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Sample records for estaquia semi-lenhosa um

  1. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  2. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  3. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  4. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  5. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  6. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  7. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  8. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  9. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  10. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  11. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  12. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  13. A VLT VIMOS integral-field spectroscopic study of perturbed blue compact galaxies: UM 420 and UM 462

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on optical integral-field spectroscopy of two unrelated blue compact galaxies mapped with the 13× 13 arcsec2 Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit at a resolution of 0.33× 0.33 arcsec2. Continuum and background subtracted emission line maps in the light of [OIII] λ5007, Hα and [NII] λ6584 are presented. Both galaxies display signs of ongoing perturbation and/or interaction. UM 420 is resolved for the first time to be a merging system composed of two starbursting components with an `arm-like' structure associated with the largest component. UM 462 which is a disrupted system of irregular morphology is resolved into at least four starbursting regions. Maps of the Hα radial velocity and full width at half-maximum are discussed. No underlying broad-line region was detected from either galaxy as the emission lines are well fitted with single Gaussian profiles only. Electron temperatures and densities as well as the abundances of helium, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur were computed from spectra integrated over the whole galaxies and for each area of recent star formation. Maps of the O/H ratio are presented: these galaxies show oxygen abundances that are ~20 per cent solar. No evidence of substantial abundance variations across the galaxies that would point to significant nitrogen or oxygen self-enrichment is found (<~0.2 dex limit). Contrary to previous observations, this analysis does not support the classification of these blue compact dwarf galaxies as Wolf-Rayet galaxies as the characteristic broad-emission-line features have not been detected in our spectra. Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich emission-line-ratio diagrams which were constructed on a pixel-by-pixel basis indicate that the optical spectra of these systems are predominantly excited by stellar photoionization. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile, under programmes 078.B-0353(B, E). E-mail: bj@star.ucl.ac.uk

  14. Influence of a Novel Inhibitor (UM8190) of Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) on Appetite and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, F. M.; Gadepalli, R.S.V.S.; Diano, S.; Cheng, Q.; Tabrizian, T.; Gailani, D.; Rimoldi, J.M.; Shariat-Madar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical pharmacological characterization of a novel inhibitor (UM8190) of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) was investigated. We synthesized and evaluated a library of proline-based analogs as prospective recombinant PRCP (rPRCP) inhibitors and inhibitors of PRCP-dependent prekallikrein (PK) activation on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC). Among the newly synthesized compounds, UM8190 was further characterized in vivo using methods that encompassed a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model and animal model of food consumption. (S)-N-dodecyl-1-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide [Compound 3 (UM8190)] was selected for further evaluation from the initial assessment of its PRCP inhibitory action (Ki= 43 µM) coupled with its ability to block PRCP-dependent PK activation on HPAEC (Ki= 34 µM). UM8190 demonstrated excellent selectivity against a panel of carboxypeptidases and serine proteases and blocked bradykinin (BK) generation and BK-induced permeability by 100%, suggesting that it may be useful in preventing the local production of large amounts of BK. Furthermore, UM8190 showed an anorexigenic effect when systemically administered to fasted mice, reducing food intake in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, it also demonstrated an antithrombotic effect. UM8190 is a selective PRCP inhibitor and it may represent a new anorexigenic, and antithrombotic drug, that works by inhibiting PRCP–mediated mechanisms. PMID:22664251

  15. UM-PRS: An implementation of the procedural reasoning system for multirobot applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Huber, Marcus J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is used in applications where predetermined situations might arise. The UM-PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM-PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM-PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment. PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation.

  16. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um. PMID:26844976

  17. METHOD 100.2 - DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS STRUCTURES OVER 10 UM IN LENGTH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is collected in a polyethylene or glass container and shipped to the laboratory. nown aliquots of the sample are filtered through a 0.1 to 0.22 um pore mixed cellulose ester (MCE). arbon extraction replica is prepared from a portion of the filter and is examined in the TEM ...

  18. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  19. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  20. Uh, Um, and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Christina A; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-03-01

    Filler disfluencies--uh and um--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an 'optimal outcome' (OO), as well as in peers with typical development (TD). While uh rates did not differ, participants with ASD produced um less frequently than OO or TD groups. Um rate was associated with autism symptom severity, but not executive function or language abilities, suggesting that um serves a pragmatic, listener-oriented function. Moreover, in contrast to minimal production in ASD, the typical OO um production substantiates the normalization of subtle social communication in this population. PMID:26586555

  1. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  2. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Subaru H images of UM673 (Koptelova+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptelova, E.; Chiueh, T.; Chen, W. P.; Chan, H.-H.

    2014-05-01

    We carried out H-band observations of UM673 with the Subaru Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (IRCS) using an adaptive optics system with 188 control elements (AO188). The images were reduced following the procedure described in "Subaru Data Reduction CookBook: Imaging Observation with IRCS" by Y. Minowa (see also Minowa et al. 2005ApJ...629...29M). The final Subaru H-band stack image of UM673 was created by coadding 22 reduced single exposure images. We also created the exposure time map of the stack image. The 17x10arcsec subframe of the stack image and the corresponding exposure map displayed in Figures 1 and 2 of the paper are available as fits files. (2 data files).

  4. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  5. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 11.5um image of NGC 835 (Gonzalez-Martin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Hernandez-Garcia, L.; Masegosa, J.; Marquez, I.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Dultzin, D.; Espaza Arredondo, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared imaging of NGC 835. This nucleus was observed with Canari-cam/GTC on 23 September 2014. Images were taken using the Si5 filter (at 11.5um with an effective width of 0.9um) in two separate observing blocks with a total on-source time of 993s. (2 data files).

  7. Isoalantolactone Inhibits UM-SCC-10A Cell Growth via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Minjun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jiehua; Weng, Zhiyong; Li, Chenyuan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Yan; Mei, Xifan; Ren, Fu; Li, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A). Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax), down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3). Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC. PMID:24098753

  8. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  9. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  10. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800246

  11. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  12. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  13. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  14. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Cook, Robert W; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10(-13) and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, Julie E; Hernández-León, Rocio; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Santoyo, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270 was isolated form the rhizosphere of wild Medicago spp. A previous work has shown that this pseudomonad isolate was able to produce diverse diffusible and volatile compounds involved in plant protection and growth promotion. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the rhizobacterium P. fluorescens strain UM270. The sequence covers 6,047,974 bp of a single chromosome, with 62.66 % G + C content and no plasmids. Genome annotations predicted 5,509 genes, 5,396 coding genes, 59 RNA genes and 110 pseudogenes. Genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in biological control and plant-growth promoting activities. We anticipate that the P. fluorescens strain UM270 genome will contribute insights about bacterial plant protection and beneficial properties through genomic comparisons among fluorescent pseudomonads. PMID:26767092

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium. PMID:25417557

  17. Localization of the 5f level across the UM 5-xT x series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoł; nierek, Z̵.; Troc, R.; Tran, V. H.

    1990-04-01

    We review the results of bulk measurements on selected pseudoternary compounds within the UM 5- xT x system where M = Cu, Ni and Pt, and T = Ag, Au, Pd and Ir. These ternary compounds crystallize in the cubic AuBe 5 crystal structure. The results obtained on about 20 specimens clearly show that the 5f-localization of the uranium depends on the degree of f-d and/or f-s hybridization. The strength of the hybridization is a function of the concentration of s- and d-conduction electrons and is controlled chemically by the extent of the “M 5- xT x” alloying.

  18. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  19. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  20. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  1. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. PMID:27514485

  2. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  3. Origin and characteristics of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions (N Kuwait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dousari, Ali. M.; Al-Elaj, Maraheb; Al-Enezi, Eqbal; Al-Shareeda, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Although Arabia hosts one of the largest deserts in the world, studies regarding aeolian erosional features in general and yardangs in particular are rare. The principal aim of this study is to delineate and investigate the various forms of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions in the northern part of Kuwait. The study area consists of two main depressions connected by neck area made up of continental sediments. Both depressions are surrounded by a dissected escarpment and their floors host muddy playas. On lithological bases, three main types of yardang have been identified: 7 yardangs are sculptured in sandstones of Lower Fars Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), 23 are carved in calcretic rocks of Ghar Formation (Oligocene to Lower Miocene), and 11 yardangs are developed in Quaternary sediments. Their mean orientation NW (297°) coincides with the prevailing direction of the strong local northwesterly wind called the shamal. The average length/width ratio is 1.5:1. The wide geographic distribution of yardangs around the margins of the northern depression is due to sand blasting. This is explained by the annual sand accumulation measured in the study area where the northern depression shows 143 times higher accumulation than the southern depression, the neck area and the platform above the depressions. Also, the field measurements for annual erosional rates show that the sides of the yardangs are more affected by erosion compared to their middle parts. Remarkably slight mineralogical variations were detected within the surface sediments of Um Al-Rimam depressions and the Quaternary muddy yardangs which indicate a common origin. The age of yardangs is unknown but annual erosional rates on a small Quaternary muddy yardang suggest that they range in age between 44 and 1500 years depending on yardang size. It is believed, as indicated from field observation and interpretation of aerial photos, that the majority of yardangs are pre-existing bedrock forms. These

  4. An evaluation of China's water cycle in the MetUM-GC2 coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Marzin, Charline

    2015-04-01

    There is a general consensus in climate projections that the global hydrological cycle is likely to experience significant changes in the future, in response to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. At the regional scale, model simulations show large variations in the predictions of changes in the components of the water cycle. Increasing confidence in regional prediction of the water cycle is at the top of the NWP and climate research agenda, requiring a comprehensive evaluation of the physical processes which may play an important role. Here we present preliminary results of an evaluation of the capacity of the MetUM-GC2 coupled model to reproduce the characteristics of the water cycle in the region of China. Using water budget techniques in the atmospheric and terrestrial branches we test the water cycle components and the model's ability to replicate the climatological annual cycle and its interannual variability. Recent drought and flood events are evaluated and various metrics are employed to compare the role played by the atmospheric general circulation including the boreal summer and winter monsoon regimes and soil moisture feedback in model and observations.

  5. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    PubMed

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good. PMID:23037062

  6. Evaluation of natural radionuclides at Um-Greifat area, eastern desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nada, A

    2003-02-01

    Air borne radiometric maps and remote sensing techniques were used to explore for the occurrence of radioactive materials. The previous techniques recorded radioactive mineralization for the first time along the NW-SE trending fault zones within the Miocene clastic-carbonate sediments. In the present study, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of this mineralization. Concentrations of radionuclides, associated within the iron ochre at Um-Greifat area, have been measured, using a hyper-pure germanium spectrometer. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into A, B and C regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. In region A, average concentration in Bqkg(-1) has been observed to range from 1858 to 4062 for 238U, between 29 and 151 for 232Th, from 60 to 136 for 235U and between 46 and 409 Bqkg(-1) for 40K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)) in addition to external and internal hazard indices (H(ex), H(in)) have also been determined. Ra(eq) varies between 1901 and 4307Bqkg(-1), which exceeds the permitted value (370Bqkg(-1)) and H(ex) and H(in) are higher than 1. The high activity concentration within region A points to an environmental hazard, while regions B and C have less exposure effect on human beings. PMID:12573328

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  9. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  10. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  11. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  12. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  13. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  14. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  15. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  16. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis

  17. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  18. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  19. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  20. Community Structure and Activity of a Highly Dynamic and Nutrient-Limited Hypersaline Microbial Mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M.; Shaikh, Ismail Al; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1–L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%–42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%–97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  1. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  2. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  3. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  4. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points

  5. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid metamorphic complex, Sinai, Egypt: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Zaky

    2013-08-01

    The Um Zariq and Malhaq formations occupy roughly the northern half of the Kid metamorphic complex of SE Sinai, in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an old sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813 ± 6 Ma), whereas the Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma). The Um Zariq Formation is mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists, while the Malhaq Formation comprises a series of structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded with mica-rich phyllites and schists. The Um Zariq metasediments are depleted in SiO2, CaO and K2O and enriched in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of the Malhaq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. The source rocks of the Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of the Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq Formation metasediments. They are collectively geochemically immature and have suffered minor sedimentary recycling, with the experience of the Malhaq Formation metasediments from higher degree of sorting and reworking. The Malhaq and Um Zariq metasediments were originally deposited in a continental arc setting, most probably back

  6. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  7. Quantitation of deposition, clearance and routes of elimination of 3 um insoluble particles in the sheep lung

    SciTech Connect

    Langenback, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    This study is the first to completely determine the number of particles deposited in the lung, the number of particles cleared over a period of a hundred days and the pathways by which the particles exit the lungs. The study uses long lived radioactively (/sup 57/Co) tagged 3 um insoluble polystyrene particles to follow clearance in a sheep animal model. Particle clearance was characterized by 4 phases. Periodic sacrifice and autopsy showed no particle accumulation in regional lymph nodes draining the lung and no particle accumulation in the liver, spleen or kidneys. Urine and blood samples throughout clearance were devoid of particles, but fecal excretion of particles matched lung elimination of particles and mirrored clearance closely. Thus the avenues of long-term clearance of a 3 um polystrene particle has been established from the alveolar portion of the lung: virtually all particles cleared in 101 days were removed by transport from the alveoli to the mucociliary escalator, either as free particles and/or associated with macrophages and subsequently swallowed and excreted. Particles remaining in the lungs after 101 days continued to be cleared from the lungs via the mucociliary escalator with a t/sub 1/2/ = 38 days. This suggests that particles leave a sequestered state, re-enter the airways and are cleared.

  8. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  9. Reducing Striping and Near Field Response Influence in the MODIS 1.38um Cirrus Detection Band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Moeller, C. C.; Frey, R. A.; Gumley, L. E.; Menzel, W. P.

    2002-05-01

    Since first light in February 2000, the MODIS L1B data from Terra has exhibited detector striping in the cirrus detection band at 1.38 um (B26). This band's unique characteristic is that it is potentially able to discriminate very thin cirrus (optical depth of 0.1) because water vapor absorption effectively attenuates the upwelling signal from the earth's surface, leaving a flat dark background underneath the thin cirrus. The striping has diminished the power of this band for detecting thin cirrus in the MODIS Cloud Mask (MOD35) over the global environment by imparting a structure on the background. The striping amplitude (valley to peak) is 10 - 15% of the MODIS Ltyp radiance in B26 over land backgrounds, thus exceeding the 5% radiance prelaunch accuracy specification for the band. Also unexpected has been the presence of earth surface reflectance in B26. Forward model calculations indicate that the two-way transmittance of B26 in-band (1% to 1% response) should be < .003 when total precipitable water (TPW) exceeds about 12 mm. However, MODIS B26 imagery has routinely shown land surface reflectance, such as Florida, even in very moist (TPW > 30 mm) tropical air masses. MODIS prelaunch test data suggests that a near field response (NFR) at about 1.3 um in the B26 filter may be contributing to this behavior. A destriping and out-of-band correction algorithm has been under development at the University of Wisconsin to address the these issues. The simple linear algorithm is based on tuning detector dependent influence coefficients for B26 as a function of B5 (1.24 um) radiance so that the corrected B26 radiance is near zero for all B26 detectors in moist atmospheric conditions. B5 was chosen as a surrogate to characterize the NFR leak in the B26 filter because of its close spectral proximity to the NFR leak. Real MODIS L1B data is being used to estimate the influence coefficients. The paper will describe the B5 based destriping and NFR correction algorithm and

  10. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  11. Das Märchen vom Zauberer im weißen Kittel: Mythen um berühmte Experimente und Experimentatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    Um berühmte Experimentatoren und Experimente ranken sich ebenso Mythen wie um geniale Theoretiker. Sie sind in populärwissenschaftlichen Büchern, Lehrbüchern und sogar in wissenschaftshistorischen Texten verbreitet. Die durch die Aufklärung etablierte Kultur des eleganten Schauexperiments vermittelt ein schiefes Bild vom mühsamen Weg vieler Experimentatoren zum dargestellten Ergebnis. Auch der Mythos des einsamen, genialen Experimentators ohne Helfer widerspricht dem historischen Befund. Gleiches gilt für das experimentum crucis, das eine Theorie als entscheidendes Experiment belegen soll. Die historische Forschung zeigt, dass es eine lange, eigenständige Tradition der experimentellen und instrumentellen Arbeit gibt.

  12. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  13. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  14. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  16. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt: implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Z.

    2013-04-01

    The Kid Metamorphic Complex of SE Sinai represents a thick volcano-sedimentary succession that underwent polyphase deformation and greenschist to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The Malhaq and Um Zariq Formations, the target of this study, occupy roughly the northern half of this complex. The Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma), whereas Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an older sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813±6 Ma). The Malhaq Formation comprises a series of dark gray structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded and intercalated with fine- to medium-grained foliated mica-rich phyllites and schists, while the Um Zariq Formation is a dominantly metasedimentary sequence, mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists. Malhaq metasediments are enriched in SiO2, CaO and K2O and depleted in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of Um Zariq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies in all samples, and general enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. Geochemical investigations have revealed that the source rocks of Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq

  17. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  18. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  19. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  20. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed. PMID:26624774

  1. The UmGcn5 gene encoding histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis is involved in dimorphism and virulence.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Juan Manuel; Rosas-Quijano, Raymundo; Domínguez, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2014-10-01

    We isolated a gene encoding a histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis (DC.) Cda., which is orthologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN5 gene. The gene was isolated from genomic clones identified by their specific hybridization to a gene fragment obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This gene (Umgcn5; um05168) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1421bp that encodes a putative protein of 473 amino acids with a Mr. of 52.6kDa. The protein exhibits a high degree of homology with histone acetyltransferases from different organisms. Null a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were constructed by substitution of the region encoding the catalytic site with a hygromycin B resistance cassette. Null a1b1 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were isolated from genetic crosses of a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 and a1b1 wild-type strains in maize. Mutants displayed a slight reduction in growth rate under different conditions, and were more sensitive than the wild type to stress conditions, but more important, they grew as long mycelial cells, and formed fuzz-like colonies under all conditions where wild-type strains grew in the yeast-like morphology and formed smooth colonies. This phenotype was not reverted by cAMP addition. Mutants were not virulent to maize plants, and were unable to form teliospores. These phenotypic alterations of the mutants were reverted by their transformation with the wild-type gene. PMID:25242418

  2. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  3. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  4. The Workload of the UMS Faculty. A Report to the Joint Chairs of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ. System Administration, Adelphi.

    This report provides the results of a study of faculty workloads in the University of Maryland System (UMS) during the 1994-95 academic year. It was found that 19,446 course units were taught by full-time (FT) faculty at degree-granting institutions, an increase of 158 course units from the previous year while the number of FT faculty decreased by…

  5. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  6. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  7. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3.6um S4G Galactic bars characterization (Diaz-Garcia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Garcia, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.

    decomposition model ('rotationcurve_decomposition.dat'), with the stellar component inferred from the 3.6~um imaging and the halo component estimated using the universal rotation curve models). (5 data files).

  9. Performance of immersion lithography for 45-nm-node CMOS and ultra-high density SRAM with 0.25um2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimotogi, Shoji; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Tominaga, Makoto; Fujise, Hiroharu; Sho, Koutaro; Katsumata, Mikio; Hane, Hiroki; Ikegami, Atsushi; Nagahara, Seiji; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Asano, Masafumi; Kanai, Hideki; Kimura, Taiki; Iwai, Masaaki

    2007-03-01

    Immersion lithography was applied to 45nm node logic and 0.25um2 ultra-high density SRAM. The predictable enhancement of focus margin and resolution were obtained for all levels which were exposed by immersion tool. In particular, the immersion lithography enabled to apply the attenuating phase shift mask to the gate level. The enough lithography margin for the alternating phase shift mask was also obtained by using not only immersion tool but also dry tool for gate level. The immersion lithography shrunk the minimum hole pitch from 160nm to 140nm. Thus, the design rule for 45nm node became available by using immersion lithography.

  10. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  11. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  12. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  13. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  14. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  15. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  16. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  17. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Archibald, A. T.; Maycock, A. C.; Abraham, L.; Telford, P.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine theses scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impacts of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. Under a scenario for moderate climate change (RCP4.5), we find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the tropical upward mass flux at 70hPa of 17%), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of 9%) and 4) the tropospheric ozone burden decreases by 10% given mitigation of its precursor emissions but this is offset by climate change and stratospheric ozone recovery (9% and 6% increases in the burden respectively).

  18. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  19. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  20. Age-related Changes in Auditory Nerve – Inner Hair Cell Connections, Hair Cell Numbers, Auditory Brain Stem Response and Gap Detection in UM-HET4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, RA; Dolan, DF; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, DC; Miller, RA; Schacht, J

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in Gap Detection, the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons, and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell – auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in Gap Detection. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in gap detection, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of gap detection or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

  1. Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

    2015-04-30

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

  2. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Antara; Maycock, Amanda; Archibald, Alexander; Telford, Paul; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine these scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impact of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. We find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson Circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the DJF 70hPa tropical upwards mass flux of ~20% at RCP4.5 and exceeding 30% at RCP8.5), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of ~10%) and 4) tropospheric ozone decreases given mitigation of its precursor emissions (with a 10% decrease in ozone burden) but this can be offset by climate change at both RCP4.5 and 8.5 and stratospheric ozone recovery (increasing the burden by 6-13%).

  3. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  4. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  5. A Visão do Universo Segundo a Concepção de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Nesse trabalho foi identificada por meio de um questionário a visão de mundo sobre o Universo espaço e tempo entre 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio de três escolas de São Paulo. Constatou-se pouco conhecimento dos temas investigados sendo que apenas 20% dos alunos relacionaram as semanas com as fases da lua enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de astronomia seus conceitos ainda são inadequados havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos pois apesar de popular a astronomia é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecissões.

  6. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  7. Sternbilder - Sternsagen. Mythen und Legenden um Sternbilder.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonov, A.

    This book is a German translation (translator L. Korniljew) of the Bulgarian original "Mitove i legendi za s'zvezdiyata"; Sofia 1978.It describes in detail how starsand star constellations were named and presents accounts of the mythological legends associated with these names.

  8. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  9. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  10. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  11. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  12. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  13. Spatial deconvolution of IRAS galaxies at 60 UM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Using IRAS in a slow scan observing mode to increase the spatial sampling rate and a deconvolution analysis to increase the spatial resolution, several bright galaxies were resolved at 60 micron. Preliminary results for M 82, NGC 1068, NGC 3079 and NGC 2623 show partially resolved emission from 10 to 26 arcsec., full width at half maximum, and extended emission from 30 to 90 arcsec. from the center. In addition, the interacting system, Arp 82, along with Mark 231 and Arp 220 were studied using the program ADDSCAN to average all available survey mode observations. The Arp 82 system is well resolved after deconvolution and its brighter component is extended; the two most luminous objects are not resolved with an upper limit of 15 arcsec. for Arp 220.

  14. Astronomy around 1700. (German Title: Astronomie um 1700)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The book focuses on Gottfried Kirch und Olaus Römer, two scholars who played a leading role in astronomy around 1700. It contains an annotated edition of the letter by Gottfried Kirch to Olaus Römer of October 25, 1703. Kirch was the astronomer of the Berlin Academy of Sciences since 1700, recognized both as astronomical calculator and as observer - Römer was director of the Copenhagen Observatory and was the first who determined the speed of light. Kirch's letter to Römer of October 1703, given here together with several addenda, was not a letter in the modern sense, but a treatise of broad contents, dealing with different astronomical items of that time: the problem of determining stellar and planetary positions, the subjective view on contemporaries, the methods of astronomical calculations, the discovery of comets and other questions are described in Kirch's vivid words. Numerous annotations by the editor explain the astronomy of that time. The editor leads the reader step by step through the methods of astronomical calculations, which become clear and understandable. A complete bibliography of works by and about Kirch and a list of known archival sources are added.

  15. Thermal levitation of 10 um size particles in low vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Long Fung Frankie; Kowalski, Nicholas; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report on experimental methods for trapping 10 micron-sized ice, glass, ceramic and polyethylene particles with thermophoresis in medium vacuum, at pressures between 5 Torr and 25 Torr. Under appropriate conditions particles can launch and levitate robustly for up to an hour. We describe the experimental setup used to produce the temperature gradient necessary for the levitation, as well as our procedure for generating and introducing ice into the experimental setup. In addition to analyzing the conditions necessary for levitation, and the dependence of levitation on the experimental parameters, we report on the behavior of particles during levitation and ejection, including position and stability, under different pressures and temperatures. We also note a significant discrepancy between theory and data, suggesting the presence of other levitating forces.

  16. Grant UM1CA167462 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Exploring Ho-Nee-Um in the Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in grades three and four. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness--by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  19. A Winter Walk at Ho-Nee-Um.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the lower primary grades. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  20. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  1. GEO-CAPE application, demonstrated for CO by the IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS), and scaled to an expanded application that adds the 9.6, 3.3 and 3.6 um bands for multi-layer tropospheric ozone and for HCHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Jamieson, T. H.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm 1. As presented at this meeting in our poster "...multi-layer CO retrieval from atmospheric data..." very encouraging retrieval for CO, H2O, CH4 and albedo were obtained in an operational mode of ground based atmospheric observations that simulated space based operations in an application that would meet Decadal Survey GEO- CAPE air quality observation requirements for coverage, footprint size and refresh time. In this presentation we'll describe the details of how the ground based operations map to the space based operations. We will discuss concept details including [a] the approach for instrument cooling, [b] the scanning mirror and telescope system that would provide input to the TIMS in a way that meets the GEO-CAPE measurement requirements, [c] telemetry requirements, and [d] the scaling of retrieval precision from the ground based actuals to the space based operations. For example, the ground based actual TIMS column precisions for retrieval from the SR data scale to space deployed TIMS column retrieval precisions for CO(=8.6%), H2O(=3.7%), CH4(=0.9%) and for albedo(=0.2%) on the GEO-CAPE minimum footprint. We'll also present the actuals, and the scaling to the GEO-CAPE case, for multi-layer CO and H2O retrieval from the combined SR and TIR data sets. The required aperture is quite small, 7.5 cm. We will also present a straight forward approach to expand the GEO-CAPE TIMS concept to additional spectral regions near 3.3, 3.6 and 9.6 um that will provide for multi-layer retrieval of tropospheric ozone, and for HCHO column. The approach adds relatively small mass, but

  2. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  3. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  4. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  5. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  6. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  7. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  8. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  9. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  10. Mild steels coated with 14% manganese covered electrodes (E7-UM-200-K and E1-UM-350): Phenomena at the steel-coating interface

    SciTech Connect

    Molleda, F. . E-mail: fmolleda@etsin.upm.es; Mora, J.; Molleda, F.J.; Carrillo, E.; Mora, E.; Mellor, B.G.

    2006-12-15

    In this work the authors have studied the phenomena in the interface of the coating made on soft carbon steel with electrodes with a high content of manganese. The study has been done with scanning electron microscope and X-rays mapping images. These images show how the alloy elements are distributed in each of the constituent elements presented in the interface, and the nature of these constituents. These results have allowed us to verify that many of the problems that arise in homogeneous joints, as such localised corrosion, low interface resistance, etc., happened, precisely in these regions. As a help to determine the nature of the constituent elements, microhardness measurements have also been made.

  11. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  12. Comparison of atmospheric transmittance measurements in the 3- to 5-um and 8- to 12-um spectral regions with MODTRAN: considerations for long near-horizontal path geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkowski, Anthony J.; Anderson, Gail P.; Chetwynd, James H.; Nadile, Richard M.; Devir, Adam D.; Conley, T. D.

    1998-01-01

    Radiance measurements conducted during tropospheric operations to detect objects on the Earth's surface from a manned aircraft or from an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) will involve long, near-horizontal viewing geometries. The computer code MODTRAN is widely used for the prediction of the propagation of infrared radiation through the lower atmosphere. Consequently, we have undertaken to test the predictions of MODTRAN for the 3 - 5 and 8 - 12 micron spectral regions under mid-Eastern desert conditions.

  13. Properties of Interstellar Medium In Infrared-bright QSOs Probed by [O i] 63 um and [C ii] 158 um Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Yan, Lin; Tsai, Chao-Wei

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxies of nine QSOs at 0.1 < z < 0.2 with black hole masses of 3× {10}7 {M}ȯ to 3× {10}9 {M}ȯ based on the far-IR spectroscopy taken with Herschel Space Observatory. We detect the [O i] 63 μm ([C ii] 158 μm) emission in 6 (8) out of 8 (9) sources. Our QSO sample has far-infrared luminosities ({L}{{FIR}}) ˜ several times {10}11{L}ȯ . The observed line-to-{L}{{FIR}} ratios ({L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} and {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}/{L}{{FIR}}) are in the ranges of 2.6 × 10‑4 to 10‑2 and 2.8 × 10‑4 to 2 × 10‑3, respectively (including upper limits). These ratios are comparable to the values found in local ULIRGs, but higher than the average value published so far for z\\gt 1 IR-bright QSOs. One target, W0752+19, shows an additional broad velocity component (˜720 km s‑1) and exceptionally strong [O i] 63 μm emission with {L}[{{O}{{I}}]63μ {{m}}}/{L}{{FIR}} of 10‑2, an order of magnitude higher than the average value found among local (U)LIRGs. Combining with the analyses of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we conclude that the [O i] 63 μm emission in these QSOs is unlikely excited by shocks. We infer that the broad [O i] 63 μm emission in W0752+19 could arise from the warm and dense ISM in the narrow-line region of the central active galactic nucleus. Another possible explanation is the existence of a dense gas outflow with {n}{{H}}˜ {10}4 cm‑3, where the corresponding broad [C ii] emission is suppressed. Based on the far-IR [O i] and [C ii] line ratios, we estimate constraints on the ISM density and UV radiation field intensity of {n}{{H}}≲ {10}3.3 cm‑3 and {10}3\\lt {G}0≲ {10}4.2, respectively. These values are consistent with those found in local Seyfert 1 ULIRGs. In contrast, the gas with broad velocity width in W0752+19 has {n}{{H}}≳ {10}4.3 cm‑3 and {G}0\\gt {10}4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. High-quantum-efficiency 2.2-um InGaAs MOCVD photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Colter, Peter C.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.

    1997-04-01

    Photodiodes responding in the 0.8-2.3 micrometers wavelength range are of interest in a wide range of applications, from wind- shear detection systems which use eyesafe 2.1 micrometers lasers to differential absorption LIDAR aerosol measurements of CO2. In this paper, we report on uncooled, broadband, 2.25 micrometers lattice-mismatched 0.55eV In0.72Ga0.28As photodiode arrays, in which the cutoff wavelength has been 'extended' from the 1.65 micrometers which is standard for 0.74eV In0.53Ga0.47As lattice-matched to InP wafers. InxGa1-xAs step-grading layers were used to transition from the InP wafer to the final In0.72Ga0.28As photodiode material during the metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxial growth. Linear 64 X 1 photodiode arrays were made with an independently-verified external quantum efficiency above 50 percent from 0.8 to 2.2 micrometers using MgF2/ZnS dual layer antireflection coating. Average 300 degree K area-normalized dark current for these N/P diodes was 5 X 10-5 A/cm2 at 10mV reverse bias.

  15. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used...

  16. 1.55 um aluminum gallium indium arsenide strained MQW laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi

    At the 1.55 mum eye-safe, telecommunications operating wavelength, semiconductor diode lasers must have low threshold currents and operate at high temperatures without thermoelectric coolers. Existing diode lasers in this wavelength range based on the GaInAsP/InP materials system are very sensitive to operating temperature. To obtain high temperature, high power 1.55 mum semiconductor diode lasers, the AlGaInAs/InP materials system with strained quantum well (QW) active regions was investigated with the goal of improving temperature performance. A set of lasers with active regions consisting of different numbers of QWs (2 to 4) and different QW strains (1.2% and 1.6%) were designed taking into account the quaternary alloy bandgap of AlGaInAs, the effect of strain on the bandgap, and the quantum size effects within the QW. The active region growth temperature was optimized using photoluminescence intensity. The wafers were first processed into broad-area lasers and measured under pulsed injection. The characteristic threshold current temperature, T0, for all AlGaInAs lasers was higher (60-70 K) than for GaInAsP lasers. No strong dependence of temperature parameters on strain was observed, while properties varied significantly with the number of QWs. With more QWs, both internal efficiency and T0 increases, but internal loss increases, reducing the characteristic temperature of the differential efficiency T1. The results show that uncooled laser operation at 1.55 mum is very promising with strained AlGaInAs QWs. Ridge waveguide devices demonstrated low threshold and high output power as well as good temperature performance under continuous wave operation. Devices with different ridge heights were fabricated from one wafer and their performance was compared. It was found that current spreading was significant in these devices and a simple current density-versus-applied voltage analysis was developed to determine the spreading factor. The analysis shows that the current spreading was not effectively limited until etching went below the doped cladding layer. A recombination coefficient analysis was performed to investigate the effect of strain on Auger recombination predicted by theory. An indirect method to infer both the nonradiative recombination coefficient and the Auger recombination coefficient was initially used. The measured values of the recombination coefficients were consistent with theoretical predictions and measurements based on other material systems. The Auger recombination was lower than expected, indicating that Auger recombination is reduced in these strained QWs. To understand the carrier dynamics, impedance measurements were carried out for the first time in AlGaInAs strained QW lasers. A small-signal, sub-threshold equivalent circuit model was derived from the laser rate equations to model the measured laser impedance. Several characteristic carrier lifetimes were obtained directly from these electrical impedance measurements. From the temperature dependence of the QW escape time, it was found that hole rather than electron leakage is dominant in the AlGaInAs system due to the relatively low valence band offset. This may explain why the improvement of T0 in AlGaInAs QW 1.55 mum active regions is limited.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dimethyl sulfide laboratory um, mm & FIR spectra (Jabri+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Tchana, F. K.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-02-01

    DMS was purchased from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Karlsruhe, Germany and used without further purification. The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. (3 data files).

  18. High-speed interconnect using 1.3 um laser and fiber array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sherman; Uchida, Toshi; Tani, Takuhori

    1997-04-01

    Multifiber optic interconnects are attractive for high- throughput computer systems and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching systems. We have developed a high- performance 10-fiber interconnect with each fiber operating at a high speed of 1 Gb/s. The modules have a receptacle for mechanically transferred push-on (MTP) multifiber push pull connector. The hermetic package is surface mount type and solder reflowable. The transmitter (Tx) is dc-coupled and the receiver (Rx) is ac-coupled with a cutoff of 7 kHz. The electrical interface is differential current mode logic (CML) or emitter coupled logic (ECL), and the optical interface is a 12-fiber connector. Single-mode glass fibers (9.5 micrometer) or multimode glass graded-index fibers (62.5 micrometer) were used. Tx contains a laser-driver IC, while Rx contains pre-amplifier and postamplifier, and comparator circuits. All the ICs are minus 5.2 V bipolar GaAs, and Tx plus RX consumes 4 W. The power in a fiber is about 100 (mu) W. The back-to-back skew is less than 80 ps. For a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) 223-1 pseudo-random bit stream, the error rate was less than 10 -12 with all the channels transmitting different signals simultaneously and a 100-m small-skew (1.2 ps/m) fiber ribbon. The link worked up to an atmosphere temperature of 80 degrees Celsius.

  19. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  20. Experimental study of biological effect by Nd:YAP laser (1.34um)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effect of different power, irradiation time of Nd: YAP laser (1341nm). Method: The canine skin, bronchia, stomach, bladder, uterus were irradiated with different irradiation power and time. The effect was observed by naked eyes, light microscope, and electric microscope. Result: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, the thermal coagulation dose reaching deep derma was 5W 4s, 10w 1s;the thermal coagulation dose puncturing the whole layer was 5W, 6s, 10W, 4s; the thermal coagulation dose reaching whole stratum was 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s, 40-60W 1s on stomach (Thickness 6mm), was 40W, 2s, 30W, 3s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 6s on bladder (Thickness 6mm ,irradiation underwater), was 10W, 4s on bronchia (Thickness 2 mm) and was 30W 3s, 20W 5s, 10W 6s on uterus (Thickness 6mm). Conclusion: Having positive correlation with power and irradiating time, the biological effect of Nd: YAP laser is mainly thermal coagulation effect with some gasified ablation effect. Under the condition where the diameter of faculae irradiating on canine skin was 3 mm, it is safe when the dose is 5W, and the irradiating time is less than 4s; the dose is 10W, and the irradiating time is less than 1 s. Under these conditions, the gastric area is used to coagulating and ablating. It is safe when the dose is less than 10W 5s, 20W 4s, 30W 2s. Under these condition, The bladder (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated. It is safe when the dose is no more than 40W, 1s, 30W, 2s, 20W, 3s, 10W, 5s.Under the condition where bronchia (thickness 2mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 10W, 3s.Under the condition where uterus (thickness 6mm) is coagulated and ablated, it is safe when the dose is less than 30W, 2s, 20W, 4s, 10W, 5s.

  1. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ˜16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ˜6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  2. 250 um inner diameter hollow waveguide for Er:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    Advanced application of Er:YAG laser radiation in medical treatment requires a suitable, very precise delivery of this light to a target. In some cases (urology, cardiology, or endodontic treatments), thin waveguides are needed. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted with 250/360 μm inner/outer diameter hollow glass waveguides. The waveguide has inner coating made from cyclic olefin polymer and silver layers. All delivery systems were simple and consisted of lens, protector, and the waveguide. The laser source was the Er:YAG system working in a free-running regime and generating radiation at 2.94 μm wavelength. For testing, output laser energy up to 100 mJ with a repetition rate of 1 Hz was chosen. The output laser spatial profile was approximately TEM00 mode, so the structure changes behind the delivery system were readily detected. The energy delivery characteristics were also checked, and the transmission reached 77%. The maximum input fluence into the waveguide was 200 mJ/cm2, and no significant damages to waveguides were observed after the measurements.

  3. Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected observations such as these. The result was that the search for the possible explanations of this rise-and-fall phenomenon intensified. The generally favoured explanation was that there was an active sinking of sea level in the Baltic rather than an active rising of the land surface in Fennoscandia. This was because water was seen as mobile, in contrast to a „terra firma". The relevant discussion was often emotional, and here, we try to illustrate it using material from the Geologenarchiv Freiburg (von Hoff, von Buch and Goethe). No more than a few decades later, it became obvious by the theory of Ice Age that both the sea level and the land could be mobile (eustatic sea level changes—glacial isostasy). Additionally, of course, plate tectonics had some influence: Norway is situated at the western end of the Eurasian plate and is part of a passive continental margin. There are still open research problems, many of which can be addressed using modern methods of satellite-based geophysics and geodesy. Some other aspects as the permanent uplift trend of Scandinavia since the Cambrium or the rhythmic to and fro of magma in the upper mantle during the Pleistocene are mentioned.

  4. Synchronous and asynchronous multiplexer circuits for medical imaging realized in CMOS 0.18um technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Długosz, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2007-05-01

    Multiplexers are one of the most important elements in readout front-end ASICs for multi-element detectors in medical imaging. The purpose of these ASICs is to detect signals appearing randomly in many channels and to collect the detected data in an ordered fashion (de-randomization) in order to send it to an external ADC. ASIC output stage functionality can be divided into two: pulse detection and multiplexing. The pulse detection block is responsible for detecting maximum values of signals arriving from the shaper, sending a flag signal indicating that the peak signal has been detected and storing the pulse in an analog memory until read by ADC. The multiplexer in turn is responsible for searching for active flags, controlling the channel that has detected the peak signal and performing reset functions after readout. There are several types of multiplexers proposed in this paper, which can be divided into several classes: synchronous, synchronized and asynchronous. Synchronous circuits require availability of the multiphase clock generator, which increases the power dissipation, but simultaneously provide very convenient mechanism that enables unambiguous choice of the active channel. This characteristics leads to 100% effectiveness in data processing and no data loss. Asynchronous multiplexers do not require clock generators and because of that have simpler structure, are faster and more power efficient, especially when data samples occur seldom at the ASIC's inputs. The main problem of the asynchronous solution is when data on two or more inputs occur almost at the same time, shorter than the multiplexer's reaction time. In this situation some data can be lost. In many applications loss of the order of 1% of the data is acceptable, which makes use of asynchronous multiplexers possible. For applications when the lower loss is desirable a new hierarchy mechanism has been introduced. One of proposed solutions is a synchronized binary tree structure, that uses many simple asynchronous clock generators. This circuit joins advantages of synchronous and asynchronous solutions resulting in low power dissipation, high speed of operation and 100% effectiveness.

  5. High-performance 0.25-um CMOS technology for fast SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, James D.; McNelly, T. F.; Perera, Asanga H.; Pfiester, Jim R.; Subramanian, C. K.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    1996-09-01

    A high performance 0.25 micrometers CMOS process has been developed for fast static RAMs. This technology features retrograde wells, shallow trench isolation scalable to a 0.45 micrometers active pitch, surface channel 0.25 micrometers NMOS and PMOS transistors with a 55 angstroms nitrided gate oxide providing drive currents of 630 and 300 (mu) A/micrometers respectively at off-leakages of 10 pA/micrometers , overgated TFTs with an on/off ratio greater than 6(DOT)105, stacked capacitors for improved SER protection, five levels of polysilicon planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing with two self-aligned interpoly contacts, 0.35 micrometers contacts and a 0.625 metal pitch. In this technology, a triple well structure was used for SER protection. High energy retrograde wells were integrated with shallow trench isolation and epi providing excellent interwell isolation for both leakage and latch-up down to n+/p+ spaces of 0.60 micrometers . PMOS transistors were scaled to a physical gate length of 0.1 micrometers while maintaining excellent short channel characteristics. A split word-line bitcell was scaled to 1.425 micrometers X 2.625 micrometers equals 3.74 micrometers 2 using 0.25 micrometers rules. A tungsten interpoly plug was used to connect the PMOS TFT loads to the underlying NMOS latch gates without a parasitic diode or dopant interdiffusion, connecting 3 polysilicon layers with self-aligned isolation from an intervening polysilicon layer used as a local interconnect. With this plug, TFT drive currents were greatly improved, particularly at low voltages and the memory nodes pulled to the fully supply voltage. Functional 0.25 micrometers bitcells were demonstrated and with an LDD resistor it was possible to double the cell stability. Bitcell simulation was used to demonstrate that a 4T bitcell will be stable at 2.5 V but that a word-line boost will be required for 1.8 V operation.

  6. High-reliability nonhermetic 1.3-um InP-based uncooled lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naresh; Osenbach, John W.; Evanosky, T. L.; Comizzoli, Robert B.; Tsang, Won-Tien

    1996-01-01

    We report the first uncooled non-hermetic 1.3 micrometer InP-based communication lasers that have reliability comparable to their hermetically packaged counterparts for possible applications in fiber in the loop and cable TV. The development of reliable non-hermetic semiconductor lasers would not only lead to the elimination of the costs specifically associated with hermetic packaging but also lead the way for possible revolutionary low cost optoelectronic packaging technologies. We have used Fabry-Perot capped mesa buried heterostructure (CMBH) uncooled lasers with both bulk and MQW active regions grown on n- type InP substrates by VPE and MOCVD. We find that the proper dielectric facet passivation is the key to obtain high reliability in a non-hermetic environment. The passivation protects the laser from the ambient and maintains the proper facet reflectivity to achieve desired laser characteristics. The SiO facet passivation formed by molecular beam deposition (MBD) has resulted in lasers with lifetime well in excess of the reliability goal of 3,000 hours operation at 85 degrees Celsius/90% RH/30 mA aging condition. Based on extrapolations derived experimentally, we calculate a 15 year average device hazard rate of less than 300 FITs (as against the desired 1,500 FITs) for the combination of thermal and humidity induced degradation at an ambient condition of 45 degrees Celsius/50% RH. For comparison, the average hazard rate at 45 degrees Celsius and 15 years of service is approximately 250 FITs for hermetic lasers of similar construction. A comparison of the thermal only degradation (hermetic) to the thermal plus humidity induced degradation (non-hermetic) indicates that the reliability of these nonhermetic lasers is controlled by thermal degradation only and not by moisture-induced degradation. In addition to device passivation for a non-hermetic environment, MBD-SiO maintains the optical, electrical and mechanical properties needed for high-performance laser systems.

  7. Implementation of i-line lithography to 0.30 um design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, KeunYoung; Kim, Hung-Eil; Lee, Il-Ho; Kim, Jin-Soo; Chun, Jun-Sung; Hur, Ikboum; Moon, Seung-Chan; Baik, Ki-Ho; Choi, Soo-Han

    1995-05-01

    The optical lithography is extending its life by combining high numerical aperture (NA) optics and shorter wavelength. The shorter wavelength lithography has required the new developments of related technologies. In particular, DUV resists require an entirely different resist chemistry. Much progress has been demonstrated in the field of transparent chemically amplified resists with high sensitivity. However, this DUV lithography ((lambda) equals 248 nm) has been delayed for mass production due to their limitations, such as (i) delay time effects, (ii) high cost ownership due to expensive resist materials and laser maintenance, and (iii) critical dimension (CD) variation over topography caused by multireflection of topographic features. On the other hand, i- line lithography ((lambda) equals 365 nm) has apparently been applied to 64M DRAM of 0.35 micrometers design rule, and attempted to 0.30 micrometers technology which corresponds to 2nd generation 64M DRAM or 1st generation 256 M DRAM. It might be achieved by combination of off-axis illumination (OAI), phase shift mask (PMS) and advanced resist process technique of i-line lithography. Therefore, i-line lithography can be more practical method rather than DUV lithography for the mass production. In this paper, we have optimized the i-line lithographic techniques for the various pattern shape and density for 0.30 micrometers design rule. Optimum duty ratio was tried to find for line and space, contact hole patterns. The basic rule is to keep the minimum Cr width over 0.30 micrometers mask. OAI have been applied to get higher contrast of line and space, and even contact hole patterns, and achieve good pattern fidelities of island patterns. By the implementation of OAI, process latitudes were greatly improved compared to that of conventional techniques. In order to optimize the process over the actual topography, optimum numerical aperture (NA) and aperture of the OAI were selected. In conclusion, 0.30 micrometers design rule device was successfully fabricated by optimizing the advanced i-line lithographic techniques.

  8. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  9. Process control for 0.25 um GaAs microwave monolithic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgens, Rick D.; Meyers, Shirley; Small, Bret A.; Salzman, Keith; Rhine, David; Class, Randy

    1994-05-01

    Gallium arsenide metal semiconductor field effect transistors (GaAs MESFETs) are used in analog microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) because of their high frequency response. Common applications for MMICs include low noise and power amplifiers for use in satellite communication and missile guidance systems. The performance of MESFETs is improved with smaller gate lengths, but to consistently achieve the highest performance, control methods must be in place for the critical processes. Gate length control is the key parameter in maintaining the rf performance and a lack of gate pinch off is the major yield loss category. This paper describes the process and the tools that Texas Instruments uses to monitor the critical parameters. It also describes the control methods and reviews the major contributors to variations in the process.

  10. A Catalog of 1.5273 um Diffuse Interstellar Bands Based on APOGEE Hot Telluric Calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Remy, Q.; Lallement, R.

    2016-08-01

    High resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys provide massive amounts of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) measurements. Data can be used to study the distribution of the DIB carriers and those environmental conditions that favor their formation. In parallel, recent studies have also proved that DIBs extracted from stellar spectra constitute new tools for building the 3D structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). The amount of details on the structure depends directly on the quantity of available lines of sight. Therefore there is a need to construct databases of high-quality DIB measurements as large as possible. We aim at providing the community with a catalog of high-quality measurements of the 1.5273 μm DIB toward a large fraction of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) hot stars observed to correct for the telluric absorption and not used for ISM studies so far. This catalog would complement the extensive database recently extracted from the APOGEE observations and used for 3D ISM mapping. We devised a method to fit the stellar continuum of the hot calibration stars and extracted the DIB from the normalized spectrum. Severe selection criteria based on the absorption characteristics are applied to the results. In particular limiting constraints on the DIB widths and Doppler shifts are deduced from the H i 21 cm measurements, following a new technique of decomposition of the emission spectra. From ∼16,000 available hot telluric spectra we have extracted ∼6700 DIB measurements and their associated uncertainties. The statistical properties of the extracted absorptions are examined and our selection criteria are shown to provide a robust dataset. The resulting catalog contains the DIB total equivalent widths, central wavelengths and widths. We briefly illustrate its potential use for the stellar and interstellar communities.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon I 870um sources (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Schuller, F.; Parise, B.; Andre, P.; Hatchell, J.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Bontemps, S.; Weiss, A.; Menten; K. M.; Muders, D.

    2011-01-01

    Table 2 lists the sources extracted with GAUSSCLUMPS from the filtered 870 micron continuum emission map of Chamaeleon I obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. These sources are listed in the order in which they were found by GAUSSCLUMPS, i.e. roughly in order of decreasing peak flux density. The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud is available in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (6 data files).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chamaeleon III 870um sources maps (Belloche+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Parise, B.; Schuller, F.; Andre, P.; Bontemps, S.; Menten, K. M.

    2011-06-01

    The 870 micron dust continuum emission map of the Chamaeleon III molecular cloud displayed in Fig. 2 is available at CDS in FITS format. The data were obtained with the bolometer camera LABOCA at the APEX telescope. They were calibrated, reduced, co-added, gridded, smoothed to an effective angular resolution of 21.2" (FWHM), and written in FITS format with the BoA software. The flux density unit is Jy/21.2"-beam. The coordinates are equatorial (J2000) and the offsets are in RADIO projection. (1 data file).

  13. Earth's spectral albedo from 0.5 to 4.4 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanes-Rodrig, P.; Palle, E.; Goode, P. R.; Koonin, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed spectroscopic earthshine data to determine Earth's nightly spectral albedos covering the visible, near and middle infrared spectral ranges. Observations in the visible were undertaken from Palomar Observatory with the spectrograph in the Palomar 60" telescope and with the echelle spectrograph of the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The observing runs were chosen near the quarter moon to reduce the background glow produced by the moonshine (bright side of the Moon). Although observations were taken on different nights, the similarity of lunar phases and comparable cloud cover conditions for the monitored part of the Earth's surface, allow us to derive, for the first time, an apparent albedo of the Earth covering the entire spectral range from 0.5 to 4.4 microns.

  14. Are "physiological" and "psychological" addiction really different? well, no! ... um, er, yes?

    PubMed

    Newlin, David B

    2008-01-01

    The distinction often made between psychological and physiological addiction is a form of mind-body dualism. Therefore, it is a false distinction. However, this does not imply that behavioral and autonomic symptoms of addiction have the same brain substrates. In fact, they likely do not, although there is some overlap. PMID:18570028

  15. Alice's adventures in um-derland: Psycholinguistic sources of variation in disfluency production

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned. Fillers were associated only with conceptual difficulties, consistent with the proposal that they reflect a communicative signal whereas silent pauses and repeats were also related to lexical and phonological difficulties. These differences are discussed in terms of different strategies available to the language production system. PMID:25339788

  16. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  17. [The life story of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo: Quincas, Um berro à vida].

    PubMed

    Zancan, Lenira; Matida, Álvaro Hideyoshi

    2015-10-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the contribution of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo (1936-1993) to the field of public health relating his life story and his scientific production with core issues of education and health, present in his time and which remain in debate to this day. His contribution resulted in the production of new meanings for health practices, with the understanding as social and transdisciplinary phenomena. Based on conversations with co-authors and friends and rereading of his texts, it was decided to approach his biography from: (i) his skills and participation in initiatives and practices of preventive medicine and popular education, which fomented the critical analysis of health education; (ii) his presence as an educator in public health courses throughout the country, eliciting the deconstruction of the theories and practices of education and health with managers, students, professionals and teachers; (iii) his availability for transdisciplinary dialogue with the humanities and social sciences in the search for "epistemological sutures" between reason and passion, capable of responding to the dilemmas and challenges of healthcare work. These three trajectories indicate that the performance of "Quincas" must be understood from his restlessness as a health professional and educator, engaged in the production of knowledge and practices related to the complexity of the phenomenon of life. PMID:26465867

  18. Comparative study of i-line and DUV lithography for 0.35 um and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakone, Nandasiri; Chang, Wayne H.; Tandberg, Erik; Elliot, Christina; Wang, Timothy Y.

    1995-05-01

    New I-line resists are claimed to be usable at 0.35 micrometers design rules. We have examined the suitability of several such materials (JSR IX750, Sumitomo PFi-38a, OCG RX64I) for this purpose and compared them with our production 0.5 micrometers resist, JSR IX700. A variety of criteria have been used, including the measured focus exposure windows at e-min and e-max, DOF vs. CD for grouped and isolated lines as well as contacts, linearity, and proximity response as a function of pitch. A limited study has been done on the impact of embedded phase shift reticles on printing small geometry contacts. We report upon the process improvements observed with two different reticle transmissions, their impact on isofocal bias, as well as the issue of sidelobe formation. Proponents of DUV claim that modern DUV materials exhibit significant advantages in terms of process window and more over are applicable to smaller geometries without the need for supplementary techniques such as phase shifting or modified illumination. In this study, we have examined the performance of a number of DUV materials (BASF ST3.5, OCG ARCH, JSR KRFL2 and an as yet experimental JSR resists) on ASM-L and Nikon excimer laser steppers. Limited results were also obtained using Shipley 2408 and dyed XP-9444 (0.8) on the SVG Micrascan II. Our studies conclude with a comparison of the CD swing observed over a variety of chemically mechanically planarized steps. This has been done for selected I-line and DUV resists with the aid of a TAR or BARC or as in the case of the broad band SVG system either a BARC or a dyed resist.

  19. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  20. The impact of atmospheric waves on the O2 1.27-um nightglow distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Naoya; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    O2 -1.27µm nightglow is the indicator of the general circulation at about 95 km in Venus. Recent nightglow observations reported that the nightglow emission showed the temporal variations with a timescale of a few hours and days [e.g.,Gerard et al., 2008]. The temporal variations are thought to be caused by wind fluctuations due to atmospheric waves propagating from the lower atmosphere. In recent years, the importance of planetary-scale waves on the general circulation of the Venusian atmosphere has been recognized. Forbes and Konopliv [2007] suggested the propagation of planetary-scale waves originated in the cloud deck into the upper atmosphere. However, the impact of the planetary-scale waves on the Venusian upper atmosphere has not been investigated yet. In this study, we have performed numerical simulations with a general circulation model (GCM), which includes the altitude region of 80 -about 200 km in order to understand the impact of atmospheric waves on the nightglow distribution. Our model considers the chemical processes and calculates the O2 -1.27µm nightglow intensity. The planetary-scale waves (thermal tides, Kelvin wave, and Rosbby wave) are imposed at the lower boundary. The amplitudes and phase velocities of the waves are assumed from the study by Del Genio and Rossow [1990]. The simulation results show dominance of the Kelvin wave at about 80 -120 km with a vertical wavelength of about 40 -50 km. The amplitude of the zonal wind fluctuation caused by the Kelvin wave has a maximum value of about 9 m/s at about 95 km. Our results suggest that the Kelvin wave would cause the wind variation of the nightglow emission region between the 00:00LT -00:40LT with a period of 4 days. In this presentation, we will show the details of our simulation results considering the planetary-scale waves. In addition, we will present the initial results of a simulation considering the small-scale gravity wave.

  1. IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) demonstration of CO retrieval, including multi-layer, from atmospheric data acquired simultaneously in the solar reflective region near 2.3 um and the thermal emissive region near 4.7 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergenthaler, J. L.; Kumer, J.; Roche, A. E.; Rairden, R. L.; Blatherwick, R.; Hawat, T.; Desouza-Machado, S.; Hannon, S.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm-1. We describe joint deployment at Denver University (DU) with co-investigators there of the TIMS, and of the DU colleagues FTS, to acquire simultaneous measurements of atmospheric spectra in the SR and the TIR. The FTS provided validation radiance data for the TIMS. The TIMS retrievals of CO, H2O and CH4 agreed well with validation vs these as retrieved from the DU data, AIRS retrieval, standard models and ECMWF. The TIMS CO retrievals included column retrieved from the just the SR data, column retrieved from just the TIR data, and a simple two-layer retrieval from the combined data sets. The data were acquired in an operational mode that mimicked the operations in a conceptual application that would provide footprints, coverage, refresh time as in the Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE mission statement. Very encouraging CO precisions were achieved, e.g., the TIMS CO column retrieval from the SR data demonstrated better than the 10% precision requirement as listed on slide 32 of the GEO-CAPE Reference document http://geo- cape.larc.nasa.gov/docs/GEOMAC_FinalReport_no_costs.ppt

  2. Laser activity at 1.18 um, 1.07 um, and 0.97 umin the low phonon energy crystalline hosts KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+

    SciTech Connect

    Rademaker, K; Heumann, E; Payne, S A; Huber, G; Krupke, W F; Isaenko, L I; Burger, A

    2004-09-15

    For the first time laser activity has been achieved in the low phonon energy, moisture-resistant bromide host crystals, neodymium-doped potassium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:KPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}) and rubidium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}). Laser activity at 1.07 {micro}m was observed for both crystalline materials. Laser operation at the new wavelengths 1.18 {micro}m and 0.97 {micro}m resulting from the {sup 4}F{sub 5/2} + {sup 2}H{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub J} transitions (J=13/2 and 11/2) in Nd:RPB was achieved for the first time in a solid state laser material. Rare earth- doped MPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} (M=K, Rb) is a promising candidate for long wavelength infrared applications because of its low phonon frequencies and other favorable features. In principle, Nd{sup 3+}:MPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} has high potential for laser operation at new wavelengths as well as for the realization of short-wavelength lasing due to upconversion processes.

  3. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  4. Near-achromatic retardance behavior of HN22 Polaroid 3.6 to 5.4 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lompado, Arthur; Sornsin, Elizabeth A.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1997-10-01

    Polaroid HN22, a popular sheet polarizer, has been measured to be a nearly half wave retarder in the 3.6 to 5.4 micrometers spectral band with a transmittance of approximately 20 percent. The exact retardance value may be tuned to the range of 60 degrees - 260 degrees by tilting the HN22 with respect to the incident beam. The material's polarizing effects have been shown to be minimal in this waveband. Its availability, relatively large available aperture, large filed of view, and low cost make HN22 an excellent candidate for use as an IR retarder for systems operating from 3.6 to 5.4 micrometers . As such, HN22 may be used for rotating the plane of polarization of an incident linearly polarized beam as well as to convert between circular polarization states.

  5. High resolution analysis of the ethylene-1-13C spectrum in the 8.4-14.3 um region

    SciTech Connect

    Flaud, Jean Marie; Lafferty, Walter J.; Sams, Robert L.; Devi, V. M.

    2010-01-29

    Fourier transform spectra of mono-13C ethylene have been recorded in the 8.4-14.3- μm spectral region (700 cm-1 to 1190 cm-1) using a Bruker 120 HR interferometer at a resolution of 0.0017 cm-1 allowing the extensive study of the set of resonating states {101, 81, 71,41,61}. Due to the high resolution available as well as the extended spectral range involved in this study, a much larger set of line assignments are now available. The present analysis has leads to the determination of more accurate spectroscopic constants including interaction constants than were obtained in earlier studies. In particular, the following band centers were derived: ν0(ν10) = 825.40602(30) cm-1, ν0(ν8) = 932.19572(15) cm-1, ν0(ν7) = 937.44452(10) cm-1, ν0(ν4) = 1025.6976(14) cm-1. Finally a synthetic spectrum was generated leading to the assignment of a number of 13C12CH4 lines observed through an earlier heterodyne spectroscopic study.

  6. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  7. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  8. Elemental analysis of natural quartz from Um Higlig, Red Sea Aea, Egypt by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; Alharbi, Abdulaziz

    2013-12-01

    A scheme for INAA of 25 elements: As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr in quartz collected from the eastern desert along the Egyptian Red Sea coast is proposed. The samples were prepared together with standard reference material and irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by a HPGe detector and the analysis was done by a computerized multichannel analyzer.The accuracy of the procedure is evaluated by the analysis of two geo-standard reference materials (Dolerite WSE and Microgabro PMS). The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the quartz rock. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of quartz, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian quartz. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, quartz chemistry and related fields. PMID:23954747

  9. Design of a new 1-5.5-um infrared camera for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, John T.; Shure, Mark A.; Toomey, Douglas W.; Onaka, Peter M.; Denault, Anthony J.; Stahlberger, Werner E.; Watanabe, Darryl; Criez, K.; Robertson, L.; Cook, D.; Kidger, Michael J.

    1993-10-01

    The design of a multipurpose 1 - 5.5 micrometers infrared camera (NSFCAM) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, is described. The camera is built around the new 256 X 256 InSb array manufactured by Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) and incorporates a variety of observing modes to fulfill its role as a major facility instrument. These include three remotely-selectable image scales, a selection of fixed bandpass filters, R equals 50 - 100 spectral resolution circularly variable filters, a grism, coronographic masks, and a polarization imaging capability. Through the use of flexible array clocking schemes, driven by programmable digital signal processors (DSPs), we plan to implement several new operating modes, including real-time shift and add for image stabilization, and fast subarray readouts for occultations. Simultaneous optical and infrared imaging of the same field will be possible through the use of a cold dichroic beamsplitter. This feature is primarily intended for use with the IRTF tip-tilt image stabilization system currently being built. Given a suitable guide star, the camera should achieve near-diffraction limited imaging at 2 - 5 micrometers . In this paper we discuss the design of the optics, cryogenic, electronics and software needed to provide the camera with these capabilities.

  10. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 24um fluxes of GOODS-S AGN (Garcia-Gonzalez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Sarajedini, V. L.; Villar, V.

    2015-06-01

    We compiled all the data taken around the GOODS South field with the MIPS instrument at 24μm by querying the Spitzer Heritage Archive.1 This field was observed by Spitzer during several campaigns from 2004 January to 2007 March. We focused our study on a region around RA=03:32:36 (J2000) and DE=-27:48:39 (J2000). These data correspond to different observing proposals from different PI, including the Guaranteed Time Observations programme (GTO, PI: G. Rieke) and the GOODS programme (PI: M. Dickinson). We have obtained 151 AORs (Astronomical Observation Request) but only downloaded 127 because the others were from the SWIRE (Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic) survey and were not sufficiently deep. (2 data files).

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE STRONG ACIDITY OF ATMOSPHERIC FINE PARTICLES (<2.5 UM) USING ANNULAR DENUDER TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a standardized methodology description for the determination of strong acidity of fine particles (less than 2.5 microns) in ambient air using annular denuder technology. his methodology description includes two parts: art A - Standard Method and Part B - Enhanced M...

  13. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  14. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de, Paz A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  16. Photocathodes based on semiconductor superlattices for streak tubes for IR region of 0.9-1.0 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, Eduard L.

    1995-05-01

    A possibility of temporal analysis of picosecond light pulses in the IR region with the help of photocathodes based on semiconductor superlattices (SL) of type I (InP/InGaAs) with Schottky barrier is discussed. A new principle of avalanche photoelectron emission from such an SL at interband absorption of light is suggested. The principle is based on the electrons free length path increasing in a SL with narrow quantum wells under high electric field applied to the SL. The idea makes it possible to develop a new device - avalanche photocathode with internal amplification for the IR region of 0.9-2 micrometers and temporal resolution better than 30 ps. It is proposed to use doped as well as undoped SL as basis for photocathodes sensitive to the IR radiation in the range of up to 10 micrometers . The photoemission from such structures is caused by the intersubband absorption of light in quantum wells. The use of undoped SL greatly reduced the thermoemission current of the photocathode but requires additional excitation of the SL by light pulses with energy approximately corresponding to the band gap of the narrow band gap material of the SL. The temporal resolution of such photocathodes is supposed to be less than 30 ps. The conditions for the avalanche photoelectron emission obtaining are determined, and the SL parameters which meet the requirement of maximum quantum efficiency of the photocathode are calculated.

  17. 1.9-um diode-laser-assisted anastomoses in reconstructive microsurgery: preliminary results in 12 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Schoffs, Michel; Martinot, Veronique L.; Buys, Bruno; Patenotre, Philippe; Lesage, Jean C.; Dhelin, Guy

    1998-01-01

    The authors reported an original 1.9 micrometer diode laser assisted microvascular anastomosis (LAMA) in human. This technique has been applied in 12 patients during reconstructive surgery for digital replantations (n equals 2), for digital revascularizations (n equals 3) and for free flap transfers (n equals 7). Fourteen end-to-end anastomoses (10 arteries, 4 veins) were performed. LAMA were always performed on vessel which did not impede the chance of success of the surgical procedure in case of thrombosis. LAMA was performed with a 1.9 micrometer diode laser after placement of 2 equidistant stitches. The didoes spot was obtained by means of an optic fiber transmitted to the vessel wall via a pencil size hand piece. The used parameters were as followed: spot size equals 400 micrometer, power equals 70 to 220 mW, time equals 0.7 to 2 seconds, mean fluence equals 115 J/cm2. The mechanism involved is a thermal effect on the collagen of the adventitia and media leading to a phenomena which the authors have termed 'heliofusion.' This preliminary trial has permitted to define the modalities of its use in human. The technique is simple, rapid and easily learned. The equipment is not cumbersome, sterilizable and very ergonomic. LAMA does not replace sutures but is complementary, thanks to a reduction in the number of stitches used and to an access to surgical areas which are not easily accessible. This study must be completed by a larger scale study to confirm this technique and its reliability. Others uses could performed on different tissues such as biliary and urinary track, specially under laparoscopic conditions.

  18. Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

    2000-06-05

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

  19. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  20. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  1. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  2. Substrate-removed 850-nm RCLEDs and small core (63/125 um) plastic optical fibers for optical data communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coosemans, Thierry; Bockstaele, Ronny; Van Hove, An; Naessens, Kris; Derluyn, Joff; Vanwassenhove, Luc; Van Daele, Peter; Moerman, Ingrid; Baets, Roel G.

    2000-04-01

    Current developments in computer technology give rise to increasing data communication over relatively short distances at backplane- and inter MCM interconnect level. It is foreseen that electrical interconnect will not be able to accommodate the necessary data traffic in advanced data processing systems in the future and hence a bottleneck will be created. A potential remedy for this interconnect problem is the use of parallel optical datalinks. In this paper we propose small diameter step index plastic optical fiber ribbons in combination with high efficient resonant cavity LED's as a cheap and feasible option for these optical links. A design for such an optical link is presented with special attention for the optical pathway. Experimental results on the optical properties of the used POF are shown. We describe the development of RCLED's at 850 nm specially designed for efficient coupling into POF. We measured a RCLED to POF coupling efficiency up to 40%. Additionally we report on the technologies used for the fabrication and assembly of the optical pathways and finally some experiments were carried out on the first realized assemblies.

  3. Chemical optimization of resist/developer systems tuned for sub-0.4-um process window expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toukhy, Medhat A.; Schlicht, Karin R.; Tarbox, Kimberly

    1997-07-01

    In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10-10 cm2/s to 10-12 cm2/s. All the experiments are conducted at room temperature and are valid only for acid vapor. With different film thickness, it was found that the acid diffuses through the film with a similar diffusion constant. The diffusion is faster with increased solvent residue in the film (controlled by spin coating speed). The theoretical computer modeling of the local acid concentration with respect to acid diffusion is also performed.

  4. Epitaxial growth of HgCdTe 1.55-um avalanche photodiodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lyon, Terence J.; Baumgratz, B.; Chapman, G. R.; Gordon, E.; Hunter, Andrew T.; Jack, Michael D.; Jensen, John E.; Johnson, W.; Johs, Blaine D.; Kosai, K.; Larsen, W.; Olson, G. L.; Sen, M.; Walker, B.

    1999-04-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode (SAM-APD) device structures, operating in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range, have been fabricated in the HgCdTe material system by molecular-beam epitaxy. These HgCdTe device structures, which offer an alternative technology to existing III-V APD detectors, were grown on CdZnTe(211)B substrates using CdTe, Te, and Hg sources with in situ In and As doping. The alloy composition of the HgCdTe layers was adjusted to achieve both efficient absorption of IR radiation in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range and low excess-noise avalanche multiplication. To achieve resonant enhancement of hole impact ionization from the split-off valence band, the Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te alloy composition in the gain region of the device, x equals 0.73, was chosen to achieve equality between the bandgap energy and spin-orbit splitting. The appropriate value of this alloy composition was determined from analysis of the 300 K bandgap and spin-orbit splitting energies of a set of calibration layers, using a combination of IR transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. MBE-grown APD epitaxial wafers were processed into passivated mesa-type discrete device structures and diode mini-arrays using conventional HgCdTe process technology. Device spectral response, dark current density, and avalanche gain measurements were performed on discrete diodes and diode mini- arrays on the processed wafers. Avalanche gains in the range of 30 - 40 at reverse bias of 85 - 90 V and array-median dark current density below 2 X 10(superscript -4) A/cm(superscript 2) at 40 V reverse bias have been demonstrated.

  5. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  6. Thermodynamic and transport properties of single-crystalline UM Ga5 (M=Fe,Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Os,Ir,Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, N. O.; Bauer, E. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Hundley, M. F.; Thompson, J. D.; Fisk, Z.

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity measurements on UMGa5 (M=Fe,Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Os,Ir,Pt) single crystals. Antiferromagnetic ordering was observed for M=Ni , Pd, and Pt, with ordering temperatures TN=80K , 28K , and 23.5K , respectively. For the UMGa5 compounds with transition metals from the Fe and Co columns, itinerant paramagnetic behavior is observed. The evolution of this behavior is discussed in terms of f -ligand interaction with an emphasis on the role played by f-d hybridization.

  7. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  8. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  9. Derivation of a Large Isotopic Diffuse Sky Emission Component at 1.25 and 2.2um from the COBE/DIRBE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained with COBE/DIRBE, we reanalyzed the diffuse sky brightness at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}}, which consists of zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic emission including the extragalactic background light. Our new analysis including an improved estimate of the DGL and the ISL with the 2MASS data showed that deviations of the isotropic emission from isotropy were less than 10% in the entire sky at high Galactic latitude (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). We derived the DGL to 100 μm brightness ratios of ∼4.79 and ∼1.49 n W m‑2 MJy‑1 at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, respectively. The result of our analysis revealed a significantly large isotropic component at 1.25 and 2.2 μ {{m}} with intensities of 60.15 ± 16.14 and 27.68+/- 6.21 {{n}} {{W}} {{{m}}}-2 {{sr}}-1, respectively. This intensity is larger than the integrated galaxy light, upper limits from γ-ray observation, and potential contribution from exotic sources (i.e., Population III stars, intrahalo light, direct collapse black holes, and dark stars). We therefore conclude that the excess light may originate from the local universe: the Milky Way and/or the solar system.

  10. Heavy-ion broad-beam and microprobe studies of single-event upsets in 0.20 um SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Karl; Irwin, Timothy J.; Niu, Guofu; Fodness, Bryan; Carts, Martin A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Reed, Robert A.; Gilbert, Barry; Randall, Barbara; Prairie, Jason; Riggs, Pam; Pickel, James C.; LaBel, Kenneth; Cressler, John D.; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2003-09-01

    Combining broad-beam circuit level single-event upset (SEU) response with heavy ion microprobe charge collection measurements on single silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors improves understanding of the charge collection mechanisms responsible for SEU response of digital SiGe HBT technology. This new understanding of the SEU mechanisms shows that the right rectangular parallele-piped model for the sensitive volume is not applicable to this technology. A new first-order physical model is proposed and calibrated with moderate success.

  11. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  12. A temperature-controlled cell for X-ray study of liquid systems using a commercial DRON-UM1 diffractometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petrun`kin, S.P.; Garavina, E.V.; Trostin, V.N.

    1995-02-01

    A container (cell) and a temperature-control system have been designed enabling one to carry out x-ray diffraction study of liquid samples both at a fixed temperature and within a certain temperature range using a commercial DRON-UMl x-ray diffractometer. Special features of the cell and the materials used for it allow one to study both chemically inert and corrosive liquids.

  13. Morphofunctional variation of the tooth pulp under the action of the erbium laser radiation with the wavelength 2.69 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balin, Victor N.; Guk, Alexey S.; Jordanishwily, A. K.; Kropotov, Sergey P.; Maday, Dimitry Y.; Kusovkova, Tatyana A.; Serebryakov, Victor A.; Frolov, Sergey V.

    1995-04-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of the morphofunctional state of the mouth cavity tissues after teeth processing by the laser radiation with the wavelength 2.69 micrometers . Teeth preparation down to the state of the deep or intermediate caries as well as pulp trepanation cases are discussed. No pulp necrosis was observed.

  14. Commissioning results of MMT-POL: the 1-5um imaging polarimeter leveraged from the AO secondary of the 6.5m MMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Warner, C.; Krejny, M.; Shenoy, D.; Vonderharr, T.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; DeWahl, K.

    2012-09-01

    MMT-POL is an adaptive optics optimized imaging polarimeter designed for use at the 6.5m MMT. By taking full advantage of the adaptive optics secondary mirror of the MMT, this polarimeter offers diffraction-limited polarimetry with very low instrumental polarization and minimal thermal background. MMT-POL permits observations as diverse as protoplanetary discs, comets, red giant winds, (super)novae and ejecta, galaxies, and AGN. We report on the initial on-sky commissioning results of the instrument including a description of the instrument.

  15. Confusion about a little observatory: the history of the first high school observatory (German Title: Verwirrung um eine kleine Sternwarte: Die Geschichte der ersten Chemnitzer Schulsternwarte )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzner, Elvira

    By means of a small watercolor, painted by a musicologist, the existence of the highschool observatory of Chemnitz was rediscovered. The small observatory was build in 1893 by means of funds and a donation: after WW I it was also used for popular education. During Nazi times, the observatory fell into neglect, and the mechanical damage made it impossible to put it back into operation after WW II The building was torn down in 1964 and forgotten.

  16. Leo de Ball and his contributions to international astronomical projects around 1900. (German Title: Leo de Ball und seine Beiträge zu internationalen Astronomieprojekten um 1900)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1891 until 1916 Leo de Ball was the director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. Born in Germany in 1853, he studied at Berlin and Bonn. After having received his doctorate in 1877, he became assistant at Gotha. From 1881 to 1882 he worked at the observatory in Bothkamp, where he discovered the minor planet ``Athamantis''. In 1883, he followed an invitation to the Ougrée Observatory in Belgium. Here he published some quite remarkable papers on the mass of Saturn and was also introduced to meridian circle astronomy. In 1891 he received a call to Moriz von Kuffner's observatory in Vienna. During that time the Astronomische Gesellschaft called for an extension of the ``Zonenunternehmen'' to southern declinations from -2 ° to -23°. De Ball took over the zone -5°50´ to -10°50´. This work occupied most of his time from 1892 to 1896. In 1900 Leo de Ball initiated a project for determining relative parallaxes of 252 stars in collaboration with four observatories. Although the project was only partly executed, Leo de Ball published relative parallaxes of 16 stars, observed from 1901 to 1907 with the Vienna heliometer.

  17. Increased efficiency of silicon light-emitting diodes in a standard 1.2-um silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyman, Lukas W.; Aharoni, Herzl; du Plessis, Monuko; Gouws, Rudolph B.

    1998-07-01

    Scaled versions of a variety of silicon light-emitting diode elements (Si LEDs) have been realized using a standard 1.2- micrometers , double-polysilicon, double-metal, n-well CMOS fabrication process. The devices operated with a n+p junction biased in the avalanche breakdown mode and were realized by using standard features of the ORBIT FORESIGHT design rules. The elements emit optical radiation in a broad band in the 450- to 850-nm range. An emitted intensity of up to 7.1 (mu) W/cm2 has been obtained with 5 mA of current at an operating voltage of 18.5 V. Excellent uniformity in emission intensity of better than 1 percent variation was obtained over areas as large as 100 X 500 micrometers . A best power conversion efficiency of 8.7 X 10-8 and a quantum efficiency of 7.8 X 10-7 were measured. All of these values are about one order of magnitude better than previously reported values for Si LED avalanche devices. Coupling between the elements as well as electro- optical coupling between an element and an optical fiber was realized.

  18. Utilizing contrast enhancement material as a topside antireflective coating (TARC) for maximizing an i-line 0.35-um process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, Matthew L.; Markowski, Mark S.

    1995-06-01

    As critical dimensions become smaller, a greater demand is being placed on existing i-line lithographic capability to support 0.35 micrometers technology. One method that is gaining wider acceptance is the use of a top side anti reflective coating (TARC). The effect of the TARC is to reduce the interference effects occurring in the film stack so that critical dimension (CD) variation as a result of topography is minimized. Unfortunately, the TARC provides no improvement with other lithographic responses that define the process window of a resist. Another approach is to use a contrast enhancement material (CEM). It is well known that a CEM can improve the depth of focus and resolution of a given resist system, and it is suspected that it may also possess some of the interference reduction properties of conventional TARCs. The purpose of this work is to investigate how effective the CEM acts as a TARC, and to determine any additional lithographic improvements which will increase the overall 0.35 micrometers process window. Process optimization of the CEM and TARC revealed that similar processing schemes could be used for both materials, but that it was necessary to remove the CEM (w/ a water rinse) prior to post exposure bake (PEB). The bulk photospeed swing ratio of the SPR3000 alone, was compared to SPR3000/Aquatar and SPR3000/CEM. Results showed that the Aquatar reduced the Eo swing ratio by 75%, while the CEM reduced the Eo swing ratio by about 55%. Similar improvements were seen with 0.35 micrometers CD swing ratio data. Exposure latitude and focus latitude (0.35 micrometers lines/spaces) data was generated using the same resist/enhancement schemes mentioned above at thicknesses corresponding to an Emax and Emin. Results of the lithography at each thickness were overlaid to determine the process window. Results showed the Aquatar and CEM processes to provide improved 0.35 micrometers windows, and that using a contrast enhancement material as a TARC is another alternative which can be used to increase the capability of commercially available i-line resists.

  19. Dental hard tissue modification and removal using sealed transverse excited atmospheric-pressure lasers operating at lambda=9.6 and 10.6 um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Akrivou, Maria; Featherstone, John D.; Murray, Michael W.; Dickenson, Kevin M.

    2001-04-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have been shown to be effective for both removal and modification of dental hard tissue for the treatment of dental caries. In this study, sealed transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) laser systems optimally tuned to the highly absorbed 9.6 micrometers wavelength were investigated for application on dental hard tissue. Conventional TEA lasers produce an initial high energy spike at the beginning of the laser pulse of submicrosecond duration followed by a long tail of about 1 - 4 microsecond(s) . The pulse duration is well matched to the 1 - 2 microsecond(s) thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy at 9.6 micrometers and effectively heats the enamel to the temperatures required for surface modification at absorbed fluences of less than 0.5 J/cm2. Thus, the heat deposition in the tooth and the corresponding risk of pulpal necrosis from excessive heat accumulation is minimized. At higher fluences, the high peak power of the laser pulse rapidly initiates a plasma that markedly reduces the ablation rate and efficiency, severely limiting applicability for hard tissue ablation. By lengthening the laser pulse to reduce the energy distributed in the initial high energy spike, the plasma threshold can be raised sufficiently to increase the ablation rate by an order of magnitude. This results in a practical and efficient CO2 laser system for caries ablation and surface modification.

  20. A Synchrotron-Based Facility for the in-situ Location, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of ~10 um Particles Captured in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.; Sutton, S; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust mission collected dust from the coma of Comet Wild-2 on January 2nd, 2004, by direct capture into aerogel cells that flew through the dust coma at 6 km/s. Stardust collected several hundred comet particles >10 {mu}m in size. These comet samples were delivered to Earth on January 15th, 2006. We developed a facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY, USA) for the in-situ characterization of 10 {mu}m particles collected in aerogel. These analytical instruments allow us to perform extensive chemical, mineralogical, and size-frequency characterization of particles captured in aerogel. These analyses are conducted without any invasive extraction, minimizing the possibility of contamination or particle loss during preparation. This facility was used to determine the chemical composition, the oxidation state, the mineralogy and to provide an indication of the grain size of the Wild-2 particles before they were removed from the aerogel. This information provides a catalog of particle types, allowing a more reasoned allocation of the particles to subsequent investigators based on a relatively detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and mineralogy of each particle. These measurements allowed a comparison of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the Wild-2 particles with other types of extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The success of in-situ analysis for Wild 2 particles demonstrates that synchrotron-based facilities will be important for the analysis of particles collected in aerogel on future earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft.

  1. High Resolution Spectroscopy of H212C16O in the 1.9 to 2.56 um Spectral Range

    SciTech Connect

    Flaud, J-M; Lafferty, Walter J.; Sams, Robert L.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    2006-06-20

    Infrared spectra of H2CO covering the 1.9 ? 2.5 ?m spectral domain have been recorded at very high resolution (0.005 cm-1) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of this spectral region has led to the observation and analysis of the v1+v6, v2+v4+v6, 2v3+ v6, v3+v5, v1+v2, v2+v5, 2v2+ v6 and 3v2 bands. The line frequencies were calculated using effective (empirical) Hamiltonian models which account for the main Coriolis and vibrational interactions. Using an interactive scheme it was then possible to least-squares fit the observed energy levels to within a few thousandths of a wavenumber. The Obs. ? Calc. differences do not match the spectral precision ({approx}0.0008 cm-1), but given the congestion in the spectrum resulting from the density of the vibrational states as well as the large centrifugal distortion and Coriolis and anharmonic coupling effects, we believe that a reasonable agreement was obtained.

  2. Antarktische benthische Ostracoden. VIII. Auswertung der Reise der ``Meteor'' (Ant. 11/4) in die Gewässer um Elephant Island und der Antarktischen Halbinsel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Gerd

    1992-12-01

    The present paper deals with ostracods collected in Antarctica during the voyage of R.V. “Meteor” (11/4) in December and January 1989/90 in waters around Elephant Island and west of the Antarctic Peninsula between 61° and 67°S and 54° and 69°W. 38 of the 50 species sampled were already known to science, but again 4 new species have been found, while 8 have to remain in open nomenclature. For the first time, a species of the subfamily Paracytherideinae was discovered in Antarctica. Additional material from Cytheropteron insulelephantensis, described by the author (Hartmann, 1989) from Elephant Island and rediscovered now at two further stations, shows that this species has to be placed into the genus Nodobythere. The systematical part of the paper contains the description of the new species and new data for species already previously treated (see Hartmann, 1986 1991), while the list of species and the list of stations (see appendix) contains all the species that were collected.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Combined ArTeMiS+SPIRE 350um image of NGC6334 (Andre+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, P.; Reveret, V.; Konyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tige, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-05-01

    High dynamic range dust continuum map of the NGC 6334 star-forming complex at 350 microns obtained by combining high-resolution ground-based observations taken with the ArTeMiS camera on the APEX telescope and Herschel Space Observatory data from the HOBYS key project (Motte et al., 2010A&A...518L..77M; Russeil et al. 2013A&A...554A..42R). The effective angular resolution is ~ 8" (HPBW). (2 data files).

  4. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  5. The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Möglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Georg

    Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.

  6. "Cos Um It like Put a Picture in My Mind of What I Should Write": An Exploration of How Home-School Partnership Might Support the Writing of Lower-Achieving Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines how home and school working together supported the writing of lower-achieving boys. It describes an activity in which parents and children selected artefacts at home to inspire writing in school. This model of home-school partnership permitted different levels of parental involvement and also allowed the child to take a key…

  7. Michael Mästlin's role in the polemic against the calendar reform of pope Gregor XIII. (German Title: Die Rolle Michael Mästlins in der Polemik um die Kalenderreform von Papst Gregor XIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.

  8. Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de uma Escola da Rede Estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    Being the Astronomy one of the oldest sciences of the humanity, and considering its historical and cultural importance, it is of extreme relevance that topics related to it are taught and studied at schools. Although the National Curriculum Parameters of the Senior High School (PCN-EM) and the Complementary Orientations to the Parameters (PCN+) indicate the importance of a significant approach of concepts related to the Astronomy in the Physics classes, many students finish the Senior High School (EM) without understanding the reason of certain events of celestial origin, although these are part of their daily lives and are a subject of natural curiosity for the youngsters. From the perception of the natural curiosity of the students of a São Paulo's Public School in the city of Suzano, came up the interest to investigate the basic knowledge in Astronomy of the Senior High School students at this school, becoming this the main goal of this research. A questionnaire of multiple choices was elaborated and initially applied to 34 students of the first grade and later, to more 310 students. It was distributed among the three grades of the Senior High School in the morning and night periods. In the way, it was observed that 73.9% of the students identified the Sun as a star, 67.1% demonstrated to understand the succession between the day and the night and 52.3% related the Big Bang to the origin of the Universe. In compensation, only 34.5% related the seasons of the year to the inclination of the rotation axis of the Earth, 21.3% indicated the simultaneous gravitational influence of the Moon and the Sun as responsible for the tides phenomenon, 24.5% correctly indicated which are the closest celestial objects to the Earth, 36.1% identified the light-year as a distance measure and only 34.2% recognized the shooting stars as meteors, being evidenced the small discernment of the students about the phenomena and astronomical terms of the daily life. Besides, the answers of different grade students and periods were compared, being observed, among other things, that the third grade students present a percentile of correct answers similar to the performance of the first grade students, demonstrating that the approach of topics related to the astronomy in the Senior High School has not been contributing in a significant way to a better understanding of the phenomena and the concepts.

  9. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  10. Uncooled 10μm FPA development at DRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, George D.

    2016-05-01

    The benefit of 10um pitch uncooled detectors is demonstrated through the use of image emulation. The image emulation uses the theoretical image of point sources for 10um wavelength radiation, then integrates the energy from multiple sources which fall into FPA pixel areas and produces representative images. Arrays of pixel pitches of 25um, 17um, 12um, 10um, 5um, and 4um are included. These images, and movies when presented live at the conference, make evident why array pitches smaller than the wavelength of radiation are useful and being considered. While the argument for sub-wavelength pixel pitches is already made by other authors, this representation might be clearer to a larger audience. Representative images, and movies when presented live at the conference, from a DRS 1280x1024 format, 10um pitch array are shown. Details of the DRS 10um pitch UFPA family are shown.

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 upregulation of both VEGF and ANGPTL4 is required to promote the angiogenic phenotype in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Murilo; Deshpande, Monika; Puchner, Brooks; Kashiwabuchi, Fabiana; Hassan, Syed Junaid; Asnaghi, Laura; Handa, James T.; Merbs, Shannath; Eberhart, Charles G.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Montaner, Silvia; Sodhi, Akrit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-regulated gene product, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), correlates with tumor vascularity in patients with uveal melanoma (UM). While the relationship between HIF-1 and VEGF in cancer is well-studied, their relative contribution to the angiogenic phenotype in UM has not previously been interrogated. Here we evaluate the contribution of HIF-1, VEGF, and a second HIF-1-regulated gene product, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), to angiogenesis in UM. Experimental Design UM cells were examined for expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and ANGPTL4. Their contribution to the angiogenic potential of UM cells was assessed using the endothelial cell tubule formation and directed in vivo angiogenesis assays. These results were corroborated in tissue from UM animal models and in tissue from patients with UM. Results Inhibition of VEGF partially reduced tubule formation promoted by conditioned medium from UM cells. Inhibition of ANGPTL4, which was highly expressed in hypoxic UM cells, a UM orthotopic transplant model, a UM tumor array, and vitreous samples from UM patients, inhibited the angiogenic potential of UM cells in vitro and in vivo; this effect was additive to VEGF inhibition. Conclusions Targeting both ANGPTL4 and VEGF may be required for the effective inhibition of angiogenesis in UM. PMID:26761211

  12. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action. PMID:25062484

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IAS Stacking Library in IDL (Bethermin+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethermin, M.; Dole, H.; Beelen, A.; Aussel, H.

    2010-04-01

    Number counts reach 35uJy, 3.5mJy and 40mJy at 24um, 70um, and 160um, respectively. We reach deeper flux densities of 0.38mJy at 70, and 3.1 at 160um with a stacking analysis. Products (point spread function, counts, CIB, contributions, software) are publicly available for download at http://www.ias.u-psud.fr/irgalaxies/ (2 data files).

  14. Portal Monitor Future Development Work: Hardware Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Michael C.

    2012-07-03

    LANL portal monitor was a modification of a previously installed (permanent) unattended monitoring system (UMS). Modifications to the UMS to make the portal were sometimes based on mistaken assumptions about exercise-specific installation and access. Philosophical approach to real-time portal differs in some areas from UMS.

  15. Assessment of Teams and Teamwork in the University of Maryland Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Teams play an important role in the University of Maryland (UM) Libraries. Since 1998, teams and collaborative teamwork have become the way librarians address the myriad of issues affecting the needs of UM's faculty, students, and staff. There has been much change in the UM Libraries over the past nine years, and the development is ongoing.…

  16. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF HEXACHLOROETHANE, CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, AND BROMOFORM BY ANAHYDROQUINONE DISULFONATE AND HUMIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dehalogenation of hexachloroethane (C2CI6), carbon tetrachloride (CC14), and bromoform (CHBr3) was examined at 50 degrees C in aqueous solutions containing either (1) 500 uM of 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHQDS), (2) 250 uM Fe2+, or (3) 250 uM HS. The pH ran...

  17. Utopia Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  18. "Was für Grün in der Stadt?". Politische Aushandlungsprozesse um städtische Grün- und Freiräume am Beispiel des urbanen Gärtnerns in Schweizer Städten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöti, Tanja; Tappert, Simone; Drilling, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Urban green space is a key subject of actual urban negotiation processes on how the city shall develop. Visions of the ideal city are reflected in the meanings currently ascribed to urban gardening. Thereby the relation between human and nature as well as between build and natural environment in the city plays a central role. Results from different Swiss cities show that allotment gardens as well as newer forms of urban gardening are oscillating between a compensatory and a complementary understanding of nature, and they equally combine the desire for pristine nature with the demand for functional green space in the city.

  19. Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Intermediate Coronary Stenoses: MINIATURE Investigators (Korea MultIceNter TrIal on Long-Term Clinical Outcome According to the Plaque Burden and Treatment Strategy in Lesions with MinimUm Lumen ARea lEss Than 4 mm2 Using Intravascular Ultrasound)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Joon; Choi, Yun Ha; Park, Soo Young; Nam, Chang Wook; Cho, Jang Hyun; Kang, Won Yu; Lee, Sang Rok; Lee, Sung Yun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lim, Sang Yeob; Yun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Jin Won; Kang, Woong Chol; Kim, Ki Seok; Choi, Jin Ho; Chung, Joong Wha; Kim, Soo Joong; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives We evaluated the two-year clinical outcomes in patients with angiographically intermediate lesions according to the plaque burden and treatment strategy. Subjects and Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with angiographically intermediate lesions (diameter stenosis 30-70%) with an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) minimum lumen area (MLA) <4 mm2 with 50-70% plaque burden of 16 Korean percutaneous coronary intervention centers. Patients were divided into medical therapy group (n=85) and zotarolimus-eluting stent group (ZES; Resolute) group (n=74). We evaluated the incidences of two-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Results A two-year clinical follow-up was completed in 143 patients and MACE occurred in 12 patients. There were no significant differences in the incidences of death (1.3% vs. 3.0%, p=0.471), target vessel-related non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.0% vs. 0.0%, p=1.000) and target vessel revascularizations (7.8% vs. 4.5%, p=0.425) between medical and ZES groups. Independent predictors of two-year MACE included acute myocardial infarction {odds ratio (OR)=2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-6.12, p=0.014}, diabetes mellitus (OR=2.46; 95% CI 1.24-5.56, p=0.028) and non-statin therapy (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.18-5.24, p=0.034). Conclusion Medical therapy shows comparable results with ZES, and myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus and non-statin therapy were associated with the occurrence of two-year MACE in patients with intermediate lesion with IVUS MLA <4 mm2 with 50-70% of plaque burden. PMID:24876855

  20. Resolving the Youngest Episode of Zircon Rim Growth with High-Spatial Resolution SIMS: U-Pb Ages and Trace Element Analyses from <1 um Thick Metamorphic Zircon Rims from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, M. A.; Leech, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Dating the youngest phase of metamorphic or magmatic zircon growth by in-situ techniques on sectioned zircons can be challenging when rims are only a few microns thick; in the worst case, geologically meaningless measurements result from mixing between different age and/or compositional growth domains. This is especially true for zircons from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya, which contain Eocene to Miocene rims that grew over Paleozoic and Proterozoic protolith cores during peak and retrograde metamorphism. These metamorphic rims are typically only 0.5 to 3.0 microns thick and require high-spatial resolution to resolve. We used the SHRIMP-RG ion-microprobe to perform new U-Pb depth-profiling analyses on zircon surfaces (non-polished) pressed into indium metal. Zircons from a leucogranite dike from Malung Tokpo along the Zanskar Shear Zone, which have 2000-5000 ppm U rims, were selected for detailed depth-profiling to evaluate the depth-resolution by SIMS for U-Pb and trace element analyses. Due to the high U concentration, we were able to decrease the primary beam intensity (sputter rate) and the count times for U and Pb isotopes, and increase the number of cycles through the run-table (45 peak-hopping scans). As a result, each cycle yielded a 0.04 micron depth-resolved zircon age and trace element composition. The youngest 13 scans yielded a U-Pb age of 21.3 ± 0.5 Ma, representing a 0.6 micron rim with uniform U, Th, and Hf concentrations. At 1.15 microns, the primary beam sputtered into a ~600 Ma core; this older age is complicated by the fact that it reflects mixing between the bottom of the sputter volume and the Miocene ages of the pit margins and rim, because the diameter of the spot tends to increase with time. Trace element analyses on zircon surfaces from the Tso Morari UHP Complex are highly reproducible, showing enriched HREE profiles with negative Eu anomalies - a result that is difficult to reproduce by analyses of sectioned crystals.

  1. "Was für Grün in der Stadt?" - Politische Aushandlungsprozesse um städtische Grün- und Freiräume am Beispiel des urbanen Gärtnerns in Schweizer Städten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöti, Tanja; Tappert, Simone; Drilling, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Urban green space is a key subject of actual urban negotiation processes on how the city shall develop. Visions of the ideal city are reflected in the meanings currently ascribed to urban gardening. Thereby the relation between human and nature as well as between build and natural environment in the city plays a central role. Results from different Swiss cities show that allotment gardens as well as newer forms of urban gardening are oscillating between a compensatory and a complementary understanding of nature, and they equally combine the desire for pristine nature with the demand for functional green space in the city.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer/IRS debris disk catalog. I. (Chen+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Mittal, T.; Kuchner, M.; Forrest, W. J.; Lisse, C. M.; Manoj, P.; Sargent, B. A.; Watson, D. M.

    2014-05-01

    In Chen et al. (2006ApJS..166..351C), we obtained IRS spectra of 59 main-sequence stars with previously reported IRAS 60um excesses. We augment those data with newly obtained IRS spectra of 64 main-sequence stars with MIPS 24um and/or IRAS 25um excesses using the SL (5.2-14.0um) and LL (14.0-38.0um; λ/Δλ~60) modules as part of the program "Characterizing Warm Debris around Main Sequence Stars" (PID 40651 led by PI: J. Houck). For targets not observed as part of our programs, we downloaded Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Sources (CASSIS; Lebouteiller et al. 2011ApJS..196....8L) spectra wherever possible. We assembled MIPS 24 and/or 70um photometry for 473 IRS sources to calibrate the IRS spectra and better constrain our targets' global SEDs (see Table 2). (4 data files).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Perseus dust optical depth and column density maps (Zari+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zari, E.; Lombardi, M.; Alves, J.; Lada, C.; Bouy, H.

    2015-11-01

    We present optical depth and temperature maps of the Perseus Molecular Cloud, created combining Planck and Herschel data. The maps were obtained using Herschel SPIRE 250um, SPIRE 350um, SPIRE 500um, and, where available, PACS 160um data. The file planckherschelfit.fits reports the results of a full SED fit (with free parameters the optical depth and the temperature), at the SPIRE 500um resolution (36-arcsec). The file planckherschelfit2-a.fits uses the temperature from planckherschelfit.fits and the flux at SPIRE 250um to infer the optical depth with a resolution of 18 arcsec. Finally, the catalogue of Class I/0 protostars reports WISE magnitudes for the sources used to estimate the Schmidt law. (3 data files).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DR 21 Chandra source catalogue (Rivilla+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-11-01

    In our analysis, we used archival stellar catalogues in X-rays, optical and IR wavelengths. We also made use of the Spitzer 4.6um and 8um images (Cygnus-X Legacy Project), and the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) 850um data (Matthews et al. 2009ApJS..182..143M, Cat. J/ApJS/182/143). (1 data file).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR sources in the northeastern part of LMC (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Jeong, W.-S.; Pak, S.; Park, W.-K.; Tamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    We observed the northeastern regions of the LMC using the infrared camera SIRIUS and the polarimeter SIRPOL at the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) 1.4m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) on 2008 December 25-30 and 2011 December 2-11; in the J (1.25um), H (1.63um), and Ks (2.14um) bands. (1 data file).

  6. Somatic embryogenesis in immature cotyledons of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from immature cotyledon explants that were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins with 5.4 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 uM thidiazuron (TDZ) plus a 4x4 factorial combination of 0,9.8, 34.6, or 49.2 uM indole-3-butyric acid ...

  7. Utilization management for residential programs.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean A; Styron, Thomas H; Carlson, Shelly; Hoge, Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on utilization management (UM) in community-based supportive residential programs for people with behavioral disorders. Various approaches for facilitating placement and movement are discussed in the context of an effort to develop a residential UM process in New Haven, Connecticut. Recommendations are made for a residential UM process that may be applied to a range of service systems. It takes into account the methodological difficulties inherent in the development of generalizable decision tools. PMID:15478874

  8. Rhizotoxic effects of silver in cowpea seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver (Ag) is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, including algae, invertebrate animals and fish, but there is little information on Ag rhizotoxicity in higher plants. In two solution culture experiments with ca. 1000 uM Ca(NO3)2 and 5 uM H3BO3 (pH 5.4), 20 to 37 % of added Ag (= 2 uM) was lost fro...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young clumps embedded in IRDC (Traficante+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Peretto, N.; Pineda, J. E.; Molinari, S.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric parameters for 667 starless clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 250 and 350um) and 1056 protostellar clumps (sources identified at 160um with a counterpart at 70, 250 and 350um). Photometric parameters obtained with Hyper photometry code (2015A&A...574A.119T). The photometry is corrected for aperture and colour corrections. The parameter list is the standard Hyper output (see description below). SED fit parameters for 650 starless clumps and 1034 protostellar clumps (all clumps with good SED fitting: Chi2<10, Temperature<40K. See the paper for details) (4 data files).

  10. Biological properties and molecular targets of umbelliprenin--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    7-Prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites found mainly in plants belonging to the families Rutaceae and Apiaceae. Auraptene, umbelliprenin (UM), and 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin are some examples of prenylated coumarins. UM occurs in various edible plant species including celery, coriander, angelica, lemon, and particularly, Ferula species. Although UM was isolated more than 50 years ago, its biological activities have been studied since the last two decades. Besides anticancer activities, biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antileishmanial activities have been reported from this natural compound. The present mini-review deals with the biological activities and mechanism of actions reported for UM. PMID:24852499

  11. An elementary calculus method for evaluating ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tuo Yeong; Xiong, Yuxuan

    2014-08-01

    We use freshman calculus to prove that um0001">um0001.gif"/> for θ ∈ (0, π) and n = 0, 1, 2, … ; in particular, we obtain a simple unified method for evaluating the following infinite series: um0002">um0002.gif"/>

  12. Using optical coherence tomography to assess the role of age and region in corneal epithelium and palisades of vogt

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Chieh; Tew, Teck Boon; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Huai-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Wei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to observe the morphology and epithelial thickness (ET) of the palisades of Vogt (POV), and to evaluate the role of age and region on these structures. One hundred twelve eyes of 112 healthy subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: A (0–19), B (20–39), C (40–59), and D (≥60 years old). RTvue-100 OCT was applied on the cornea and the limbus. The morphology of the subepithelial stroma underneath the epithelium of POV was classified into typical and atypical types. Maximum ET of POV was measured manually from OCT images. The positive rate of typical POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 100%, 69.2%, 65.4%, 100%; Group B: 100%, 73.5%, 61.8%, 94.1%; Group C: 95.8%, 41.7%, 37.5%, 83.3%; Group D: 67.9%, 0%, 3.6%, 25%, showing a significant decreasing tendency with age. The maximum ET of POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 103.5 ± 10.1 um, 89.2 ± 9.7 um, 87.9 ± 13.6 um, 104.7 ± 14.1 um; Group B: 111.4 ± 15.8 um, 85.3 ± 9.9 um, 88.2 ± 8.6 um, 112.6 ± 19.7 um; Group C: 116.4 ± 16.4 um, 82.8 ± 11.6 um, 87.0 ± 11.6 um, 120.0 ± 25.6 um; Group D: 96.3 ± 17.9 um, 73.8 ± 15.9 um, 79.2 ± 16.7 um, 87.4 ± 18.5 um. Age-dependent change was observed. In general, the maximum ET of POV in superior/inferior quadrants was thicker than the other 2 quadrants. Spectral-domain OCT is a useful tool to observe the limbal microstructure and provide invaluable information. Aging and anatomic regions had significant effects on the microstructure of these areas. PMID:27583846

  13. 77 FR 69498 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... & Columbia Aves., Calvert Rd., & UM Campus, College Park, 12000993 MASSACHUSETTS Hampshire County Northampton..., Auburn, Bird, Claremont, Elmwood, Forest, Highland, Hodge, Lafayette, Lexington, Norwood Aves.,...

  14. Cataloging the Youngest Protostars in NGC2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jonathan; Brown, Arianna; Terebey, Susan; CSI2264

    2016-06-01

    Protostars are young stars in their earliest stages of development. We can determine the current stage of development of a young star depending on its relative brightness at varying wavelengths. Protostars are brightest at far-infrared wavelengths, typically peaking at 70-100um. A previous catalog of young stars in NGC 2264 is based on Spitzer data with 24um being the longest available wavelength data. Herschel data at 70um was used to improve the census of protostars. We found 11 new class 0 and 1 protostar candidates that were previously not found in the Spitzer catalog and are bright at 70um. We describe the properties of these candidates.

  15. Automated metal-free multiple-column nanoLC for improved phosphopeptide analysis sensitivity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Rui; Ding, Shi-Jian; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Livesay, Eric A.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-15

    We report on the development and characterization of an automated metal-free nanoscale multiple-capillary system for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of phosphopeptides. The system incorporates a capillary column (50 um i.d. × 30 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles) coupled on-line to a solid phase extraction column (150 um i.d. × 4 cm, packed with 5 um C18 particles). Electrospray ionization tips are constructed on the packed capillary column to couple the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation to a linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometer.

  16. Using optical coherence tomography to assess the role of age and region in corneal epithelium and palisades of vogt.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsuan-Chieh; Tew, Teck Boon; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Huai-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Wei-Li

    2016-08-01

    Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to observe the morphology and epithelial thickness (ET) of the palisades of Vogt (POV), and to evaluate the role of age and region on these structures.One hundred twelve eyes of 112 healthy subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: A (0-19), B (20-39), C (40-59), and D (≥60 years old). RTvue-100 OCT was applied on the cornea and the limbus. The morphology of the subepithelial stroma underneath the epithelium of POV was classified into typical and atypical types. Maximum ET of POV was measured manually from OCT images.The positive rate of typical POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 100%, 69.2%, 65.4%, 100%; Group B: 100%, 73.5%, 61.8%, 94.1%; Group C: 95.8%, 41.7%, 37.5%, 83.3%; Group D: 67.9%, 0%, 3.6%, 25%, showing a significant decreasing tendency with age. The maximum ET of POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 103.5 ± 10.1 um, 89.2 ± 9.7 um, 87.9 ± 13.6 um, 104.7 ± 14.1 um; Group B: 111.4 ± 15.8 um, 85.3 ± 9.9 um, 88.2 ± 8.6 um, 112.6 ± 19.7 um; Group C: 116.4 ± 16.4 um, 82.8 ± 11.6 um, 87.0 ± 11.6 um, 120.0 ± 25.6 um; Group D: 96.3 ± 17.9 um, 73.8 ± 15.9 um, 79.2 ± 16.7 um, 87.4 ± 18.5 um. Age-dependent change was observed. In general, the maximum ET of POV in superior/inferior quadrants was thicker than the other 2 quadrants.Spectral-domain OCT is a useful tool to observe the limbal microstructure and provide invaluable information. Aging and anatomic regions had significant effects on the microstructure of these areas. PMID:27583846

  17. Mathematik semantologisch verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Rudolf

    Um zu verstehen, was Mathematik ist und bedeutet, reicht es nicht aus, mathematisches Denken und Wissen vielseitig zu erwerben. Hinzukommen muss stets ein angemessenes Verständnis der jeweiligen Bedeutungen mathematischer Denkformen, die in der aktual-realen Welt wirksam werden können. Beim Mathematik-Verstehen sollte es vor allem um ein Vermitteln des Selbstverständnisses der Mathematik, um ein Reflektieren des Bezugs der Mathematik zur realen Welt und um ein Beurteilen von Sinn, Bedeutung und Zusammenhang des Mathematischen in der Welt gehen.

  18. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducción a la astronomía universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no científicas exploren algunos conceptos astronómicos en más detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos también ponen en relevancia eventos astronómicos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan más interesados en la astronomía a través de proyectos vinculados a eventos astronómicos. En el período de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tránsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tránsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios não eram benéficos para a educação e que não devem ser propostos novamente. As resp

  19. Resistance of uveal melanoma to the interstrand cross-linking agent mitomycin C is associated with reduced expression of CYP450R

    PubMed Central

    Gravells, P; Hoh, L; Canovas, D; Rennie, I G; Sisley, K; Bryant, H E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumour of adults, frequently metastasising to the liver. Hepatic metastases are difficult to treat and are mainly unresponsive to chemotherapy. To investigate why UM are so chemo-resistant we explored the effect of interstrand cross-linking agents mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin in comparison with hydroxyurea (HU). Methods: Sensitivity to MMC, cisplatin and HU was tested in established UM cell lines using clonogenic assays. The response of UM to MMC was confirmed in MTT assays using short-term cultures of primary UM. The expression of cytochrome P450 reductase (CYP450R) was analysed by western blotting, and DNA cross-linking was assessed using COMET analysis supported by γ-H2AX foci formation. Results: Both established cell lines and primary cultures of UM were resistant to the cross-linking agent MMC (in each case P<0.001 in Student's t-test compared with controls). In two established UM cell lines, DNA cross-link damage was not induced by MMC (in both cases P<0.05 in Students's t-test compared with damage induced in controls). In all, 6 out of 6 UMs tested displayed reduced expression of the metabolising enzyme CYP450R and transient expression of CYP450R increased MMC sensitivity of UM. Conclusion: We suggest that reduced expression of CYP450R is responsible for MMC resistance of UM, through a lack of bioactivation, which can be reversed by complementing UM cell lines with CYP450R. PMID:21386838

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW THERMOPHILIC SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM THERMODESULFOVIBRIO YELLOWSTONII GEN. NOV. AND SP. NOV.: ITS PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP TO THERMODESULFOBACTERIUM COMMUNE AND THEIR ORIGINS DEEP WITHIN THE BACTERIAL DOMAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermophilic sulfate-reducing vibrio isolated from thermal vent water in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming USA, is described. he Gram-negative, curve rod-shaped cells averaged 0.3 um wide and 1.5 um long. hey were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. rowth was observed between ...

  1. Study of factors affecting growth and cold acclimation of Vitis callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro grape tissue culture initiation, growth, and cold acclimation were studied. Factors involved were genotypes, media, plant growth regulators, age, light, temperature, antioxidant, clearing and adsorbing agents, sucrose level, osmotic potential, ABA, chilling and freezing treatments. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1 ..mu..M 2,4-d + 0.1 uM Ba, MS containing 1 uM 2,4-D, and woody plant medium containing 1 uM 2,4-D + 0.1 uM BA produced abundant callus tissue for most grape genotypes; either WPM or MS containing 1 uM BA stimulated shoot growth in all the 12 genotypes tested. Adding 1 uM abscisic acid (ABA) to the B5 medium with 1 uM 2,4-D and 0.5 uM BA enhanced growth and quality of Chancellor callus. /sup 3/H-ABA was taken up actively by callus tissue at 12 days after subculture, but by 20 d this effect disappeared. When /sup 14/C-sucrose was added to the medium. /sup 14/C level of cells reached a plateau after 48 h; this plateau was higher if ABA was also present in the medium. Cells on media containing ABA were larger in size, lighter in color, and more loosely connected.

  2. Class III-specific HDAC inhibitor Tenovin-6 induces apoptosis, suppresses migration and eliminates cancer stem cells in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jin, Bei; Pan, Jingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite improvements in surgical, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, the overall survival of UM and prognosis remain poor. In the present study, we hypothesized that Sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2), class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), were critical in controlling the destiny of bulk tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) of UM. We testified this hypothesis in four lines of UM cells (92.1, Mel 270, Omm 1 and Omm 2.3). Our results showed that inhibition of SIRT1/2 by Tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in UM cells by activating the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tenovin-6 inhibited the growth of UM cells. Tenovin-6 and vinblastine was synergistic in inducing apoptosis of UM cell line 92.1 and Mel 270. Furthermore, Tenovin-6 eliminated cancer stem cells in 92.1 and Mel 270 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tenovin-6 may be a promising agent to kill UM bulk tumor cells and CSCs. PMID:26940009

  3. Study Abroad for Chinese University Presidents: How China Is Reforming Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Constance Ewing

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Chinese Ministry of Education sent presidents and party secretaries from its top-ranked universities to the University of Michigan (UM) to learn more about the leadership of research universities. Both the ministry and UM worked hard to make the visit productive, and both parties gained from it. A year later, with the support of the…

  4. USING CERAMIC MEMBRANES TO RECYCLE TWO NONIONIC ALKALINE METAL-CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One ZrO2 ultrafilter (0.05 um pore size) and two a-Al2O3 microfilters (0.2 and 0.8 um) were used to remove one synthetic ester oil and two polyalphaolefin-based and two petroleum hydrocarbon-based oils and greases from two nonionic alkaline cleaning solutions (e.g., Turco 4215-NC...

  5. Taming the "Beast": An Archival Management System Based on EAD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jennie A.; Evans, Jennifer; Kumar, Amit

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005, the University of Maryland Libraries launched "ArchivesUM" (www.lib.umd.edu/archivesum), an online database of finding aids for manuscript and archival collections using Encoded Archival Description (EAD). "ArchivesUM," however, is only the publicly available end-product of a much larger project-an integrated system that ties…

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A SAMPLING PROCEDURE FOR LARGE NITROGEN- AND SULFUR-BEARING AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A single-stage impactor was modified to utilize a removable TFE impaction surface mounted on the end of an annular denuder. hen used with a polycarbonate filter coated with silicone oil, its cut point was 2.5 um and bounce was <1% for 8-um particles. ignificant bounce occurred wi...

  7. DIRECT-DEPOSITION INFRARED SPECTROMETRY WITH GAS AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct-deposition Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system has been evaluated for applicability to gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) of environmental analytes. A 100-um i.d. fused-silica transfer line was used for GC, and a 50-um transfer lin...

  8. Students' Perceptions of Blackboard and Moodle in a Portuguese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Ana; Areal, Nelson; Silva, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) has grown considerably in universities around the world. The University of Minho (UM) has pioneered in this area in Portugal, adopting Blackboard as its official LMS. Moodle is also used in UM in scattered initiatives, allowing for interesting comparisons. Previous studies comparing Blackboard and…

  9. The Role of Iron in Libby Amphibole-Induced Lung Injury and Inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complexation of host iron (Fe) on the surface of inhaled asbestos fibers has been postulated to cause oxidative stress contributing to in vivo pulmonary injury and inflammation. We examined the role of Fe in Libby amphibole (LA; mean length 4.99um ± 4.53 and width 0.28um ± 0.19)...

  10. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtoni, is described from soil collected from a field with a cropping history including potatoes in Oregon. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles (J2) with a body length of 450 um (365-515), stylet length of 20.9 um (19-22.5) with basal kn...