map, and estimate sediment production by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 0° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis to assess landslide hazards: Stage 1 builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 170 landslides is created from multi-temporal aerial-photo-interpretation and local field surveys to assess landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), and a spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Stage 2 Calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. During this stage, Multiple Logistic Regression and SINMAP) will be evaluated to select the one that provides scientific accuracy, technical accessibility, and applicability. Stage 3 Estimate the potential total material delivered to the main stream drainage channel by all landslides in the catchment. Detailed geometric measurements of individual landslides visited during the field work will be carried out to obtain the landslide area and volume. These measurements revealed an empirical relationship between area and volume that took the

  12. Multi-proxy analyses of a peat bog on Isla de los Estados, easternmost Tierra del Fuego: a unique record of the variable Southern Hemisphere Westerlies since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Rundgren, Mats; Ljung, Karl; Unkel, Ingmar; Wallin, Åsa

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed an almost 14,000 year old peat sequence on the island of Isla de los Estados (55° S, 64° W), east of Tierra del Fuego, in the core of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. A multitude of methods have been used: high resolution 14C dating; detailed lithologic descriptions including humification degree; loss on ignition; magnetic susceptibility; bulk density; pollen and spore analysis and determination of Aeolian sand influx. By combining proxies for wind and precipitation we have been able to reconstruct how the westerlies have varied over time in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. It shows that this westerly wind belt was most intense at the onset of the record, 13,600-13,200 cal BP, coinciding with the mid to late part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, followed by a gradual decline. At 12,200 cal BP the westerlies seem to have shifted to a position south of Tierra del Fuego and this phase, the calmest and driest period on the island throughout the sequence, ended at 10,000 cal BP when the westerlies moved equatorward again. Since then the westerlies have been present but with a variable impact on the 55° S latitude of the Atlantic. Mostly conditions have been fairly similar to today, but occasionally with a wider or narrower and/or weaker or stronger wind belt. At 7200 cal BP wind intensity began to increase and between 4500 and 3500 cal BP these southern latitudes experienced a distinct wind and precipitation maximum, both in terms of perseverance and intensity. Our results show a both wide and strong wind belt, with possible niveo-aeolian activity in Tierra del Fuego in winter, and possibly creating milder summers around the Antarctic Peninsula. In the later part of the Holocene, expansion-contraction phases of the wind belt, especially in winter, seem to have been a common phenomenon.

  13. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  14. Medicina integrativa en América: De qué forma se está practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros clínicos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa está enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atención al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organización sin ánimo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atención sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como “un enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias físicas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias únicas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones más apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas científicas para curar la afección y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud óptima”. En las pasadas dos décadas, se ha documentado un número creciente de centros clínicos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el número de facultades y escuelas médicas que enseñan estrategias integrativas, el número de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el número de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconocía si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Además, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los médicos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilización de terapias MCA individuales, se había recogido muy poca información con respecto a la práctica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definición, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encargó una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas más habitualmente; (2) definiendo las pr

  15. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is

  16. Bis(2-amino-4-methyl­pyridinium) trans-diaqua­bis­(pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato)cuprate(II) hexa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Gschwind, Fabienne; Alfi, Nafiseh; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C6H9N2)2[Cu(C6H2N2O4)2(H2O)2]·6H2O, consists of a mononuclear trans-[Cu(pzdc)2(H2O)2]2− dianion (pzdc is pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate) and two [ampyH]+ cations (ampy is 2-amino-4-methyl­pyridine) with six water mol­ecules of solvation. The CuII atom is hexa­coordinated by two pzdc groups and two water mol­ecules. The coordinated water mol­ecules are in trans-diaxial positions and the pzdc dianion acts as a bidentate ligand through an O atom of the carboxyl­ate group and the N atom of the pyrazine ring. There are diverse hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, such as N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O contacts, which lead to the formation of a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:21587740

  17. Bis(2-amino-4-methyl-pyridinium) trans-diaqua-bis-(pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ato)cuprate(II) hexa-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Gschwind, Fabienne; Alfi, Nafiseh; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C(6)H(9)N(2))(2)[Cu(C(6)H(2)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·6H(2)O, consists of a mononuclear trans-[Cu(pzdc)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](2-) dianion (pzdc is pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate) and two [ampyH](+) cations (ampy is 2-amino-4-methyl-pyridine) with six water mol-ecules of solvation. The Cu(II) atom is hexa-coordinated by two pzdc groups and two water mol-ecules. The coordinated water mol-ecules are in trans-diaxial positions and the pzdc dianion acts as a bidentate ligand through an O atom of the carboxyl-ate group and the N atom of the pyrazine ring. There are diverse hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, such as N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O contacts, which lead to the formation of a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. PMID:21587740

  18. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon-yl(cyclo-hexyl isocyanide-κC)(quinoline-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N,O)rhenium(I).

    PubMed

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-03-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(C7H11N)(CO)3], the Re(I) atom is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement and by the N, O and C atoms from a chelating quinaldate anion and a monodentate isocyanide ligand, respectively. The resultant C4NO coordination sphere is distorted octa-hedral. A lengthening of the axial Re-CO bond trans to the isocyanide ligand is indicative of the trans effect. Individual complexes are stacked into rods parallel to [001] through displaced π-π inter-actions. Weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the rods lead to the formation of layers parallel to (010). These layers are stacked along [010] by C-H⋯H-C van der Waals contacts. PMID:27006808

  19. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon­yl(cyclo­hexyl isocyanide-κC)(quinoline-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)rhenium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(C7H11N)(CO)3], the ReI atom is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement and by the N, O and C atoms from a chelating quinaldate anion and a monodentate isocyanide ligand, respectively. The resultant C4NO coordination sphere is distorted octa­hedral. A lengthening of the axial Re—CO bond trans to the isocyanide ligand is indicative of the trans effect. Individual complexes are stacked into rods parallel to [001] through displaced π–π inter­actions. Weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the rods lead to the formation of layers parallel to (010). These layers are stacked along [010] by C—H⋯H—C van der Waals contacts. PMID:27006808

  20. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon-yl(quinoline-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N,O)(tri-phenyl-arsane-κAs)rhenium(I).

    PubMed

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(CO)3{As(C6H5)3}], the coordination environment of Re(I) is that of a distorted octa-hedron. Three coordination sites are occupied by three carbonyl groups in a facial arrangement and the remaining three sites by tri-phenyl-arsane and deprotonated quinaldic acid in As-mono- and N,O-bidentate fashions, respectively. In the crystal, the complexes are linked through weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. It worth noting that, as far as we know, this complex is the first Re(I) tri-phenyl-arsane tricarbonyl compound to be reported. PMID:26958366

  1. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon­yl(quinoline-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)(tri­phenyl­arsane-κAs)rhenium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine P.; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(CO)3{As(C6H5)3}], the coordination environment of ReI is that of a distorted octa­hedron. Three coordination sites are occupied by three carbonyl groups in a facial arrangement and the remaining three sites by tri­phenyl­arsane and deprotonated quinaldic acid in As-mono- and N,O-bidentate fashions, respectively. In the crystal, the complexes are linked through weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. It worth noting that, as far as we know, this complex is the first ReI tri­phenyl­arsane tricarbonyl compound to be reported. PMID:26958366

  2. Crystal structure of trans-di­aqua­bis­(1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)copper(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso, Santiago; Artetxe, Beñat; Castillo, Oscar; Luque, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C4H3N2O2)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, the CuII ion is located on an inversion centre and exhibits an axially elongated octa­hedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is formed by two N,O-bidentate 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl­ate ligands in a trans configuration. The axial positions are occupied by two water mol­ecules. The mononuclear complex mol­ecules are arranged in layers parallel to the ab plane. Each complex mol­ecule is linked to four adjacent species through inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds that are established between the coordinating water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms or protonated N atoms of the organic ligands. These layers are further connected into a three-dimensional network by additional hydrogen bonds involving solvent water mol­ecules and non-coordinating carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:26870440

  3. Crystal structure of poly[bis-(ammonium) [bis-(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ato)dizincate] 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one disolvate].

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Carlos; Fonari, Marina S; Wei, Qiang; Timofeeva, Tatiana V

    2016-05-01

    The title three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) compound, {(NH4)2[Zn2(C9H3O6)2]·2C5H9NO} n , features an anionic framework constructed from Zn(2+) cations and benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ate (BTC) organic anions. Charge balance is achieved by outer sphere ammonium cations formed by degradation of di-n-butyl-amine in the solvothermal synthesis of the compound. Binuclear {Zn2(COO)2} entities act as the framework's secondary building units. Each Zn(II) atom has a tetrahedral coordination environment with an O4 set of donor atoms. The three-dimensional framework adopts a rutile-type topology and channels are filled in an alternating fashion with ordered and disordered 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol-ecules and ammonium cations. The latter are held in the channels via four N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, including three with the benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ate ligands of the anionic framework and one with a 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol-ecule. PMID:27308037

  4. 2-(2-Pyrid­yl)pyridinium bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O,N,O′)aluminate(III) trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Soleimannejad, Janet; Aghabozorg, Hossein; Mohammadzadeh, Yaghoub; Hooshmand, Shabnam

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, (C10H9N2)[Al(C7H3NO4)2]·3H2O or (2,2′-bipyH)[Al(pydc)2]·3H2O (where 2,2′-bipy is 2,2′-bipyridine and pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid), was synthesized by the reaction of aluminium(III) nitrate nona­hydrate with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 2,2′-bipyridine in a 1:2:4 molar ratio in aqueous solution. This compound is composed of an anionic complex, [Al(pydc)2]−, a protonated 2,2′-bipyridine mol­ecule as a counter-ion, (2,2′-bipyH)+, and three uncoordinated water mol­ecules. The anion is a six-coordinate complex, with the AlIII atom in a distorted octa­hedral geometry coordinated by two tridentate pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate groups. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π–π stacking between two aromatic rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.827 (10) Å], and C=O⋯π stacking [with distances of 3.2311 (13), 3.4924 (14) and 3.5731 (13) Å], connect the various components to form a supra­molecular structure. PMID:21202744

  5. Poly[(6-carboxy-picolinato-κO,N,O)(μ(3)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κO,N,O:O:O)dysprosium(III)].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Lian, Qing-Yang; Meng, Qiu-Hui; Luo, Yi-Fan; Zeng, Rong-Hua

    2009-01-01

    In the title complex, [Dy(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(C(7)H(4)NO(4))](n), one of the ligands is fully deprotonated while the second has lost only one H atom. Each Dy(III) ion is coordinated by six O atoms and two N atoms from two pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate and two 6-carboxy-picolinate ligands, displaying a bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The average Dy-O bond distance is 2.40 Å, some 0.1Å longer than the corresponding Ho-O distance in the isotypic holmium complex. Adjacent Dy(III) ions are linked by the pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate ligands, forming a layer in (100). These layers are further connected by π-π stacking inter-actions between neighboring pyridyl rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.827 (3) Å] and C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, assembling a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. Within each layer, there are other π-π stacking inter-actions between neighboring pyridyl rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.501 (2) Å] and O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, which further stabilize the structure. PMID:21578057

  6. Poly[(μ-1,3-thio-cyanato-κN,S)(iso-nicotin-ato-κN,O)(ethanol-κO)cadmium(II)].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tristan; Werner, Julia; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2012-11-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(NCS)(C(6)H(4)NO(2))(C(2)H(5)OH)](n), the Cd(2+) cation is coordinated by one N and two O atoms of two symmetry-related isonicotinate anions, one ethanol mol-ecule and two μ-1,3-bridging thio-cyanate anions in a distorted octa-hedral N(2)O(3)S geometry. The metal cations are μ-1,3-bridged via thio-cyanate anions into chains that are further connected into layers parallel to the ab plane by bridging isonicotinate anions. The layers are stacked along the c axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:23284329

  7. Poly[(μ-1,3-thio­cyanato-κN,S)(iso­nicotin­ato-κN,O)(ethanol-κO)cadmium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Tristan; Werner, Julia; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(NCS)(C6H4NO2)(C2H5OH)]n, the Cd2+ cation is coordinated by one N and two O atoms of two symmetry-related isonicotinate anions, one ethanol mol­ecule and two μ-1,3-bridging thio­cyanate anions in a distorted octa­hedral N2O3S geometry. The metal cations are μ-1,3-bridged via thio­cyanate anions into chains that are further connected into layers parallel to the ab plane by bridging isonicotinate anions. The layers are stacked along the c axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:23284329

  8. Crystal structure of a polymeric calcium levulinate dihydrate: catena-poly[[di­aqua­calcium]-bis­(μ2-4-oxo­butano­ato)

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekara, Ananda S.; Sterling-Wells, Dominique T.; Ordonez, Carlos; Ohoueu, Marie-Josiane; Fonari, Marina S.

    2015-01-01

    In the title calcium levulinate complex, [Ca(C5H7O3)2(H2O)2]n, the Ca2+ ion lies on a twofold rotation axis and is octa­coordinated by two aqua ligands and six O atoms from four symmetry-related carboxyl­ate ligands, giving a distorted square-anti­prismatic coordination stereochemistry [Ca—O bond-length range = 2.355 (1)–2.599 (1) Å]. The levulinate ligands act both in a bidentate carboxyl O,O′-chelate mode and in a bridging mode through one carboxyl O atom with an inversion-related Ca2+ atom, giving a Ca⋯Ca separation of 4.0326 (7) Å. A coordination polymeric chain structure is generated, extending along the c-axial direction. The coordinating water mol­ecules act as double donors and participate in intra-chain O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with carboxyl O atoms, and in inter-chain O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with carbonyl O atoms, thus forming an overall three-dimensional structure. PMID:25995864

  9. Tetraphenyl-arsonium cis-bis-[1,2-bis-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato]platinate(II).

    PubMed

    Hosking, Stephanie; Lough, Alan J; Fekl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, (C(24)H(20)As)[Pt(C(4)F(6)S(2))(2)], the cation lies on a twofold rotation axis while the anion has crystallographic inversion symmetry. The Pt(II) ion is in a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment. The F atoms of both unique -CF(3) groups are disordered over two sets of sites, the ratios of refined occupancies being 0.677 (15):0.323 (15) and 0.640 (16):0.360 (16). The crystal structure is the first to date of a monoanionic [Pt(tfd)(2)](-) species [tfd is 1,2-bis-(trifluoro-meth-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ate] with a non-redox-active cation. PMID:21582694

  10. Bis(9-allyl-6-carb­oxy-9H-carbazole-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 3,O 3′)diaqua­zinc

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dailin

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C17H12NO4)2(H2O)2], the ZnII atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is six-coordinated by four carboxyl­ate O atoms from two chelating 9-allyl-6-carb­oxy-9H-carbazole-3-carboxyl­ate ligands and two O atoms from two water mol­ecules. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into a layer structure parallel to (-101). PMID:23468689

  11. Bis(1H-benzimidazole-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 3,O)bis­(ethanol-κO)manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jian-Hua; Lin, Yue-Hua; Xu, Chun-Tao

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C8H5N2O2)2(C2H5OH)2], the MnII atom is six-coordinated by two N and two O atoms from two 1H-benzimidazole-2-carboxyl­ate (L) ligands and by two O atoms from two ethanol mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The mean planes of the two L ligands are inclined to each other at 7.6 (1)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into layers parallel to the ab plane. PMID:23125606

  12. Crystal structure of bis­(1-hexyl-N,N-di­methyl­pyridinium) bis­(maleo­nitrile­dithiol­ato)nickelate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C13H23N2)2[Ni(C4N2S2)2], consists of a 1-hexyl-N,N-di­methyl­pyridinium cation and one half of a [Ni(mnt)2]2− dianion (mnt2− = maleo­nitrile­dithiol­ate) in which the Ni2+ cation lies on a crystallographic inversion centre. The square-planar coordination about Ni2+ comprises four S atoms from two bidentate chelate mnt2− ligands [Ni—S = 2.1791 (9) and 2.1810 (8) Å, and S—Ni—S bite angle = 91.93 (3)°]. The hydro­carbon chains of cations show trans-planar conformations and lie approximately parallel to the long mol­ecular axis of the [Ni(mnt)2]2− anions, giving stacks along the c axis. The anions and cations form layers lying parallel to the bc plane. Only weak C—H⋯Ni and C—H⋯π associations are present in the crystal packing. PMID:27536413

  13. Poly[diaqua­(μ-oxalato)(μ-2-oxido­pyridinium-3-carboxyl­ato)praseo­dymium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yong-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hong-Bin

    2009-01-01

    In the title complex, [Pr(C6H4NO3)(C2O4)(H2O)2]n, each PrIII ion is coordinated by eight O atoms from two 2-oxynicotinate ligands, two oxalate ligands and two water mol­ecules, displaying a distorted bicapped square-anti­prismatic geometry. The carboxyl­ate groups link adjacent praseodymium metal centres, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21582087

  14. catena-Poly[[di-aqua-[μ2-4-(4-carb-oxy-phen-oxy)benzoato](μ2-4,4'-oxydibenzo-ato)praseodymium(III)] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Su, Duo-Meng; Zheng, Chang-Ge

    2013-10-01

    In the title compound, {[Pr(C14H8O5)(C14H9O5)(H2O)2]·H2O} n , the Pr(III) cation is eight-coordinated by six carboxyl O atoms from both a monoanionic 4-(4-carb-oxy-phen-oxy)benzoate and a dianionic 4,4'-oxydibenzoate ligand (four bridging with two from a bidentate chelate inter-action), and two O-atom donors from water mol-ecules. A single water mol-ecule of solvation is also present. The complex units are linked through carboxyl O:O' bridges giving a two-dimensional sheet polymer lying parallel to (001). An overall three-dimensional network structure is generated through inter-molecular carb-oxy-lic acid and water O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:24454025

  15. trans-Chlorido-(4-fluoro-benzene-thiol-ato-κS)bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)palladium(II) methanol hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives; Santacruz-Juárez, Ericka; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-03-01

    The title compound, [Pd(SC6H4F-p)Cl(PPh3)2]·0.5CH3OH, features a Pd(II) complex with two tri-phenyl-phosphane (PPh3) ligands arranged in a trans conformation, with one chloride and one 4-fluoro-benzene-thiol-ate ligand completing the coordination sphere, giving rise to a slightly distorted square-planar geometry of the Pd(II) ion. The methanol solvent mol-ecule is disordered about an inversion centre with an occupancy of 0.25 for each molecule. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the complex mol-ecules generate chain frameworks parallel to [010]. PMID:24764953

  16. Poly[[di-μ-aqua-(μ-4-formyl-2-meth­oxy­phenol­ato)disodium] 4-formyl-2-meth­oxy­phenolate

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Şahin, Onur; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Mazhar, Uzma; Khan, Islam Ullah; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2010-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[Na2(C8H7O3)(H2O)4](C8H7O3)}n, all the non-H atoms except the water O atoms lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. One sodium cation is bonded to four water O atoms and one vanillinate O atom in a distorted square-based pyramidal arrangement; the other Na+ ion is six-coordinated by four water O atoms and two vanillinate O atoms in an irregular geometry. One of the vanillinate anions is directly bonded to two sodium ions, whilst the other only inter­acts with the polymeric network by way of hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, a two-dimensional polymeric array is formed; this is reinforced by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R 2 1(6) and R 2 2(20) loops. PMID:21579628

  17. (Cyclo-butane-1,1-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) O,O')(1,10-phenanthroline-κ(2) N,N')platinum(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Starha, Pavel; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-06-01

    The title compound, [Pt(C6H6O4)(C12H8N2)]·2H2O, which crystallizes as two independent formula units, has the metal atom in a square-planar geometry defined by two O atoms of the chelating cyclo-butane-1,1-di-carboxyl-ate dianion and two N atoms of the chelating 1,10-phenanthroline mol-ecule (r.m.s. deviations of the PtO2N2 units = 0.026 and 0.026 Å). Adjacent complex and water mol-ecules are connected through inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯O, C⋯O [shortest C⋯O distance = 3.140 (5) Å], π-π [shortest C⋯C distances = 3.234 (6) and 3.347 (6) Å] and Pt⋯π [shortest Pt⋯C distance = 3.358 (4) Å] inter-actions into a three-dimensional network. PMID:23794996

  18. Bis(μ-naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxyl­ato)bis­[aqua­(2,2′-bipyridine)zinc(II)] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xia; Wen, Yi-Hang

    2008-01-01

    The title complex, [Zn2(C12H6O4)2(C10H8N2)2(H2O)2]·4H2O, is a binuclear complex with two independent ZnII ions in a slightly disorted trigonal bipyramidal environment, coordinated by one aqua ligand, two naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxyl­ate ligands and one 2,2′-bipyridine ligand. π–π Inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance of 3.8489 (5) Å] and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:21581167

  19. Poly[[tetra­aqua­bis­(μ3-5-carboxybenzene-1,2,4-tri­carboxyl­ato)tricadmium] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yong-Yan; Xie, Xin-Nian; Yang, Huai-Xia

    2012-01-01

    There are three independent CdII ions in the title complex, {[Cd3(C10H3O8)2(H2O)4]·4H2O}n, one of which is coordinated by four O atoms from three 5-carboxybenzene-1,2,4-tri­carboxyl­ate ligands and by two water mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The second CdII ion is coordinated by five O atoms from four 5-carboxybenzene-1,2,4-tri­carboxyl­ate ligands and by one water mol­ecule also in a distorted octa­hedral geometry while the third CdII ion is coordinated by five O atoms from three 5-carboxybenzene-1,2,4-tri­carboxyl­ate ligands and by one water mol­ecule in a highly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The 5-carboxybenzene-1,2,4-tri­carboxyl­ate ligands bridge the CdII ions, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional structure. Intra- and inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present throughout the three-dimensional structure. PMID:22719349

  20. catena-Poly[lead(II)-bis­(μ-2-amino-1,3-benzothia­zole-6-carboxyl­ato)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke-Ke; Fang, Xin; Yu, Hai-Yang; Ke, Hua; Wang, Jun-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The title complex, [Pb(C8H5N2O2S)2]n, consists of one PbII ion located on a crystallographic twofold axis and two symmetry-related 2-amino-1,3-benzothia­zole-6-carboxyl­ate (ABTC) ligands. The central PbII ion has a (4 + 2) coordination by four O atoms of the two ABTC ligands and two weaker Pb—S bonding inter­actions (Pb—S secondary bonds) from S atoms of other two neighbouring ABTC ligands. These bonds link the metal ions into zigzag chains along the c axis, which, in turn, aggregate through π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7436 Å] between ABTC rings and N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:21589352

  1. Hepta­carbonyl­bis­(μ-propane-1,3-di­thiol­ato)triiron(I,II)(2 Fe—Fe)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mingqiang; Ma, Chengbing; Wen, Huimin; Cui, Honghua; Chen, Changneng

    2014-01-01

    The trinuclear title compound, [Fe3(C3H6S2)2(CO)7], is a mixed-valent FeI/FeII complex and crystallizes with two mol­ecules of similar configuration in the asymmetric unit. The three Fe atoms in each mol­ecule display a bent arrangement [Fe—Fe—Fe = 156.22 (4) and 157.06 (3)°]. Both outer FeI atoms are six-coordinated in a distorted ocahedral coordination geometry defined by the bridging FeII atom, three carbonyl C atoms and two bridging S atoms. The coordination number of the central FeII atom is seven and includes bonding to the two outer FeI atoms, four bridging S atoms and one carbonyl C atom. The resulting coordination polyhedron might be described as a highly distorted monocapped trigonal prism. In the crystal packing, the mol­ecules exhibit a chain-like arrangement parallel to [100] and [001], and the resulting layers are stacked along [010]. The cohesion of the structure is dominated by van der Waals inter­actions. PMID:24826090

  2. catena-Poly[[(2-amino-1,3-benzothia­zole-6-carboxyl­ato-κ2 O,O′)(2,2′-bipyridyl-κ2 N,N′)cadmium]-μ-2-amino-1,3-benzothia­zole-6-carboxyl­ato-κ3 N 1:O,O′

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Ke; Cai, Li-Mao; Wang, Jun-Dong

    2012-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, [Cd(C8H5N2O2S)2(C10H8N2)]n, the CdII ion is coordinated by a bidentate 2,2-bipyridyl ligand, two O,O′-chelating 2-amino-1,3-benzothia­zole-6-carboxyl­ate (ABTC) ligands and one N-bonded ABTC ligand. The resulting CdN3O4 coordination polyhedron approximates to a very distorted penta­gonal bipramid with one O and one N atom in axial positions. One of the ABTC ligands is bridging to an adjacent metal atom, generating an infinite chain propagating in [100]. A three-dimensional network is constructed from N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.641 (2) and 3.682 (3) Å]. PMID:22590132

  3. Crystal structure of (μ-4-hy­droxy­benzene­thiol­ato-κ2 S:S)bis­(μ-phenyl­methane­thiol­ato-κ2 S:S)bis­[(η6-1-isopropyl-4-methyl­benzene)­ruthenium(II)] tetra­fluorido­borate

    PubMed Central

    Stíbal, David; Süss-Fink, Georg; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the dinuclear arene ruthenium title complex, [Ru2(C6H5OS)(C7H7S)2(C10H14)2]BF4, shows the two RuII atoms to be bridged by two benzyl­thio­pheno­late units and one 4-hy­droxy­thio­pheno­late unit, with the remaining three coordination sites of each RuII atom being occupied by p-cymene ligands, completing the typical piano-stool coordination geometry. The BF4 − counter-anion is surrounded by four cationic dinuclear complexes, showing an O—H⋯F hydrogen bond and several weak C—H⋯F inter­actions. This is the first example of an X-ray analysis of a mixed dinuclear tri­thiol­ate arene ruthenium(II) complex. PMID:26594399

  4. Optimization of combination therapy of arsenic trioxide and fractionated radiotherapy for malignant glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Shoucheng; Knox, Susan J. . E-mail: sknox@stanford.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to optimize the combined treatment regimen using arsenic trioxide (ATO) and fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant glioma. Methods and Materials: Nude mice with human glioma xenograft tumors were treated with fractionated local tumor radiation of 250 cGy/fraction/day and 5 mg/kg ATO for 5-10 days. Results: Time course experiments demonstrated that maximal tumor growth delay occurred when ATO was administered between 0 and 4 h after radiation. The combination treatment of ATO and radiation synergistically inhibited tumor growth and produced a tumor growth delay time of 13.2 days, compared with 1.4 days and 6.5 days for ATO and radiation alone (p < 0.01), respectively. The use of concurrent therapy of radiation and ATO initially, followed by ATO as maintenance therapy, was superior to the use of preloading with ATO before combined therapy and produced a tumor growth delay time of 22.7 days as compared with 11.7 days for the ATO preloading regimen (p < 0.01). The maintenance dose of ATO after concurrent therapy was effective and important for continued inhibition of tumor growth. Conclusions: The combined use of fractionated radiation and ATO is effective for the treatment of glioma xenograft tumors. ATO was most effective when administered 0-4 h after radiation without pretreatment with ATO. These results have important implications for the optimization of treatment regimen using ATO and fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors.

  5. Observatorio Pierre Auger: motivación y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Etchegoyen, A.; García, B.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is aiming to understand the origin, nature and acceleration mechanisms of the most energetic cosmic rays (E>10 E18 eV). It will consist of one hybrid detector in each hemisphere, giving a total acceptance of 14200 km2 sr. The southern observatory is being constructed in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina, and will be finished in 2006. No final statement can be made so far about any feature in the most energetic part of the spectrum. However, good candidate events were observed to have a primary energy of about 10 E20 eV.

  6. Crystal structure of hexa­aqua­nickel(II) bis{2-[(5,6-di­hy­droxy-3-sul­fon­ato­quino­lin-1-ium-7-yl)oxy]acetate} dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Le Thi Hong, Hai; Nguyen Thi Ngoc, Vinh; Tran Thi, Da; Nguyen Bich, Ngan; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(H2O)6](C11H8NO8S)2·2H2O, features a half-hexa­aqua­nickel(II) complex cation with the NiII ion on an inversion center, one deprotonated 5,6-dihy­droxy-3-sulfoquinolin-7-yloxyacetic acid (QOH) molecule appearing in its zwitterionic form and one lattice water mol­ecule. The sulfonate group is disordered over two positions with occupancy factors of 0.655 (5) and 0.345 (5). The hexa­aqua­nickel(II) cation inter­acts through hydrogen bonding with eight QOH mol­ecules and two water mol­ecules. The six-membered rings of quinoline show π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.679 (2) Å and 3.714 (2) Å]. PMID:26396859

  7. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)(pyridine-2,6-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) O,N,O')nickel(II)]-μ-pyrazine-κ(2) N:N'].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Felts, Ashley C; Ballouk, Hamza F; Abboud, Khalil A

    2016-05-01

    The title coordination polymer, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C4H4N2)(C2H6OS)] n , consists of [010] chains composed of Ni(II) ions linked by bis-monodentate-bridging pyrazine mol-ecules. Each of the two crystallographically distinct Ni(II) ions is located on a mirror plane and is additionally coordinated by a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligand through the oxygen atom and by a tridentate 2,6-pyridine-di-carb-oxy-lic acid dianion through one of each of the carboxyl-ate oxygen atoms and the pyridine nitro-gen atom, leading to a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment. The title structure exhibits an inter-esting complementarity between coordinative bonding and π-π stacking where the Ni-Ni distance of 7.0296 (4) Å across bridging pyrazine ligands allows the pyridine moieties on two adjacent chains to inter-digitate at halfway of the Ni-Ni distance, resulting in π-π stacking between pyridine moieties with a centroid-to-plane distance of 3.5148 (2) Å. The double-chain thus formed also exhibits C-H⋯π inter-actions between pyridine C-H groups on one chain and pyrazine mol-ecules on the other chain. As a result, the inter-ior of the double-chain structure is dominated by π-π stacking and C-H⋯ π inter-actions, while the space between the double-chains is occupied by a C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network involving DMSO ligands and carboxyl-ate groups located on the exterior of the double-chains. This separation of dissimilar inter-actions in the inter-ior and exterior of the double-chains further stabilizes the crystal structure. PMID:27308038

  8. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-di-carb-oxy-butane-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato)bis-[bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane)silver(I)] di-chloro-methane tris-olvate.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Peter; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-02-01

    The mol-ecular structure of the tetra-kis(tri-phenyl-phosphan-yl)disilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetra-carb-oxy-lic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8)(C18H15P)4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half mol-ecules of di-chloro-methane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2-CH2 bond. The Ag(I) atom has a distorted trigonal-planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by inter-molecular T-shaped π-π inter-actions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring mol-ecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101). Intra-molecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxyl-ate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxyl-ate moiety to the Ag(I) ion. PMID:26958391

  9. Diaqua­bis­(4-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 3,O 4)zinc(II) N,N-dimethyl­formamide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cheng-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Zn(C8H9N2O4)2(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO, the ZnII atom is coordinated by two N,O-bidentate 2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxyl­ate anions and two water mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral environment. The asymmetric unit consists of one ZnII atom located on a center of inversion as well as one anion, one water mol­ecule and one additional dimethyl­formamide mol­ecule that occupy general positions. Between the carboxyl and the carboxyl­ate group an intra­molecular hydrogen bond is found in which the hydroxy H atom is disordered. Disorder is also found for the H atoms of one of the three methyl groups. In the crystal structure, additional inter­molecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is found. PMID:21587728

  10. [μ-1,4-Bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmeth­yl)benzene]­bis­[aqua­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)copper(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Gui-Ying; He, Cui-Hong; Tong-Fei, Liu; Deng, Xiao-Chen; Shi, Xiao-Ge

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C7H3NO4)2(C12H12N6)(H2O)2]·H2O, displays a discrete dinuclear structure, in which the central CuII atom is five-coordinated in a distorted square-based pyramidal coordination geometry and the flexible ligand 1,4-bis­(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmeth­yl)benzene adopts a bis-monodentate bridging mode linking the CuII atoms. It is further assembled by O—H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter­actions involving both the coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules. The latter exhibits half-occupancy. PMID:21836927

  11. 9-Amino­acridinium bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)ferrate(III) tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Eydizadeh, Ehsan; Yousefi, Zakieh; Molčanov, Krešimir

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C13H11N2)[Fe(C7H3NO4)2]·4H2O, contains a 9-amino­acridinium cation, one anionic complex and four uncoordinated water mol­ecules. In the anionic complex, the FeIII ion is six-coordinated by two almost perpendicular [dihedral angle = 88.78 (7)°] pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate ligands in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. In the crystal, anions are connected into chains along [10-1] by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, which create ten-membered hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(10) rings. These chains are linked by three-membered water clusters. The final three-dimensional network is constructed by numerous inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:22719319

  12. Poly[(μ4-biphenyl-2,4′-dicarboxyl­ato-κ5O2:O2′:O4:O4,O4′)zinc

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the polymeric title complex, [Zn(C14H8O4)]n, is composed of layers parallel to (110) formed by linking of Zn–carboxyl­ate chains with biphenyl units of the biphenyl-2,4′-dicarboxyl­ate (bpdc) ligands. The ZnII atom is five-coordinated in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry by five O atoms from four bpdc ligands. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 52.32 (12)°. PMID:23125599

  13. catena-Poly[[[diaqua­(1,10-phenan­thro­line)manganese]-μ-3-[3-(carboxyl­ato­meth­oxy)phen­yl]acrylato] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jun; Yang, Yuan-Fa; Wen, Yi-Hang

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Mn(C11H8O5)(C12H8N2)(H2O)2]·H2O, was obtained under hydro­thermal conditions. The coordination environment of the Mn(II) atom is a distorted MnN2O4 octa­hedron defined by two N atoms from 1,10-phenanthroline, two water O atoms and two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two acrylate anions. The bis-monodentate coordination mode of the anion leads to the formation of chains propagating in [010]. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the chains into a two-dimensional network parallel to (100). In the voids of this arrangement, disordered lattice water mol­ecules are present. PMID:22807750

  14. Poly[di­ammonium [di­aqua­(μ7-benzene-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa­carboxyl­ato)tetra­oxido­diuranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Cantos, Paula M.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Uranyl-carboxyl­ate hybrid materials dominate the catalog of uranyl compounds owing in part to the affinity between COO− functional groups and UO2 2+. Polycarboxyl­ate organic ligands may present a degree of steric hindrance and could thus influence the resulting uranyl topology. Single crystals of the title compound, {(NH4)2[(UO2)2(C12O12)(H2O)2]}n, were synthesized hydro­thermally as a result of reacting uranyl nitrate with benzene-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa­carb­oxy­lic acid (mellitic acid). The structure is comprised of a single unique monomeric uranyl cation adopting a penta­gonal bipyramidal geometry. The uranyl coordination sphere is composed of four O atoms originating from one half of a fully deprotonated mellitic acid ligand and a single water mol­ecule. The observed axial U—O bonds display an average distance of 1.765 (8) Å, whereas equatorial O atoms are found at an average distance of 2.40 (5) Å. All uranium–oxygen bond lengths are in good agreement with literature values. Furthermore, the coordin­ation between the uranyl penta­gonal bipyramids and the mellitic acid anion constructs a three-dimensional anionic framework which is charge-balanced with ammonium cations. Additional stabilization of the structure is provided by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding inter­actions between the components. PMID:24826103

  15. catena-Poly[[[bis­(4-pyridine­aldoxime-κN 1)zinc]-μ-benzene-1,4-dicarboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 4] 4-pyridine­aldoxime monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kawata, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Zn(C8H4O4)(C6H6N2O)2]·C6H6N2O}n, the ZnII ion exhibits a tetra­hedral coordination environment defined by two benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate dianions and two 4-pyridinealdoxime ligands. The dianions bridge the ZnII ions, giving a zigzag chain along the b axis. Adjacent chains are connected by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a cavity in which an uncoordinating 4-pyridine­aldoxime mol­ecule is located; this mol­ecule is linked by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds to the zigzag chain. PMID:23634010

  16. Aqua­carbon­yl(ferrocenyldi­thio­phos­phon­ato-κ2 S,S′)bis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)ruthenium(II) dichloromethane mono­solvate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hang; Ma, Qing; Shi, Hua-Tian; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title complex, [FeRu(C5H5)(C5H4OPS2)(CO)(C18H15P)2(H2O)]·CH2Cl2, consists of one neutral [{FcP(O)S2}Ru(CO)(H2O)(PPh3)2] complex [Fc = Fe(η5-C5H4)(η5-C5H5)] and one CH2Cl2 solvent mol­ecule. The geometry around the RuII atom is pseudo-octa­hedral, with two cis-binding PPh3 ligands and one chelating bidentate [Fc(O)PS2]2− ligand via two S atoms. The average Ru—S and Ru—P bond lengths are 2.434 (1) and 2.398 (1) Å, and the Ru—O and Ru—C bond lengths are 2.157 (3) and 1.826 (4) Å, respectively. In the crystal, pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol­ecules into dimers. PMID:23795003

  17. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)(pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ato-κ3 O,N,O′)nickel(II)]-μ-pyrazine-κ2 N:N′

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Thuijs, Annaliese E.; Felts, Ashley C.; Ballouk, Hamza F.; Abboud, Khalil A.

    2016-01-01

    The title coordination polymer, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C4H4N2)(C2H6OS)]n, consists of [010] chains composed of NiII ions linked by bis-monodentate-bridging pyrazine mol­ecules. Each of the two crystallographically distinct NiII ions is located on a mirror plane and is additionally coordinated by a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligand through the oxygen atom and by a tridentate 2,6-pyridine-di­carb­oxy­lic acid dianion through one of each of the carboxyl­ate oxygen atoms and the pyridine nitro­gen atom, leading to a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The title structure exhibits an inter­esting complementarity between coordinative bonding and π–π stacking where the Ni—Ni distance of 7.0296 (4) Å across bridging pyrazine ligands allows the pyridine moieties on two adjacent chains to inter­digitate at halfway of the Ni—Ni distance, resulting in π–π stacking between pyridine moieties with a centroid-to-plane distance of 3.5148 (2) Å. The double-chain thus formed also exhibits C—H⋯π inter­actions between pyridine C—H groups on one chain and pyrazine mol­ecules on the other chain. As a result, the inter­ior of the double-chain structure is dominated by π–π stacking and C—H⋯ π inter­actions, while the space between the double-chains is occupied by a C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network involving DMSO ligands and carboxyl­ate groups located on the exterior of the double-chains. This separation of dissimilar inter­actions in the inter­ior and exterior of the double-chains further stabilizes the crystal structure. PMID:27308038

  18. catena-Poly[[di­aqua­[μ2-4-(4-carb­oxy­phen­oxy)benzoato](μ2-4,4′-oxydibenzo­ato)praseodymium(III)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Su, Duo-Meng; Zheng, Chang-Ge

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Pr(C14H8O5)(C14H9O5)(H2O)2]·H2O}n, the PrIII cation is eight-coordinated by six carboxyl O atoms from both a monoanionic 4-(4-carb­oxy­phen­oxy)benzoate and a dianionic 4,4′-oxydibenzoate ligand (four bridging with two from a bidentate chelate inter­action), and two O-atom donors from water mol­ecules. A single water mol­ecule of solvation is also present. The complex units are linked through carboxyl O:O′ bridges giving a two-dimensional sheet polymer lying parallel to (001). An overall three-dimensional network structure is generated through inter­molecular carb­oxy­lic acid and water O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:24454025

  19. catena-Poly[[[tetra­aqua­cobalt(II)]-μ-4,4′-bipyridine-κ2 N:N′] 2-[4-(2-carboxyl­ato­eth­yl)phen­oxy]acetate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Fang; Liu, Chong-Bo; Huang, De-He; Xiong, Zhi-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    In the title complex, {[Co(C10H8N2)(H2O)4](C11H10O5)}n, the unique CoII ion lies on an inversion center and is coordinated by two N atoms from two 4,4′-bipyridine ligands and four O atoms from four water mol­ecules in a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry. The 4,4′-bipyridine ligands bridge CoII ions into a one-dimensional chain structure. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link cations and anions into a three-dimensional network. The dianions are completely disordered about an inversion center. PMID:21582697

  20. Crystal structure of poly[bis­(ammonium) [bis­(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ato)dizincate] 1-methyl­pyrrolidin-2-one disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Carlos; Fonari, Marina S.; Wei, Qiang; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The title three-dimensional metal–organic framework (MOF) compound, {(NH4)2[Zn2(C9H3O6)2]·2C5H9NO}n, features an anionic framework constructed from Zn2+ cations and benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ate (BTC) organic anions. Charge balance is achieved by outer sphere ammonium cations formed by degradation of di-n-butyl­amine in the solvothermal synthesis of the compound. Binuclear {Zn2(COO)2} entities act as the framework’s secondary building units. Each ZnII atom has a tetrahedral coordination environment with an O4 set of donor atoms. The three-dimensional framework adopts a rutile-type topology and channels are filled in an alternating fashion with ordered and disordered 1-methyl­pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol­ecules and ammonium cations. The latter are held in the channels via four N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, including three with the benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ate ligands of the anionic framework and one with a 1-methyl­pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol­ecule. PMID:27308037

  1. Di-μ-aqua-bis-[aqua-(5-carboxyl-ato-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carb-oxy-lic acid-κ(2) N (3),O (4))lithium].

    PubMed

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Li2(C4H2N3O4)2(H2O)4], contains centrosymmetric dinuclear mol-ecules in which two Li(I) ions are bridged by two water O atoms. The metal ion is coordinated by one N,O-bidentate ligand and three water O atoms (one of them is symmetry generated), with one of the bridging water O atoms in the apical position of a distorted square pyramid. The carboxyl-ate group that participates in coordination to the metal ion remains protonated; the other is deprotonated and coordination inactive. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond between carboxyl-ate groups is observed. In the crystal, dimers are linked by O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:24427005

  2. (1,2,3,4-Tetra­hydro­isoquinoline-2-carbo­dithio­ato-κ2 S,S′)(thio­cyanato-κN)(tri­phenyl­phosphane)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, P.; Thirumaran, S.; Selvanayagam, S.

    2011-01-01

    The NiII atom in the mononuclear title compound, [Ni(C10H10NS2)(NCS)(C18H15P)], exists within a S2PN donor set that defines a distorted square-planar geometry. A significant asymmetry in the Ni—S bond lengths support the less effective trans effect of SCN− over PPh3. PMID:22199643

  3. (Cyclo­butane-1,1-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O,O′)(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)platinum(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Štarha, Pavel; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Pt(C6H6O4)(C12H8N2)]·2H2O, which crystallizes as two independent formula units, has the metal atom in a square-planar geometry defined by two O atoms of the chelating cyclo­butane-1,1-di­carboxyl­ate dianion and two N atoms of the chelating 1,10-phenanthroline mol­ecule (r.m.s. deviations of the PtO2N2 units = 0.026 and 0.026 Å). Adjacent complex and water mol­ecules are connected through inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O, C⋯O [shortest C⋯O distance = 3.140 (5) Å], π–π [shortest C⋯C distances = 3.234 (6) and 3.347 (6) Å] and Pt⋯π [shortest Pt⋯C distance = 3.358 (4) Å] inter­actions into a three-dimensional network. PMID:23794996

  4. A redetermination of the structure of poly[[μ4-(R)-2-ammonio-3-sulfonato­propano­ato]aqua­sodium], originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2−)]disodium

    PubMed Central

    Brown, I. David

    2012-01-01

    The structure originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2−)]disodium], [Na2(C3H5NO5S)]n [Liu (2002). Acta Cryst. E67, m1346–m1347], has been redetermined with one of the sodium atoms replaced with a water mol­ecule and an additional proton attached to the amine group, resulting in the revised formula [Na{CO2CH(CH2SO3)NH3}(H2O)]n. The agreement index, wR, has been reduced from 0.159 to 0.087 and the global instability index from 0.56 vu (valence units) to the acceptable value of 0.11 vu. PMID:22606082

  5. Bis(carbonyl-κC)(N,N-dimethyl­thio­carbamoyl-κ2 C,S)(pyridine-2-thiol­ato-κ2 N,S)(triphenyl­phosphine-κP)molybdenum(II)

    PubMed Central

    Yih, Kuang-Hway; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    There are two independent mol­ecules with similar configurations in the title complex, [Mo(C3H6NS)(C5H4NS)(C18H15P)(CO)2]. The geometry around the metal atom is that of a capped octa­hedron. The thio­cabamoyl and pyridine-2-thiol­ate ligands coordinate to the molybdenum metal center through the C and S atoms, and N and S atoms, respectively. NMR, IR and MS analyses are in agreement with the structure of the title compound. PMID:21587354

  6. [2,2′-Dihy­droxy-N 2,N 2′-(3-hy­droxy­imino­pentane-2,4-di­yl)dibenzo­hydra­zid­ato]copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zi-Jing

    2010-01-01

    The CuII atom in the title complex, [Cu(C19H17N5O5)], is coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms of one 2,2′-dihy­droxy-N 2,N 2’-(3-hy­droxy­imino­pentane-2,4-di­yl)dibenzo­hydrazidate ligand, exhibiting a distorted square-planar geometry. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings in the oxime hydrazone is 7.62 (15)°. The molecular configuration is stabilized by intramolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. Pairs of centrosymmetrically related molecules are linked into dimers by two inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Each dimer is further connected to four neighboring dimers via four O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an extended two-dimensional structure. The oxime O atom is disordered over two orientations in a 2:1 ratio. PMID:21588849

  7. Crystal structure of (piperidine-1-carbo­di­thio­ato-κ2 S,S)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl-κ2 C 1,N]palladium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashov, Mikhail; Fleckhaus, André; Gritcenko, Roman; Wendt, Ola F.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Pd(C11H8N)(C6H10NS2)], crystallizes with three similar and discrete mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The CNS2 donor set defines a distorted square-planar geometry around the PdII atom, with very small deviations from planarity. The bidentate nature of the ligands gives fairly large deviations from the ideal 90° angles; the C—Pd—N angles are all around 81° and the S—Pd—S angles are around 75°. Mol­ecules pack via dispersion inter­actions. PMID:26396868

  8. catena-Poly[[bis­(dimethyl­ammonium) [cadmate(II)-bis­(μ-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-3,3′′-dicarboxyl­ato)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Wook; Gu, Ja-Min; Kim, Youngmee; Huh, Seong

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, {(C2H8N)2[Cd(C20H12O4)2]·2C3H7NO}n, the CdII ion lies on a twofold rotation axis and is in a distorted octa­hedral CdO6 environment, defined by four O atoms of two μ2-coordinated 1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl-3,3′′-dicarboxyl­ate (DCT) ligands and two O atoms of two μ1-coordinated DCT ligands. Both types of DCT ligands act as bridging, forming a one-dimensional polymeric structure propagating parallel to [10]. PMID:21522589

  9. Isotypic one-dimensional coordination polymers: catena-poly[[di-chlorido-cadmium]-μ-5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N (5):N (6)] and catena-poly[[di-chlorido-mercury(II)]-μ-5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N (5):N (6)].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Montserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-08-01

    The isotypic title one-dimensional coordination polymers, [CdCl2(C18H14N4O4)] n , (I), and [HgCl2(C18H14N4O4)] n , (II), are, respectively, the cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of the dimethyl ester of 5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carb-oxy-lic acid. In both compounds, the metal ions are located on a twofold rotation axis and a second such axis bis-ects the Car-Car bonds of the pyrazine ring. The metal ions are bridged by binding to the N atoms of the two pyridine rings and have an MN2Cl2 bisphenoidal coordination geometry. The metal-Npyrazine distances are much longer than the metal-Npyridine distances; the difference is 0.389 (2) Å for the Cd-N bonds but only 0.286 (5) Å for the Hg-N bond lengths. In the crystals of both compounds, the polymer chains are linked via pairs of C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated slabs parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27536417

  10. Isotypic one-dimensional coordination polymers: catena-poly[[di­chlorido­cadmium]-μ-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 5:N 6] and catena-poly[[di­chlorido­mercury(II)]-μ-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 5:N 6

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Montserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The isotypic title one-dimensional coordination polymers, [CdCl2(C18H14N4O4)]n, (I), and [HgCl2(C18H14N4O4)]n, (II), are, respectively, the cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of the dimethyl ester of 5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carb­oxy­lic acid. In both compounds, the metal ions are located on a twofold rotation axis and a second such axis bis­ects the Car—Car bonds of the pyrazine ring. The metal ions are bridged by binding to the N atoms of the two pyridine rings and have an MN2Cl2 bisphenoidal coordination geometry. The metal–Npyrazine distances are much longer than the metal–Npyridine distances; the difference is 0.389 (2) Å for the Cd—N bonds but only 0.286 (5) Å for the Hg—N bond lengths. In the crystals of both compounds, the polymer chains are linked via pairs of C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated slabs parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27536417

  11. Bis(2,3-diamino­pyridinium) bis­(μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)-κ4 O 2,N,O 6:O 6;κ4 O 2:O 2,N,O 6-bis­[aqua­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)bis­muthate(III)] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Kazemi, Shokoofeh; Agah, Ali Akbar; Mirzaei, Masoud; Notash, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric dinuclear complex anion of the title compound, (C5H8N3)2[Bi2(C7H3NO4)4(H2O)2]·4H2O, the BiIII atom is eight-coordinated in an N2O6 environment and has a distorted bicapped trigonal–prismatic coordination environment. Extensive inter­molecular O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the stability of the crystal structure. Inter­actions between one C—H group of the 2,3-diamino­pyridinium [(2,3-dapyH)+] cation and the aromatic ring of the pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate (pydc) ligand (C—H⋯centroid distance = 2.78 Å) and π–π inter­actions between the (2,3-dapyH)+ cations and between the (2,3-dapyH)+ cation and the pydc ligand [centroid–centroid distances = 3.489 (5) and 3.694 (5) Å] are observed. PMID:21522286

  12. Down-regulation of Mcl-1 through GSK-3β activation contributes to arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Xia, Lijuan; Gabrilove, Janice; Waxman, Samuel; Jing, Yongkui

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces disease remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients, but not in non-APL acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. ATO at therapeutic concentrations (1-2 μM) induce APL NB4, but not non-APL HL-60, cells to undergo apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The role of antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 in ATO-induced apoptosis was determined. The levels of Mcl-1 were decreased in NB4, but not in HL-60, cells after ATO treatment through proteasomal degradation. Both GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 and siRNA blocked ATO-induced Mcl-1 reduction as well as attenuated ATO-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells. Silencing Mcl-1 sensitized HL-60 cells to ATO-induced apoptosis. Both ERK and AKT inhibitors decreased Mcl-1 levels and enhanced ATO-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Sorafenib, a Raf inhibitor, activated GSK3β by inhibiting its phosphorylation, decreased Mcl-1 levels, and decreased intracellular glutathione levels in HL-60 cells. Sorafenib plus ATO augmented ROS production and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells and in primary AML cells. These results indicate that ATO induces Mcl-1 degradation through activation of GSK3β in APL cells and provide a rationale for utilizing ATO in combination with sorafenib for the treatment of non-APL AML patients. PMID:22751450

  13. Bone marrow stroma-induced resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide involves Mcl-1 upregulation and is overcome by inhibiting the PI3Kδ or PKCβ signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Amigo-Jiménez, Irene; Bailón, Elvira; Aguilera-Montilla, Noemí; Terol, María José; García-Marco, José A; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2015-12-29

    CLL remains an incurable disease in spite of the many new compounds being studied. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces apoptosis in all CLL cell types and could constitute an efficient therapy. To further explore this, we have studied the influence of stromal cells, key components of the CLL microenvironment, on the response of CLL cells to ATO. Bone marrow stromal cells induced CLL cell resistance to 2 μM ATO and led to activation of Lyn, ERK, PI3K and PKC, as well as NF-κB and STAT3. Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, and Bfl-1 were also upregulated after the co-culture. Inhibition experiments indicated that PI3K and PKC were involved in the resistance to ATO induced by stroma. Moreover, idelalisib and sotrastaurin, specific inhibitors for PI3Kδ and PKCβ, respectively, inhibited Akt phosphorylation, NF-κB/STAT3 activation and Mcl-1 upregulation, and rendered cells sensitive to ATO. Mcl-1 was central to the mechanism of resistance to ATO, since: 1) Mcl-1 levels correlated with the CLL cell response to ATO, and 2) blocking Mcl-1 expression or function with specific siRNAs or inhibitors overcame the protecting effect of stroma. We have therefore identified the mechanism involved in the CLL cell resistance to ATO induced by bone marrow stroma and show that idelalisib or sotrastaurin block this mechanism and restore sensibility to ATO. Combination of ATO with these inhibitors may thus constitute an efficient treatment for CLL. PMID:26540567

  14. Heat shock protein inhibitors, 17-DMAG and KNK437, enhance arsenic trioxide-induced mitotic apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yichen; Yen Wenyen; Lee, T.-C. Yih, L.-H.

    2009-04-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic agent in leukemia because of its ability to induce apoptosis. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support its therapeutic use for other types of cancers. In this study, we investigated if, and how, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-DMAG), an antagonist of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and KNK437, a HSP synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the cytotoxic effect of ATO. Our results showed that cotreatment with ATO and either 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced cell death and apoptosis. siRNA-mediated attenuation of the expression of the inducible isoform of HSP70 (HSP70i) or HSP90{alpha}/{beta} also enhanced ATO-induced apoptosis. In addition, cotreatment with ATO and 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced mitotic arrest and ATO-induced BUBR1 phosphorylation and PDS1 accumulation. Cotreatment also significantly increased the percentage of mitotic cells with abnormal mitotic spindles and promoted metaphase arrest as compared to ATO treatment alone. These results indicated that 17-DMAG or KNK437 may enhance ATO cytotoxicity by potentiating mitotic arrest and mitotic apoptosis possibly through increased activation of the spindle checkpoint.

  15. Arsenic Trioxide Induces Apoptosis in Human Platelets via C-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicun; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Rong; Zhang, Yiwen; Ruan, Changgeng; Dai, Kesheng

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO), one of the oldest drugs in both Western and traditional Chinese medicine, has become an effective anticancer drug, especially in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, thrombocytopenia occurred in most of ATO-treated patients with APL or other malignant diseases, and the pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that ATO dose-dependently induces depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation, and phosphotidylserine (PS) exposure in platelets. ATO did not induce surface expression of P-selectin and PAC-1 binding, whereas, obviously reduced collagen, ADP, and thrombin induced platelet aggregation. ATO dose-dependently induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and JNK specific inhibitor dicumarol obviously reduced ATO-induced ΔΨm depolarization in platelets. Clinical therapeutic dosage of ATO was intraperitoneally injected into C57 mice, and the numbers of circulating platelets were significantly reduced after five days of continuous injection. The data demonstrate that ATO induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via JNK activation in platelets. ATO does not incur platelet activation, whereas, it not only impairs platelet function but also reduces circulating platelets in vivo, suggesting the possible pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in patients treated with ATO. PMID:24466103

  16. Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis in human platelets via C-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yicun; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Rong; Zhang, Yiwen; Ruan, Changgeng; Dai, Kesheng

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO), one of the oldest drugs in both Western and traditional Chinese medicine, has become an effective anticancer drug, especially in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, thrombocytopenia occurred in most of ATO-treated patients with APL or other malignant diseases, and the pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that ATO dose-dependently induces depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation, and phosphotidylserine (PS) exposure in platelets. ATO did not induce surface expression of P-selectin and PAC-1 binding, whereas, obviously reduced collagen, ADP, and thrombin induced platelet aggregation. ATO dose-dependently induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and JNK specific inhibitor dicumarol obviously reduced ATO-induced ΔΨm depolarization in platelets. Clinical therapeutic dosage of ATO was intraperitoneally injected into C57 mice, and the numbers of circulating platelets were significantly reduced after five days of continuous injection. The data demonstrate that ATO induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via JNK activation in platelets. ATO does not incur platelet activation, whereas, it not only impairs platelet function but also reduces circulating platelets in vivo, suggesting the possible pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in patients treated with ATO. PMID:24466103

  17. Bone marrow stroma-induced resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide involves Mcl-1 upregulation and is overcome by inhibiting the PI3Kδ or PKCβ signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Amigo-Jiménez, Irene; Bailón, Elvira; Aguilera-Montilla, Noemí; Terol, María José; García-Marco, José A.; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    CLL remains an incurable disease in spite of the many new compounds being studied. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces apoptosis in all CLL cell types and could constitute an efficient therapy. To further explore this, we have studied the influence of stromal cells, key components of the CLL microenvironment, on the response of CLL cells to ATO. Bone marrow stromal cells induced CLL cell resistance to 2 μM ATO and led to activation of Lyn, ERK, PI3K and PKC, as well as NF-κB and STAT3. Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, and Bfl-1 were also upregulated after the co-culture. Inhibition experiments indicated that PI3K and PKC were involved in the resistance to ATO induced by stroma. Moreover, idelalisib and sotrastaurin, specific inhibitors for PI3Kδ and PKCβ, respectively, inhibited Akt phosphorylation, NF-κB/STAT3 activation and Mcl-1 upregulation, and rendered cells sensitive to ATO. Mcl-1 was central to the mechanism of resistance to ATO, since: 1) Mcl-1 levels correlated with the CLL cell response to ATO, and 2) blocking Mcl-1 expression or function with specific siRNAs or inhibitors overcame the protecting effect of stroma. We have therefore identified the mechanism involved in the CLL cell resistance to ATO induced by bone marrow stroma and show that idelalisib or sotrastaurin block this mechanism and restore sensibility to ATO. Combination of ATO with these inhibitors may thus constitute an efficient treatment for CLL. PMID:26540567

  18. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Chia-Wen; Yao, Ju-Hsien; Chang, Shih-Yu; Lee, Pei-Chih; Lee, Te-Chang

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  19. Novel fabrication of an electrochromic antimony-doped tin oxide film using a nanoparticle deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Yunchan; Choi, Dahyun; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2016-07-01

    Novel deposition method of Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films was introduced using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) to fabricate an electrochromic (EC) device. NPDS is a dry deposition method that simplifies the ATO deposition process by eliminating the need for solvents or binders. In this study, an ATO EC layer was deposited using NPDS. The surface morphology and electrochemical and optical transmittance properties were characterized. The optical transmittance change in the ATO EC device was ∼35% over the wavelength range of 350-800 nm, and the cyclic transmittance was stable. The ATO film deposited using NPDS, exhibited a coloration efficiency of 15.5 cm2 C-1. Therefore, our results suggest that ATO EC devices can be fabricated using a simple, cost-effective NPDS, which allows nanoparticles to be deposited directly without pre- or post-processing.

  20. El Estado de la Educacion para los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos (The Condition of Education for Hispanics in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; And Others

    Organized into 4 chapters, the report provides tabular data portraying the educational condition for about 12 million Hispanic Americans in the United States, and shows how Hispanics compare with the majority population on various measures of educational participation and achievement. Providing an overview of Hispanic Americans in the U.S.,…

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P.; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status.

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status. PMID:26887578

  3. VEGFA Expression Is Inhibited by Arsenic Trioxide in HUVECs through the Upregulation of Ets-2 and miRNA-126.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-Yan; Han, Zhong-Jing; Tian, Pei; Sun, Wen-Jie; Xue, Da-Xi; Bi, Yu; Yang, Zhang-Hui; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently, studies have shown that ATO can induce apoptosis in leukemic cells and blood vessel endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner through the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) production. VEGFA is a key factor in angiogenesis initiation. Targeted inhibition of VEGF or VEGFA expression can suppress angiogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanism by which ATO inhibits VEGFA expression. In this study, we investigated the role of miRNA-126 in the mechanism of action of ATO in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ATO significantly decreased the viability and proliferation of HUVECs and decreased their migration at 48 h. Cell proliferation was inhibited by 50% (IC50) when 5.0 μmol/L ATO was used. ATO treatment induced miR-126 upregulation and HUVEC apoptosis. Transfection with a miR-126 mimic significantly downregulated VEGFA mRNA levels, and transfection with a miR-126 inhibitor significantly upregulated VEGFA mRNA levels. Finally, we showed that ATO treatment upregulated Ets-2 and miR-126 expression in HUVECs. These results demonstrate that ATO inhibits the growth of HUVECs and induces apoptosis by downregulating VEGFA. One mechanism by which this occurs is Ets-2 upregulation, which results in an increase in miR-126 levels and downregulation of VEGFA expression. PMID:26274316

  4. Revisiting Surface Modification of Graphite: Dual-Layer Coating for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyujin; Ryu, Jaegeon; Ko, Seunghee; Bang, Byoung Man; Choi, Sinho; Shin, Myoungsoo; Lee, Sang-Young; Park, Soojin

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of electrode active materials has garnered considerable attention as a facile way to meet stringent requirements of advanced lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrated a new coating strategy based on dual layers comprising antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles and carbon. The ATO nanoparticles are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and act as electronically conductive/electrochemically active materials. The as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles are introduced on natural graphite along with citric acid used as a carbon precursor. After carbonization, the carbon/ATO-decorated natural graphite (c/ATO-NG) is produced. In the (carbon/ATO) dual-layer coating, the ATO nanoparticles coupled with the carbon layer exhibit unprecedented synergistic effects. The resultant c/ATO-NG anode materials display significant improvements in capacity (530 mA h g(-1) ), cycling retention (capacity retention of 98.1 % after 50 cycles at a rate of C/5), and low electrode swelling (volume expansion of 38 % after 100 cycles) which outperform that of typical graphite materials. Furthermore, a full-cell consisting of a c/ATO-NG anode and an LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode presents excellent cycle retention (capacity retention of >80 % after 100 cycles). We envision that the dual-layer coating concept proposed herein opens a new route toward high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27027583

  5. Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.

  6. TG-interacting factor transcriptionally induced by AKT/FOXO3A is a negative regulator that antagonizes arsenic trioxide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zi-Miao; Tseng, Hong-Yu; Cheng, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Huei-Sheng

    2015-05-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a multi-target drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration as the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In addition, several clinical trials are being conducted with arsenic-based drugs for the treatment of other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. However, ATO's modest clinical efficacy on some cancers, and potential toxic effects on humans have been reported. Determining how best to reduce these adverse effects while increasing its therapeutic efficacy is obviously a critical issue. Previously, we demonstrated that the JNK-induced complex formation of phosphorylated c-Jun and TG-interacting factor (TGIF) antagonizes ERK-induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}) expression and resultant apoptosis in response to ATO in A431 cells. Surprisingly, at low-concentrations (0.1–0.2 μM), ATO increased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion, involving TGIF expression, however, at high-concentrations (5–20 μM), ATO induced cell apoptosis. Using a promoter analysis, TGIF was transcriptionally regulated by ATO at the FOXO3A binding site (− 1486 to − 1479 bp) via the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway. Stable overexpression of TGIF promoted advancing the cell cycle into the S phase, and attenuated 20 μM ATO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, blockage of the AKT pathway enhanced ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis in cancer cells, but overexpression of AKT1 inhibited CDKN1A expression. Therefore, we suggest that TGIF is transcriptionally regulated by the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway, which plays a role as a negative regulator in antagonizing ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis. Suppression of these antagonistic effects might be a promising therapeutic strategy toward improving clinical efficacy of ATO. - Highlights: • ATO-induced biphasic survival responses of cancer cells depend on low- or high-concentrations. • TGIF mediates

  7. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education…

  8. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

  9. Cuentos Hispanos de los Estados Unidos (Hispanic Stories of the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Julian, Ed.

    This anthology of 21 short stories is intended for Spanish-speaking students of Spanish, other students in intermediate and advanced Spanish-language courses, and students commencing study of the Hispanic literature of the United States. Twelve of the 15 authors are, by birth or descent, of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican origin. Eight were born…

  10. Búsqueda de sitio en el Noroeste Argentino: estado de avance al 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Vrech, R.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    We report the activities corresponding to the site testing project that the IATE group in collaboration with ESO and IAR have developed during the last year. We report the installation of a weather station at 4600 meters over the sea level in the Macon mountain range near the small town of Tolar Grande. We discuss the adopted criteria for the election of this site as well as the future plans.

  11. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  12. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  13. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  14. Estado y rendimiento del espectrógrafo infrarrojo criogénico F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Gomez, P.; Schirmer, M.; Navarrete, F.; Stephens, A.; Bosch, G.; Gaspar, G.; Camperi, J.; Gunthardt, G.

    First results related to the commissioning phase of Flamingos-2 spectrograph are reported. The available operation modes for observation and expected performance for 2014 are also presented. After the replacement of the first collimator lens; broken in 2012; a problem persisted in the optical alignment. The troubleshooting will require a new instrument refurbishing schedule; meanwhile; the available operation modes are limited to direct image and longslit spectroscopy. We found that the direct image () achieves its highest quality (0.4'') only in the inner 3' of the field and resolution drops toward the spectrum ends. The longslit mode provides for the / ranges; and for the R3k grism in the ranges ; or . We also determine the uncertainties for emission line kinematics; and study the relative flexion between the guiding system; the slit and the detector. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Nebraska State Report Card, 1999-2000 = Tarjeta informativa del Estado de Nebraska, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This report, printed in English and Spanish versions, is the first Nebraska State Report Card. It provides a snapshot of Nebraska schools using statewide averages. Nebraska students scored better than students nationwide in reading, with 60% of Nebraska students in grades 3-4, 7-8, and 10-12 scoring above the median on a standardized reading test.…

  16. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the Spanish-Speaking Minority,"…

  17. Estado evolutivo de estrellas con fenómeno B[e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidelman, Y. J.; Cidale, L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, M.

    The B[e] phenomenon is related to certain peculiar features observed in the spectrum of some B stars, which are mainly linked to the physical conditions of their circumstellar medium. As these stars are embedded in dense and optically thick circumstellar media, the determination of the spectral type and luminosity class of the central objects is quite difficult. As a consequence, their evolutionary stage and distances present huge uncertainties. In this work we study 4 B[e] stars and discuss their stellar fundamental parameters and evolutionary stages using the BCD spectrophotometric system. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  19. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  1. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  2. Arsenic trioxide plus PX-478 achieves effective treatment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lang, Mingxiao; Wang, Xiuchao; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jie; Lan, Chungen; Hao, Jihui; Huang, Chongbiao; Li, Xin; Yu, Ming; Yang, Yanhui; Yang, Shengyu; Ren, He

    2016-08-10

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been selected as a promising treatment not only in leukemia but also in solid tumors. Previous studies showed that the cytotoxicity of ATO mainly depends on the induction of reactive oxygen species. However, ATO has only achieved a modest effect in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, suggesting that the existing radical scavenging proteins, such as hypoxia inducible factor-1, attenuate the effect. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of combination treatment of ATO plus PX-478 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitor) and its underlying mechanism. Here, we showed that PX-478 robustly strengthened the anti-growth and pro-apoptosis effect of ATO on Panc-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Meanwhile, in vivo mouse xenograft models also showed the synergistic effect of ATO plus PX-478 compared with any single agent. Further studies showed that the anti-tumor effect of ATO plus PX-478 was derived from the reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis. We next confirmed that Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 cleared reactive oxygen species by its downstream target, forkhead box O transcription factors, and this effect may justify the strategy of ATO plus PX-478 in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27212442

  3. Atorvastatin induced hepatic oxidative stress and apoptotic damage via MAPKs, mitochondria, calpain and caspase12 dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Ghosh, Shatadal; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Sil, Parames C

    2015-09-01

    Atorvastatin (ATO), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, is used widely for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Application of this drug has now been made somehow limited because of ATO associated several acute and chronic side effects. The present study has been carried out to investigate the dose-dependent hepatic tissue toxicity in ATO induced oxidative impairment and cell death in mice. Administration of ATO enhanced ALT, ALP level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and altered the pro oxidant-antioxidant status of liver by reducing intracellular GSH level, anti-oxidant enzymes activities and increasing intracellular lipid peroxidation. Our experimental evidence suggests that ATO markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, disturbed the Bcl-2 family protein balance, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol, increased the levels of Apaf1, caspase-9, -3, cleaved PARP protein and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. Besides, ATO distinctly increased the phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs, enhanced Caspase12 and calpain level. Histological studies also support the dose-dependent toxic effect of ATO in these organs pathophysiology. These results reveal that ATO induces hepatic tissue toxicity via MAPKs, mitochondria and ER dependent signaling pathway, in which calcium ions and ROS act as the pivotal mediators of the apoptotic signaling. PMID:26051349

  4. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  5. Arsenic Trioxide Negatively Affects Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Fangfang; Xing, Guoqiang; Peng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    Spillage of cyst contents during surgery is the major cause of recurrences of hydatidosis, also called cystic echinococcosis (CE). Currently, many scolicidal agents are used for inactivation of the cyst contents. However, due to complications in the use of those agents, new and more-effective treatment options are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Protoscolices of E. granulosus were incubated in vitro with 2, 4, 6, and 8 μmol/liter ATO; viability of protoscolices was assessed daily by microscopic observation of movements and 0.1% eosin staining. A small sample from each culture was processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. ATO demonstrated a potent ability to kill protoscolices, suggesting that ATO may represent a new strategy in treating hydatid cyst echinococcosis. However, the in vivo efficacy and possible side effects of ATO need to be explored. PMID:26324279

  6. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  7. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and heat-insulating antimony doped tin oxide/polyurethane films by cast replica micromolding.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Huang, Baoyuan; Zhong, Mingqiang

    2009-08-01

    A novel process for fabricating superhydrophobic and heat-insulating polymeric nanocomposite films was developed. Briefly, antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles that commonly endow coats heat-insulating and transparent functions were mixed into commercial waterborne polyurethane (WPU) suspensions to obtain ATO/WPU suspensions, which were then cast onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from stamps, ATO/PU films with superhydrophobic surface and heat-insulating property were created, while PU films without ATO only showed high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the surface of ATO/PU superhydrophobic films had unique micro- and nano-structures similar with those on the lotus leaf. On the contrary, no obvious nano-structures were found on the surface of pure PU films, demonstrating mixing functional nanoparticles into polymers is a necessary and feasible step in creating superhydrophobic and functional films by replica molding method. PMID:19394955

  8. Bis{μ-2-[3-carboxyl­atometh­yl-4-(phenyl­sulfan­yl)phen­yl]propano­ato-κ4 O,O′:O′′,O′′′}bis­[(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Ding, Yu-Qiu; Diao, Kai-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cd2(C17H14O4S)2(C10H8N2)2], which was hydro­thermally synthesized, the CdII cation is hexa­coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral geometry by two N atoms from a 2,2′-bipyridine ligand and by four O atoms from two different 2-[3-carboxyl­atometh­yl-4-(phenyl­sulfan­yl)phen­yl]propano­ate ligands, forming a cyclic dimetallic complex. PMID:22589863

  9. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-di­carb­oxy­butane-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato)bis­[bis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane)silver(I)] di­chloro­methane tris­olvate

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Peter; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the tetra­kis(tri­phenyl­phosphan­yl)disilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetra­carb­oxy­lic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8)(C18H15P)4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half mol­ecules of di­chloro­methane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2—CH2 bond. The AgI atom has a distorted trigonal–planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by inter­molecular T-shaped π–π inter­actions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring mol­ecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101). Intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxyl­ate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxyl­ate moiety to the AgI ion. PMID:26958391

  10. Crystal structure of tetra­aqua­bis(3,5-di­amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium)cobalt(II) bis­[bis­(pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ato)cobaltate(II)] dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Atim; Mbonu, Justina; Hussain, Zahid; Loh, Wan-Sin; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Co(C2H6N5)2(H2O)4][Co(C7H3NO4)2]2·2H2O, features 1.5 CoII ions (one anionic complex and one half cationic complex) and one water mol­ecule. In the cationic complex, the CoII atom is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by two triazolium cations and four water mol­ecules, adopting an octa­hedral geometry where the N atoms of the two triazolium cations occupy the axial positions and the O atoms of the four water mol­ecules the equatorial positions. The two triazole ligands are parallel offset (with a distance of 1.38 Å between their planes). In the anionic complex, the CoII ion is six-coordinated by two N and four O atoms of the two pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ate anions, exhibiting a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry in which the mean plane of the two pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ate anions are almost perpendicular to each other, making a dihedral angle of 85.87 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into a three-dimensional network via C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N, O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:26090171

  11. Bis[1,2-bis­(meth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra­iron(4 Fe–Fe) hexa­fluoridophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 − anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol­ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe—Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe—S distances involving the dithiol­ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)–2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)–2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter­actions between cations and anions. PMID:23634019

  12. Poly[(μ2-4,4′-bipyridine-κ2 N:N′)(μ2-2,2-dimeth­yl­cyclo­pentane-1,3-dicarboxyl­ato-κ4 O 1,O 1′:O 3,O 3′)cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian-Fa; Gao, Shan; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-01

    In the title polymeric compound, [Cd(C9H12O4)(C10H8N2)]n, the CdII atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated by two 4,4′-bipyridine ligands and two 2,2-dimethyl­cyclo­pentane-1,3-dicarboxyl­ate ions. The carboxyl­ate ion and the N-heterocycle both function as bridges to link adjacent CdII atoms to result in the formation of a layer structure parallel to (010). The mid-point of the central C—C bond of the 4,4′-bipyridine ligand is located on an inversion center. In the crystal, the carboxyl­ate ion is disordered over a twofold rotation axis in respect of its methyl group and the cyclo­pentane ring. PMID:22219824

  13. Crystal structure of poly[aqua­[μ-1,1′-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2,7-di­yl)di-1H-imidazole](μ-naphthalene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hengye; Qi, Yanjuan

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C12H6O4)(C21H18N4)(H2O)]n, the NiII cation is coordinated by three carboxyl­ate O atoms of two naphthalene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ate anions, one water mol­ecule and two N atoms of two 1,1′-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2,7-di­yl)di-1H-imidazole (DFDI) ligands, giving rise to a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The NiII ions are linked by the DFDI ligands into chains, which are further connected by the carboxyl­ate anions into double chains that elongate in the the b-axis direction. These double chains are linked by centrosymmetric pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to (10-1). The asymmetric unit consists of one crystallographically independent NiII cation, one carboxyl­ate and one DFDI ligand, as well as of one water mol­ecule, all of them located in general positions. PMID:25309182

  14. Poly[[diaqua­bis­[μ4-5-nitro­isophthalato-κ4 O 1:O 1:O 3:O 3′]bis­[μ3-pyridine-4-carboxyl­ato-κ3 O:O′:N]tricobalt(II)] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xia; Fan, Jun; Xin, Jingling; Zheng, Shengrun; Zhang, Weiguang

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, {[Co3(C6H4NO2)2(C8H3NO6)2(H2O)2]·4H2O}n, exhibits a two-dimensional layer-like structure in which the CoII ions exhibit two kinds of coordination geometries. One nearly octa­hedral CoII ion with crystallographic inversion symmetry is coordinated to six carboxyl­ate O atoms from four bridging 5-nitro­isophthalate (NIPH) ligands and two isonicotinate (IN) anions, while the other type of CoII ion binds with one N atom and one carboxyl­ate O atom from two IN anions, two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two different NIPH anions and one ligated water mol­ecule, displaying a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. Three adjacent CoII ions are bridged by six carboxyl­ate groups from four NIPH ligands and two IN anions to form a linear trinuclear secondary building unit (SBU). Every trinuclear SBU is linked to its nearest neighbours in the ab plane, resulting in a two-dimensional layer-like structure perpendicular to the c axis. Along the a-axis direction neighbouring mol­ecules are connected through carboxyl­ate and pyridyl units of the IN anions, along the b axis through carboxyl­ate groups of the NIPH ligands. The H atoms of one free water mol­ecule are disordered in the crystal in a 1:1 ratio. Typical O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed in the lattice, which include the following contacts: (a) between coordinated water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms of the NIPH anions, (b) between lattice water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms of the NIPH anions, and (c) between coordinated and lattice water mol­ecules. These inter­molecular hydrogen bonds connect the two-dimensional layers to form a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure. PMID:22589823

  15. Poly[di-μ3-hy­droxy[μ4-5-(4-carb­oxy­phen­yl)pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ5 N,O 2:O 2′:O 4:O 4′]dicadmium

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan-Jin; Jia, Heng-Qing; Hu, Ning-Hai; Zhou, Hua

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title polymeric complex, [Cd2(C13H7NO4)(OH)2]n, consists of two independent CdII atoms, one 5-(4-carb­oxy­phen­yl)pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate ligand and two hy­droxy groups. One CdII atom is six-coordinated by two O atoms from two ligand mol­ecules and by four μ3-OH groups in a distorted trigonal–prismatic geometry. The other is five-coordinated by one N and two O atoms from two ligands and by two μ3-OH groups, forming a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The two independent CdII atoms are connected by the ligand mol­ecules and the OH groups into a three-dimensional framework. O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the OH groups and the carboxyl­ate O atoms are observed. PMID:23284345

  16. Poly[[(μ2-benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato){μ2-1,4-bis­[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)meth­yl]benzene}­cadmium] di­methyl­formamide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Daguang; He, Liang; Li, Wei; Suo, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The title coordination polymer, {[Cd(C8H4O4)(C14H14N4)]·C3H7NO}n, was synthesized by solvothermal reaction of metallic cadmium with the semi-rigid neutral ligand 1,4-bis­[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)meth­yl]benzene (bix) and the V-shaped benzene-1,3-di­carb­oxy­lic acid (m-H2bdc). The structure exhibits a pseudo-C-centring which is almost fulfilled by the polymeric metal complex but not by the solvent dimethylform­amide (DMF) mol­ecules. The asymmetric unit contains two independent CdII ions, two m-bdc2− ligands, one and two half bix ligands, and two solvent DMF mol­ecules. The CdII ions are both five-coordinated by three O atoms from two different m-bdc2− ligands and two N atoms from two different bix ligands in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The m-bdc2− ligands adopt a chelate-monodentate coordination mode, connecting neighboring CdII ions into a zigzag chain parallel to [110]. Adjacent chains are further cross-linked by bix ligands, giving rise to a puckered sheet nearly perpendicular to the chain direction. Thus, each CdII ion is connected to four neighboring CdII ions through two m-bdc2− anions and two bix ligands, giving rise to the final non-inter­penetrating uninodal layer with sql (4,4) topology. PMID:24454043

  17. Crystal structure of poly[(4-amino­pyridine-κN)(N,N-di­methyl­formamide-κO)(μ3-pyridine-3,5-di­carboxyl­ato-κ3 N:O 3:O 5)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Chen; Hua, Xiu-Ni; Han, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C7H3NO4)(C5H6N2)(C3H7NO]n, is an amino-function­alized chiral metal–organic framework with (10,3)-a topology. It has been constructed via the assembly of the achiral triconnected pyridine-3,5-di­carboxyl­ate (3,5-PDC) building block and a triconnected CuII atom. Each CuII ion is coordinated by two O atoms and one N atom, respectively, of three crystallographically independent 3,5-PDC ligands. The square-pyramidal (CuN2O3) coordination geometry of the CuII ion is completed by an N atom of a terminal 4-amino­pyridine (4-APY) ligand and the O atom of a terminal N,N-di­methyl­formamide (DMF) ligand to give a triconnected ‘T’-shaped secondary building unit, which becomes trigonal in the resulting (10,3)-a topology. In the three-dimensional structure, weak N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed in which the donor N—H groups are provided by the 4-APY ligands and the acceptor O atoms are provided by the non-coordinating carboxylate O atoms of the 3,5-PDC ligands. PMID:27375859

  18. (μ-5-Carboxy­benzene-1,3-dicarboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 3)bis­[bis­(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] 5-carboxy­benzene-1,3-dicarboxyl­ate 2,2′-bipyridine solvate trideca­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Jaromír; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Cu2(C9H4O6)(C10H8N2)4](C9H4O6)·C10H8N2·13H2O, comprises two formula units. The two CuII centres are bridged by a 5-carb­oxy­benzene-1,3-dicarboxyl­ate (Hbtc) ligand. Each of the metal centres is bonded to four N atoms of two bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine ligands (bpy) and one O atom of the Hbtc ligand in a highly distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The secondary structure is stabilized by a variety of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions connecting the complex cations, Hbtc anions, bpy and water mol­ecules of crystallization. Three water molecules are disordered over two positions, with site occupancy factors of ca 0.8 and 0.2. PMID:21201338

  19. Poly[[(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ato-κ4 O 1:O 1′:O 2:O 3)bis­(2,2-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)(μ2-hydroxido)dicopper(II)] trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    El-kaheli, Mohamed N.; El-mehdawi, Ramadan M.; Abuhmaiera, Ramadan G.; Ben Younes, Mufida M.; Treish, Fathia A.; Guerri, Annalisa; Bazzicalupi, Carla

    2014-01-01

    In the title two-dimensional coordination polymer, {[Cu2(C9H3O6)(OH)(C10H8N2)2]·3H2O}n, each of the two independent CuII atoms is coordinated by a bridging OH group, two O atoms from two benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ate (L) ligands and two N atoms from a 2,2- bi­pyridine (bipy) ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Each L ligand coordinates four CuII atoms, thus forming a polymeric layer parallel to the bc plane with bipy molecules protruding up and down. The lattice water mol­ecules involved in O—H⋯· O hydrogen bonding are situated in the inner part of each layer. The crystal packing is consolidated by π–π inter­actions between the aromatic rings of bipy ligands from neigbouring layers [inter­centroid distance = 3.762 (3) Å]. PMID:25161530

  20. Penta­kis­(μ3-N,2-di­oxido­benzene-1-car­box­imid­ato)di-μ2-formato-penta­kis­(1H-imidazole)­methanolpenta­manganese(III)man­gan­ese(II)–methanol–water (1/3.36/0.65)

    PubMed Central

    Tigyer, Benjamin R.; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(CHO2)2(C3H4N2)5(CH3OH)]·3.36CH3OH·0.65H2O, or Mn(II)(O2CH)2[15-MCMn(III)N(shi)-5](Im)5(MeOH)·3.36MeOH·0.65H2O (where MC is metallacrown, shi3− is salicyl­hydroximate, Im is imidazole and MeOH is methanol), contains five MnIII ions as members of the metallacrown ring and an MnII atom bound in the central cavity. The central MnII atom is seven-coordinate with a geometry best described as between face-capped trigonal–prismatic and face-capped octa­hedral. Three MnIII ions of the metallacrown ring are six-coordinate with distorted octa­hedral geometries. Of these six-coordinate MnIII ions, two have mirror-plane configurations, while the other has a Δ absolute stereoconfiguration. The remaining two MnIII ions have a coordination number of five with a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The five imidazole ligands are bound to five different MnIII ions. Disorder is observed for one of the coordinating imidazole ligands, as the imidazole ligand is disordered over two alternative mutually exclusive positions in a ratio of 0.672 (9) to 0.328 (9). The inter­stitial voids between the main mol­ecules that constitute the structure are mostly filled with methanol mol­ecules that form hydrogen-bonded chains. Some of the sites of the non-coordinated methanol mol­ecules are not fully occupied, with the remainder of the volume either empty or taken up by ill-defined close to amorphous content. One site was refined as being taken up by either two or one methanol mol­ecules, with an occupancy ratio of 0.628 (5) to 0.343 (5). This disorder might thus be correlated with the disorder of the imidazole ring (an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond between the major moieties of the imidazole and the methanol mol­ecules is observed). On the other side of the disordered imidazole ring the chain of partially occupied methanol mol­ecules originates that extends via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the metal-coordinated methanol mol­ecule. The three partially occupied methanol mol­ecules were refined to be disordered with two water mol­ecules to take two residual electron density peaks into account (the exact nature of these weak residual electron density peaks cannot be deduced from the X-ray diffraction data alone, the assignment as water is tentative). The occupancy rate for the methanol mol­ecules refined to 0.480 (7). The occupancy rate of the two water mol­ecules refined to 0.34 (1) and 0.31 (2) for each site. PMID:23468732

  1. (2.2.2-Cryptand)potassium bis­(cyanato-κN)(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­por­phy­rin­ato-κ4 N)cobaltate(III) chloro­benzene hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Belhaj Ali, Bader; Belkhiria, Mohamed Salah; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [K(C18H36N2O6)][Co(NCO)2(C44H28N4)]·0.5C6H5Cl or [K(2,2,2-crypt)+][CoIII(NCO)2(TPP)−]·0.5C6H5Cl, the CoIII ion is octa­hedrally coordin­ated by two axial N-bonded NCO− anions and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. There is a major ruffling distortion of the porphyrin: the dihedral angles between trans pyrrole rings are 34.32 (14) and 34.72 (14)°. The potassium ion is coordinated by the six O atoms and two N atoms of the cryptand-222 mol­ecule and a weak K—O [3.407 (3) Å] bond to one of the cyanate O atoms also occurs. The packing also features weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The contribution to the scattering of the disordered chloro­benzene solvent mol­ecules was removed with the SQUEEZE function in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. PMID:23125591

  2. Vitamin D3 potentiates the antitumorigenic effects of arsenic trioxide in human leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a novel form of therapy that has been found to aid acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. Our laboratory has demonstrated that ATO-induced cytotoxicity in human leukemia (HL-60) cells is mediated by oxidative stress. Pro-oxidants have been known to play a role in free radical-mediated oxidative stress. Vitamin D3, (Vit D3) an active metabolite of vitamin D has been reported to inhibit the growth of number neoplasms such as prostate, breast, colorectal, leukemia, and skin cancers. The goal of the present research was to use (HL-60) cells as an in vitro test model to evaluate whether low doses of Vit D3 potentiate the toxicity of ATO and whether this toxic action is mediated via apoptotic mechanisms. Method HL-60 cells were treated either with a pharmacologic dose of ATO alone and with several low doses of Vit D3. Cell survival was determined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was measured both by flow cytometry assessment, and DNA laddering assay. Results MTT assay indicated that Vit D3 co-treatment potentiates ATO toxicity in HL-60 cells in a dose dependent manner. A statistically significant and dose-dependent increase (p <0.05) was recorded in annexin V positive cells (apoptotic cells) with increasing doses of Vit D3 in ATO-treated cells. This finding was confirmed by the result of DNA laddering assay showing clear evidence of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in vitamin and ATO co-treated cells. Conclusion The present study indicates that Vit D3 potentiates the antitumor effects of ATO. This potentiation is mediated at least in part, through induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings highlight the potential impact of Vit D3 in promoting the pharmacological effect of ATO, suggesting a possible future role of Vit D3/ATO combination therapy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). PMID:24661615

  3. Effects of the combination of wheel running and atomoxetine on cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement in rats selected for high or low impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aerobic exercise and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication, atomoxetine (ATO), are two monotherapies that have been shown to suppress reinstatement of cocaine seeking in an animal model of relapse. The present study investigated the effects of combining wheel running and ATO vs. each treatment alone on cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine and cocaine-paired cues in rats with differing susceptibility to drug abuse (i.e., high vs. low impulsive). METHODS Rats were screened for high (HiI) or low impulsivity (LoI) based on their performance on a delay-discounting task and then trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) for 10 days. Following 14 days of extinction, both groups were tested for reinstatement of cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine or cocaine-paired cues in the presence of concurrent running wheel access (W), pretreatment with ATO, or both (W+ATO). RESULTS HiI rats acquired cocaine self-administration more quickly than LoI rats. While both individual treatments and W+ATO significantly attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking in HiI and LoI rats, only W+ATO was effective in reducing cocaine-induced reinstatement compared to vehicle treatment. There were dose-dependent and phenotype-specific effects of ATO with HiI rats responsive to the low but not high ATO dose. Floor effects of ATO and W on cue-induced reinstatement prevented the assessment of combined treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrated greater attenuation of cue- vs. cocaine-induced reinstatement by ATO and W alone and recapitulate impulsivity phenotype differences in both acquisition of cocaine self-administration and receptivity to treatment. PMID:25258161

  4. Drosophila atonal fully rescues the phenotype of Math1 null mice: new functions evolve in new cellular contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Vincent Y.; Hassan, Bassem A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2002-01-01

    Many genes share sequence similarity between species, but their properties often change significantly during evolution. For example, the Drosophila genes engrailed and orthodenticle and the onychophoran gene Ultrabithorax only partially substitute for their mouse or Drosophila homologs. We have been analyzing the relationship between atonal (ato) in the fruit fly and its mouse homolog, Math1. In flies, ato acts as a proneural gene that governs the development of chordotonal organs (CHOs), which serve as stretch receptors in the body wall and joints and as auditory organs in the antennae. In the fly CNS, ato is important not for specification but for axonal arborization. Math1, in contrast, is required for the specification of cells in both the CNS and the PNS. Furthermore, Math1 serves a role in the development of secretory lineage cells in the gut, a function that does not parallel any known to be served by ato. We wondered whether ato and Math1 might be more functionally homologous than they appear, so we expressed Math1 in ato mutant flies and ato in Math1 null mice. To our surprise, the two proteins are functionally interchangeable.

  5. Arsenic trioxide suppresses transcription of hTERT through down-regulation of multiple transcription factors in HL-60 leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Sun, Miao; Shi, Weiwei; Yang, Qingling; Chen, Changjie; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-22

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is largely caused by the t(15,17) chromosome translocation, leading to the production of the PML/retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), as a monotherapy or combination therapy, have been successfully used to treat APL primarily by targeting the degradation of the fusion protein. We previously observed that ATO treatment induced cell death in APL cell line HL-60 accompanied by inhibition of the human telomere reverse transcriptase (hTERT) activity, a critical enzyme responsible for the control of cell replication and transformation in cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism by which hTERT activity is inhibited by ATO in HL-60 cells. Our results showed that ATO down-regulated the expression of hTERT at both mRNA and protein levels. Further molecular analysis revealed that the expression of four transcription factors Sp1, c-Myc, NF-κB and USF2, which are located in the proximate promoter region (-1126 to -47) of hTERT, was also suppressed by ATO. Notably, we observed that down-regulation of these four factors by their siRNAs potentiates ATO-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Therefore, our results provide a novel mechanism of action of ATO for the treatment of APL. PMID:25436934

  6. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  7. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  8. Proneural and Abdominal Hox Inputs Synergize to Promote Sensory Organ Formation in the Drosophila Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Gutzwiller, Lisa M.; Witt, Lorraine M.; Gresser, Amy L.; Burns, Kevin A.; Cook, Tiffany A.; Gebelein, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The atonal (ato) proneural gene specifies a stereotypic number of sensory organ precursors (SOP) within each body segment of the Drosophila ectoderm. Surprisingly, the broad expression of Ato within the ectoderm results in only a modest increase in SOP formation, suggesting many cells are incompetent to become SOPs. Here, we show that the SOP promoting activity of Ato can be greatly enhanced by three factors: the Senseless (Sens) zinc finger protein, the Abdominal-A (Abd-A) Hox factor, and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. First, we show that expression of either Ato alone or with Sens induces twice as many SOPs in the abdomen as in the thorax, and do so at the expense of an abdomen-specific cell fate: the larval oenocytes. Second, we demonstrate that Ato stimulates abdominal SOP formation by synergizing with Abd-A to promote EGF ligand (Spitz) secretion and secondary SOP recruitment. However, we also found that Ato and Sens selectively enhance abdominal SOP development in a Spitz-independent manner, suggesting additional genetic interactions between this proneural pathway and Abd-A. Altogether, these experiments reveal that genetic interactions between EGF-signaling, Abd-A, and Sens enhance the SOP-promoting activity of Ato to stimulate region-specific neurogenesis in the Drosophila abdomen. PMID:20875816

  9. Endoscopic versus transcranial procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: a prospective double-blind randomized controlled audit.

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) have proven their use over many decades in tympanoplasty and reconstruction after resection of cholesteatoma. The transcranial bone plug technique has been used in the past 50 years to procure en bloc ATOS (tympanic membrane with malleus, incus and stapes attached). Recently, our group reported the feasibility of the endoscopic procurement technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical outcome is equivalent in ATOS acquired by using the endoscopic procurement technique compared to ATOS acquired by using the transcranial technique. A double-blind randomized controlled audit was performed in a tertiary referral center in patients that underwent allograft tympanoplasty because of chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma. Allograft epithelialisation was evaluated at the short-term postoperative visit by microscopic examination. Failures were reported if reperforation was observed. Fifty patients underwent allograft tympanoplasty: 34 received endoscopically procured ATOS and 16 received transcranially procured ATOS. One failed case was observed, in the endoscopic procurement group. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the two groups in failure rate. This study demonstrates equivalence of the clinical outcome of allograft tympanoplasty using either endoscopic or transcranial procured ATOS and therefore indicates that the endoscopic technique can be considered the new standard procurement technique. Especially because the endoscopic procurement technique has several advantages compared to the former transcranial procurement technique: it avoids risk of prion transmission and it is faster while lacking any noticeable incision. PMID:26342932

  10. Arsenic Trioxide Activate Transcription of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Promoting Nuclear Translocation of NFE2L2

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhen; Zhong, Lingzhi; Mou, Yan; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Haiying; Wang, Yang; Xia, Jianxin; Li, Ronggui; Wang, Zonggui

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that induced expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO). The present study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of HO-1 that occurs after exposure of MG63 cells to ATO. First, using RT-QPCT and Western-blot, we found that ATO strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in these human osteosarcoma cells. Then by analyzing HO-1 mRNA of MG63 cells exposed to ATO in the presence and absence of a transcription inhibitor Actinomycin-D (Act-D), we demonstrated that ATO activates HO-1 expression in MG63 cells by regulating the transcription of the gene. Finally, through the analysis of the NFE2L2 protein levels among the total cellular and nuclear proteins by Western-blot and Immunocytochemical staning, we determined that ATO enhanced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as Nrf2. From these results we have concluded that transcription activation of HO-1 resulting from the nuclear translocation of NFE2L2 is the underlying molecular mechanism for its high induction, which, in turn, is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma cells to ATO treatment. PMID:26283888

  11. Use of Arsenic Trioxide as an Antivascular and Thermosensitizing Agent in Solid Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Robert J; Lee, Sang H; Rood, Kelly L; Stewart, Michael J; Lyons, John C; Lew, Young S; Park, Heonjoo; Song, Chang W

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Arsenic trioxide, As2O3 (ATO), has been found to be an effective chemotherapy drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia but its effect on solid tumors has not been fully explored. In the present report, we describe our observation that ATO is a potent antivascular agent and that it markedly enhances the effect of hyperthermia on tumors. The tumor blood perfusion in SCK tumors of A/J mice and FSall tumors of C3H mice was significantly suppressed for up to 24 hours after an i.p. injection of 8 mg/kg ATO. ATO was also found to be able to increase the thermosensitivity of tumor cells in vitro. As a probable consequence of these effects, ATO treatment markedly increased the tumor growth delay caused by hyperthermia at 41.5–42.5°C. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue revealed that the expression levels of several adhesion molecules and TNFα are noticeably increased in tumors 2–6 hours after systemic ATO treatment. It is concluded that ATO is potentially useful to enhance the effect of hyperthermia on tumors at a clinically relevant temperature. PMID:11228548

  12. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers as potential drug delivery systems: Drug release kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Magdalena; Pawlik, Anna; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2016-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil were prepared via a three step anodization process in an electrolyte based on an ethylene glycol solution with fluoride ions. Some of the ATO samples were heat-treated in order to achieve two different crystallographic structures - anatase (400°C) and a mixture of anatase and rutile (600°C). The structural and morphological characterizations of ATO layers were performed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrophilicity of ATO layers was determined with contact angle measurements using distilled water. Ibuprofen and gentamicin were loaded effectively inside the ATO nanopores. Afterwards, an in vitro drug release was conducted for 24h under a static and dynamic flow conditions in a phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. The drug concentrations were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The absorbance of ibuprofen was measured directly at 222nm, whether gentamicin was determined as a complex with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 394nm. Both compounds exhibited long term release profiles, despite the ATO structure. A new release model, based on the desorption of the drug from the ATO top surface followed by the desorption and diffusion of the drug from the nanopores, was derived. The proposed release model was fitted to the experimental drug release profiles, and kinetic parameters were calculated. PMID:27037782

  13. Effect of Sb Segregation on Conductance and Catalytic Activity at Pt/Sb-Doped SnO2 Interface: A Synergetic Computational and Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Colmenares Rausseo, Luis César; Martinez, Umberto; Dahl, Paul Inge; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Vullum, Per Erik; Svenum, Ingeborg-Helene; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-12-23

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide (ATO) is considered a promising support material for Pt-based fuel cell cathodes, displaying enhanced stability over carbon-based supports. In this work, the effect of Sb segregation on the conductance and catalytic activity at Pt/ATO interface was investigated through a combined computational and experimental study. It was found that Sb-dopant atoms prefer to segregate toward the ATO/Pt interface. The deposited Pt catalysts, interestingly, not only promote Sb segregation, but also suppress the occurrence of Sb(3+) species, a charge carrier neutralizer at the interface. The conductivity of ATO was found to increase, to a magnitude close to that of activated carbon, with an increment of Sb concentration before reaching a saturation point around 10%, and then decrease, indicating that Sb enrichment at the ATO surface may not always favor an increment of the electric current. In addition, the calculation results show that the presence of Sb dopants in ATO has little effect on the catalytic activity of deposited three-layer Pt toward the oxygen reduction reaction, although subsequent alloying of Pt and Sb could lower the corresponding catalytic activity. These findings help to support future applications of ATO/Pt-based materials as possible cathodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications with enhanced durability under practical applications. PMID:26615834

  14. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, J. Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.; Guillén, C.; Herrero, J.

    2014-04-21

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  15. Alterations in Glutathione Levels and Apoptotic Regulators Are Associated with Acquisition of Arsenic Trioxide Resistance in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Yehiayan, Lucy; Lee, Kelvin P.; Cai, Yong; Boise, Lawrence H.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been tested in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma with limited success. In order to better understand drug mechanism and resistance pathways in myeloma we generated an ATO-resistant cell line, 8226/S-ATOR05, with an IC50 that is 2–3-fold higher than control cell lines and significantly higher than clinically achievable concentrations. Interestingly we found two parallel pathways governing resistance to ATO in 8226/S-ATOR05, and the relevance of these pathways appears to be linked to the concentration of ATO used. We found changes in the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins Bfl-1 and Noxa as well as an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) levels. At low, clinically achievable concentrations, resistance was primarily associated with an increase in expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bfl-1 and a decrease in expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa. However, as the concentration of ATO increased, elevated levels of intracellular GSH in 8226/S-ATOR05 became the primary mechanism of ATO resistance. Removal of arsenic selection resulted in a loss of the resistance phenotype, with cells becoming sensitive to high concentrations of ATO within 7 days following drug removal, indicating changes associated with high level resistance (elevated GSH) are dependent upon the presence of arsenic. Conversely, not until 50 days without arsenic did cells once again become sensitive to clinically relevant doses of ATO, coinciding with a decrease in the expression of Bfl-1. In addition we found cross-resistance to melphalan and doxorubicin in 8226/S-ATOR05, suggesting ATO-resistance pathways may also be involved in resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:23285138

  16. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  17. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors. PMID:26743814

  18. Curcumin reduces the expression of survivin, leading to enhancement of arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yingjian; Weng, Guangyang; Fan, Jiaxin; Li, Zhangqiu; Wu, Jianwei; Li, Yuanming; Zheng, Rong; Xia, Pingfang; Guo, Kunyuan

    2016-09-01

    Low response, treatment-related complications and relapse due to the low sensitivity of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) or pre‑LSCs to arsenic trioxide (ATO), represent the main problems following treatment with ATO alone in patients with MDS. To solve these problems, a chemosensitization agent can be applied to increase the susceptibility of these cells to ATO. Curcumin (CUR), which possesses a wide range of anticancer activities, is a commonly used chemosensitization agent for various types of tumors, including hematopoietic malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects and potential mechanisms in MDS-SKM-1 and leukemia stem-like KG1a cells treated with CUR and ATO alone or in combination. CUR and ATO exhibited growth inhibition detected by MTT assays and apoptosis analyzed by Annexin V/PI analyses in both SKM-1 and KG1a cells. Apoptosis of SKM-1 and KG1a cells determined by Annexin V/PI was significantly enhanced in the combination groups compared with the groups treated with either agent alone. Further evaluation was performed by western blotting for two hallmark markers of apoptosis, caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. Co-treatment of the cells with CUR and ATO resulted in significant synergistic effects. In SKM-1 and KG1a cells, 31 and 13 proteins analyzed by protein array assays were modulated, respectively. Notably, survivin protein expression levels were downregulated in both cell lines treated with CUR alone and in combination with ATO, particularly in the latter case. Susceptibility to apoptosis was significantly increased in SKM-1 and KG1a cells treated with siRNA-survivin and ATO. These results suggested that CUR increased the sensitivity of SKM-1 and KG1a cells to ATO by downregulating the expression of survivin. PMID:27430728

  19. Curcumin reduces the expression of survivin, leading to enhancement of arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yingjian; Weng, Guangyang; Fan, Jiaxin; Li, Zhangqiu; Wu, Jianwei; Li, Yuanming; Zheng, Rong; Xia, Pingfang; Guo, Kunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Low response, treatment-related complications and relapse due to the low sensitivity of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) or pre-LSCs to arsenic trioxide (ATO), represent the main problems following treatment with ATO alone in patients with MDS. To solve these problems, a chemosensitization agent can be applied to increase the susceptibility of these cells to ATO. Curcumin (CUR), which possesses a wide range of anticancer activities, is a commonly used chemosensitization agent for various types of tumors, including hematopoietic malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects and potential mechanisms in MDS-SKM-1 and leukemia stem-like KG1a cells treated with CUR and ATO alone or in combination. CUR and ATO exhibited growth inhibition detected by MTT assays and apoptosis analyzed by Annexin V/PI analyses in both SKM-1 and KG1a cells. Apoptosis of SKM-1 and KG1a cells determined by Annexin V/PI was significantly enhanced in the combination groups compared with the groups treated with either agent alone. Further evaluation was performed by western blotting for two hallmark markers of apoptosis, caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. Co-treatment of the cells with CUR and ATO resulted in significant synergistic effects. In SKM-1 and KG1a cells, 31 and 13 proteins analyzed by protein array assays were modulated, respectively. Notably, survivin protein expression levels were downregulated in both cell lines treated with CUR alone and in combination with ATO, particularly in the latter case. Susceptibility to apoptosis was significantly increased in SKM-1 and KG1a cells treated with siRNA-survivin and ATO. These results suggested that CUR increased the sensitivity of SKM-1 and KG1a cells to ATO by downregulating the expression of survivin. PMID:27430728

  20. A Multi-Operator Simulation for Investigation of Distributed Air Traffic Management Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mark E.; Ballin, Mark G.; Sakosky, John S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the current development of an air traffic operations simulation that supports feasibility research for advanced air traffic management concepts. The Air Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) supports the research of future concepts that provide a much greater role for the flight crew in traffic management decision-making. ATOS provides representations of the future communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure, a future flight deck systems architecture, and advanced crew interfaces. ATOS also provides a platform for the development of advanced flight guidance and decision support systems that may be required for autonomous operations.

  1. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  2. Geoquímica orgánica de los carbones de fila maestra, estado anzoátegui, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, O.; Martinezy, M.; Escobar, M.

    1995-04-01

    The vertical and lateral variability of organic geochemical parameters was established for the Seam 4 of the Fila Maestra coal deposit (Quebradon Formation, Oligocene-Early Miocene age) through the study of coals and carbonaceous shales collected in different outcrops of the coal seam. Chemical and physical analysis included moisture and ash contents, maceral groups, vitrinite reflectance, total carbon, bitumen and its fractions, as well as characterization of saturated hydrocarbons by gas chromatography ( n-alkane distributions and {pristane}/{phytane} ratios). A production sample, representative of the Seam 4, was further analyzed for S, Cl, C, H, O and its calorific value determined. The data collected allowed us to classify these samples as high-volatile bituminous coals, types B and C, according to ASTM classification. The results of the analysis showed little vertical or lateral variation in the properties studied. A gradual increase in ash content in the westward direction, together with a thinning of the coal seam, suggest a greater proximity of the basin border in this direction. High values in {pristane}/{phytane} ratio (4-7), predominance of heavy alkanes and high contents in vitrinites clearly indicates that primigenic organic matter was essentially continental in character. However, the bimodal n-alkane distribution, together with a nigh sulfur (2.7%) and chlorine (0.12%) contents suggest a marine-influenced environment. In consequence, it is proposed that these coals were formed in a transitional environment, as salt-marshs in coastal lagoons or in low deltaic plains. These results are in agreement with the stratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary unit.

  3. Bienvenido a los Estados Unidos. Una Guia para Refugiados (Welcome to the United States. A Guide for Refugees). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic and Social Research Council, Edinburgh (Scotland). Centre for Educational Sociology.

    This guidebook provides Spanish-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. This is the Spanish version, and is available in several other languages. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies,…

  4. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  5. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  6. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  7. Rutinas para reducción de observaciones polarimétricas: evolución y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    I briefly review the evolution experimented by the software for reduction of observational data obtained with the CasProf photopolarimeter, ten years after its "first light" at the Jorge Sahade telescope. Our original routines for the calculation of Stokes parameters were complemented with new ones used to improve the quality of our results, and to adapt the software to different needs, in particular, to obtain polarimetric variability curves (applied to blazar studies). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  9. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  10. Guia para su incorporacion a los Estados Unidos de America (A Guide to Resettlement in the United States. Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'…

  11. Optically transparent conductive network formation induced by solvent evaporation from tin-oxide-nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Atsumi; Sasakawa, Yuki; Dobashi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takao

    2007-07-17

    This investigation describes an optically transparent antistatic film composed of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix, with remarkably improved electrical and optical properties. The film is fabricated on the basis of a synergistic interaction between self-assembling nanoparticles and self-organizing matrix materials. The antistatic property of the film is obtained at ATO concentrations above a threshold value. A scaling analysis of the data yields an extremely low critical concentration (0.0020 volume fraction), which is considerably lower than the value predicted by percolation theory. Microscopic observations of the film have revealed a characteristic microstructure: "single-stranded" chainlike (linear form or fibrous) aggregates consisting of ATO nanoparticles and large ATO-depleted areas. The experiment results suggest that the high optical transparency and the low critical concentration are derived from the characteristic microstructures of the film. PMID:17579465

  12. Downregulation of B7-H4 in the MHCC97-H hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by arsenic trioxide

    PubMed Central

    CUI, LIMING; GAO, BO; CAO, ZHIGANG; CHEN, XIAOYING; ZHANG, SHIDE; ZHANG, WEIZHE

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3; ATO), a compound which is characterized by its ability to function as a potent anticancer agent, has been investigated in a variety of carcinomas. B7-H4, a transmembrane protein, may inhibit the function of the T cell effector, and therefore, may be useful in investigating different types of tumor therapies. However, few studies have been published previously associated with the roles of ATO and B7-H4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-invasive role of ATO in HCC, to determine the effect of ATO treatment on the expression of B7-H4 and to further assess the possible underlying mechanisms. Following treatment of the cells with 2, 4 and 8 µM ATO for 48 h, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell and western blot assays were used to determine the extent of human MHCC97-H HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and B7-H4 expression, respectively. The results revealed that 1 µM ATO markedly decreased cellular proliferation, and ATO administered at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 µM markedly inhibited the migration and invasion of the human MHCC97-H HCC cell line. The expression of B7-H4 in the treatment groups was markedly reduced. Signal transduction mediated via the Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 pathway was inhibited upon treatment with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 µM ATO. Additionally, the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor were markedly reduced in HCC cells upon treatment with ATO. In conclusion, ATO may reduce the protein expression levels of B7-H4 in MHCC97-H HCC cells, and further affected HCC tumorigenesis and progression. ATO may be a putative agent for the development of therapeutic strategies against human liver cancer. PMID:26781180

  13. Disaggregation of legacy soil data using area to point kriging for mapping soil organic carbon at the regional scale

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Rawlins, Barry G.; Marchant, Ben P.

    2015-01-01

    Legacy data in the form of soil maps, which often have typical property measurements associated with each polygon, can be an important source of information for digital soil mapping (DSM). Methods of disaggregating such information and using it for quantitative estimation of soil properties by methods such as regression kriging (RK) are needed. Several disaggregation processes have been investigated; preferred methods include those which include consideration of scorpan factors and those which are mass preserving (pycnophylactic) making transitions between different scales of investigation more theoretically sound. Area to point kriging (AtoP kriging) is pycnophylactic and here we investigate its merits for disaggregating legacy data from soil polygon maps. Area to point regression kriging (AtoP RK) which incorporates ancillary data into the disaggre-gation process was also applied. The AtoP kriging and AtoP RK approaches do not involve collection of new soil measurements and are compared with disaggregation by simple rasterization. Of the disaggregation methods investigated, AtoP RK gave the most accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations (smaller mean absolute errors (MAEs) of cross-validation) for disaggregation of soil polygon data across the whole of Northern Ireland. Legacy soil polygon data disaggregated by AtoP kriging and simple rasterization were used in a RK framework for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations across the whole of Northern Ireland, using soil sample data from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and with other covariates (altitude and airborne radiometric potassium). This allowed direct comparison with previous analysis of the Tellus survey data. Incorporating the legacy data, whether from simple rasterization of the polygons or AtoP kriging, substantially reduced the MAEs of RK compared with previous analyses of the Tellus data. However, using legacy data disaggregated by AtoP kriging in RK resulted in

  14. Increased apoptotic efficacy of lonidamine plus arsenic trioxide combination in human leukemia cells. Reactive oxygen species generation and defensive protein kinase (MEK/ERK, Akt/mTOR) modulation.

    PubMed

    Calviño, Eva; Estañ, María Cristina; Simón, Gloria P; Sancho, Pilar; Boyano-Adánez, María del Carmen; de Blas, Elena; Bréard, Jacqueline; Aller, Patricio

    2011-12-01

    Lonidamine is a safe, clinically useful anti-tumor drug, but its efficacy is generally low when used in monotherapy. We here demonstrate that lonidamine efficaciously cooperates with the anti-leukemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox) to induce apoptosis in HL-60 and other human leukemia cell lines, with low toxicity in non-tumor peripheral blood lymphocytes. Apoptosis induction by lonidamine/ATO involves mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by early mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and late mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, as well as activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as indicated by Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1 down-regulation, Bax translocation to mitochondria, cytochrome c and Omi/HtrA2 release to the cytosol, XIAP down-regulation, and caspase-9 and -3 cleavage/activation, with secondary (Bcl-2-inhibitable) activation of the caspase-8/Bid axis. Lonidamine stimulates reactive oxygen species production, and lonidamine/ATO toxicity is attenuated by antioxidants. Lonidamine/ATO stimulates JNK phosphorylation/activation, and apoptosis is attenuated by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. In addition, lonidamine elicits ERK and Akt/mTOR pathway activation, as indicated by increased ERK, Akt, p70S6K and rpS6 phosphorylation, and these effects are reduced by co-treatment with ATO. Importantly, co-treatment with MEK/ERK inhibitor (U0126) and PI3K/Akt (LY294002) or mTOR (rapamycin) inhibitors, instead of ATO, also potentiates lonidamine-provoked apoptosis. These results indicate that: (i) lonidamine efficacy is restrained by drug-provoked activation of MEK/ERK and Akt/mTOR defensive pathways, which therefore represent potential therapeutic targets. (ii) Co-treatment with ATO efficaciously potentiates lonidamine toxicity via defensive pathway inhibition and JNK activation. And (iii) conversely, the pro-oxidant action of lonidamine potentiates the apoptotic efficacy of ATO as an anti-leukemic agent. PMID:21889928

  15. E2F1 downregulation by arsenic trioxide in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sze-Kwan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Chun-Yan; Leung, Leanne Lee; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2014-11-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Nonetheless preliminary data have suggested potential activity of ATO in solid tumors including lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the underlying mechanisms of ATO in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. Using a panel of 7 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, the effects of ATO treatment on cell viability, expression of E2F1 and its downstream targets, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and alteration of apoptotic/anti-apoptotic factors were studied. Tumor growth inhibition in vivo was investigated using a nude mouse xenograft model. ATO decreased cell viability with clinically achievable concentrations (8 µM) in all cell lines investigated. This was accompanied by reduced expression of E2F1, cyclin A2, skp2, c-myc, thymidine kinase and ribonucleotide reductase M1, while p-c-Jun was upregulated. Cell viability was significantly decreased with E2F1 knockdown. Treatment with ATO resulted in phosphatidylserine externalization in H23 cells and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in all cell lines, associated with truncation of Bid, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and Bak, caspase-9 and -3 activation and PARP cleavage. Using the H358 xenograft model, the tumor growth was suppressed in the ATO treatment group during 8 days of treatment, associated with downregulation of E2F1 and upregulation of truncated Bid and cleaved caspase-3. In conclusion, ATO has potent in vitro and in vivo activity in lung adenocarcinoma, partially mediated through E2F1 downregulation and apoptosis. PMID:25174355

  16. Downregulation of thymidylate synthase with arsenic trioxide in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sze-Kwan; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Zheng, Chun-Yan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Kwong, Yok-Lam; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2014-06-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an important chemotherapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to suppress TYMS in a colonic cancer model. We examined the effects of TYMS suppression by ATO in lung adenocarcinoma. A panel of 4 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines was used to determine the effects of ATO treatment on cell viability, TYMS expression (protein and mRNA), E2F1 protein expression and TYMS activity. TYMS knockdown and overexpression were performed. Tumor growth inhibition in vivo was studied using a nude mouse xenograft model. ATO showed antiproliferative effects with clinically achievable concentrations (around 1.1-6.9 µM) in 4 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Downregulation of TYMS protein and mRNA expression, reduced TYMS activity, and suppressed E2F1 expression were demonstrated in lung adenocarcinoma with ATO. Cell viability was reduced by 15-50% with TYMS knockdown. Overexpression of TYMS led to a 2.7-fold increase in IC50 value with ATO treatment in H358 cells, but not in H23 cells. Using a xenograft model with H358 cell line, relative tumor volume was reduced to 44% that of the control following 8 days of treatment with 7.5 mg/kg ATO, and associated with significant downregulation of TYMS protein expression. In conclusion, ATO has potent in vitro and in vivo activity in lung adenocarcinoma, and is partially mediated by transcriptional downregulation of TYMS. PMID:24691991

  17. Activation of the p38 MAPK/Akt/ERK1/2 signal pathways is required for the protein stabilization of CDC6 and cyclin D1 in low-dose arsenite-induced cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youhong; Hock, Janet M; Sullivan, Con; Fang, Geying; Cox, Allison J; Davis, Kathleen T; Davis, Bruce H; Li, Xiong

    2010-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a first-line anti-cancer agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia, and induces apoptosis in other solid cancer cell lines including breast cancer cells. However, as with arsenites found in drinking water and used as raw materials for wood preservatives, insecticides, and herbicides, low doses of ATO can induce carcinogenesis after long-term exposure. At 24 h after exposure, ATO (0.01-1 µM) significantly increased cell proliferation and promoted cell cycle progression from the G1 to S/G2 phases in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A breast epithelial cell line. The expression of 14 out of 96 cell-cycle-associated genes significantly increased, and seven of these genes including cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) were closely related to cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Low-dose ATO steadily increased gene transcript and protein levels of both CDC6 and cyclin D1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Low-dose ATO produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activated the p38 MAPK, Akt, and ERK1/2 pathways at different time points within 60 min. Small molecular inhibitors and siRNAs inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK, Akt, and ERK1/2 decreased the ATO-increased expression of CDC6 protein. Inhibiting the activation of Akt and ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK, decreased the ATO-induced expression of cyclin D1 protein. This study reports for the first time that p38 MAPK/Akt/ERK1/2 activation is required for the protein stabilization of CDC6 in addition to cyclin D1 in ATO-induced cell proliferation and cell cycle modulation from G1 to S phase. PMID:20862710

  18. Carnosic Acid-combined Arsenic Trioxide Antileukaemia Cells in the Establishment of NB4/SCID Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li; Ran, Wang; Xiang-Xin, Li; Lu-Qun, Wang; Xiao-Ning, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Despite great improvement in the treatment outcome of APL, treatment failure still sometimes occurs due to the toxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO). Damage to the heart and liver often occurs even when the dose is lower than the therapeutic dose. Based on the results of cell experiments in vitro in this study, we investigated the synergistic activity of carnosic acid (CA) combined with ATO in the SCID mouse model of human promyelocytic leukaemia in vivo. A NB4/SCID mouse model was established in this study. The NB4/SCID mice were randomly divided into three treatment groups (CA alone, ATO alone and CA combined with ATO) and a control group based on factorial design. The evaluation indicators of the curative effect of the drugs included expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The survival time was compared between the four groups. The results indicated that verification of the NB4/SCID mouse model was confirmed by histopathological examination. Compared with mice treated by CA or ATO alone, the mice in the combination of CA and ATO group had a higher rate of apoptosis, which was linked with expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins. Also, the mice with the longest survival time were those treated with the combination of CA and ATO. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that CA and ATO in combination have strong synergistic antileukaemic effects on cell activity. PMID:26998898

  19. Origin of leakage paths driven by electric fields in Al-doped TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Su; Park, Seong Yong; Heo, Sung; Kwon, Ohseong; Cho, Kyuho; Han, Kwan-Young; Kang, Sung Jin; Yoon, Aram; Kim, Miyoung

    2014-12-23

    The growth of leakage current paths in Al-doped TiO2 (ATO) films is observed by in situ TEM under negative bias stress. Through systematic HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDS, and STEM-EELS studies, it is confirmed that the electric field-induced growth of the Ru-doped TiO2 phase is the main reason for the ATO film's negative leakage. PMID:25366700

  20. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  1. Sex differences in endothelial function of aged hypertriglyceridemic rats – effect of atorvastatin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bacova, Barbora; Vlkovicova, Jana; Navarova, Jana; Tribulova, Narcis

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of atorvastatin on endothelium-dependent relaxation of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) may differ in male vs. female aged hypertriglyceridemic rats (HTGs). Experiments were performed on 11-month-old male and female Prague hereditary HTGs. Atorvastatin (ATO) was administered p.o. in the dose of 0.30 mg/100g/day. Controls received vehiculum. After two months of ATO administration blood pressure, serum triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (CHOL) were determined. Endothelial function of SMA was studied in vitro using evaluation of relaxant responses of precontracted SMA to acetylcholine. The serum TG of control male HTGs were found to be statistically higher than those of female controls, while CHOL and blood pressure did not share gender differences. Responses of SMA of female control HTGs were statistically decreased compared to their male counterparts. ATO treatment induced decrease in blood pressure and TG of both males and females, yet CHOL values were reduced only in females. The protective effect of ATO on SMA endothelial function was much more pronounced in females compared to males. We conclude that vascular endothelial dysfunction of aged HTG rats is more severe and more attenuated by ATO in females compared to males. The protective effect of ATO on vascular endothelial function does not seem to depend solely on its lipid lowering action. PMID:23554556

  2. Arsenic trioxide enhances the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    KOTOWSKI, ULANA; HEIDUSCHKA, GREGOR; BRUNNER, MARKUS; EROVIC, BOBAN M.; MARTINEK, HELGA; THURNHER, DIETMAR

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved for the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether ATO would lead to cell death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and whether it was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin, a standard chemotherapeutic agent. The four HNSCC cell lines SCC9, SCC25, CAL27 and FADU were treated with ATO or cisplatin alone or with ATO and cisplatin in combination. Cytotoxicity assays, immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and flow cytometry were carried out. Possible interactions between the two drugs were calculated using the Chou-Talalay equation. Ther results demonstrated a synergistic cytotoxic effect of the combination of ATO and cisplatin at high doses. The two agents induced apoptosis in all four HNSCC cell lines. In conclusion, this study showed that ATO is a promising therapeutic drug with cytotoxic effects in HNSCC. We demonstrated a synergistic effect in the combined treatment with cisplatin at high doses. PMID:22783443

  3. Arsenic trioxide-based therapy in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Xuepeng; Yang, Kai; Chen, Peng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Fang; Guo, Zhi; Liu, Xiaodong; Lou, Jinxing; Chen, Huiren

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal malignancy characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. Although some newly approved drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib) demonstrate significant benefit for MM patients with improved survival, all MM patients still relapse. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is the most active single agent in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the antitumor activity of which is partly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species. Due to its multifaceted effects observed on MM cell lines and primary myeloma cells, Phase I/II trials have been conducted in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory MM. Therapy regimens varied dramatically as to the dosage of ATO and monotherapy versus combination therapy with other agents available for the treatment of MM. Although ATO-based combination treatment was well tolerated by most patients, most trials found that ATO has limited effects on MM patients. However, since small numbers of patients were randomized to different treatment arms, trials have not been statistically powered to determine the differences in progression-free survival and overall survival among the experimental arms. Therefore, large Phase III studies of ATO-based randomized controlled trials will be needed to establish whether ATO has any potential beneficial effects in the clinical setting. PMID:25246802

  4. Melatonin enhances arsenic trioxide-induced cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun-Mi; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Oh, Sang Taek; Hong, Sung-Eun; Choe, Tae-Boo; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Seong, Min Ki; Kim, Hyun-A; Noh, Woo Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2016-02-15

    Melatonin is implicated in various physiological functions, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism(s) of its anticancer activity is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of melatonin and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on cell death in human breast cancer cells. Melatonin enhanced the ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via changes in the protein levels of Survivin, Bcl-2, and Bax, thus affecting cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, we found that the cell death induced by co-treatment with melatonin and ATO was mediated by sustained upregulation of Redd1, which was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Combined treatment with melatonin and ATO induced the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase downstream from Redd1 expression. Rapamycin and S6K1 siRNA enhanced, while activation of mTORC1 by transfection with TSC2 siRNA suppressed the cell death induced by melatonin and ATO treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that melatonin enhances ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression and inhibition of mTORC1 upstream of the activation of the p38/JNK pathways in human breast cancer cells. PMID:26607805

  5. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids attenuate reactive oxygen species level, mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation, and apoptosis in carcinoma cells treated with arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu; Chen, Chen; Gong, Wei; Li, Yuanjing; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Wang, Dao Wen

    2011-11-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase CYP2J2 promote tumorogenesis in vivo and in vitro via direct stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis. Herein, we describe a novel mechanism of inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis by EETs. In Tca-8113 cancer cells, the antileukemia drug arsenic trioxide (ATO) led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired mitochondrial function, and induced apoptosis. 11,12-EET pretreatment increased expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and inhibited ATO-induced apoptosis. 11,12-EET also prevented the ATO-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, caspase-3, and caspase-9. Therefore, 11,12-EET-pretreatment attenuated the ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial function, and caspase activation observed after ATO treatment. Moreover, the CYP2J2-specific inhibitor compound 26 enhanced arsenic cytotoxicity to a clinically relevant concentration of ATO (1-2 μM). Both the thiol-containing antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine, and 11,12-EET reversed the synergistic effect of the two agents. Taken together, these data indicate that 11,12-EET inhibits apoptosis induced by ATO through a mechanism that involves induction of antioxidant proteins and attenuation of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21846841

  6. Morphine Attenuated the Cytotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Momeny, Majid; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Khedri, Mostafa; Jahanabadi, Samane; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an efficient drug for the treatment of the patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptosis, attenuation of migration, and induction of differentiation in tumor cells are the main mechanisms through which ATO acts against APL. Despite advantages of ATO in treatment of some malignancies, certain harmful side effects, such as cardiotoxicity, have been reported. It has been well documented that morphine has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cytoprotective properties and is able to attenuate cytotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of morphine against ATO toxicity in H9c2 myocytes using multi-parametric assay including thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase 3 activity, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation assay, and expression of apoptotic markers. Our results showed that morphine (1 μM) attenuated cytotoxicity induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Results of this study suggest that morphine may have protective properties in management of cardiac toxicity in patients who receive ATO as an anti-cancer treatment. PMID:26815588

  7. Arsenic Trioxide Induces Apoptosis and Incapacitates Proliferation and Invasive Properties of U87MG Glioblastoma Cells through a Possible NF-κB-Mediated Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Seyed H; Yousefi, Meysam; Dizaji, Majid Zaki; Momeny, Majid; Bashash, Davood; Zekri, Ali; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2016-01-01

    Identification of novel therapeutics in glioblastoma remains crucial due to the devastating and infiltrative capacity of this malignancy. The current study was aimed to appraise effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in U87MG cells. The results demonstrated that ATO induced apoptosis and impeded proliferation of U87MG cells in a dosedependent manner and also inhibited classical NF-κB signaling pathway. ATO further upregulated expression of Bax as an important proapoptotic target of NF-κB and also inhibited mRNA expression of survivin, c-Myc and hTERT and suppressed telomerase activity. Moreover, ATO significantly increased adhesion of U87MG cells and also diminished transcription of NF-κB down-stream targets involved in cell migration and invasion, including cathepsin B, uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14 and suppressed proteolytic activity of cathepsin B, MMP-2 and MMP-9, demonstrating a possible mechanism of ATO effect on a well-known signaling in glioblastoma dissemination. Taken together, here we suggest that ATO inhibits survival and invasion of U87MG cells possibly through NF-κB-mediated inhibition of survivin and telomerase activity and NF-κB-dependent suppression of cathepsin B, MMP-2 and MMP-9. PMID:27039805

  8. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid target NPM1 mutant oncoprotein levels and induce apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cells.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Maria Paola; Gionfriddo, Ilaria; Mezzasoma, Federica; Milano, Francesca; Pierangeli, Sara; Mulas, Floriana; Pacini, Roberta; Tabarrini, Alessia; Pettirossi, Valentina; Rossi, Roberta; Vetro, Calogero; Brunetti, Lorenzo; Sportoletti, Paolo; Tiacci, Enrico; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Falini, Brunangelo

    2015-05-28

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations represent an attractive therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) because they are common (∼30% AML), stable, and behave as a founder genetic lesion. Oncoprotein targeting can be a successful strategy to treat AML, as proved in acute promyelocytic leukemia by treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO), which degrade the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor fusion protein. Adjunct of ATRA to chemotherapy was reported to be beneficial for NPM1-mutated AML patients. Leukemic cells with NPM1 mutation also showed sensibility to ATO in vitro. Here, we explore the mechanisms underlying these observations and show that ATO/ATRA induce proteasome-dependent degradation of NPM1 leukemic protein and apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cell lines and primary patients' cells. We also show that PML intracellular distribution is altered in NPM1-mutated AML cells and reverted by arsenic through oxidative stress induction. Interestingly, similarly to what was described for PML, oxidative stress also mediates ATO-induced degradation of the NPM1 mutant oncoprotein. Strikingly, NPM1 mutant downregulation by ATO/ATRA was shown to potentiate response to the anthracyclin daunorubicin. These findings provide experimental evidence for further exploring ATO/ATRA in preclinical NPM1-mutated AML in vivo models and a rationale for exploiting these compounds in chemotherapeutic regimens in clinics. PMID:25795919

  9. Crystal structures of tris­[1-oxo­pyridine-2-olato(1−)]silicon(IV) chloride chloro­form-d 1 disolvate, tris­[1-oxo­pyridine-2-olato(1−)]silicon(IV) chloride aceto­nitrile unqu­anti­fied solvate, and fac-tris­[1-oxo­pyridine-2-thiol­ato(1−)]silicon(IV) chloride chloro­form-d 1 disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Bradley M.; Brennessel, William W.; Ryan, Amy E.; Benjamin, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    The cations in the title salts, [Si(OPO)3]Cl·2CDCl3, (I), [Si(OPO)3]Cl·xCH3CN, (II), and fac-[Si(OPTO)3]Cl·2CDCl3, (III) (OPO = 1-oxo-2-pyridin­one, C5H4NO2, and OPTO = 1-oxo-2-pyridine­thione, C5H4NOS), have distorted octa­hedral coordination spheres. The first two structures contain the same cation and anion, but different solvents of crystallization led to different solvates and packing arrangements. In structures (I) and (III), the silicon complex cations and chloride anions are well separated, while in (II), there are two C—H⋯Cl distances that fall just within the sum of the van der Waals radii of the C and Cl atoms. The pyridine portions of the OPO ligands in (I) and (II) are modeled as disordered with the planar flips of themselves [(I): 0.574 (15):0.426 (15), 0.696 (15):0.304 (15), and 0.621 (15):0.379 (15); (II): 0.555 (13):0.445 (13), 0.604 (14):0.396 (14) and 0.611 (13):0.389 (13)], demonstrating that both fac and mer isomers are co-crystallized. In (II), highly disordered solvent, located in two independent channels along [100], was unable to be modeled. Reflection contributions from this solvent were fixed and added to the calculated structure factors using the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] function of program PLATON, which determined there to be 54 electrons in 225 Å3 accounted for per unit cell (25 electrons in 109 Å3 in one channel, and 29 electrons in 115 Å3 in the other). In (I) and (II), all species lie on general positions. In (III), all species are located along crystallographic threefold axes. PMID:26870422

  10. Downregulation of thymidylate synthase and E2F1 by arsenic trioxide in mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sze-Kwan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Chun-Yan; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a global health issue. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to suppress thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in lung adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer, and induce apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia. With TYMS as a putative therapeutic target, the effect of ATO in mesothelioma was therefore studied. A panel of 5 mesothelioma cell lines was used to study the effect of ATO on cell viability, protein expression, mRNA expression and TYMS activity by MTT assay, western blot, qPCR and tritium-release assay, respectively. The knockdown of TYMS and E2F1 was performed with a specific siRNA. Phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were measured by Annexin V and JC-1 staining respectively. The in vivo effect of ATO was studied using a nude mouse xenograft model. Application of ATO demonstrated anticancer effects in the cell line model with clinically achievable concentrations. Downregulation of TYMS protein (except H226 cells and 1.25 µM ATO in H2052 cells) and mRNA expression (H28 cells), pRB1 (H28 cells) and E2F1 and TYMS activity (except H226 cells) were also evident. E2F1 knockdown decreased cell viability more significantly than TYMS knockdown. In general, thymidine kinase 1, ribonucleotide reductase M1, c-myc and skp2 were downregulated by ATO. p-c-Jun was downregulated in H28 cells while upregulated in 211H cells. Phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and upregulation of Bak and cleaved caspase-3 were observed. In the H226 xenograft model, the relative tumor growth was aborted, and E2F1 was downregulated while cleaved caspase-3 was elevated and localized to the nucleus in the ATO treatment group. ATO has potent antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in mesothelioma in vitro and in vivo, partially mediated through E2F1 targeting (less effect through TYMS targeting). There is sound scientific evidence to support the