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Sample records for estres hipoxico agudo

  1. El estrés y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas personas fuman cuando se sienten estresadas. Una parte importante de dejar de fumar es encontrar maneras de manejar el estrés. Reciba recomendaciones sobre formas de disminuir el estrés en su vida.

  2. The e-st@r CubeSat: Antennas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchini, G.; Gagliostro, D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper the design of a deployable antenna system for CubeSats is proposed. Its manufacturing and test for the use on e-st@r CubeSat (developed at Politecnico di Torino by students' team of the Aerospace Engineering Courses) is then reported. The design procedure is based on analyzing the CubeSat standard and defining the physical and geometrical constraints, both for a general Cubesat and the particular case of e-st@r, multiple possible configurations are analyzed and compared to define the most suitable one. The use of Components Off-The-Shelf (COTS) materials is considered for the manufacturing of all parts of the system and utilized if acceptable. The lock system can be seen as one of the critical points of the system because it has to ensure that the antenna will not open during launch, but also that it opens when in orbit, so an optimization of already existing lock systems is pursued. We considered a two fault tolerant system to have an acceptable level of confidence. Briefly the manufacturing of all parts and the tests campaign of the assembled system is then proposed with some conclusive considerations on the environmental impact of the system.

  3. EJERCICIO Y LA DETECCION DEL MAL AGUDO DE MONTAÑA GRAVE

    PubMed Central

    Garófoli, Adrián; Montoya, Paola; Elías, Carlos; Benzo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El Mal Agudo de Montaña (MAM) es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral) pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2 700m y 4 300m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962m). Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución >=5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. 6 sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5%) y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2 700m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2 700m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4 300m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave. PMID:20228017

  4. Assessing the impact of soil management on soil erosion in vineyards in La Rioja (Spain): La Sierra de Los Agudos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galilea Salvador, Ianire; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Ruiz Flaño, Purificación; Ángel Llorente Adán, Jose; Bellido, Nuria Pascual

    2015-04-01

    La Rioja is a predominantly agricultural region located in the northwestern corner of the Ebro Basin in Spain. In this region, vineyards are a crop of historical and economical importance and large extension that traditionally has been relegated to marginal lands, mainly glacis, high fluvial terraces and slopes linking different levels of terraces and glacis. It is well known that vineyards are among the land uses affected by largest soil erosion losses. Surprisingly, many farmers still apply non-conservative practices that contribute to an increase of soil erosion. In spite of the environmental and economic consequences, very little research on this topic has been undertaken in the region. In this study, we assessed the impact of vineyards and soil management practices on soil erosion in La Sierra de Los Agudos, a heavily eroded area located on quaternary silt loam and clay glacis, where vineyards represent 30% of the agricultural land. For this purpose we used an adapted version of the RUSLE model: R was estimated using data from two nearby weather stations following the methodology of Arnoldus and Fournier for a lapse time of five years; K was assessed from 28 soil samples analyzed by the National Institute of Soil Erosion, and the edaphic map of La Rioja which includes 32 taxa; C was calculated from catastral data, the Information System of Land Occupation, and by a detailed study of each subfactor; LS was obtained from a 10 meters/pixel scale DTM from which the slope length and the percentage of inclination of the slopes was calculated; and P was established by observing different tillage practices in each of the plots. Low erosion values (<0,001-2 Mg ha-¹year-¹) were estimated for the 43 % of the area, while the 37% was affected by moderate (2-12 Mg ha-¹year-¹) and high erosion values (>12 Mg ha-¹year-¹) which exceed the soil loss tolerance (T value) established by Renard (1996). In this study we showed that the current support practices accelerate soil

  5. Regulación del flujo sanguíneo uterino. I. Funciones de estrógeno y receptores estrogénicos α/β en el endotelio vascular uterino durante el embarazo

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villalón L.; López, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jesús; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El estrógeno y los receptores estrogénicos clásicos (REs), RE-α y RE-β, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsable por las adaptaciones endoteliales uterinas durante el embarazo al corto y largo plazo. Las diferencias moleculares y estructurales, junto con los diferentes efectos causados por estos receptores en las células y los tejidos, sugieren que su función varía dependiendo de la manera en la cual el estrógeno se comunica con sus receptores. En ésta revisión bibliográfica se discuten la función del estrógeno y sus receptores clásicos en las adaptaciones cardiovasculares durante el embarazo y la expresión de los Res in vivo e in vitro en el endotelio de la arteria uterina durante el ciclo ovárico y el embarazo, a la vez comparado con la expresión en endotelio arterial de tejidos reproductivos y no reproductivos. Estos temas integran el conocimiento actual de este amplio campo científico con interpretaciones e hipótesis diversas relacionadas con los efectos estrogénicos mediados bien sea por uno o los dos REs. Esta revisión también incluye la relación con las adaptaciones vasodilatadoras y angiogénicas requeridas para modular el dramático incremento fisiológico en la perfusión útero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113750

  6. Regulación del flujo sanguíneo uterino. II. Funciones de estrógeno y receptores estrogénicos α/β en acciones genómicas y no-genómicas del endotelio uterino *

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villalón L.; López, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jesús; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El embarazo está marcado por cambios y adaptaciones cardiovasculares que son importantes para el crecimiento y mantenimiento de la placenta y el feto. Durante este periodo, las adaptaciones vasculares uterinas manifiestan cambios clasificados como de corto o largo plazo los cuales están relacionados con adaptaciones vasodilatadoras, angiogénicas o de remodelación. El estrógeno y los receptores estrogénicos clásicos (REs), RE-α y RE-β, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsables por facilitar el incremento dramático en el fluido sanguíneo uterino necesario durante el embarazo. En ésta revisión bibliográfica se discuten la base estructural para la diversidad y selectividad funcional de los REs por el estrógeno, el papel de los REs sobre los efectos genómicos y no-genómicos en células endoteliales de arterias uterinas (CEAU). Estos temas integran el conocimiento científico sobre la regulación molecular de CEAU para mantener el incremento fisiológico en la perfusión útero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113751

  7. Estudio epidemiológico de sucesos traumáticos, trastorno de estrés post-traumático y otros trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra representativa de Chile

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Vicente, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Durante la década de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) evolucionó de estudios específicos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre víctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiológicos más tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiología del TEPT en países en desarrollo ha sido un área poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el área de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traumáticos que ocurren en la niñez son más perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren más tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico llevado a cabo en Chile. Específicamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados más frecuentemente con él, así como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, así como la exposición a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Además se comparó la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la niñez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiológicos se usaron módulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagnóstica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS–III-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiquiátricos se usó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 años. Para estimar los errores estándares (EE) debido al diseño de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se usó el método Taylor de linearización seriada. También se usó un análisis de regresión logística para examinar la relación entre el TEPT, los factores demográficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Además se utilizó la

  8. El estres y los ninos pequenos (Stress and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Jan; Peterson, Karen

    Traditionally, stress has been defined in terms of its source (internal, such as hunger, pain, sensitivity to noise and external, such as separation from family, change in family composition, exposure to conflict or violence). Although the research literature tends to focus on the impact of single-variable stressors on children's development, in…

  9. Reducing time delay in the thrombolysis of myocardial infarction: an internal quality improvement project. ARIAM Project Group. Analisis del Retraso en Infarto Agudo de Miocardio.

    PubMed

    Saturno, P J; Felices, F; Segura, J; Vera, A; Rodriguez, J J

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to improve thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction by reducing the "door-to-needle" time in a 285-bed university hospital in Spain. A quality management approach was used involving all the relevant staff. Target standard was set at 35 minutes. Baseline data, intervention effect, and continuous monitoring were analyzed using x control charts. Analysis of baseline data showed a wide out-of-control variation and 72 minutes' average delay. Cause analysis revealed organizational and clinical problems that were subjected to intervention. Postintervention data showed a stable process, with an average of 30 minutes. Continuous monitoring showed further improvement in average time and predictable variation. The template of the current control chart has an average of 26 minutes. Quality management methods, particularly staff involvement in problem analysis and intervention design, and the use of control charts were useful to understand, solve, and continuously monitor an important clinical problem whose existence was evident only after it was measured. PMID:10872258

  10. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  11. Unexpected lower testosterone in faster growing farmed saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Thomson, Peter C; Isberg, Sally R

    2016-01-15

    Agricultural production of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is an emergent industry in northern Australia with many of the factors affecting production remaining unknown. In this study, we sought to expand upon our previous findings of reference corticosterone and immune function by reporting baseline sex hormone levels [testosterone (TEST) and estradiol (ESTR)] and their association with growth. This was achieved by sampling 253 hatchling crocodiles repeatedly at 3, 6, and 9months of age. Sampling age had a significant effect on both TEST (p<0.001) and ESTR (p<0.001) suggesting climatic/abiotic factors have an influence even in prepubescent crocodiles. Stress, as measured by plasma corticosterone, had no detectable effect on plasma ESTR or TEST levels. Unexpectedly however, TEST was higher in slower-growing crocodiles, which is contrary to what has been reported for the American alligator. ESTR was not associated with growth. PMID:26631457

  12. Abundant contribution of short tandem repeats to gene expression variation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gymrek, Melissa; Willems, Thomas; Guilmatre, Audrey; Zeng, Haoyang; Markus, Barak; Georgiev, Stoyan; Daly, Mark J.; Price, Alkes L.; Pritchard, Jonathan; Sharp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of repetitive elements to quantitative human traits is largely unknown. Here, we report a genome-wide survey of the contribution of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), one of the most polymorphic and abundant repeat classes, to gene expression in humans. Our survey identified 2,060 significant expression STRs (eSTRs). These eSTRs were replicable in orthogonal populations and expression assays. We used variance partitioning to disentangle the contribution of eSTRs from linked SNPs and indels and found that eSTRs contribute 10%–15% of the cis-heritability mediated by all common variants. Further functional genomic analyses showed that eSTRs are enriched in conserved regions, co-localize with regulatory elements, and can modulate certain histone modifications. By analyzing known GWAS hits and searching for new associations in 1,685 deeply-phenotyped whole-genomes, we found that eSTRs are enriched in various clinically-relevant conditions. These results highlight the contribution of short tandem repeats to the genetic architecture of quantitative human traits. PMID:26642241

  13. Is Increased Low-dose somatic Radiosensitivity Associated with Increased Transgenerational Germline Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, David J.

    2008-10-02

    Using single-molecule polymerase chain reaction, the frequency of spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus was studied in DNA samples extracted from sperm and bone marrow of Atm knockout (Atm+/–) heterozygous male mice. The frequency of spontaneous mutation in sperm and bone marrow in Atm+/– males did not significantly differ from that in wild-type BALB/c mice. Acute gamma-ray exposure did not affect ESTR mutation frequency in bone marrow and resulted in similar increases in sperm samples taken from Atm+/– and BALB/c males. Taken together, these results suggest that the Atm haploinsufficiency analyzed in our study does not affect spontaneous and radiation-induced ESTR mutation frequency in mice.

  14. Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... el riñón? Una piedra en el riñón es un pedazo de material sólido que se forma en un riñón cuando hay altos niveles de ciertas sustancias ... al orinar • ve sangre en la orina • siente un dolor agudo en la espalda o la parte ...

  15. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  16. The Genotypic Characterization of Cronobacter spp. Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jinghua; Du, Xiaoli; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Lv, Guoping; Xu, Baohong; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Wei; Cui, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) is an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF). To describe the genotypic diversity of Cronobacter isolated in China, we identified the isolates using fusA allele sequencing, and subtyped all of the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). A total of 105 isolates were identified, which included C. sakazakii (58 isolates), C. malonaticus (30 isolates), C. dublinensis (11 isolates), C. turicensis (5 isolates), and C. muytjensii (1 isolate). These isolates were showed to have 85 PFGE-patterns, 71 sequence types (STs), and 55 MLVA-patterns. Comparisons among the three molecular subtyping methods revealed that the PFGE method was the most distinguishable tool in identifying clusters of Cronobacter spp. through DNA fingerprinting, and MLST method came second. However, ESTR-1, ESTR-2, ESTR-3, and ESTR-4 were not effective loci for subtyping Cronobacter spp. such that the MLVA method requires further improvement. PMID:25029018

  17. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, impacción, obstrucción intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  18. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, la retención fecal, la obstrucción intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  19. RELATIVE BINDING AFFINITY OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS TO ESTROGEN RECEPTOR IN TWO SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA has been mandated to screen industrial chemicals and pesticides for potential endocrine activity. To evaluate the potential for chemicals to cause endocrine disruption in fish we have previously measured the affinity of a number of chemicals for the rainbow trout estr...

  20. Cuestionarios | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Los cuestionarios de Smokefree son una manera divertida de obtener información importante sobre temas relacionados con dejar de fumar, como los síntomas de abstinencia, el estrés y el humo de segunda mano. Responda un cuestionario y mejore su método para dejar de fumar.

  1. Comparison of Relative Binding Affinities for Trout and Human Estrogen Receptor Based upon Different Competitive Binding Assays, oral

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA has been mandated to screen industrial chemicals and pesticides for potential endocrine activity. To evaluate the potential for chemicals to cause endocrine disruption in fish we have previously measured the affinity of a number of chemicals for the rainbow trout estr...

  2. MOLECULAR CLONING OF PORCINE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-BETA COMPLEMENTARY DNAS AND DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION I PERIIMPLANTATION EMBRYOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the pig, estrogens transiently produced by embryos and progestins of maternal origin target the uterine endometrium, causing alterations in gene expression and secretory activity, both of which are important for the initiation of embryo attachment. The potential direct embryotrophic roles of estr...

  3. Selecting Great Lakes streams for lampricide treatment based on larval sea lamprey surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, Gavin C.; Adams, Jean V.; Steeves, Todd B.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Young, Robert J.; Kuc, Miroslaw; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The Empiric Stream Treatment Ranking (ESTR) system is a data-driven, model-based, decision tool for selecting Great Lakes streams for treatment with lampricide, based on estimates from larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) surveys conducted throughout the basin. The 2000 ESTR system was described and applied to larval assessment surveys conducted from 1996 to 1999. A comparative analysis of stream survey and selection data was conducted and improvements to the stream selection process were recommended. Streams were selected for treatment based on treatment cost, predicted treatment effectiveness, and the projected number of juvenile sea lampreys produced. On average, lampricide treatments were applied annually to 49 streams with 1,075 ha of larval habitat, killing 15 million larval and 514,000 juvenile sea lampreys at a total cost of $5.3 million, and marginal and mean costs of $85 and $10 per juvenile killed. The numbers of juvenile sea lampreys killed for given treatment costs showed a pattern of diminishing returns with increasing investment. Of the streams selected for treatment, those with > 14 ha of larval habitat targeted 73% of the juvenile sea lampreys for 60% of the treatment cost. Suggested improvements to the ESTR system were to improve accuracy and precision of model estimates, account for uncertainty in estimates, include all potentially productive streams in the process (not just those surveyed in the current year), consider the value of all larvae killed during treatment (not just those predicted to metamorphose the following year), use lake-specific estimates of damage, and establish formal suppression targets.

  4. BPS index and 4d N = 2 superconformal field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-01

    We study the BPS index for the four-dimensional rank-one N = 2 superconformal field theories H 0 , H 1 , H 2 , E 6 , E 7 , E 8. We consider compactifications of the E-string theory on T 2 in which these theories arise as low energy limits. Using this realization we clarify the general structure of the BPS index. The index is characterized by two exponents and a sequence of invariants. We determine the exponents and the first few invariants.

  5. Respiratory system mechanics in sedated, paralyzed, morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, P; Croci, M; Ravagnan, I; Cerisara, M; Vicardi, P; Lissoni, A; Gattinoni, L

    1997-03-01

    The effects of inspiratory flow and inflation volume on the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in eight sedated and paralyzed postoperative morbidly obese patients (aged 37.6 +/- 11.8 yr who had never smoked and had normal preoperative seated spirometry) were investigated by using the technique of rapid airway occlusion during constant-flow inflation. With the patients in the supine position, we measured the interrupter resistance (Rint,rs), which in humans probably reflects airway resistance, the "additional" resistance (delta Rrs) due to viscoelastic pressure dissipation and time-constant inequalities, and static respiratory elastance (Est,rs). Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured by using a bladder catheter, and functional residual capacity was measured by the heliumdilution technique. The results were compared with a previous study on 16 normal anesthetized paralyzed humans. Compared with normal persons, we found that in obese subjects: 1) functional residual capacity was markedly lower (0.645 +/- 0.208 liter) and IAP was higher (24 +/- 2.2 cmH2O); 2) alveolar-arterial oxygenation gradient was increased (178 +/- 59 mmHg); 3) the volume-pressure curve of the respiratory system was curvilinear with an "inflection" point; 4) Est,rs, Rint,rs, and delta Rrs were higher than normal (29.3 +/- 5.04 cmH2O/l, 5.9 +/- 2.4 cmH2O.l-1.s, and 6.4 +/- 1.6 cmH2O.l-1.s, respectively); 5) Rint,rs increased with increasing inspiratory flow, Est,rs did not change, and delta Rrs decreased progressively; and 6) with increasing inflation volume, Rint,rs and Est,rs decreased, whereas delta Rrs rose progressively. Overall, our data suggest that obese subjects during sedation and paralysis are characterized by hypoxemia and marked alterations of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, largely explained by a reduction in lung volume due to the excessive unopposed IAP. PMID:9074968

  6. Comparison between Modern Violin Bridge and Baroque Violin Bridge by Photoelastic Observation and Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    A comparison between the modern bridge and the baroque bridge of the violin by photoelastic observation was carried out. The relationship between the stress part and the hole is symmetric in the modern and baroque bridges. The measured spectral envelopes of baroque bridges are similar to those of modern bridges in D- or G-strings, and have peaks at a frequency higher than those of modern bridges in E-string. The visualization method as used in this study may provide hints for the design of violin bridges.

  7. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly. PMID:27281924

  8. The Reformulation of Emotional Security Theory: The Role of Children’s Social Defense in Developmental Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.

    2014-01-01

    Although children’s security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory (EST-R) within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children’s security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children’s trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of EST-R to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad, including both familial and extrafamilial settings. PMID:24342849

  9. El contexto de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos del estudio EPESE hispano

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Camacho, María E.; Eschbach, Karl; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN En este artículo se discute el papel de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos méjico-americanos del estudio EPESE (Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly) hispano. La paradoja epidemiológica consiste en que, a pesar de estar en desventaja socioeconómica, los ancianos hispanos tienen mortalidad relativamente menor que los ancianos de raza blanca. Esto es especialmente cierto cuando el anciano vive en los vecindarios donde hay un porcentaje alto de méjico-americanos. La familia también juega un papel importante en estos ancianos al disminuir el riesgo de institucionalización o de morbilidad. Asimismo, el estrés originado en problemas económicos o al depender económicamente de la familia, habiendo inmigrado en edades tardías, puede sobrepasar la capacidad de amortiguamiento del estrés y afectar la salud del anciano méjico-americano. PMID:25190897

  10. Mineral replacement reactions and element mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Christine V.; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; King, Helen E.; Hövelmann, Jörn; Renard, François

    2016-04-01

    When a mineral is out of equilibrium with an aqueous fluid, reactions will take place in an attempt to reach a new equilibrium. Commonly in the Earth dissolution at a mineral-fluid interface initiates a coupled reaction involving dissolution and precipitation (Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014). This is a ubiquitous reaction during such processes as metamorphism, metasomatism and weathering. When rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes are in contact with aqueous fluids (typically NaCl-rich) resultant new phases are formed and elements present in the parent mineral are released to the fluid and therefore mobilized for transport elsewhere. This has been shown in a number of systems such as the albitisation of feldspars (Hövelmann et al., 2010) when a Ca-bearing plagioclase is replaced by albite (NaAlSi3O8). However during this reaction not only is Ca released to the fluid but most other minor elements, such as Mg, Pb, rare earth elements amongst others, are almost totally mobilized and removed in solution. This interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction has many implications for the redistributon of elements in the crust of the Earth. It is also of note that albitisation occurs often in areas of high mineralization, such as in the Curnamona Province in S. Australia (Au-Cu and Ag-Pb-Zn deposits) and the Bamble District of S. Norway. Secondly atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image these reactions at a nanoscale, especially at the calcite-fluid interface, such as the formation of apatite from phosphate-bearing solutions, and the sequestration of toxic elements, eg., Se and As. References Ruiz-Agudo E., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. (2014) Coupled dissolution and precipitation at mineral-fluid interfaces. Chemical Geology, 383, 132-146. Putnis C.V. and Ruiz-Agudo E. (2013) The mineral-water interface: where minerals react with the environment. Elements, 9, 177-182. Hövelmann J., Putnis A., Geisler T., Schmidt B.C., Golla-Schindler U. (2009

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Daponte Codina, A; Bolivar Muñoz, J; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Mateo-Rodríguez, I; Babio, G; Romo-Avilés, N; Rosell-Ortiz, F; Grupo de Estudio de Género Y Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, G

    2016-01-01

     RESUMEN              Fundamento. Identificar factores asociados a la demora prehospitalaria en personas que han tenido un síndrome coronario agudo             Método. Se estudiaron mediante encuesta pacientes ingresados por síndrome coronario agudo en los 33 hospitales públicos andaluces, obteniéndose información sobre diferentes tipos de variables: socio-demográficas, contextuales, clínicas, percepción, actuaciones, y transporte. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística multivariante para calcular las odds ratio para la demora.             Resultados. De los 1.416 pacientes en total, más de la mitad tuvieron una demora superior a la hora. Se asocia a la distancia al hospital y al medio de transporte: cuando el evento ocurre en la misma ciudad del hospital, utilizar medios propios aumenta la demora, odds ratio= 1,51 (1,02-2,23);  si la distancia es entre 1-25 kilómetros, no hay una diferencia entre medios propios y ambulancia, odds ratio = 1,41 y odds ratio = 1,43 respectivamente; y cuando supera los25 kilómetros la ambulancia implica mayor demora, odds ratio = 3,13 y odds ratio = 2,20 respectivamente. Además, la sintomatología típica reduce la demora entre los hombres, pero la aumenta entre las mujeres. Asimismo, no darle importancia, esperar a la resolución de los síntomas, buscar atención sanitaria diferente a urgencias hospitalarias o al 061, tener antecedentes, encontrarse fuera de la vivienda habitual, y tener ingresos menores de 1.500 euros aumentan la demora. Tener síntomas respiratorios la reduce.             Conclusiones. La demora prehospitalaria no se ajusta a las recomendaciones sanitarias, asociándose al  entorno físico y social, a factores clínicos, y de percepción y actitudinales de los sujetos.              Palabras clave. Síndrome coronario agudo. Demora prehospitalaria. Género. Servicios de emergencias sanitarias. Desigualdades. PMID:27125609

  12. A non-classical view of the modulation of mineral precipitation by organic additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Questions persist on the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble minerals such as calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate or barium sulphate. Compared to CaCO3, the mechanisms of nucleation and growth in the CaC2O4-H2O or BaSO4-H2O systems have received less attention. These phases are important due to their relevance as biominerals and/or unwanted mineral deposits in technological applications. Growing evidence suggests that sparingly soluble salts form by non-classical nucleation and growth pathways, where pre-nucleation ion associates and amorphous (solid or liquid) precursor phase(s) play a critical role (e.g. Rodríguez-Navarro et al. (2015), Ruiz-Agudo et al. (2015)). Indeed the identification of pre-nucleation species in these systems and their strong interactions with organic compounds (Verch et al. 2011) raises the possibility that the control of organics on biomineralization may begin even earlier than previously thought. A sound knowledge of the physical mechanisms by which acidic macromolecules affect nucleation and early growth may offer general insights concerning the molecular control of biomineralization, as well as being critical for improving strategies to control unwanted mineral deposition or for the synthesis of biomimetic materials. Here we present investigations on the initial stages of the precipitation of these relevant minerals in organic-free solutions to identify the precipitation pathway and to look for any potential precursor phase(s) to the final, crystalline polymorph. As well, we explore the effects that several acidic organic compounds have on the different precipitation stages identified. We find that organic additives such as citric acid, polyacrilic acid or a commercial copolymer of maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid with phosphonate groups can be active at modifying pre-nucleation stages (destabilizing of pre-nucleation species or hampering the aggregation and growth of pre-nucleation associates) and subsequently strongly

  13. Applying a coping with stress questionnaire for cancer patients to patients with non-cancer chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Orive, Miren; Quintana, Jose M; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Las Hayas, Carlota; Bilbao, Amaia; Barrio, Irantzu; Matellanes, Begoña; Padierna, Jesús A

    2013-06-01

    One of the few instruments to evaluate coping skills among patients with chronic illnesses is the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento al Estrés para Pacientes Oncológicos (CAEPO), created initially for cancer patients. We evaluate how well CAEPO applies to patients with non-cancer chronic illnesses. A total of 344 patients (115 with chronic hepatitis C, 120 with inflammatory bowel disease and 109 with recurrent vertigo) completed the CAEPO. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha provide only partial support for the seven factors suggested by the original CAEPO. A streamlined version with fewer dimensions and items may be a better solution for identifying coping strategies among these patients. PMID:23221615

  14. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  15. Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban/industrial location

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole; Polyzos, Aris; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Somers, Christopher M.; Godschalk, Roger W.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Berndt, M. Lynn; Pogribny, Igor P.; Koturbash, Igor; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is widespread, yet we have little understanding of the long-term health implications associated with exposure. We investigated DNA damage, mutation, and methylation in gametes of male mice exposed to particulate air pollution in an industrial/urban environment. C57BL/CBA mice were exposed in situ to ambient air near two integrated steel mills and a major highway, alongside control mice breathing high-efficiency air particulate (HEPA) filtered ambient air. PCR analysis of an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus revealed a 1.6-fold increase in sperm mutation frequency in mice exposed to ambient air for 10 wks, followed by a 6-wk break, compared with HEPA-filtered air, indicating that mutations were induced in spermatogonial stem cells. DNA collected after 3 or 10 wks of exposure did not exhibit increased mutation frequency. Bulky DNA adducts were below the detection threshold in testes samples, suggesting that DNA reactive chemicals do not reach the germ line and cause ESTR mutation. In contrast, DNA strand breaks were elevated at 3 and 10 wks, possibly resulting from oxidative stress arising from exposure to particles and associated airborne pollutants. Sperm DNA was hypermethylated in mice breathing ambient relative to HEPA-filtered air and this change persisted following removal from the environmental exposure. Increased germ-line DNA mutation frequencies may cause population-level changes in genetic composition and disease. Changes in methylation can have widespread repercussions for chromatin structure, gene expression and genome stability. Potential health effects warrant extensive further investigation. PMID:18195365

  16. Management of urogenital atrophy in breast cancer patients: a systematic review of available evidence from randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Mazzarello, Sasha; Hutton, Brian; Ibrahim, Mohammed F K; Jacobs, Carmel; Shorr, Risa; Smith, Stephanie; Ng, Terry; Clemons, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Symptoms of urogenital atrophy are common in breast cancer survivors. Its optimal management is currently unknown. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating treatments for urogenital atrophy in breast cancer patients was performed. EMBASE, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1946 to November 2014. Outcomes included improvements in both vaginal symptoms (e.g., dryness, pain, dyspareunia and itching) and vaginal hormone response measured by validated scales [e.g., Vaginal Health Index (VHI) and Vaginal Maturation Index (VMI)]. Of 430 unique citations identified, 4 studies (n = 196) met inclusion criteria. Interventions included pH-balanced gel, Replens(®), lidocaine, Estring(®) and Vagifem(®). Sample sizes ranged from 7 to 98 patients. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis of results was performed. One study of 98 patients suggested that vaginal pH-balanced gel (mean VHI 5.00 ± 0.816, mean VMI 51.18 ± 3.753) was more efficient than placebo (VHI 16.98 ± 3.875, p < 0.001, VMI 47.87 ± 2.728, p < 0.001) at 12 weeks in providing vaginal symptom relief. In patients who used lidocaine, 90 % had reduced dyspareunia compared to saline in a study of 46 patients. Although increased serum estradiol occurred, both Estring(®) and Vagifem(®) were shown to improve quality of life and VMI in a study of seven patients. Treatment of urogenital atrophy remains a challenging issue and there is a paucity of RCT evidence addressing this knowledge gap. It is evident that more prospective trials are needed. PMID:26003182

  17. [Prevalence and seasonal variation of Pediculosis capitis in children and the young population of the health region, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, D del C; Abrahamovich, A H; Cicchino, A C; Rigoni, A M; Raffaeli, C; de Barrio, A

    1994-08-01

    The prevalence of the parasitic disease Pediculosis capitis was studied over a period of one year from 1-8-1992 to 31-7-1993, in Sanitary Region XI of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina which is composed of 15 districts located on the ENE, and in other areas under the influence of the Hospital Interzonal de Agudos, Especialidad Pediatría "Sup. Sor María Ludovica" de Plata, center of this Sanitary Region. A total number of 552 individuals of from medium to medium low social level of the child population of from 0 to 16 years of age were sampled at random over 52 consecutive weeks. All individuals who actually had the parasite at the time of examination were considered as positive for this disease. The results are expressed in terms of prevalence and its monthly and seasonal variations analyzed. Prevalence showed high values during all months, the lowest being in February (12%) and the highest in August (56.8%), the annual mean being of 38.04% (+/- 4.05%). Seasonally, its lowest value occurred in the summer (16.8%), the values for the remaining seasons being very similar to one another, but always higher than 38%. PMID:7660026

  18. Recruitment of some respiratory muscles during three maximal inspiratory manoeuvres.

    PubMed Central

    Nava, S; Ambrosino, N; Crotti, P; Fracchia, C; Rampulla, C

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A study was undertaken to determine the level of recruitment of the muscles used in the generation of respiratory muscle force, and to ascertain whether maximal diaphragmatic force and maximal inspiratory muscle force need to be measured by separate tests. The level of activity of three inspiratory muscles and one expiratory muscle during three maximal respiratory manoeuvres was studied: (1) maximal inspiration against a closed airway (Muller manoeuvre or maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP)); (2) maximal inspired manoeuvre followed by a maximal expiratory effort (combined manoeuvre); and (3) maximal inspiratory sniff through the nose (sniff manoeuvre). METHODS--All the manoeuvres were performed from functional residual capacity. The gastric (PGA) and oesophageal (POES) pressures and their difference, transdiaphragmatic pressure (PDI), and the integrated EMG activity of the diaphragm (EDI), the sternomastoid (ESTR), the intercostal parasternals (ERIC), and the rectus abdominis muscles (ERA) were recorded. RESULTS--Mean (SD) PDI values for the Muller, combined, and sniff manoeuvres were: 127.6 (19.4), 162.7 (22.2), and 136.6 (24.8) cm H2O, respectively. The pattern of rib cage muscle recruitment (POES/PDI) was similar for the Muller and sniff manoeuvres (88% and 80% respectively), and was 58% in the combined manoeuvre, confirming data previously reported in the literature. Peak EDI amplitude was greater during the sniff manoeuvre in all subjects (100%) than during the combined (88.1%) and Muller (61.1%) manoeuvres. ESTR and EIC were more active in the Muller and the sniff manoeuvres. The contribution of the expiratory muscle (ERA) to the three manoeuvres was 100% in the combined, 26.1% for the sniff, and 11.5% for the Muller manoeuvre. CONCLUSIONS--Each of these three manoeuvres results in different mechanisms of inspiratory and expiratory muscle activation and the intrathoracic and intra-abdominal pressures generated are a reflection of the interaction

  19. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Castañeda, Patricia Carolina; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los plaguicidas organoclorados (POC) pueden incrementar la producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO). Tales efectos pueden ser contrarrestados por el sistema antioxidante, el cual se encuentra también en la leche materna. Objetivo: evaluar los indicadores de estrés oxidativo en leche materna asociados a la presencia de POC y su relación con la ingesta de alimentos marinos. Métodos: la leche materna fue colectada de 108 mujeres lactantes. Los indicadores de estrés oxidativo (actividad enzimática antioxidante, concentración de glutatión, producción de radical superóxido [O 2•- ], concentración de peroxidación de lípidos y carbonilos proteicos) se analizaron por espectrofotometría. Las concentraciones de POC se midieron por cromatografía de gases. Resultados y discusión: la producción de O 2•- no presentó relación significativa con las concentraciones de POC. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre las concentraciones de POC y la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes (actividad de glutatión reductasa [GR] y concentración de aldrín [r = - 0,5], actividad de superóxido dismutasa [SOD] y concentración de α-HCH [r = 0,45]). El daño oxidativo mostró baja correlación con el contenido de POC (r < 0,30, p < 0,05). Es posible que los niveles de POC no sean suficientes para incrementar la producción de O 2•- , ya sea que el incremento en la producción de ERO se deba a especies reactivas diferentes a O 2•- o debido a que la capacidad antioxidante es suficiente para evitar el daño oxidativo en leche materna. Conclusión: los resultados de este estudio sugieren que la dieta marina no es un factor determinante en el nivel de contaminación por POC, ni en el daño oxidativo presente en leche materna. PMID:27238808

  20. Conformal anomaly c-coefficients of superconformal 6d theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose general relations between the conformal anomaly and the chiral (R-symmetry and gravitational) anomaly coefficients in 6d (1, 0) superconformal theories. The suggested expressions for the three type B conformal anomaly c i -coefficients complement the expression for the type A anomaly a-coefficient found in arXiv:1506.03807. We check them on several examples — the standard (1, 0) hyper and tensor multiplets as well as some higher derivative short multiplets containing vector fields that generalize the super-conformal 6d vector multiplet discussed in arXiv:1506.08727. We also consider a family of higher derivative superconformal (2, 0) 6d multiplets associated to 7d multiplets in the KK spectrum of 11d supergravity compactified on S 4. In particular, we prove that (2,0) 6d conformal supergravity coupled to 26 tensor multiplets is free of all chiral and conformal anomalies. We discuss some interacting (1, 0) superconformal theories, predicting the c i -coefficients for the "E-string" theory on multiple M5-branes at E 8 9-brane and for the theory describing M5-branes at an orbifold singularity {C}^2/Γ . Finally, we elaborate on holographic computation of subleading corrections to conformal anomaly coefficients coming from R 2 + R 3 terms in 7d effective action, revisiting, in particular, the (2,0) theory case.

  1. Choline and Fructooligosaccharide: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Cardiac Fat Deposition, and Oxidative Stress Markers

    PubMed Central

    Borges Haubert, Nadia Juliana Beraldo Goulart; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Carvalho Cunha, Selma Freire; Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel; Padovan, Gilberto Joao; Jordao, Alceu Afonso; Marchini Alves, Claudia Maria Meirelles; Marchini, Julio Flavio Meirelles; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats with choline and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The healthy control group received standard diet. The other three groups consisted of animals with NAFLD. Group Estr received standard diet; group Echo received standard diet plus choline (3 g/100 g diet); and group Efos received standard diet plus FOS (10 g/100 g diet). Food intake, weight, urinary nitrogen, urinary ammonia, total cholesterol, serum triacylglyceride, liver and heart weights, tissue nitrogen, tissue fat, vitamin E, TBARS, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in hepatic and heart tissue. Choline and FOS treatments resulted in total mean fat reduction in liver and heart tissue of 0.2 and 1.7 g, respectively. Both treatments were equally effective in reducing hepatic and cardiac steatosis. There were no differences in the TBARS level among experimental and control groups, indicating that the proposed treatments had no added protection against free radicals. While all experimental groups had increased vitamin E and GSH levels, choline treatment led to a significant increase compared to control. PMID:25987847

  2. An Intravaginal Ring for the Simultaneous Delivery of Multiple Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Marc M.; Butkyavichene, Irina; Gilman, Joshua; Kennedy, Sean; Kopin, Etana; Malone, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Cali; Smith, Thomas J.; Friend, David R.; Clark, Meredith R.; Moss, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Intravaginal delivery of microbicide combinations is a promising approach for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, but requires a method of providing simultaneous, independent release of multiple agents into the vaginal compartment. A novel intravaginal ring (IVR) platform has been developed for simultaneous delivery of the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir (TFV) and the guanosine analogue antiviral acyclovir (ACV) with independent control of release rate for each drug. The IVR is based on a pod design, with up to 10 individual polymer-coated drug cores embedded in the ring releasing through preformed delivery channels. The release rate from each pod is controlled independently of the others by the drug properties, polymer coating, and size and number of delivery channels. Pseudo-zero-order in vitro release of TFV (144 ± 10 µg day) and ACV (120 ± 19 µg day−1) from an IVR containing both drugs was sustained for 28 days. The mechanical properties of the pod IVR were evaluated and compared with the commercially available Estring® (Pfizer, NY, NY). The pod-IVR design enables the vaginal delivery of multiple microbicides with differing physicochemical properties, and is an attractive approach for the sustained intravaginal delivery of relatively hydrophilic drugs that are difficult to deliver using conventional matrix IVR technology. PMID:22619076

  3. Adapting and improving resilience to climate change in communities (moravian community as a pilot), by creating new capabilities based on the implementation of a new water culture; protection and management of natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Gallo, A.

    2015-04-01

    Water, in all its dimensions and scope, concerns humans as civilization, individuals and communities immersed in an environment that faces serious environmental threats and changes. The efficient way to deal with this crisis is education of present and future generations, breaking paradigms, creating awareness and new development models, seeking community groups and forces to empower their water resource and care, manage and renew it in an efficient and sustainable manner. The multiple uses of water in personal uses, irrigation, agro-industry and clean energy production, transforms this resource in a strategic element to any nation. With support from the Centro Nacional de Alta Tecnologia (CeNAT), it was possible to formulate the "Agenda Ambiental de Moravia", agreeing to be the "Consejo Tecnico de Fuerzas Vivas" (CTFV) from Moravia - articulated network of stakeholders - the one that coordinate all actions refered to water Resources, pollution and cleaner technologies and protected Areas. CeNAT and CTFV have developed distinguished efforts to improve the Moravians quality of life, and this has led the initiative of constitution of a whole education and training project in rescuing the Upper Basin of the Rio Tarcoles, through the implementation of an ecological - recreative garden ("Parque Comunitario Pulmon Verde de Moravia"), fostersing good use of natural resources, and also works as a platform for training and awareness program in Sustainable Development, based on "Hacia una Nueva Cultura del Agua" (powered through the United Nations by Dr. Pedro Arrojo Agudo and his " Feria de Aguas, Rios y Pueblos", presented in many countries). This initiative is projected to the national and international communities, through the "Water International Conference", which propel initiatives, laws and decisions which enable the development of Costa Rica and other countries under a sustainable model, focused on this essential component for life on the planet.

  4. Astronomía para ciegos y amblíopes. Proyecto de construcción de un planetario especial en la ciudad de Mar del Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, S.

    ?`Qué es la Astronomía para Ciegos?. El trabajo es una adaptación en base a la escala de magnitudes de Hipparco que cambia el concepto de luz por una adaptación sonora, donde las estrellas de magnitud 6 se escuchan en 10 dB, más o menos lo que consideramos el umbral de la audición humana. Quienes no escuchan muy bien no pueden escuchar las magnitudes 6, de la misma manera que muchos de nosotros, que no poseemos una visión perfecta, no podemos observar esas mismas estrellas en el cielo (más allá de la polución). A los astros de magnitud 5 vamos a relacionarlos a un sonido en 20 dB. Y así sucesivamente. También los colores estarán representados en una convención de graves a agudos y lo mismo algunas características del cielo. Por ejemplo, la Vía Láctea se mostrará como un ``ruido", como bien nos lo hicieron ver nuestros futuros destinatarios. En Mar del Plata nos encontramos ya trabajando en un proyecto que tiene como objetivo final la construcción del Primer Planetario Acústico del Mundo, una herramienta para la enseñanza de la astronomía, un espacio para la lucha contra la discriminación del discapacitado y una posibilidad de ``ver el cielo de un modo diferente".

  5. Impact of Frailty and Other Geriatric Syndromes on Clinical Management and Outcomes in Elderly Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: Rationale and Design of the LONGEVO-SCA Registry.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Oriol; Ariza-Solé, Albert; Vidán, María T; Formiga, Francesc; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Bueno, Héctor; Sanchís, Juan; López-Palop, Ramón; Abu-Assi, Emad; Cequier, Àngel

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is high in the elderly. Despite a high prevalence of frailty and other aging-related variables, little information exists about the optimal clinical management in patients with coexisting geriatric syndromes. The aim of the LONGEVO-SCA registry (Impacto de la Fragilidad y Otros Síndromes Geriátricos en el Manejo y Pronóstico Vital del Anciano con Síndrome Coronario Agudo sin Elevación de Segmento ST) is to assess the impact of aging-related variables on clinical management, prognosis, and functional status in elderly patients with ACS. A series of 500 consecutive octogenarian patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS from 57 centers in Spain will be included. A comprehensive geriatric assessment will be performed during the admission, assessing functional status (Barthel Index, Lawton-Brody Index), frailty (FRAIL scale, Short Physical Performance Battery), comorbidity (Charlson Index), nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form), and quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire). Patients will be managed according to current recommendations. The primary outcome will be the description of mortality and its causes at 6 months. Secondary outcomes will be changes in functional status and quality of life. Results from this study might significantly improve the knowledge about the impact of aging-related variables on management and outcomes of elderly patients with ACS. Clinical management of these patients has become a major health care problem due to the growing incidence of ACS in the elderly and its particularities. PMID:27362592

  6. Contamination in mafic mineral-rich calc-alkaline granites: a geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope study of the Neoproterozoic Piedade Granite, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Renato J; Janasi, Valdecir A; Martins, Lucelene

    2006-06-01

    The Piedade Granite (approximately 600 Ma) was emplaced shortly after the main phase of granite magmatism in the Agudos Grandes batholith, Apiaí-Guaxupé Terrane, SE Brazil. Its main units are: mafic mineral-rich porphyritic granites forming the border (peraluminous muscovite-biotite granodiorite-monzogranite MBmg unit) and core (metaluminous titanite-bearing biotite monzogranite BmgT unit) and felsic pink inequigranular granite (Bmg unit) between them. Bmg has high LaN/YbN (up to 100), Th/U (> 10) and low Rb, Nb and Ta, and can be a crustal melt derived from deep-seated sources with residual garnet and biotite. The core BmgT unit derived from oxidized magmas with high Mg# (approximately 45), Ba and Sr, fractionated REE patterns (LaN/YbN = 45), 87Sr/86Sr(t) approximately 0.710, epsilonNd(t) approximately -12 to -14, interpreted as being high-K calc-alkaline magmas contaminated with metasedimentary rocks that had upper-crust signature (high U, Cs, Ta). The mafic-rich peraluminous granites show a more evolved isotope signature (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.713-0.714; epsilonNd(t) = -14 to -16), similar to Bmg, and Mg# and incompatible trace-element concentrations intermediate between Bmg and BmgT. A model is presented in whichMBmgis envisaged as the product of contamination between a mafic mineral-rich magma consanguineous with BmgT and pure crustal melts akin to Bmg. PMID:16710571

  7. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Ortega Anta, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Los kiwis, tanto la variedad verde (Actinidia deliciosa) como la de color amarillo (Sungold®) (A. chinensis), destacan entre las frutas de consumo habitual por su composición nutricional. Son excepcionalmente ricos en vitamina C, ya que los kiwis verdes duplican la cantidad que tienen fresas o naranjas, y el kiwi de color amarillo incluso la triplica. Además, los kiwis tienen un elevado contenido en vitaminas E, K, folatos, carotenoides, potasio, fibra y otros fitoquímicos, que proporcionan no solo beneficios nutricionales, sino también sanitarios. El consumo regular de kiwi en el contexto de una dieta equilibrada tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre la función inmune y defensa antioxidante; en la función gastrointestinal, mejorando la digestión proteica y el estreñimiento; y en el tracto respiratorio superior, ayudando en la prevención de infecciones y mejorando su sintomatología. Por último, el consumo habitual de kiwi se ha asociado a mejoras del estado de ánimo. La mayoría de estos beneficios pueden deberse al elevado contenido de vitamina C del kiwi, pero también a los otros nutrientes y fitoquímicos que actúan de forma sinérgica en la matriz alimentaria. Los resultados de los estudios realizados hasta ahora sugieren que el consumo diario de kiwi puede ser una estrategia efectiva para la promoción de la salud y prevención de numerosas enfermedades. PMID:27571859

  8. The effect of water structure and solute hydration on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Classical crystal growth theory relates growth and dissolution rates to the degree of supersaturation. However, the solution composition may also affect the growth rate of carbonate minerals, via the Ca2+ to CO32- concentration ratio (e.g. Perdikouri et al., 2009; Stack and Grantham, 2010), ionic strength (e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2010) or the presence of organic matter (Hoch et al., 2000). For this reason, the influence of these parameters on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution has generated a considerable amount of research in the last decade. In particular, effects of both inorganic and organic impurities on mineral growth and dissolution have been frequently reported in the literature. Commonly, water in contact with rock forming minerals, contains significant and variable amounts of ions in solution. The effect of such ions on dissolution and growth rates has been traditionally ascribed to changes in solubility. However, experimental studies performed on different minerals have shown that the dependence of growth or dissolution rates on ionic strength is complex, and that the effect of ionic strength is not independent of the ionic species producing it. Here, we report investigations aimed at addressing the basic hypothesis that mineral growth and dissolution is governed by complex interactions between solvent structure, surface hydration and the ion solvation environment induced by the presence of electrolytes. It is proposed that any factor affecting ion solvation should alter growth and dissolution rates. These results have opened the possibility of a new understanding of very diverse phenomena in geochemistry and demonstrate the need for the inclusion of this "hydration effect" in the development of predictive models that describe crystal growth and dissolution in complex systems, such as those found in nature. Furthermore, we can hypothesise that ion-assisted dehydration of trace and minor element ions could occur in biological systems, thus

  9. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    ísico na doença arterial coronária, mas a predição de mortalidade e de eventos cardíacos maiores, em pacientes com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica, é limitada. Objetivo: Avaliar a predição de mortalidade e de eventos cardíacos maiores pela ecocardiografia com estresse físico em pacientes com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica. Métodos: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva em que foram estudados 866 pacientes consecutivos, com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica, submetidos à ecocardiografia com estresse físico. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: ecocardiografia com estresse físico negativa (G1) ou positiva (G2) para isquemia miocárdica. Os desfechos avaliados foram mortalidade por qualquer causa e eventos cardíacos maiores, definidos como óbito cardíaco e infarto agudo do miocárdio não fatal. Resultados: O G2 constituiu-se de 205 (23,7%) pacientes. Durante o seguimento médio de 85,6 ± 15,0 meses, ocorreram 26 óbitos, sendo seis por causa cardíaca, e 25 casos de infarto agudo do miocárdio não fatais. Os preditores independentes de mortalidade foram idade, diabetes melito e a ecocardiografia com estresse físico + (hazard ratio: 2,69; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,20 - 6,01; p = 0,016), com os seguintes eventos cardíacos maiores: idade, doença arterial coronária prévia, ecocardiografia com estresse físico + (hazard ratio: 2,75; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,15 - 6,53; p = 0,022) e ausência do incremento de 10% na fração de ejeção. A mortalidade por qualquer causa e os eventos cardíacos maiores foram significativamente superiores no G2 (p < 0, 001 e p = 0,001, respectivamente). Conclusão: A ecocardiografia com estresse físico oferece informações prognósticas adicionais em pacientes com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica. PMID:25352460

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    El embarazo representa un desafío desde el punto de vista nutricional, debido a que las necesidades de nutrientes están aumentadas y una alteración en su ingesta puede afectar la salud materno-fetal. Estados deficitarios en micronutrientes están relacionados con preeclampsia, retraso del crecimiento intrauterino, aborto y anomalías congénitas. Actualmente, la dieta de muchas madres gestantes es insuficiente en micronutrientes, siendo necesaria su suplementación. Se recomienda la suplementación con ácido fólico en dosis de 400 μg/día, y de 5 mg en embarazadas de riesgo, debiendo comenzar al menos 1 mes antes de la concepción y durante las primeras 12 semanas de gestación, y prolongarla durante todo el embarazo en madres con riesgo nutricional. Es importante vigilar la dosis adecuada de ácido fólico para prevenir los posibles efectos adversos derivados de su acumulación plasmática no metabolizada. Un elevado porcentaje de gestantes presenta anemia ferropénica, estando recomendado el uso intermitente de suplementos con hierro (menor alteración gastrointestinal y estrés oxidativo); no recomendándose en madres no anémicas (con hemoglobina > 13,5 g/L). Dado que la absorción de calcio está aumentada hasta un 40% en gestación, no se recomienda su suplementación en madres con ingestas adecuadas (3 lácteos/día), debiéndose reservar su uso a madres con ingestas insuficientes y/o que tengan alto riesgo de preeclampsia. Respecto al iodo, existen posicionamientos contradictorios por parte de distintos grupos de trabajo, estableciéndose la suplementación con yoduro potásico en mujeres que no alcanzan las ingestas recomendadas con su dieta (3 raciones de leche y derivados lácteos + 2 g de sal yodada). Dado que la vitamina A y D pueden ser tóxicas para la madre y el feto, no está recomendada su suplementación excepto en casos de deficiencia. Aunque la administración de suplementos con varios micronutrientes puede repercutir favorablemente en el

  11. Studies on the hydrogenation of the progestagen dienogest in vivo and in vitro in the female rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hobe, G; Schön, R; Hajek, M; Undisz, K; Härtl, A

    1998-01-01

    The biotransformation of the progestagen dienogest (17 alpha-cyanomethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-4,9-estradien-3-one) was studied in vivo in female rabbits and in vitro by liver homogenates from female rabbits and rats. In vivo, in the female rabbit, 3H-dienogest was the subject of an extensive biotransformation. A significant difference between the composition of the urinary and biliary metabolite patterns of dienogest was found. While in the urinary metabolite pattern more polar metabolites dominated, in bile of animals with a bile fistula, a dienogest metabolite of medium polarity was prevalent. This main metabolite of dienogest was identified by MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and CD measurement of an enzymatic dehydrogenation product as the tetrahydro metabolite 17 alpha-cyanomethyl-5 alpha-estr-9-en-3 beta,17 beta-diol. Thus, in vivo, the 4,9-dien-3-oxo-19-norsteroid dienogest is hydrogenated to a 5 alpha H-9-en metabolite. In vitro, however, 3H-dienogest was only poorly transformed by liver homogenates from both species, whereas 3H-levonorgestrel and 3H-3-keto-desogestrel were converted partially by liver homogenates from female rabbits and completely by liver homogenates from female rats. The principal biotransformation reactions of levonorgestrel and 3-ketodesogestrel were the reduction of the 3-oxo group to 3-OH and the 5 beta- and 5 alpha-hydrogenation of the 4-double bond by homogenates of female rabbit liver and female rat liver, respectively. A dihydro metabolite of dienogest, in which the 3-oxo group had been reduced to 3-OH, was isolated in small amounts from the incubation with rabbit liver homogenate. The data indicate that the enzymatic hydrogenation of the 4-double bond of the 4,9-dien-3-oxo steroid dienogest is inhibited in vitro. The hindered hydrogenation reaction in vitro has to be seen in association with the 9-double bond in the steroid molecule. PMID:9654645

  12. Impact of alprazolam in allostatic load and neurocognition of patients with anxiety disorders and chronic stress (GEMA): observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Carlos A; Remedi, Carolina; Núñez, Daniel A; D'Alessio, Luciana; Roldán, Emilio J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The allostatic load model explains the additive effects of multiple biological processes that accelerate pathophysiology related to stress, particularly in the central nervous system. Stress-related mental conditions such as anxiety disorders and neuroticism (a well-known stress vulnerability factor), have been linked to disturbances of hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal with cognitive implications. Nevertheless, there are controversial results in the literature and there is a need to determine the impact of the psychopharmacological treatment on allostatic load parameters and in cognitive functions. Gador study of Estres Modulation by Alprazolam, aims to determine the impact of medication on neurobiochemical variables related to chronic stress, metabolic syndrome, neurocognition and quality of life in patients with anxiety, allostatic load and neuroticism. Methods/analysis In this observational prospective phase IV study, highly sympthomatic patients with anxiety disorders (six or more points in the Hamilton-A scale), neuroticism (more than 18 points in the Neo five personality factor inventory (NEO-FFI) scale), an allostatic load (three positive clinical or biochemical items at Crimmins and Seeman criteria) will be included. Clinical variables of anxiety, neuroticism, allostatic load, neurobiochemical studies, neurocognition and quality of life will be determined prior and periodically (1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) after treatment (on demand of alprazolam from 0.75 mg/day to 3.0 mg/day). A sample of n=55/182 patients will be considered enough to detect variables higher than 25% (pretreatment vs post-treatment or significant correlations) with a 1-ß power of 0–80. t Test and/or non-parametric test, and Pearson's test for correlation analysis will be determined. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol was approved by an Independent Ethics Committee of FEFyM (Foundation for Pharmacological Studies and Drugs, Buenos Aires) and by regulatory

  13. Inhibition of peripheral aromatization in baboons by an enzyme-activated aromatase inhibitor (MDL 18,962)

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, C.; Femino, A.; Johnston, J.O.

    1988-05-01

    The peripheral aromatization ((rho)BM) of androstenedione (A) and testosterone (T) was measured before and after administration of the aromatase inhibitor 10-(2 propynyl)estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (MDL-18,962) to five mature female baboons, Papio annubis. The measurements were made by infusing (3H)androstenedione/(14C)estrone or (3H)testosterone/(14C)estradiol for 3.5 h and collecting blood samples during the infusions and all urine for 96 h from the start of the infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for radioactivity as infused and product steroids, and the data were used to calculate MCRs. An aliquot of the pooled urine was analyzed for the glucuronides of estrone and estradiol and used to calculate the (rho)BM. MDL-18,962 was administered as a pulse in polyethylene glycol-400 (1-5 ml) either iv or via gastric tube 30 min before administration of the radiolabeled steroids. Control studies were done with and without polyethylene glycol-400 administration. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A was decreased 91.8 +/- 0.9% from the control value of 1.23 +/- 0.13% to 0.11 +/- 0.01%. At the same dose, aromatization of T was decreased 82.0 +/- 7.1%, from a control value of 0.20 +/- 0.03% to 0.037 +/- 0.018%. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at doses of 0.4, 0.1, 0.04, and 0.01 mg/kg, the values for aromatization of A were 0.16 +/- 0.03%, 0.18 +/- 0.06%, 0.37 +/- 11%, and 0.65 +/- 0.09%, respectively. The administration of MDL-18,962 via gastric tube at 4 mg/kg as a pulse decreased the aromatization of A from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.43 +/- 0.12%, an inhibition of 67.2 +/- 10.7%. When administered via gastric tube daily for 5 days at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A fell from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.063 +/- 0.003%, an inhibition of 84.4 +/- 0.5%.

  14. EL PROTEOMA DEL TEJIDO ADIPOSO SUBCUTÁNEO MUESTRA HETEROGENEIDAD ANATÓMICA

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Sackmann-Sala, L.; Berryman, D.E.; Blome, D.W.; Argente, J.; Kopchick, y J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introducción El tejido adiposo blanco (TAB) subcutáneo (Sc) humano podría variar dependiendo de su localización anatómica, con diferencias en su perfil proteómico. Pacientes y métodos Se obtuvieron aspirados de TAB-Sc de seis mujeres con IMC >25 kg/m2, sometidas a liposucción. Dicho TAB-Sc se obtuvo de seis localizaciones anatómicas: abdominal superior e inferior, muslo, dorsal, flanco y cadera, analizándose su perfil proteómico mediante electroforesis bidimensional. En muslo y abdomen superior se compararon, además, las muestras obtenidas de las dos capas del TAB-Sc (profunda y superficial). Resultados Se detectaron 21 proteínas que mostraban una intensidad de expresión diferente entre las seis localizaciones anatómicas y 14 entre las capas superficial y profunda de una misma región. Entre las proteínas identificadas se incluyen: vimentina (proteína estructural); proteínas “heat-shock” (HSPs), superóxido-dismutasa, (estrés/chaperoninas); proteína fijadora de ácidos grasos 4 (FABP-4) y alfa-enolasa (metabolismo lipídico y de los hidratos de carbono, respectivamente) y ATP-sintetasa (producción de energía). Entre las regiones estudiadas, el TAB-Sc dorsal mostraba un perfil proteómico particular, con menor expresión de proteínas implicadas en la producción de energía y metabolismo (ATP-sintetasa, alfa-enolasa, HSPs y FABP-4) que el resto de regiones. Conclusiones Los niveles de expresión de diversas proteínas en el TAB-Sc humano no son homogéneos, difiriendo entre localizaciones anatómicas. Esto sugiere la existencia de diferencias funcionales en el TAB-Sc de acuerdo con su localización anatómica, lo que debe considerarse antes de asumir la extrapolación de los datos derivados del TAB-Sc de una determinada localización al de otras partes de la anatomía. PMID:23228439

  15. Relantionships between gold mineralization and granite - Discussion with the support of a pluridisciplinary study of the Passa Tres gold deposit (South Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Bárbara; Chauvet, Alain; Trzaskos, Barbara; Biondi, Joao Carlos; Bruguier, Olivier; Monie, Patrick; Villanova, Sandro; Bazille, Jose

    2016-04-01

    The Passa Três Granite, located at East of the Paraná State is elongated following a NNE-SSW direction. This sienogranite is emplaced within metapelites of the meso to neoproterozoic Açungui Group, between the Morro Agudo and Lancinha transcurrent faults, comprising the N040°E trending Lancinha Transcurrent Fault System. Gold mineralization within the Passa Três Granite is constituted by huge quartz veins with sulfides, variable quantities of fluorite and carbonates, forming orebodies with different internal textures, including massive, banded, sheared and brecciated. Structural data indicate the existence of two major fault systems, one N-S and the other E-W, with dips of 15-45°W and 20-75°S, respectively. Both NS and EW systems are interpreted to be contemporaneous and conjugate. Normal motions are everywhere suspected and main mineralized veins are located at opening sites at these fault systems, such as pull-aparts. The structural model suggests that the normal motion can be initiated by shearing along a "guide" level, in which sulfides and clay minerals are concentrated. This configuration can be observed at several scales, such as field, hand samples and thin section. Mineralized veins mainly contain, in addition to the quartz of the gangue, sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, molybdenite), fluorite, chlorite, muscovite, sericite, and carbonate. The presence of sericite, kaolinite and chlorite indicate the occurrence of, at least, propylitic and phyllic-type alterations, both in core of the granite and best-expressed at the rim of quartz-rich orebodies. Gold occurs as native grains in core of the quartz veins, within fractures that affect pyrite and frequently exhibiting normal motions consistent with the one observed at larger scale and systematically associated with chalcopyrite and galena. Quartz veins are sometimes bordered by aplitic dike. Additionally, some of the veins can exhibit a very thin margin of adularia minerals that seems to

  16. Quality of surgical care in hospitals providing internship training in Kenya: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Mwinga, Stephen; Kulohoma, Colette; Mwaniki, Paul; Idowu, Rachel; Masasabi, John; English, Mike

    2015-01-01

    los resultados y procesos de cuidados para condiciones prioritarias especificadas previamente (traumatismo craneoencefálico, lesión torácica, fracturas, quemaduras y abdomen agudo) mediante la auditoría de historias clínicas. Resultados Cada hospital tenía al menos un cirujano consultor. Se entregaban una vez por semana las listas de intervenciones quirúrgicas programadas en clínicas ambulatorias, en las rondas de visitas a las principales salas y las cirugías electivas (medio día) en 91%, 55% y 9% de los hospitales, respectivamente. En los demás hospitales se llevaban a cabo dos veces por semana. Los medicamentos básicos no estaban siempre disponibles (ej. gentamicina, morfina y meperidina en 50%, penicilina anti-estafilocócica inyectable 5% de los hospitales). Menos de la mitad de los hospitales tenían todos los recursos necesarios para proveer oxígeno. En 145 de 956 casos evaluados se llevó a cabo la cirugía con anestesia general o intradural. Encontramos apuntes quirúrgicos para un 99% y registros de la anestesia para el 72%. Se tenían registros de los signos vitales pre-quirúrgicos en un 80% de los casos y evidencia del consentimiento del paciente a ser intervenido en un 78%. Se documentaba pérdida de sangre solo en un caso y conteo de esponjas e instrumental en un 7%. Conclusiones La evaluación de los servicios quirúrgicos podría mejorarse mediante el desarrollo y la diseminación de estándares de cuidados precisos. Este estudio sugiere que los hospitales universitarios podrían estar mal equipados y los cuidados documentados sugieren que existen deficiencias tanto a nivel calidad como en el entrenamiento. PMID:25348925