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1

Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study; Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport Modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Continual sediment accumulation in Capitol Lake since the damming of the Deschutes River in 1951 has altered the initial morphology of the basin. As part of the Deschutes River Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked to model how tidal and storm processes will influence the river, lake and lower Budd Inlet should estuary restoration occur. Understanding these mechanisms will assist in developing a scientifically sound assessment on the feasibility of restoring the estuary. The goals of the DEFS are as follows. Increase understanding of the estuary alternative to the same level as managing the lake environment. Determine the potential to create a viable, self sustaining estuary at Capitol Lake, given all the existing physical constraints and the urban setting. Create a net-benefit matrix which will allow a fair evaluation of overall benefits and costs of various alternative scenarios. Provide the completed study to the CLAMP Steering Committee so that a recommendation about a long-term aquatic environment of the basin can be made. The hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling task developed a number of different model simulations using a process-based morphological model, Delft3D, to help address these goals. Modeling results provide a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior both prior to dam construction and after various post-dam removal scenarios. Quantitative data from the model is used in the companion biological assessment and engineering design components of the overall study. Overall, the modeling study found that after dam removal, tidal and estuarine processes are immediately restored, with marine water from Budd Inlet carried into North and Middle Basin on each rising tide and mud flats being exposed with each falling tide. Within the first year after dam removal, tidal processes, along with the occasional river floods, act to modify the estuary bed by redistributing sediment through erosion and deposition. The morphological response of the bed is rapid during the first couple of years, then slows as a dynamic equilibrium is reached within three to five years. By ten years after dam removal, the overall hydrodynamic and morphologic behavior of the estuary is similar to the pre-dam estuary, with the exception of South Basin, which has been permanently modified by human activities. In addition to a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior, process-based modeling provides the ability address specific questions to help to inform decision-making. Considering that predicting future conditions of a complex estuarine environment is wrought with uncertainties, quantitative results in this report are often expressed in terms of ranges of possible outcomes.

George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

2006-01-01

2

Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Estuaries are bodies of water and their surrounding coastal wetlands typically found where rivers meet the sea. Estuaries harbor unique plant and animal communities because their waters are brackish--a mixture of fresh water draining from the land and salty seawater.Estuaries are some of the most productive ecosystems in the world. Many animal species rely on estuaries for food, places to breed, and migration stopovers. Human communities also rely on estuaries for food, recreation, jobs, and coastal protection.Of the 32 largest cities in the world, 22 are located on estuaries (e.g., New Orleans, London, etc). Not surprisingly, human activities have led to the decline in the health of estuaries, making them one of the most threatened ecosystems on the Earth. NOAA's National Estuarine Research Reserve System in partnership with coastal states monitors the health of estuaries and helps communities manage their coastal resources.

Educator, Laura K.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA); Review, Steve W.

2005-04-01

3

Artemis: Results of the engineering feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form for the Engineering Feasibility Study of the Artemis Project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Topics covered include the Common Lunar Lander (CLL), lunar lander engineering study results, lunar lander trajectory analysis, lunar lander conceptual design and mass properties, the lunar lander communication subsystem design, and product assurance.

1991-01-01

4

Methanol engine conversion feasibility study: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the selection of the surface-assisted ignition technique to convert two-stroke Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. This study was the first phase of the Florida Department of Transportation methanol bus engine development project. It determined both the feasibility and technical approach for converting Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. State-of-the-art conversion options, associated fuel formulations, and anticipated performance were identified. Economic considerations and technical limitations were examined. The surface-assisted conversion was determined to be feasible and was recommended for hardware development.

Not Available

1983-03-01

5

Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estuary is a body of water that is created when freshwater from rivers and streams flows into the saltwater of an ocean. To understand this mixing of fresh and salt water, learners go through several activities: 1) in Salt and Water, learners dissolve salt crystals in water to observe their effects on water; 2) in Making a Salt Wedge, learners make a model of a salt wedge estuary, which occurs in nature when the mouth of a river flows directly into seawater; 3) in Plant Dehydration learners observe the effects of salinity (salt content in the water) on live plants. Includes a wrap-up guide for group discussions.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

6

New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Report 9. Laboratory-Scale Application of Solidification/Stabilization Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical feasibility of applying solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology to sediment from the New Bedford Superfund Site, New Bedford, MA, was investigated in laboratory studies. Sediment samples from the New Bedford site were solidified/stabil...

M. E. Zappi T. E. Myers

1989-01-01

7

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding anddrainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-01-01

8

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-08-03

9

Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

1985-01-01

10

Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

11

Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

12

Historical Changes in the Columbia River Estuary based on Sediment Cores: Feasibility Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of the Columbia River estuary to salmon, other fishes, migratory birds, and other species is fairly well established. Relatively little is known, however, about long-term, historic variations in biological processes and conditions within th...

J. H. Petersen G. R. Gelfenbaum C. Peterson D. Baker P. R. Leavitt C. A. Simenstad F. G. Prahl

2003-01-01

13

Laser engines operating by resonance absorption. [thermodynamic feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic tutorial article on the thermodynamic feasibility of laser engines at the present state of the art. Three main options are considered: (1) laser power applied externally to a heat reservoir (boiler approach); (2) internal heating of working fluid by resonance absorption; and (3) direct conversion of selective excitation into work. Only (2) is considered practically feasible at present. Basic concepts and variants, efficiency relations, upper temperature limits of laser engines, selection of absorbing gases, engine walls, bleaching, thermodynamic cycles of optimized laser engines, laser-powered turbines, laser heat pumps are discussed. Photon engines and laser dissociation engines are also considered.

Garbuny, M.; Pechersky, M. J.

1976-01-01

14

Government Communications Network Engineering Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Government of the Philippines (GOP) conducted a feasibility study of a Government Communications Network (GCN). The purpose of the study is to provide the GOP with sufficient data to prove the concept of a GCN and then implement the system. The ultima...

1992-01-01

15

MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

16

Feasibility of magnetic bearings for advanced gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of active magnetic bearings to advanced gas turbine engines will provide a product with major improvements compared to current oil lubricated bearing designs. A rethinking of the engine rotating and static structure design is necessary and will provide the designer with significantly more freedom to meet the demanding goals of improved performance, increased durability, higher reliability, and increased thrust to weight ratio via engine weight reduction. The product specific technology necessary for this high speed, high temperature, dynamically complex application has been defined. The resulting benefits from this approach to aircraft engine rotor support and the complementary engine changes and improvements have been assessed.

Hibner, David; Rosado, Lewis

1992-01-01

17

Engineering feasibility of fuels from biomass utilizing dairy farm residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation of a fermentation facility at the Monroe State Dairy Farm. Washington, which produces methane gas from cattle manure was described. The Monroe process was evaluated and the feasibility of adapting the process to energy production on US farms was discussed. Pipe sizes, types of pumps used, and other factors which bear on operation were evaluated and

Skrinde

1978-01-01

18

Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accomodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part I-Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2-Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25.800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3-Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine, two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC material in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

Halliwell, Ian

2001-01-01

19

Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accommodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part 1: Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2: Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3: Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine. two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5.000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC materials in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

Halliwell, Ian

2001-01-01

20

Session 6: Magma Energy: Engineering Feasibility of Energy Extraction from Magma Bodies  

SciTech Connect

Extensive quantities of high-quality energy are estimated to be available from molten magma bodies existing within 10 Km of the US continent's surface. A five-year study sponsored by DOE/BES demonstrated that extraction of energy from these melts was scientifically feasible. The next stage of assessment is to evaluate the engineering feasibility of energy extraction and provide a preliminary economic evaluation. Should the second step demonstrate engineering feasibility, the third step would include detailed economic, market and commercialization endeavors. Evaluation of the engineering feasibility will be initiated in FY 84 in a program supported by DOE/GHTD and managed by Dave Allen. The project will be managed by Sandia Labs in James Kelsey's Geothermal Technology Development Division. The project will continue to draw on expertise throughout the country, especially the scientific base established in the previous BES Magma Energy Program.

Traeger, R.K.

1983-12-01

21

Feasibility study of the wave disk micro-engine operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of micro turbine engines has been strongly intensified in recent years. Since turbo-component efficiency has become very low due to the downsizing effect, the micro wave rotor is expected to be applied for the improvement of the performance of ultra-micro gas turbines, increasing the cycle pressure ratio. But wave rotors can also be used in another configuration. Here replacement of steady flow engine components by unsteady flow devices is proposed and analyzed. Applying a combustion chamber only and using oblique blades to form the rotor cells, net power can be taken from the rotor. In that way the use of an inefficient, micro-scale turbo unit can be omitted. Conventional construction of unsteady devices in the form of a wave rotor cannot be realized in MEMS technology. The new idea of a wave disk gives the possibility of an easy implementation of a wave engine in MEMS technology. In the proposed solution the wave disk plays the role of an active compression-decompression unit and torque generator. Appropriate port geometry with straight or oblique blades forming the disk channels generates torque. The engine disk rotates with a speed much lower than the conventional turbo unit and simplifies the bearing problem. Also the construction of an electric generator could be simpler. This paper presents the proposed flow schemes, thermodynamic cycle, exemplary engine construction and some preliminary results of simulation of the MEMS wave engine utilizing the wave disk geometry.

Piechna, Janusz R.

2006-09-01

22

Estuary Live!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classrooms and individuals can log on to participate in a real-time field trip to a National Estuary Research Reserve. Ask questions, view live video and still images, and learn about estuaries from experts. Topics range from geology to water quality, estuary plants and animals, and cultural heritage. Includes: references and lesson plans, classroom activities and teachers' guides. Archives of previous years are available, featuring sessions from East, West and Gulf Coast estuaries.

23

Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Defines estuaries and related habitats, reviews their roles in coastal ecology and in supporting human activities. Virtual tours provide history and introduce ecology of representative plans and animals. Presents current threats to estuaries and their wildlife and explains the role of EPA's National Estuary Program in protecting these important coastal resources. Includes: teachers' page with resources and links; games, coloring sheets and glossary for kids.

24

Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Estuaries introduces students of various ages to the ecology of estuaries, places where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the ocean, mixing with the seawater. It is part of a broader effort by the National Estuary Program to educate the general public about estuaries and to restore and protect these sensitive ecosystems. It offers interactive games and activities as well as virtual tours of Long Island Sound and the Barataria-Terrebonne Estuarine Complex near New Orleans. A glossary page defines technical terms used throughout the site. Resources also are provided for teachers and students interested in learning more about related organizations, publications, and websites.

25

Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

Becker, Arthur

2006-01-01

26

Geothermal resource, engineering and economic feasibility study for the City of Ouray, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A geothermal energy feasibility study has been performed for the City of Ouray, Colorado, to determine the potential economic development opportunities to the City. The resource assessment indicates the resource to be associated with the Ouray fault zone, the Leadville limestone formation, the high thermal gradient in the area of the San Juan mountains, and the recharge from precipitation in the adjacent mountains. Four engineering designs of alternative sizes, costs, applications, and years of start-up have been defined to offer the City a range of development scales. Life cycle cost analyses have been conducted for cases of both public and private ownership. All systems are found to be feasible on both economic and technical grounds. 49 refs., 8 figs.

Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

1982-07-31

27

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

Herbst, A.K.

2000-02-01

28

Feasibility Investigation on the Development of a Structural Damage Diagnostic and Monitoring System for Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activity for this project is mainly to investigate the necessity and feasibility to develop a structural health monitoring system for rocket engines, and to carry out a research plan for further development of the system. More than one hundred technical papers have been searched and reviewed during the period. We concluded after this investigation that adding a new module in NASA's existing automated diagnostic system to monitor the healthy condition of rocket engine structures is a crucial task, and it's possible to develop such a system based upon the vibrational-based nondestructive damage assessment techniques. A number of such techniques have been introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A global research plan has been figured out. As the first step of the overall research plan, a proposal for the next fiscal year has been submitted.

Shen, Ji Y.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.

1998-01-01

29

Reduction of NO{sub x} and PM from Navy diesel engines: A feasibility analysis. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The US Navy jointly with the EPA under SERDP is conducting a program to develop a NOx and PM control package for its shipboard diesel engines. This report evaluates the feasibility of retrofit NOx and PM control technologies based on impending emission standards, available technologies, cost, and impact of retrofit applications on ship/engine operations.

Venkatesh, S.

1996-07-01

30

Feasibility analysis of an open cycle thermoacoustic engine with internal pulse combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoacoustic engines convert thermal energy into acoustic energy with few or no moving parts, thus they require little maintenance, are highly reliable, and are inexpensive to produce. These traits make them attractive for applications in remote or portable power generation, where a linear alternator converts the acoustic power into electric power. Their primary application, however, is in driving thermoacoustic refrigerators, which use acoustic power to provide cooling at potentially cryogenic temperatures, also without moving parts. This dissertation examines the feasibility of a new type of thermoacoustic engine, where mean flow and an internal pulse combustion process replace the hot heat exchanger in a traditional closed cycle thermoacoustic engine, thereby eliminating the heat exchanger's cost, inefficiency, and thermal expansion stresses. The theory developed in this work reveals that a large temperature difference must exist between the hot face of the regenerator and the hot combustion products flowing into it, and that much of the convective thermal energy input from the combustion process is converted into conductive and thermoacoustic losses in the regenerator. The development of the Thermoacoustic Pulse Combustion Engine, as described in this study, is designed to recover most of this lost thermal energy by routing the inlet pipes through the regenerator to preheat the combustion reactants. Further, the developed theory shows that the pulse combustion process has the potential to add up to 7% to the engine's acoustic power output for an acoustic pressure ratio of 10%, with linearly increasing contributions for increasing acoustic pressure ratios. Computational modeling and optimization of the Thermoacoustic Pulse Combustion Engine yield thermal efficiencies of about 20% for atmospheric mean operating pressures, though higher mean engine pressures increase this efficiency considerably by increasing the acoustic power density relative to the thermal losses. However, permissible mean engine pressures are limited by the need to avoid fouling the regenerator with condensation of water vapor out of the cold combustion products. Despite lower acoustic power densities, the Thermoacoustic Pulse Combustion Engine is shown to be well suited to portable refrigeration and power generation applications, due to its reasonable efficiency and inherent simplicity and compactness.

Weiland, Nathan T.

31

Classification of Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text states that although all estuaries are similar in that they are semi-enclosed bodies of brackish water, they are categorized with regard to geological characteristics, and further distinguished on the basis of stratification and circulation patterns. According to their geological characteristics, estuaries are classified as: drowned river valleys or coastal-plain estuaries, bar-built estuaries or lagoons, fjord-type estuaries, and tectonically caused estuaries. Each type is explained in detail and examples are given for each.

32

Classification of Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text states that although all estuaries are similar in that they are semi-enclosed bodies of brackish water, they are categorized with regard to geological characteristics, and further distinguished on the basis of stratification and circulation patterns. According to their geological characteristics, estuaries are classified as: drowned river valleys or coastal-plain estuaries, bar-built estuaries or lagoons, fjord-type estuaries, and tectonically caused estuaries. Each type is explained in detail and examples are given for each.

Oberrecht, Kenn

2007-01-30

33

Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Burrell Township site residues. [UMTRA  

SciTech Connect

The Burrell Township site, located in western Pennsylvania, received approximately 11,600 tons of radioactively-contaminated material in late 1956 and early 1957 from the Vitro Manufacturing Company's operations in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. WESTON was requested to conduct an engineering study to determine the feasibility of stabilizing the site in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) interim and proposed standards (45 FR 27366--27368, April 22, 1980, and 46 FR 2556--2563, January 9, 1981). The scope of this study is limited to those alternatives that can be implemented on the site and will not require removal and offsite disposal of radioactively-contaminated material. Four alternatives for control of the radioactive material at the Burrell site were considered and evaluated, as follows: 1. Site stabilization and closure. 2. Site control and containment. 3. Waste excavation and encapsulation. 4. Waste excavation, incineration, and encapsulation. 2 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1982-11-01

34

Conceptual Design and Feasibility of Foil Bearings for Rotorcraft Engines: Hot Core Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in gas foil bearing technology have led to numerous advanced high-speed rotating system concepts, many of which have become either commercial products or experimental test articles. Examples include oil-free microturbines, motors, generators and turbochargers. The driving forces for integrating gas foil bearings into these high-speed systems are the benefits promised by removing the oil lubrication system. Elimination of the oil system leads to reduced emissions, increased reliability, and decreased maintenance costs. Another benefit is reduced power plant weight. For rotorcraft applications, this would be a major advantage, as every pound removed from the propulsion system results in a payload benefit.. Implementing foil gas bearings throughout a rotorcraft gas turbine engine is an important long-term goal that requires overcoming numerous technological hurdles. Adequate thrust bearing load capacity and potentially large gearbox applied radial loads are among them. However, by replacing the turbine end, or hot section, rolling element bearing with a gas foil bearing many of the above benefits can be realized. To this end, engine manufacturers are beginning to explore the possibilities of hot section gas foil bearings in propulsion engines. This overview presents a logical follow-on activity by analyzing a conceptual rotorcraft engine to determine the feasibility of a foil bearing supported core. Using a combination of rotordynamic analyses and a load capacity model, it is shown to be reasonable to consider a gas foil bearing core section. In addition, system level foil bearing testing capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented along with analysis work being conducted under NRA Cooperative Agreements.

Howard, Samuel A.

2007-01-01

35

Feasibility Demonstration of a 445N High-Performance Rocket Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-performance 445 Newton (100 lb(sub f)) NTO/NMH rocket engine is presented. An existing high-performance injector was coupled with three different thrust chambers to acquire test data for the program. A stainless-steel sea-level chamber was used for test stand checkout, calibration and initial injector performance determinations. Two high-temperature iridium lined rhenium thrust chambers were used to determine altitude performance and durability. The first chamber was tested for a total duration of 3381 s and the second was tested for a total duration of 15,000 s with no measurable degradation. Extrapolation of epsilon = 44:1 experimental data to the recommended epsilon = 467:1 expansion nozzle, using the JANNAF methodology, showed that a performance of 3138 to 3167 N-s/kg (320 to 323 lb(sub f-s)/lb(sub m) could be achieved with the present design. Recommendations are presented which would allow a redesigned engine to achieve the 3195 N-s/kg (326 lb(sub f-s)/lb(sub m)) program goal.

Appel, Marshall A.; Schoenman, Leonard; Franklin, Jerrold E.; Lansaw, P. Tina

1989-01-01

36

A feasibility study on using inkjet technology, micropumps, and MEMs as fuel injectors for bipropellant rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control over drop size distributions, injection rates, and geometrical distribution of fuel and oxidizer sprays in bi-propellant rocket engines has the potential to produce more efficient, more stable, less polluting rocket engines. This control also offers the potential of an engine that can be throttled, working efficiently over a wide range of output thrusts. Inkjet printing technologies, MEMS fuel atomizers, and piezoelectric injectors similar in concept to those used in diesel engines are considered for their potential to yield a new, more active injection scheme for a rocket engine. Inkjets are found to be unable to pump at sufficient pressures, and have possibly dangerous failure modes. Active injection is found to be feasible if high pressure drop along the injector plate is used. A conceptual design is presented and its basic behavior assessed.

Glynne-Jones, Peter; Coletti, M.; White, N. M.; Gabriel, S. B.; Bramanti, C.

2010-07-01

37

CARS temperature measurements in the fuel preburner of the Space Shuttle main engine: A feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the feasibility of making temperature profile measurements in the fuel preburner of the main engine of the space shuttle (SSME) using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). The principal thrust of the work is to identify problems associated with making CARS measurements in high temperature gas phase hydrogen at very high pressures (approx 400 atmospheres). To this end a theoretical study was made of the characteristics of the CAR spectra of H2 as a function of temperature and pressure and the accuracy with which temperatures can be extracted from this spectra. In addition the experimental problems associated with carrying out these measurements on a SSME at NSTL were identified. A conceptual design of a CARS system suitable for this work is included. Many of the results of the calculations made in this report are plotted as a function of temperature. In the course of presenting these results, it was necessary to decide whether the number of density or the pressure should be treated as a fixed parameter.

Beiting, E. J.; Luthe, J. C.

1983-01-01

38

Engineering Feasibility and Trade Studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of airborne CO concentrations is critical for accurate scientific prediction of global scale atmospheric behavior. MicroMaps is an existing NASA owned gas filter radiometer instrument designed for space-based measurement of atmospheric CO vertical profiles. Due to programmatic changes, the instrument does not have access to the space environment and is in storage. MicroMaps hardware has significant potential for filling a critical scientific need, thus motivating concept studies for new and innovative scientific spaceflight missions that would leverage the MicroMaps heritage and investment, and contribute to new CO distribution data. This report describes engineering feasibility and trade studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission. Conceptual studies encompass: 1) overall mission analysis and synthesis methodology, 2) major subsystem studies and detailed requirements development for an orbital platform option consisting of a small, single purpose spacecraft, 3) assessment of orbital platform option consisting of the International Space Station, and 4) survey of potential launch opportunities for gaining assess to orbit. Investigations are of a preliminary first-order nature. Results and recommendations from these activities are envisioned to support future MicroMaps Mission design decisions regarding program down select options leading to more advanced and mature phases.

Abdelkhalik, Ossama O.; Nairouz, Bassem; Weaver, Timothy; Newman, Brett

2003-01-01

39

Feasibility Study of a Pressure-Fed Engine for a Water Recoverable Space Shuttle Booster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed mass properties are presented for a gimbaled, fixed thrust, regeneratively cooled engine having a coaxial pintle injector. The baseline design parameters for this engine are tabulated. Mass properties are also summarized for several other engine ...

E. Gerstl

1972-01-01

40

Feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed mass properties are presented for a gimbaled, fixed thrust, regeneratively cooled engine having a coaxial pintle injector. The baseline design parameters for this engine are tabulated. Mass properties are also summarized for several other engine configurations i.e., a hinge nozzle using a Techroll seal, a gimbaled duct cooled engine and a regeneratively cooled engine using liquid injection thrust vector control (LITVC). Detailed engine analysis and design trade studies leading to the selection of a regeneratively cooled gimbaled engine and pertaining to the selection of the baseline design configuration are also given.

Gerstl, E.

1972-01-01

41

The study of the feasibility of segmental bone defect repair with tissue- engineered bone membrane: a qualitative observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of intramembranous osteogenesis from tissue-engineered bone\\u000a membrane in vivo. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of rabbits were harvested, expanded and some of them were induced\\u000a into osteoblasts. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) was converted by a series of physical and chemical procedures into\\u000a a scaffold. MSCs and induced osteoblasts

Lin Zhao; Jun-Li Zhao; Lin Wan; Shuan-Ke Wang

2008-01-01

42

Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

2011-01-01

43

Predicting Bankfull Discharge in Ungauged Estuaries by Explaining the Physical Relation Between the Morphology and Hydrology of Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River discharge is a very important parameter in morphological and hydrodynamic studies of estuaries. However, it is always difficult to accurately measure river discharge, and in particular the bankfull discharge in estuaries where the tidal discharge dominates over river discharge. Until today, little research has been done in finding a simple and useful approach to estimate the river discharge in the tidal region, and most of the previous studies focused on the river regime. In this study, we found that there appear to be empirical relations that link together the morphology and hydrology of estuaries, which can be used to estimate river discharge with the least amount of data available. The aims of this study are: 1) to discover the physical explanation for the empirical relation that exists between geometrical characteristics of estuaries and the bankfull flood discharge; and 2) to estimate bankfull discharge in estuaries from the relationship. The physical connection between the estuaries and river regime is found by incorporating the estuary shape analysis and tidal dynamic analysis to Lacey's hydraulic geometry theory. Relationship between the estuary depth and the bankfull river discharge has been analyzed in 19 estuaries around the world (with 9 recently surveyed estuaries). In this study, the discharge data (from gauging station located further upstream) were adjusted by a projection approach to improve the discharge measurement. The outcome of the relationship was compared to Lacey's theory of hydraulic geometry. From the analysis, it shows that the depth of an estuary is a function of the bankfull flood discharge to the power of 1/3 which indicates an agreement with Lacey's formula. With the physical explanation, engineers would be able to estimate flood discharge characteristics from estuary shape indicators. This could be very useful to estimate the flood discharge in ungauged estuaries on the basis of readily available data. In order to verify the accuracy of the relation, existing and new measurement data from estuaries worldwide will be collected and compiled to strengthen the reliability of this finding.

Gisen, J.; Savenije, H.

2013-12-01

44

Feasibility and emissions of compression ignition engines fueled with waste vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and experience has shown that vegetable oil can be processed, by transesterification, into a useable fuel for compression ignition engines. Earlier research examined using straight vegetable oil as a fuel, but found it to cause detrimental engine problems. Trial and error has shown that heating the vegetable oil prior to injection, is a viable option. A diesel vehicle engine

Morgan H Crawford

2003-01-01

45

75 FR 64216 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0032] 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ACTION: Proposed...

2010-10-19

46

75 FR 77798 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0032] 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed...

2010-12-14

47

CF6 jet engine performance improvement program. Task 1: Feasibility analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical and economic engine improvement concepts selected for subsequent development include: (1) fan improvement; (2) short core exhaust; (3) HP turbine aerodynamic improvement; (4) HP turbine roundness control; (5) HP turbine active clearance control; and (6) cabin air recirculation. The fuel savings for the selected engine modification concepts for the CF6 fleet are estimated.

Fasching, W. A.

1979-01-01

48

Dynamic cell culture on porous biopolymer microcarriers in a spinner flask for bone tissue engineering: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Porous microspherical carriers have great promise for cell culture and tissue engineering. Dynamic cultures enable more uniform cell population and effective differentiation than static cultures. Here we applied dynamic spinner flask culture for the loading and multiplication of cells onto porous biopolymer microcarriers. The abilities of the microcarriers to populate cells and to induce osteogenic differentiation were examined and the feasibility of in vivo delivery of the constructs was addressed. Over time, the porous microcarriers enabled cell adhesion and expansion under proper dynamic culture conditions. Osteogenic markers were substantially expressed by the dynamic cell cultures. The cell-cultured microcarriers implanted in the mouse subcutaneous tissue for 4 weeks showed excellent tissue compatibility, with minimal inflammatory signs and significant induction of bone tissues. This first report on dynamic culture of porous biopolymer microcarriers providing an effective tool for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24652549

Jin, Guang-Zhen; Park, Jeong-Hui; Seo, Seog-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won

2014-07-01

49

The Feasibility of Controlling Turbine Engine Test Cell Particulate Emissions with a Baghouse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air pollution regulations dictate that the Department of Defense attempt to control visible emissions emitted from turbine engine test cells. Previous studies have summarily dismissed baghouses as a control device because of potential size, pressure drop,...

J. R. Geiger P. S. Daley

1978-01-01

50

Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

2013-03-31

51

Feasibility demonstration of the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) for high-pressure natural-gas-injected engine  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program was the feasibility demonstration of the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept for the ignition and combustion of high-pressure injected natural gas. The TICS concept relies on the ignition of fuel by high-temperature combustion chamber walls without external ignition sources like spark plug, glow plug, or pilot diesel fuel. The program was successful in achieving ignition and combustion of natural gas in a single cylinder diesel engine with the TICS concept. An electronically controlled gas injector, designed and fabricated in the program, was used to inject natural gas at 13.8 to 20.7 MPa (2000 to 3000 psig) pressure in the TICS chamber. Cold starting of the test engine was achieved by external heating of the chamber for a few minutes. Natural gas ignition and combustion was then sustained by the high-temperature TICS chamber. The test engine was operated from idle to full load and from 600 to 1400 rpm engine-speed range.

Kalwani, R.M.; McNulty, D.; Badgley, P.; Kamo, R.

1989-02-01

52

Welcome to Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features three sections devoted to learning about estuaries: an online tutorial, an educational roadmap to resources, and formal lesson plans. The tutorial shows how estuaries are classified by their geology and water circulation patterns, the various ecosystem services estuaries perform, how organisms have adapted to the unique environmental conditions found in estuaries, the many disturbances that estuaries face from nature and human activities, and finally, the essential work that the National Estuarine Research Reserve System and its many partners conduct to monitor, preserve, and restore estuarine ecosystems throughout the United States. The roadmap to resources provides a set of links to specific data related to the information presented in the tutorial. Lesson plans on estuaries are also provided.

53

Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Canonsburg residues. [UMTRA project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is considering several methods for carrying out remedial actions in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, at the site of an inactive uranium-processing mill. The main objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of in-situ stabilization as the remedial action. In-situ stabilization is an alternative to site decontamination and offsite disposal. The problems associated with offsite hauling of large quantities of contaminated material and with the location and development of a new disposal site could be avoided by the implementation of an in-situ stabilization concept. In addition, the in-situ approach would be more cost-effective than offsite disposal. This study will establish that a technically feasible and implementable in-situ stabilization concept can be developed that meets regulatory requirements and is cost effective. This study in no way commits the DOE to implement any specific actions described herein. 11 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

Not Available

1982-01-01

54

Learning Lessons from Estuaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is something that draws all people to the sea and especially to the fertile estuaries that nuzzle up to its shores. An estuary serves as both a nursery and a grave for sea creatures. If life evolved from some primordial sea, it may well have been an estuary--a place where ocean and rivers meet and fresh and salty waters mingle in the…

Schnittka, Christine

2006-01-01

55

Regional Differences Among Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text discusses differences in estuaries in different regions of the United States. It contrasts the fjord-like estuaries of the rocky Maine coast with the sandy barrier beaches, islands, and enclosed bays and sounds further south. The site also calls attention to the difference between the East Coast and the Northwest coast of emergence. The point is made that although they differ, all estuaries have great value and many are in danger.

Oberrecht, Kenn

2007-01-20

56

Regional Differences Among Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text discusses differences in estuaries in different regions of the United States. It contrasts the fjord-like estuaries of the rocky Maine coast with the sandy barrier beaches, islands, and enclosed bays and sounds further south. The site also calls attention to the difference between the East Coast and the Northwest coast of emergence. The point is made that although they differ, all estuaries have great value and many are in danger.

57

Experimental research made during a city cycle on the feasibility of electrically charged SI engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents experimental research on performance improvements in a city cycle (operating mostly transient) of a compact class vehicle equipped with a turbocharged SI engine which had attached an electric charger, to improve engine response at low operational speeds. During tests, functional parameters, energy consumption of the electric charger and vehicle performances were measured while driving in two operating conditions: with active and inactive electric charger. The tests were carried out on a well-defined path, in the same driving style, by the same driver.

Kocsis, Levente B.; Burnete, Nicolae

2014-02-01

58

A LOW COST PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING TRAINING REACTOR. Reactor Design and Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a low cost training reactor for the instruction ; of physicists and engineers is covered. It is conceived as an instructional tool ; for a course such as that given at the Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology. ; The reactor is of a modified pool type, and is designed for a maximum power level ;

R. A. Brown; M. W. Ackerman; J. F. Jr. Batter; D. W. Bell; J. B. Dunlay; G. K. Ellis; E. I. Nowstrup; L. W. Pokallus

1956-01-01

59

80- to 100-HP Stirling Engine Feasibility Study. Progress Report No. 21, January--March 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ford Motor Company has sponsored research and development of a 170 hp swashplate-type of Stirling engine suitable for application to a passenger car having a curb weight in the neighborhood of 4,600 pounds. The success of this program has justified the ne...

N. D. Postma

1977-01-01

60

80-100 HP Stirling Engine Feasibility Study. Progress Report No. 15, July--September 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ford Motor Company has sponsored research and development of a 170-hp swashplate-type of Stirling engine suitable for application to a passenger car having a curb weight in the neighborhood of 4600 lb. The success of this application program has justified...

N. D. Postma

1976-01-01

61

DYNAMIC ESTUARY MODEL PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Applications of the Dynamic Estuary Model (DEM) to both the Delaware and Potomac Estuaries by the Environmental Protection Agency during the 1970s are summarized and evaluated. Methods for calibrating, refining, and validating this model, and statistics for evaluating its perform...

62

Biogeochemistry of Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether you are interested in material flux from the continents to the oceans or whether the oysters set down in front of you at a waterfront restaurant may have come from polluted waters, we know estuaries are important places. However, anyone attempting to summarize and synthesize the long and rich literature of estuarine research is presented with a daunting task. This is because beyond the concept of an estuary being the transition zone where ``fresh water meets seawater,'' the exact definition of an estuary is not uniformly agreed upon by scientists in this field. Also, estuaries-regardless of how they are defined-tend to be highly heterogeneous, in both space and time. Against this backdrop, Thomas Bianchi's Biogeochemistry of Estuaries successfully tackles its subject matter and is an exciting addition to the field of estuarine research.

Burdige, David J.

2007-12-01

63

JT8D and JT9D jet engine performance improvement program. Task 1: Feasibility analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JT8D and JT9D component performance improvement concepts which have a high probability of incorporation into production engines were identified and ranked. An evaluation method based on airline payback period was developed for the purpose of identifying the most promising concepts. The method used available test data and analytical models along with conceptual/preliminary designs to predict the performance improvements, weight, installation characteristics, cost for new production and retrofit, maintenance cost, and qualitative characteristics of candidate concepts. These results were used to arrive at the concept payback period, which is the time required for an airline to recover the investment cost of concept implementation.

Gaffin, W. O.; Webb, D. E.

1979-01-01

64

Feasibility of using a high-level waste canister as an engineered barrier in disposal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of designing a process canister that could also serve as a barrier canister. To do this a general set of performance criteria is assumed and several metal alloys having a high probability of demonstrating high corrosion resistance under repository conditions are evaluated in a qualitative design assessment. This assessment encompasses canister manufacture, the glass-filling process, interim storage, transportation, and to a limited extent, disposal in a repository. A series of scoping tests were carried out on two titanium alloys and Inconel 625 to determine if the high temperature inherent in the glass-fill processing would seriously affect either the strength or corrosion resistance of these metals. This is a process-related concern unique to the barrier canister concept. The material properties were affected by the heat treatments which simulated both the joule-heated glass melter process (titanium alloys and Inconel 625) and the in-can melter (ICM) process (Inconel 625). However, changes in the material properties were generally within 20% of the original specimens. Accelerated corrosion testing of the heat treated coupons in a highly oxygenated brine showed basic corrosion resistance of titanium grade 12 and Inconel 625 to compare favorably with that of the untreated coupons. The titanium grade 2 coupons experienced severe corrosion pitting. These corrosion tests were of a scoping nature and suitable primarily for the detection of gross sensitivity to the heat treatment inherent in the glass-fill process. They are only suggstive of repository performance since the tests do not adequately model the wide range of repository conditions that could conceivably occur.

Slate, S.C.; Pitman, S.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Partain, W.L.

1982-08-01

65

Learning Lessons from Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is something that draws us all to the sea and especially to the fertile estuaries that nuzzle up to its shores. An estuary serves as both a nursery and a grave for sea creatures. This article describes annual trips to three islands in the Chesapeake Bay and the long-term impact these trips have had on students. Although the activities described in this article are centered around the Bay, this example of an immersive field experience could be duplicated in other ecosystems around the country (see "On the web" at the end of this article for information on planning an estuary field trip).

Schnittka, Christine

2006-01-01

66

Genome Engineering in Vibrio cholerae: A Feasible Approach to Address Biological Issues  

PubMed Central

Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has become a preferred model to study bacteria with multipartite genomes. However, most in vivo studies in V. cholerae have been hampered by its genome architecture, as it is difficult to give phenotypes to a specific chromosome. This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae mutants with various genome configurations: one with a single chromosome, one with two chromosomes of equal size, and one with both chromosomes controlled by identical origins. We used these synthetic strains to address several biological questions—the specific case of the essentiality of Dam methylation in V. cholerae and the general question concerning bacteria carrying circular chromosomes—by looking at the effect of chromosome size on topological issues. In this article, we show that Dam, RctB, and ParA2/ParB2 are strictly essential for chrII origin maintenance, and we formally demonstrate that the formation of chromosome dimers increases exponentially with chromosome size.

Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Bland, Michael J.; Mazel, Didier

2012-01-01

67

Strategy for assessing the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility of subseabed disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the strategy and management techniques used in the development of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) for possible disposal of both high-level waste and spent fuel. These have been developed through joint efforts of the Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Waste Isolation, the Sandia Technical Program Manager, the Technical Program Coordinators, the Advisory Group, and the Principal Investigators. Three subsections of this paper address the various components which make up the SDP strategy and management techniques. The first section summarizes the US DOE high-level waste and spent-fuel disposal program and the position that the SDP occupies within that program. The second section, the Subseabed Program Plan, addresses the technical and administrative tools which are employed to facilitate the day-to-day operation of the SDP. The third section addresses the current studies and future plans for addressing the legal, political, and international uncertainties that must be resolved before the SDP reaches the final engineering phases.

Anderson, D.R.; Talbert, D.M.; Reese, D.; Boyer, D.G.; Herrmann, H.; Kelly, J.

1980-07-01

68

Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese. PMID:23920740

Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

2013-01-01

69

Coagulation in Estuaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coagulation rates of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite were determined in solutions at various ionic strengths. In addition, the coagulation rates of selected sediments collected from the Pamlico Estuary of North Carolina were determined. Finally...

J. K. Edzwald

1972-01-01

70

Restore America's Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This non-profit organization promotes the restoration and protection of America's estuaries. Projects encompass scientific research, education and community-based action, including restoration by school youngsters, as well as policy initiatives at the national level. An introduction to estuaries contains concise definitions, value in ecology and economics, current threats, and elements of restoration. Also offers: links to educational resources; news and photo gallery; a CD-rom guide to estuarine restoration.

71

Volunteer Estuary Monitoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online method manual from EPA describes how to conduct estuary monitoring programs, with step-by-step guides for chemical, physical and biological sampling and data interpretation. Also describes how to plan and maintain a volunteer force, with tips on liability and financial issues, volunteer recruiting training and retention. Addresses quality assurance so that results have weight. Provides an overview of estuarine science, threats to estuaries and some solutions.

72

Feasibility of Conducting J-2X Engine Testing at the Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station B-2 Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A trade study of the feasibility of conducting J-2X testing in the Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) B-2 facility was initiated in May 2006 with results available in October 2006. The Propulsion Test Integration Group (PTIG) led the study with support from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jacobs Sverdrup Engineering. The primary focus of the trade study was on facility design concepts and their capability to satisfy the J-2X altitude simulation test requirements. The propulsion systems tested in the B-2 facility were in the 30,000-pound (30K) thrust class. The J-2X thrust is approximately 10 times larger. Therefore, concepts significantly different from the current configuration are necessary for the diffuser, spray chamber subsystems, and cooling water. Steam exhaust condensation in the spray chamber is judged to be the key risk consideration relative to acceptable spray chamber pressure. Further assessment via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other simulation capabilities (e.g. methodology for anchoring predictions with actual test data and subscale testing to support investigation.

Schafer, Charles F.; Cheston, Derrick J.; Worlund, Armis L.; Brown, James R.; Hooper, William G.; Monk, Jan C.; Winstead, Thomas W.

2008-01-01

73

Estuarine Science: All About Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Estuaries are partially enclosed bodies of water along coastlines where fresh water and salt water meet and mix. They act as a transition zone between oceans and continents. This site examines various aspects of estuaries, focusing on the geological features that make an estuary, as well as the water circulation patterns by which they are classified. It also has a section that allows the user to access additional text and graphics on many of the estuaries of the world.

74

THE IMPACTS OF UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS POPULATIONS ON ORGANIC MATTER AND NUTRIENT CYCLING IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing thalassinid shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis, is a major ecosystem engineering species of Pacific estuaries and can structure the physical, chemical, and biotic properties of benthic habitats. This study utilized incubations, benthic chambers and porewater peepers to q...

75

Feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activities leading to a tentative concept selection for a pressure-fed engine and propulsion support are outlined. Multiple engine concepts were evaluted through parallel engine major component and system analyses. Booster vehicle coordination, tradeoffs, and technology/development aspects are included. The concept selected for further evaluation has a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber and nozzle in conjuction with an impinging element injector. The propellants chosen are LOX/RP-1, and combustion stabilizing baffles are used to assure dynamic combustion stability.

1972-01-01

76

Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

77

JT9D engine diagnostics. Task 2: Feasibility study of measuring in-service flight loads. [747 aircraft performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of measuring JT9D propulsion system flight inertia loads on a 747 airplane is studied. Flight loads background is discussed including the current status of 747/JT9D loads knowledge. An instrumentation and test plan is formulated for an airline-owned in-service airplane and the Boeing-owned RA001 test airplane. Technical and cost comparisons are made between these two options. An overall technical feasibility evaluation is made and a cost summary presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in regard to using existing inertia loads data versus conducting a flight test to measure inertia loads.

Kafka, P. G.; Skibo, M. A.; White, J. L.

1977-01-01

78

Feasibility Study of a Pressure-Fed Engine for a Water Recoverable Space Shuttle Booster. Volume 1 Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview is presented of the results of the analyses conducted in support of the selected engine system for the pressure-fed booster stage. During initial phases of the project, a gimbaled, regeneratively cooled, fixed thrust engine having a coaxial pi...

1972-01-01

79

Engineering and economic feasibility of using poultry litter as a fuel to generate electric power at Maryland`s Eastern Correctional Institute  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of the engineering, environmental, and economic feasibility of the Eastern Correctional Institute (ECI) meeting its electric power and thermal requirements by relying on poultry litter as a fuel. In addition to satisfying all or a portion of the utility requirements of ECI, a maximum/medium security prison located in Princess Anne, Maryland, the use of poultry litter as a fuel would reduce the amount of poultry waste currently used on the Eastern Shore as fertilizer. Based on the engineering and environmental assessments conducted, three alternative scenarios to satisfy ECI`s electric power supply and thermal requirements using poutlry litter as a fuel were developed. For all scenarios, as well as a base case defined by current operations at ECI, 20-year life-cycle costs were estimated based on projections of usage, capital costs, fuel costs, labor costs, and other relevant factors.

Estomin, S.L.; Walters, G.; Prasad, A.; Ross, J.

1998-02-16

80

Advanced Turbine Engine Gas Generator Conceptual Studies and Feasibility Experimental Test Program. Volume III: Materials Section (Table LXXV).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials research and development was performed on diffusion bonding of titanium, machining of small-diameter holes, determination of the abrasive properties of materials in a simulated jet-engine environment, and determination of the properties of selec...

F. G. Groh

1969-01-01

81

Feasibility of blending karanja vegetable oil in petro-diesel and utilization in a direct injection diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil, a non-edible high viscosity (27.84cSt at 40°C) straight vegetable oil, was blended with conventional diesel in various proportions to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection constant speed diesel engine. Diesel and karanja oil fuel blends (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were used to conduct short-term engine performance and emission tests

S. Bajpai; P. K. Sahoo; L. M. Das

2009-01-01

82

75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XX00 Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request for Public Comment...behalf of the interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of...

2010-06-21

83

Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary  

SciTech Connect

From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included.

Sylves, R.T.

1991-01-01

84

DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

1973-01-01

85

Feasibility study of air-breathing turbo-engines for horizontal take-off and landing space plane  

SciTech Connect

Various concepts of air-breathing engines (ABEs) that could be used for a horizontal take-off and landing SSTO vehicle are investigated. The performances (with respect to thrust and the specific fuel consumption) of turboengines based on various technologies, including a turbojet with and without afterburner (TJ), turboramjet, and air-turbo-ram jet engines are compared. The mission capabilities of these ABEs for SSTO and TSTO vehicles is examined in terms of the ratio of the effective remaining weight (i.e., the weight on the orbit) to the take-off gross weight, using two-dimensional flight analysis. It was found that the dry TJ with the turbine inlet temperature 2000 C is one of the most promising candidates for the propulsion system of the SSTO vehicle, because of its small weight and high specific impulse. 6 refs.

Minoda, M.; Sakata, K.; Tamaki, T.; Saitoh, T.; Yasuda, A.

1989-01-01

86

Great Bay Estuary Restoration Compendium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single species approaches to natural resource conservation and management are now viewed as antiquated and oversimplified for dealing with complex systems. Scientists and managers who work in estuaries and other marine systems have urged adoption of ecosy...

A. Eberhardt D. Burdick J. Odell P. Ingraham

2006-01-01

87

Feasibility of non-invasive detection of engineered nanoparticles in food mimicking matrices by Optical Coherence Tomography.  

PubMed

The study was dedicated towards the detection of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) by means of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Polymeric films were produced to mimic complex food matrices whereas gold nanorods (AuNRs) were embedded to act as ENPs. The straightforward coating application resulted in a sufficient film wetting, adhesion and homogenous AuNR distribution. Compared to food samples, these films are simpler and better defined. Such artefacts are therefore promising candidate materials for quality assurance and regulatory matters. The OCT investigations revealed a dependency of the measured signal intensity on the AuNR concentration in the film. The limit of detection for the setup and material was estimated to be -8 dB. This value corresponds to a ppm nanoparticle concentration being well below the concentration used in food additive applications. Thus, the findings indicate the potential of OCT to screen food/feed products for a number of ENPs. PMID:24491752

Grombe, Ringo; Kirsten, Lars; Mehner, Mirko; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Emons, Hendrik; Koch, Edmund

2014-06-15

88

Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: The importance of the ocean-estuary connection  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the role of the ocean ?estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

89

Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: Importance of the ocean-estuary connection - March 2011  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the role of the ocean?estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO w...

90

Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: Importance of the ocean-estuary connection  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the role of the ocean ?estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

91

PECONIC ESTUARY EELGRASS HABITAT CRITERIA STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

PECONIC ESTUARY EELGRASS HABITAT CRITERIA STUDY The main objective of this study is to develop criteria for eelgrass habitat establishment and persistence within the Peconic Estuary utilizing various environmental analyses. The Program evaluated water and sediment quality data to...

92

Nitrogen Budget of a North Carolina Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pamlico River estuary of eastern North Carolina is a relatively oligotrophic ecosystem which is entering the initial stages of cultural eutrophication. The estuary is naturally rich in phosphorus and indirect evidence indicates that nitrogen probably ...

W. G. Harrison J. E. Hobbie

1974-01-01

93

Estuaries and Clean Water Act of 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Office of Water at the Environmental Protection Agency has posted online this document on the new Estuaries and Clean Water Act of 2000. Available in .pdf format, the document summarizes the Act, which emphasizes restoration of estuary habitat.

94

Estuaries: Where Rivers Meet the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take your students on an EstuaryLive telecast! EstuaryLive brings free, live internet field trips in four different estuaries around the country, right to your classroom. These online field trips are the next best thing to an actual trip to an estuary, providing students with an exciting and new way to learn about unique estuarine ecosystems. The site also includes archived webcasts and teacher resources including classroom activities and a glossary.

95

Estuaries: Where Rivers Meet the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take your students on an EstuaryLive telecast! EstuaryLive brings free, live internet field trips in four different estuaries around the country, right to your classroom. These online field trips are the next best thing to an actual trip to an estuary, providing students with an exciting and new way to learn about unique estuarine ecosystems. The site also includes archived webcasts and teacher resources including classroom activities and a glossary.

2011-05-16

96

DELAWARE ESTUARY A MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE DELAWARE ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Wise conservation and management of the Delaware Estuary is arguably the most important cooperative environmental initiative ever jointly undertaken by the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. While much has been accomplished over the past few decades to improve wate...

97

Feasibility studies of aquifer thermal energy storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determining the feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for a particular heating or cooling application is an interdisciplinary effort, requiring (at a minimum) expertise in engineering and hydrology. The feasibility study should procee...

S. H. Hall

1993-01-01

98

Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report of Research.  

SciTech Connect

In 2002 with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an interagency research team began investigating salmon life histories and habitat use in the lower Columbia River estuary to fill significant data gaps about the estuary's potential role in salmon decline and recovery . The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided additional funding in 2004 to reconstruct historical changes in estuarine habitat opportunities and food web linkages of Columbia River salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.). Together these studies constitute the estuary's first comprehensive investigation of shallow-water habitats, including selected emergent, forested, and scrub-shrub wetlands. Among other findings, this research documented the importance of wetlands as nursery areas for juvenile salmon; quantified historical changes in the amounts and distributions of diverse habitat types in the lower estuary; documented estuarine residence times, ranging from weeks to months for many juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha); and provided new evidence that contemporary salmonid food webs are supported disproportionately by wetland-derived prey resources. The results of these lower-estuary investigations also raised many new questions about habitat functions, historical habitat distributions, and salmon life histories in other areas of the Columbia River estuary that have not been adequately investigated. For example, quantitative estimates of historical habitat changes are available only for the lower 75 km of the estuary, although tidal influence extends 217 km upriver to Bonneville Dam. Because the otolith techniques used to reconstruct salmon life histories rely on detection of a chemical signature (strontium) for salt water, the estuarine residency information we have collected to date applies only to the lower 30 or 35 km of the estuary, where fish first encounter ocean water. We lack information about salmon habitat use, life histories, and growth within the long tidal-fresh reaches of the main-stem river and many tidally-influenced estuary tributaries. Finally, our surveys to date characterize wetland habitats within island complexes distributed in the main channel of the lower estuary. Yet some of the most significant wetland losses have occurred along the estuary's periphery, including shoreline areas and tributary junctions. These habitats may or may not function similarly as the island complexes that we have surveyed to date. In 2007 we initiated a second phase of the BPA estuary study (Phase II) to address specific uncertainties about salmon in tidal-fresh and tributary habitats of the Columbia River estuary. This report summarizes 2007 and 2008 Phase II results and addresses three principal research questions: (1) What was the historic distribution of estuarine and floodplain habitats from Astoria to Bonneville Dam? (2) Do individual patterns of estuarine residency and growth of juvenile Chinook salmon vary among wetland habitat types along the estuarine tidal gradient? (3) Are salmon rearing opportunities and life histories in the restoring wetland landscape of lower Grays River similar to those documented for island complexes of the main-stem estuary? Phase II extended our analysis of historical habitat distribution in the estuary above Rkm 75 to near Bonneville Dam. For this analysis we digitized the original nineteenth-century topographic (T-sheets) and hydrographic (H-sheets) survey maps for the entire estuary. Although all T-sheets (Rkm 0 to Rkm 206) were converted to GIS in 2005 with support for the USACE estuary project, final reconstruction of historical habitats throughout the estuary requires completion of the remaining H-sheet GIS maps above Rkm 75 and their integration with the T-sheets. This report summarizes progress to date on compiling the upper estuary H-sheets above Rkm 75. For the USACE estuary project, we analyzed otoliths from Chinook salmon collected near the estuary mouth in 2003-05 to estimate variability in estuary residence times among juvenile out migrants. In Phase II we expanded these analyses to comp

Bottom, Daniel L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Campbell, Lance [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

2009-05-15

99

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN ESTUARY CONSERVATION PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Nature Conservancy will conduct a series of a least four science expert workshops to develop a Site Conservation Plan for the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary and adjacent wetlands. The objective of the Site Conservation Plan is to identify conservation targets, threats or stresse...

100

The Value of Healthy Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The article explores why healthy estuaries are critical to humans and wildlife: supporting both commercial and recreational fisheries, treating waste and runoff, protecting coastal areas from natural hazards, connect bodies of water for transportation, and nurturing a balance of the food web

Robert Christian (East Carolina University;)

2009-03-15

101

Historical morphological change in the Mersey Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several techniques including analysis of bathymetric data, calculation of analytical parameters and computational hydrodynamic simulations are combined in this study to develop a conceptual understanding of processes causing morphological change in the Mersey Estuary between 1871 and 1997. Volumetric analysis demonstrates that morphological change is dominated by a trend of significant accretion between 1906 and 1977, with estuary volume reducing by ?10% (70 Mm3), followed by a relatively small increase in volume between 1977 and 1997. Previous research identified the construction of training walls between 1906 and 1936 to stabilise the position of the low water channel in Liverpool Bay outside the estuary as a probable cause of perturbation. The paper examines the hypothesis that sedimentation in the estuary was controlled by changes to hydrodynamic flow and related sediment transport patterns outside the estuary resulting from training wall construction, and that the estuary has now evolved towards a stable state. The results from computational hydrodynamic models for the years 1906, 1936 and 1977 quantifying potential changes in sediment transport pathways from outside the estuary indicate a significant increase in potential sediment supply to the mouth of the estuary during the period of peak accretion. However, these changes cannot be solely attributed to construction of the training walls, but result from the combined effect of training wall construction and dredging activity in the sea approach channels. Furthermore, it is not simply changes in hydrodynamic flow characteristics that cause sedimentation but also the existence of salinity-induced gravitational circulation within the estuary and wider Liverpool Bay system that acts as an important mechanism for importing sediment into the estuary. Evidence for evolution towards a stable estuary state is provided by derivation of a sediment budget demonstrating a negligible net flux of sediment into the estuary between 1977 and 1997. The establishment of a stable state is attributed to a reduction in the calculated transport of sediment across Liverpool Bay reducing the supply of sediment to the estuary mouth.

Thomas, C. G.; Spearman, J. R.; Turnbull, M. J.

2002-07-01

102

SSPA Equipment Engineering Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

In response to a demanding reactor conversion schedule, construction of the Shielded Sample Preparation Area (SSPA) was initiated in 2010 to augment the existing capabilities of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). While HFEF is and will remain the workhorse for post irradiation sample preparation, there is currently a large backlog of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) experiments caused by numerous competing projects (this backlog is expected to continue for the foreseeable future). HFEF, in its present configuration also lacks the ability to prepare samples suitable for several of the tests that have been identified for the successful conclusion of the RERTR program; these samples require fine detail machining of irradiated fuel plates.

N.E. Woolstenhulme; C.R. Clark

2011-09-01

103

SSPA Equipment Engineering Feasibility Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a demanding reactor conversion schedule, construction of the Shielded Sample Preparation Area (SSPA) was initiated in 2010 to augment the existing capabilities of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). While HFEF is and will remain the w...

C. R. Clark N. E. Woolstenhulme

2011-01-01

104

Comparison of Nutrient Drivers and Response Metrics in Oregon Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

With the goal of assessing sensitivity to nutrient enrichment, we present a cross-estuary comparison of nutrient sources, levels, and biological responses (phytoplankton and macroalgae) for thirteen Oregon estuaries. Nitrogen levels in the upstream portions of the estuaries are ...

105

MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

106

DENSITY-DEPENDENT IMPACTS OF BIOIRRIGATION BY THE BURROWING SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS ON BENTHIC FLUXES AND POREWATER SOLUTE DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing thalassinid shrimp are major ecosystem engineering species of Pacific estuaries and can structure the physical, chemical, and biotic properties of sediments. Feeding and burrow irrigation by benthic organisms can increase the remineralization rates of organic material (...

107

Tidal wetland conservation and restoration for flood mitigation in estuaries and deltas: examples and global potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-lying and densely populated deltas and estuaries are world widely exposed to flood risks caused by storm surges. On the one hand, global change is increasing these flood risks through accelerating sea level rise and increasing storm intensity, but on the other hand, local-scale human impacts on deltas and estuaries are in many cases even more increasing the vulnerability to floods. Here we address the degradation and reclamation of tidal wetlands (i.e. salt marshes in the temperate zone and mangroves in the tropical zone) as a major source for increasing vulnerability to flooding of estuaries and deltas. Firstly, we present examples of flood mitigation by tidal wetland conservation and restoration, and secondly we explore the potentials and limitations for global application of this approach of ecosystem-based flood defense (see Temmerman et al. 2013). First, we use the Scheldt estuary (SW Netherlands and Belgium) as an example where historic wetland reclamation has importantly contributed to increasing flood risks, and where tidal marsh restoration on the previously reclaimed land is nowadays brought into large-scale practice as an essential part of the flood defense system. Based on data and hydrodynamic modelling, we show that large-scale historic marsh reclamation has largely reduced the water storage capacity of the estuary and has reduced the friction to propagating flood waves, resulting in an important landward increase of tidal and storm surge levels. Hydrodynamic model scenarios demonstrate how tidal and storm surge propagation through the estuary are affected by tidal marsh properties, including the surface area, elevation, vegetation and position of marshes along the estuary. We show that nowadays tidal wetland creation on previously reclaimed land is applied as an essential part of the flood defense system along the Scheldt estuary. Secondly, a global analysis is presented of the potential application of tidal wetlands in flood mitigation in estuaries and deltas worldwide. We discuss the societal benefits and drawbacks of wetland creation for flood defense, and provide an estimation of where on Earth this approach could be feasible. This shows that many of the largest urban populations that are at risk from coastal flooding, are located in large deltas and estuaries, such as in Southeast Asia, North America and Europe. We argue that many of these vulnerable areas are potentially well suited to include wetland conservation and restoration as an essential part of adaptation and mitigation strategies against storm surge flood risks. References: Temmerman S., Meire P., Bouma T.J., Herman P.M.J., Ysebaert T., De Vriend H.J. (2013) Ecosystem-based coastal defense in the face of global change. Nature, 504, P. 79-83, doi:10.1038/nature12859.

Temmerman, Stijn; Smolders, Sven; Stark, Jeroen; meire, patrick

2014-05-01

108

Morphodynamic equilibrium of alluvial estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the longitudinal bed profile of an estuary, with given plan-form configuration, subject to given tidal forcing at the mouth and prescribed values of water and sediment supply from the river is investigated numerically. Our main goal is to ascertain whether, starting from some initial condition, the bed evolution tends to reach a unique equilibrium configuration asymptotically in time. Also, we investigate the morphological response of an alluvial estuary to changes in the tidal range and hydrologic forcing (flow and sediment supply). Finally, the solution helps characterizing the transition between the fluvially dominated region and the tidally dominated region of the estuary. All these issues play an important role also in interpreting how the facies changes along the estuary, thus helping to make correct paleo-environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretations of sedimentary successions (Dalrymple and Choi, 2007). Results show that the model is able to describe a wide class of settings ranging from tidally dominated estuaries to fluvially dominated estuaries. In the latter case, the solution is found to compare satisfactory with the analytical asymptotic solution recently derived by Seminara et al. (2012), under the hypothesis of fairly 'small' tidal oscillations. Simulations indicate that the system always moves toward an equilibrium configuration in which the net sediment flux in a tidal cycle is constant throughout the estuary and equal to the constant sediment flux discharged from the river. For constant width, the bed equilibrium profile of the estuarine channel is characterized by two distinct regions: a steeper reach seaward, dominated by the tide, and a less steep upstream reach, dominated by the river and characterized by the undisturbed bed slope. Although the latter reach, at equilibrium, is not directly affected by the tidal wave, however starting from an initial uniform stream with the constant 'fluvial' slope, the final equilibrium state is reached through an erosional wave, which leads to bed degradation of the upstream 'fluvial reach'. For a given river discharge, the length of the tidal reach increases quite rapidly with tidal amplitude, up to some threshold value of the tidal amplitude above which the length of the estuary becomes comparable with the length of the tidal wave. When the channel plan-form is convergent, deposition of sediments of fluvial origin in the funnel-shaped region drastically changes the equilibrium configuration. The effect of an increasing channel convergence is thus to induce bed aggradation close to the inlet. Nevertheless, tidal forcing only slightly changes the non-tidal profile. The effect of increasing tidal oscillations again leads to an increase of the bed slope at the inlet and to a general bed degradation upstream. The effects of varying sediment supply, flow discharge and river width in the upstream reach have also been investigated and play an important role. Further geomorphological implications of these results will be discussed at the meeting. References Dalrymple, R. W., and K. Choi (2007), Morphologic and facies trends through the fluvialmarine transition in tide-dominated depositional systems: A schematic framework for environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation, Earth-Science Reviews, 81(3-4), 135-174, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.10.002. Seminara, G., M. Bolla Pittaluga, and N. Tambroni (2012), Morphodynamic equilibrium of tidal channels, Environmental Fluid Mechanics: Memorial Volume in Honour of Prof. Gerhard H. Jirka, 153-174

Tambroni, Nicoletta; Bolla Pittaluga, Michele; Canestrelli, Alberto; Lanzoni, Stefano; Seminara, Giovanni

2014-05-01

109

Dredge Disposal Study, San Francisco Bay and Estuary. Appendix N. Addendum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In April 1972, the San Francisco District of the United States Army Corps or Engineers initiated a study to quantify the impact of dredging and dredged sediment disposal operations on the environment of San Francisco Bay and Estuary. The study has generat...

1978-01-01

110

Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest

Geoffrey A. McMichael; Ryan A. Harnish; Brian J. Bellgraph; Jessica A. Carter; Kenneth D. Ham; P. Scott Titzler; Michael S. Hughes

2010-01-01

111

Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary  

SciTech Connect

Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

2008-04-25

112

NTRE extended life feasibility assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

1993-01-01

113

AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership  

EPA Science Inventory

The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

114

NEW HAMPSHIRE'S ESTUARIES, THE STATE OF  

EPA Science Inventory

The State of the New Hampshire Estuary Report describes the region's valuable natural resources, explains how natural resources are linked to the cultural and economic well being of New Hampshire, and identifies threats to these resources. This State of the Estuaries Report summa...

115

NEW HAMPSHIRE ESTUARIES PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN, 2000  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project presents a broad framework and specific list of actions to protect and enhance the environmental quality of the estuaries of the State of New Hampshire. It is intended to be a guide for all ...

116

A Climate Ready Estuaries Vulnerability Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the the Climate Ready Estuaries program is to build capacity in the National Estuary Programs (NEPs) for local leadership and expertise to adapt to the effects of climate change through a joint effort with the NEPs and EPA. Background The Climate Ready...

117

Winds and the orientation of a coastal plane estuary plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a calibrated coastal plane estuary plume model, ideal model hindcasts of estuary plumes are used to describe the evolution of the plume pattern in response to river discharge and local wind forcing by selecting a typical partially mixed estuary (the Cape Fear River Estuary or CFRE). With the help of an existing calibrated plume model, as described by

Meng Xia; Lian Xie; Leonard J. Pietrafesa

2010-01-01

118

Feasibility study of a 6V-92TA homogeneous auto-ignited two-stroke (HAT) compressed-natural-gas-engine. Topical report, August 1989May 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the project was to modify a two-stroke 6V-92TA diesel engine to operate on natural gas using a simple system with gas addition to the compressor inlet and a spark plug for cold start and non-autoignition engine operation. The engine was to be operated at most speed-load conditions by autoignition of the premixed gas-air mixture. This concept is

R. M. Kakwani; R. E. Winsor

1990-01-01

119

Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: The importance of the ocean-estuary connection - May 16, 2011  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the role of the ocean ?estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

120

Salinity of the Delaware Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain data on and study the factors affecting the salinity of the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pa., to the Appoquinimink River, Del. The general chemical quality of water in the estuary is described, including changes in salinity in the river cross section and profile, diurnal and seasonal changes, and the effects of rainfall, sea level, and winds on salinity. Relationships are established of the concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids to specific conductance. In addition to chloride profiles and isochlor plots, time series are plotted for salinity or some quantity representing salinity, fresh-water discharge, mean river level, and mean sea level. The two major variables which appear to have the greatest effect on the salinity of the estuary are the fresh-water flow of the river and sea level. The most favorable combination of these variables for salt-water encroachment occurs from August to early October and the least favorable combination occurs between December and May.

Cohen, Bernard; McCarthy, Leo Thomas.

1962-01-01

121

US Environmental Protection Agency: National Estuary Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1987 by amendments to the Clean Water Act and administered by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (OWOW), the National Estuary Program (NEP) identifies, restores and protects estuaries along the coasts of the United States. Unlike the traditional regulatory approaches to environmental protection, the NEP targets a wide range of issues and engages local communities in the process. At the site users can find descriptions of the NEP, specific NEP projects, estuaries involved in the NEP (including location, size, presence of threatened and endangered species, major habitat types, etc.), a current awareness section, links to related sites, and the full text of NEP's newsletter, Coastlines.

122

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary Watershed in 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads to the Great Bay Estuary are a growing concern. The Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) calculates the nitrogen load from tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary for its State of the Estuaries reports. Ther...

M. A. Wood P. Trowbridge

2012-01-01

123

Alien reef-building polychaete drives long-term changes in invertebrate biomass and diversity in a small, urban estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the greatest threats to native biodiversity are the construction of artificial structures in natural environments and the introduction of invasive species. As the development and urbanisation of estuaries continues at an increasing rate worldwide, these environments are being simultaneously affected by these threats. This study quantifies the spread of an invasive reef-building polychaete, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, in a small, highly manipulated urban estuary in South Africa and investigates its role as an ecosystem engineer. Anthropogenic changes to the Zandvlei Estuary, including construction of a rubble weir and canalisation near the estuary mouth, construction of an extensive marina development and hardening of the banks with concrete, have facilitated the expansion of F. enigmaticus. The standing stock of F. enigmaticus increased from 13.69 t, as measured in 1986, to 50.03 t in 2012, due both to increase in the total area colonised and standing stock per m2. Since F. enigmaticus reefs support a greater biomass of infauna than adjacent sandy areas, total invertebrate biomass in the estuary is estimated to have increased from less than 0.30 t in 1942, to over 56.80 t in 2012, due mainly to hardening of banks in parts of the main estuary with concrete and construction of a marina system. A positive correlation between reef mass and infaunal biomass, density and diversity was also found.

McQuaid, K. A.; Griffiths, C. L.

2014-02-01

124

Feasibility study for Hilo Coast Processing Company, Pepeekeo, Hawaii: 11. 4-million gallon-per-year motor-fuel-grade ethanol plant. Volume V. Definitive engineering  

SciTech Connect

The following engineering details are included: drawing list, plot plans, equipment arrangement drawings, process flow diagrams, piping and instrument diagrams, civil drawings, architectural drawings, electrical drawings, structural drawings, piping material specification, line list, instrument index, and professional services.

Not Available

1981-05-01

125

A new analytical framework for understanding the tidal damping in estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal dynamics in estuaries have long been the subject of intensive scientific interest, particularly to analyse the environmental impact of human interventions. In many estuaries, there are increasing concerns about the impacts on the estuarine environment of, e.g., sea-level rise, water diversion and dredging. However, before predictions about hydraulic responses to future changes can be made with any confidence, there is need to achieve an adequate understanding of tidal wave propagation in estuaries. In this study, we explore different analytical solutions of the tidal hydraulic equations in convergent estuaries. Linear and quasi-nonlinear models are compared for given geometry, friction, and tidal amplitude at the seaward boundary, proposing a common theoretical framework and showing that the main difference between the examined models lies in the treatment of the friction term. A general solution procedure is proposed for the governing equations expressed in dimensionless form, and a new analytical expression for the tidal damping is derived as a weighted average of two solutions, characterized by the usual linearized formulation and the quasi-nonlinear Lagrangean treatment of the friction term (Savenije et al., 2008). The different analytical solutions are tested against fully nonlinear numerical results for a wide range of parameters, and compared with observations in the Scheldt estuary. Overall, the new method compares best with the numerical solution and field data (Cai et al., 2012a). The new accurate relationship for the tidal damping is then exploited for a classification of estuaries based on the distance of the tidally averaged depth from the ideal depth (relative to vanishing amplification) and the critical depth (condition for maximum amplification). Finally, the new model is used to investigate the effect of depth variations on the tidal dynamics in 23 real estuaries, highlighting the usefulness of the analytical method to assess the influence of human interventions (e.g. by dredging) and global sea-level rise on the estuarine environment. Subsequently, the analytical framework has been extended to take account of the effect of river discharge (Cai et al., 2012b). The analytical solutions with and without the effect of the river discharge are compared with observed data of the Modaomen and Yangtze estuaries in China, showing that the proposed hybrid model fits the observations with realistic roughness values upstream where the influence of river discharge is measurable. A new asymptotic solution of the tidal amplitude is found that reflects the balance between friction and channel convergence when distance approaches infinity. Moreover, the usual assumption that the tidal amplitude and velocity amplitude along the estuary axis can be described by an exponential function appear only to be valid for an ideal or frictionless estuary. References Cai, H., H. H. G. Savenije, and M. Toffolon (2012a), A new analytical framework for assessing the effect of sea-level rise and dredging on tidal damping in estuaries, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, C09023, doi:10.1029/2012JC008000. Cai, H., Savenije, H.H.G., Yang, Q., Ou, S., Lei, Y. (2012b), Influence of River Discharge and Dredging on Tidal Wave Propagation: Modaomen Estuary Case, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 138(10), 885-896, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000594. Savenije, H. H. G., M. Toffolon, J. Haas, and E. J. M. Veling (2008), Analytical description of tidal dynamics in convergent estuaries, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(C10), doi:10.1029/2007JC004408.

Cai, Huayang; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Toffolon, Marco

2013-04-01

126

Ephemeral Estuaries of the Deltaic Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The usual definition of the term estuary is not sufficiently inclusive. Most textbook descriptions apply to coastal indentations like the Scandanavian fjords or drowned river mouths like the Chesapeake or Delaware Bays. In addition to these rather obvious...

J. P. Morfan

1967-01-01

127

ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF SOUTH FLORIDA ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment of the ecological condition of south Florida estuaries based on regional probabilistic monitoring was conducted during the summer of 1995. Samples and data were collected on water and sediment quality, benthos, and fish tissue contaminants. Elevated concentrations o...

128

EPA'S BENTHIC HABITAT DATA FOR YAQUINA ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientists at EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division (WED) have been studying seafloor (benthic) habitats in Yaquina estuary for several years. Those studies were conducted as parts of several research projects, including: e...

129

D-21B RBCC Modification Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a feasibility study on the modifications required to re-engine the Lockheed D-21 Drone for use as a NASA RBCC engine. An introduction, background information, engine configuration and performance, propulsion system integration, loads/thermal analysis, avionics/systems, flight test results, costs and work schedule, and some conclusions are presented.

1999-01-01

130

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group\\/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation\\/Feasibility Study (RI\\/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI\\/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United

Karmi

1996-01-01

131

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Lay Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial Investigation\\/Feasibility Study (RI\\/FS) report to present the results of RI\\/FS activities at four sites located at the Point Lay radar installation. The remedial investigation (RI) field activities were conducted at the Point Lay radar installation during the summer of 1993. The four sites at Point Lay were investigated because

Karmi

1996-01-01

132

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

Karmi, S.

1996-03-18

133

Methane distribution in European tidal estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane concentrations have been measured along salinity profilesin nine tidal estuaries in Europe (Elbe, Ems, Thames, Rhine,Scheldt, Loire, Gironde, Douro and Sado). The Rhine, Scheldt andGironde estuaries have been studied seasonally. A number ofdifferent methodologies have been used and they yieldedconsistent results. Surface water concentrations ranged from0.002 to 3.6 µM, corresponding to saturation ratios of 0.7 to1580 with a median

Jack J. Middelburg; Joop Nieuwenhuize; Niels Iversen; Nana Høgh; Hein de Wilde; Wim Helder; Richard Seifert; Oliver Christof

2002-01-01

134

Iodine speciation in the Nile River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

During high- and low-flood periods, surface and bottom water samples were collected along the Nile River estuary for the voltammetric determination of dissolved iodine species. Iodine occurs in the estuary as iodate, iodide and organic iodine. Total iodine increases with salinity, showing a source feature in surface and bottom waters during high-flow indicating iodine input. During low-flow, total iodine showed

M. A. R Abdel-Moati

1999-01-01

135

Water renewal timescales in the Scheldt Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the concepts of the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory (CART), we compute timescales related to the water renewal in the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands/Belgium). Three different timescales are used to better understand and characterize the dynamics of the estuary: the age of the renewing water, the residence time and the exposure time. The residence time is the time taken by a water parcel to leave the estuary for the first time while the exposure time is the total time spent by a water parcel in the estuary including re-entries. The age of a renewing water parcel is defined as the time elapsed since it entered the estuary. The renewing water was split into three types: the water originating from the sea, the water originating from the upstream fresh tidal rivers and the water originating from the different canals and docks connected to the estuary. Every timescale is computed at any time and position by means of the finite-element, unstructured-mesh model SLIM. This results in movies of the timescale fields (shown as Supplementary material), allowing a detailed analysis of their spatial and temporal variabilities. The effect of the M2 tide and the discharge regime (winter, summer or average situation) on the timescales is also investigated. Tidally-averaged timescales vary little over the width of the estuary and hence exhibit a virtually one-dimensional behaviour. However, around these average values, the timescales can vary hugely over a tidal cycle, with amplitudes that significantly depend on the space coordinates. The reason thereof has yet to be elucidated. These results underscore the need for two- or three-dimensional models with high temporal resolution for investigating the dynamics of the Scheldt Estuary.

de Brye, Benjamin; de Brauwere, Anouk; Gourgue, Olivier; Delhez, Eric J. M.; Deleersnijder, Eric

2012-06-01

136

Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

2006-12-20

137

Estuaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean understanding to high school students. When the student has completed this unit, he should be able to: (1) define an…

Awkerman, Gary L.

138

ESTIMATING THE CONDITION OF GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES: NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT AND NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico have been monitored since 1991 to determine the condition of water, sediment, and biota. More recently, through the National Coastal Assessment (NCA), U.S. EPA has provided a comprehensive estimate of the condition of U.S. estuaries, including a re...

139

The Estuary Book: A Guide to Promoting Understanding and Regional Management of Maine's Estuaries and Embayments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this document is to provide information about estuaries, the impact of uses on the environmental health of an estuary, and what communities and concerned individuals can do to manage and protect their local estuarine resources successfully. Much of the information presented here pertains to other embayments along the Maine coast…

Ruffing, Jenny

140

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Lay Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report to present the results of RI/FS activities at four sites located at the Point Lay radar installation. The remedial investigation (RI) field activities were conducted at the Point Lay radar installation during the summer of 1993. The four sites at Point Lay were investigated because they were suspected of being contaminated with hazardous substances. RI activities were conducted using methods and procedures specified in the RI/FS Work Plan, Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), and Health and Safety Plan.

Karmi, S.

1996-03-04

141

Emergy and economic evaluations of four fruit production systems on reclaimed wetlands surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The goal of this study was to apply ecological engineering principles to fruit production system designs to maximize total emergy benefits

Hong-Fang Lu; Wen-Ling Kang; Daniel E. Campbell; Hai Ren; Yao-Wen Tan; Rui-Xiang Feng; Jin-Tang Luo; Fei-Peng Chen

2009-01-01

142

Organic Carbon and Deoxygenation in the Pamlico River Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution, sources and sinks of organic carbon were studied in the Pamlico River Estuary during 1975-1977. The main source of organic carbon was from phytoplankton productivity, which, together with other sources from within the estuary, provided 6...

G. J. Davis M. M. Brinson W. A. Burke

1978-01-01

143

Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2012  

SciTech Connect

The study reported herein was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), University of Washington (UW), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The goal of the study was to evaluate the ecological benefits of restoration actions for juvenile salmon in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; rkm 0–234).

Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Jeff; Skalski, J. R.; Teel, D. J.; Brewer, Taylor; Bryson, Amanda J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Kuligowski, D. R.; Whitesel, T.; Mallette, Christine

2013-11-30

144

Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring and Evaluation - FY07 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2007 (FY07) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort of the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as

Gary E. Johnson; Heida L. Diefenderfer

2007-01-01

145

Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY06 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2006 (FY06) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to the 2000 and 2004 Biological Opinions on operation of

Johnson; Gary E

2006-01-01

146

Feasibility of xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing endogenous aldose reductase (GRE3), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and xylulokinase (XYL3) from Scheffersomyces stipitis.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for producing ethanol from xylose, the second most abundant sugar in cellulosic biomass hydrolyzates. Heterologous expressions of xylose reductase (XYL1) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), or of xylose isomerase (xylA), either case of which being accompanied by overexpression of xylulokinase (XKS1 or XYL3), are known as the prevalent strategies for metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose. In this study, we propose an alternative strategy that employs overexpression of GRE3 coding for endogenous aldose reductase instead of XYL1 to construct efficient xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae. Replacement of XYL1 with GRE3 has been regarded as an undesirable approach because NADPH-specific aldose reductase (GRE3) would aggravate redox balance with xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2) using NAD(+) exclusively. Here, we demonstrate that engineered S. cerevisiae overexpressing GRE3, XYL2, and XYL3 can ferment xylose as well as a mixture of glucose and xylose with higher ethanol yields (0.29-0.41 g g(-1) sugars) and productivities (0.13-0.85 g L(-1) h(-1)) than those (0.23-0.39 g g(-1) sugars, 0.10-0.74 g L(-1) h(-1)) of an isogenic strain overexpressing XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 under oxygen-limited conditions. We found that xylose fermentation efficiency of a strain overexpressing GRE3 was dramatically increased by high expression levels of XYL2. Our results suggest that optimized expression levels of GRE3, XYL2, and XYL3 could overcome redox imbalance during xylose fermentation by engineered S. cerevisiae under oxygen-limited conditions. PMID:23398717

Kim, Soo Rin; Kwee, Nathania R; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

2013-05-01

147

Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

2012-05-01

148

Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

2005-07-31

149

Seasonal variation of sediment deposition in the Hudson River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

During and following the spring freshet, rapid rates of sediment deposition were observed in the Hudson River estuary. Side-scan sonar surveys and sediment coring studies revealed a large amount of spatial variability in sedimentation within the estuary and a distinct seasonal progression. During the freshet, sediment was deposited in the seaward reaches of the estuary. In the two-month period after

Jonathan D Woodruff; W. Rockwell Geyer; Christopher K Sommerfield; Neal W Driscoll

2001-01-01

150

Rapid barium removal in the Delaware estuary  

SciTech Connect

Six profiles of dissolved barium covering the entire salinity range of the Delaware River and Bay estuary from March through September 1996 were collected and analyzed. The profiles are similar to one another in both shape and magnitude except for one attribute. A sudden ({le} 24 days), nearly complete (>90%) removal of dissolved Ba in midestuary occurs in mid-May followed by an 80% recovery in early June. This removal appears to be temporally and spatially coupled to the end of the spring bloom. Based on such episodic behavior, and on recent work with flocculation of diatom exudates, the authors conclude that the Ba depletion is caused by barite precipitation in the estuary during the late stages of the bloom. This would imply that lower estuary and inner coastal margin sediments associated with eutrophic estuaries receive a seasonal pulse of barite. The suddenness of this event also implies that sedimentary barite is strongly influenced by high productivity events. Comparison of the riverine Ba concentration with the effective riverine end member after desorptive barium release yields an estimated 30--40 nM Ba available from the suspended sediments as they enter the estuary. This estimate is supported by excess barium in unfiltered samples over filtered samples taken from the river and also by calculations done elsewhere.

Stecher, H.A. III [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States). College of Marine Studies] [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States). College of Marine Studies; [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Geology; Kogut, M.B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). School of Oceanography] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). School of Oceanography

1999-04-01

151

The geochemistry of a subterranean estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive geochemical study of the subterranean estuary underlying Waquoit Bay (Cape Cod, MA, USA) has been undertaken. Sediment and pore water samples across the groundwater-seawater mixing zone show that the porous sediments support an active biogeochemistry. The redox cycles of iron and manganese are well developed with the oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron forming extensive deposits of iron-oxide coated sands. The strong relationship between the sediment concentrations of Fe and P reflects the sorption of phosphate from seawater and/or groundwater. Though two orders of magnitude less abundant than iron oxides, manganese oxides also precipitate in the subterranean estuary. Recirculation of seawater past the iron-rich sediments under reducing conditions makes this subterranean estuary a net sink for U from coastal seawater. In contrast, large scale release of Ba occurs in the mid to high salinity zone of the subterranean estuary, leading to a net source of Ba to the coastal ocean. While salt-induced desorption of Ba from the sediments may be an important process, a strong correlation with dissolved Mn suggests that sorbed-Ba is also released during the reductive dissolution of Mn oxides. Finally, the Ba results may provide insight into the processes controlling Ra cycling in the subterranean estuary and, therefore, its use as a tracer of submarine groundwater discharge to the oceans.

Charette, M. A.; Sholkovitz, E. R.

2003-04-01

152

A comparative study of mercury contamination in the Tagus estuary (Portugal) and major French estuaries (Gironde, Loire, Rhône)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of mercury were determined for the waters, suspended matter and sediments of the Tagus and of major French estuaries. The Tagus estuary is one of the most contaminated by mercury derived from the outfalls of a chloralkali plant and from other industrial sources. In deposited sediments the median level, 1·0 ?g Hg g -1, is twenty times higher than the natural background and Hg contents depend on the sediment grain-size, age and the distance from waste-outfalls. Suspended matter is more regularly and highly contaminated (median value: 4·5 ?g Hg g -1). In the French estuaries Hg levels in the suspended material decrease with salinity due to dilution and/or remobilization processes. In June 1982, in the Loire estuary, high values of Hg are observed in the middle estuary and attributed to urban and industrial sources. In the Tagus estuary, the general distribution of total dissolved Hg confirms the contamination: it increases seaward from 10 ng 1 -1 in the river to 80 ng 1 -1 in the estuary outlet. The dissolved Hg is almost totally organic in the river, inorganic in the middle estuary due to inorganic Hg effluents and again organic in the lower estuary. This variation is related to the dissolved organic carbon values. The dissolved Hg levels in the Loire Estuary (5-300 ng 1 -1) are much higher than in the Gironde estuary (3-6 ng 1 -1) and of the same order as those observed in the Tagus estuary.

Figueres, G.; Martin, J. M.; Meybeck, M.; Seyler, P.

1985-02-01

153

Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for

S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy; Gary A. Gill

1999-01-01

154

Nutrient transports in a Swedish estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himmerfjärd is a Swedish estuary bordering on the Baltic. The estuary lacks astronomical tides and its circulation is driven by winds and freshwater runoff. Because of a tertiary sewage treatment plant located at its inner end, the estuary is becoming increasingly eutrophic. A field study was carried out for a 78-day period in late summer and early fall of 1977 to determine rates of nutrient transport and to construct nutrient budgets. Since physical parameters (current velocity, temperature, salinity, winds and water level changes) were measured more frequently than nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) it was necessary to develop a suitable method to calculate nutrient flux time series and net nutrient fluxes. Over the study period, Himmerfjärd imported phosphorus and exported nitrogen. Direction of nutrient fluxes and changes in flux direction were consistent with the structure of the baroclinic currents.

Wilmot, Wayne; Toll, Peter; Kjerfve, Björn

1985-08-01

155

Decadal mercury trends in San Francisco Estuary sediments.  

PubMed

Monitoring sediment quality and total mercury concentrations over the period 1993-2001 at 26 stations in San Francisco Estuary has shown the seasonal cycling of mercury sediment concentrations, as well as a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in those concentrations at eight stations across the estuary. This decrease in sediment mercury concentrations is attributed to the transport of relatively cleaner sediment to the estuary from the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River watersheds. Despite the decreases observed in some parts of the estuary, no corresponding trend has been found in concurrent studies on sport fish and bivalves in the estuary. PMID:17161835

Conaway, Christopher H; Ross, John R M; Looker, Richard; Mason, Robert P; Flegal, A Russell

2007-09-01

156

Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan).

Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

1993-07-01

157

San Francisco Estuary: Invasive Spartina Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Invasive Spartina Project was developed by the California State Coastal Conservancy to determine the extent and address the problem of invasive Spartina in the San Francisco Estuary. This Web site describes the efforts of the Invasive Spartina Project and the risk that Spartina poses. A variety of maps and photos are used to describe the results of the 2000-2001 survey of Spartina populations within the estuary. A host of other documents regarding Spartina and this project are also available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

2002-01-01

158

RIVERINE ESTUARY CLASSIFICATION FOR THE SAKE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environment of riverine estuaries is characterized by many factors including tidal oscillation, river flow and morphology, and the combination of these factors makes each estuary unique in its environment. However, there are similarities among some estuaries. We have tried to classify Japan’s 109 riverine estuaries based on physical environmental factors like tidal oscillation, wave energy, and high and low river flow. 109 riverine estuaries were divided into 5 classifications. Fish species monitoring data have also been analyzed to categorize riverine estuaries and the results were compared to 5 classifications divided by physical factors. Since our physical and biological classification both seemed to be related to the salinity of the estuary, these two classifications showed fair conformity.

Kishida, Hiroyuki; Amano, Kunihiko; Oonuma, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Maremi

159

PECONIC ESTUARY: AN ASSESSMENT OF SHELLFISH RESOURCES IN THE TRIBUTARIES AND EMBAYMENTS OF THE PECONIC ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Executive Summary Historically, the Peconic Estuary's shellfish resources have supported significant fisheries for a number of species including hard clams, oysters and bay scallops. However, distribution and abundance data for the tributaries and embayments within the Peconic Es...

160

ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

2000-01-31

161

Control of phytoplankton biomass in estuaries: A comparative analysis of microtidal and macrotidal estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrotidal estuaries (mean tidal range >2m) generally exhibit a tolerance to pollution with nitrogen-containing nutrients\\u000a despite high loadings originating from freshwater outflows. These systems, which are characterized by high tidal energy, generally\\u000a exhibit lower levels of chlorophylla than systems with lower tidal energy. A comparative analysis of data from 40 microtidal and macrotidal estuaries shows that\\u000a mean annual chlorophylla levels

Yves Monbet

1992-01-01

162

Engineering optimization with particle swarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for engineering optimization problems with constraints. PSO is started with a group of feasible solutions and a feasibility function is used to check if the newly explored solutions satisfy all the constraints. All the particles keep only those feasible solutions in their memory. Several engineering design optimization problems were tested

Xiaohui Hu; Russell C. Eberhart; Yuhui Shi

2003-01-01

163

Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

Zhang, Jing

1996-07-01

164

INDICATORS OF ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY FOR ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Jordan, Stephen J. and Lisa M. Smith. In press. Indicators of Ecosystem Integrity for Estuaries. In: Proceedings of the Estuarine Indicators Workshop, 29-31 October 2003, Sanibel Island, FL. Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation, Sanibel, FL. 23 p. (ERL,GB 1194). Ideal ...

165

BATHYMETRY FOR ALBEMARLE AND PAMLICO ESTUARIES, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Bathymetry for the Albemarle and Pamlico Estuaries obtained from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration-National Ocean Service (NOAA-NOS). See the metadata within the files from NOAA-NOS for more details and warnings concerning merging with US Geolgoical Survey Dig...

166

Climate change and its impacts on estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Past, present, and future research by WED scientists in the TEP region will be described to lay the foundation for examination of potential climate change effects on estuaries and the broader coastal zone in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Results from National Coastal Assessments,...

167

MODELING FINE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A sediment transport model (SEDIMENT IIIA) was developed to assist in predicting the fate of chemical pollutants sorbed to cohesive sediments in rivers and estuaries. Laboratory experiments were conducted to upgrade an existing two-dimensional, depth-averaged, finite element, coh...

168

BCG Approaches for Improved Management of Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries and other complex aquatic systems are exposed to a variety of stressors that act at several scales, but are managed piecemeal - - often resulting in a ?death by 1000 cuts? caused by cumulative impacts to these valued resources. To address this, managers need tools that...

169

Baseline ecological risk assessment of the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana: 1. Overview and problem formulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) of the Calcasieu Estuary cooperative site was initiated in 1998. This site, which is located in the southwestern portion of Louisiana in the vicinity of Lake Charles, includes the portion of the estuary from the saltwater barrier on the Calcasieu River to Moss Lake. As part of the RI/FS, a baseline ecological risk assessment (BERA) was conducted to assess the risks to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent wildlife exposed to environmental contaminants. The purpose of the BERA was to determine if adverse effects on ecological receptors are occurring in the estuary; to evaluate the nature, severity, and areal extent of any such effects; and to identify the substances that are causing or substantially contributing to effects on ecological receptors. This article describes the environmental setting and site history, identifies the chemicals of potential concern, presents the exposure scenarios and conceptual model for the site, and summarizes the assessment and measurement endpoints that were used in the investigation. Two additional articles in this series describe the results of an evaluation of effects-based sediment-quality guidelines as well as an assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates associated with exposure to contaminated sediment.

MacDonald, Donald D.; Moore, Dwayne R.J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Smorong, Dawn E.; Carr, R. Scott; Gouguet, Ron; Charters, David; Wilson, Duane; Harris, Tom; Rauscher, Jon; Roddy, Susan; Meyer, John

2011-01-01

170

Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese rivers deliver about 5-10% of global freshwater input and 15-20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon) in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43-) with very high DIN: PO43- concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3-4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea). This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and atmospheric deposition.

Liu, S. M.; Hong, G.-H.; Zhang, J.; Ye, X. W.; Jiang, X. L.

2009-10-01

171

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary Watershed in 2010. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads to the Great Bay Estuary are a growing concern. The Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) calculates the nitrogen load from tributaries to the Great Bay Estuary for its State of the Estuaries reports. Ther...

M. A. Wood P. Trowbridge

2011-01-01

172

Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post-restoration conditions at both the Kandoll and Vera study areas.

Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

2007-12-06

173

75 FR 17382 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water Level Management Activities, California...Authorization (IHA) to the Sonoma County Water Agency (herein after ``Agency...incidental to Russian River Estuary (Estuary) water level management and monitoring...

2010-04-06

174

Iron isotope fractionation in subterranean estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved Fe concentrations in subterranean estuaries, like their river-seawater counterparts, are strongly controlled by non-conservative behavior during mixing of groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. Previous studies at a subterranean estuary of Waquoit Bay on Cape Cod, USA demonstrate extensive precipitation of groundwater-borne dissolved ferrous iron and subsequent accumulation of iron oxides onto subsurface sands. Waquoit Bay is thus an excellent natural laboratory to assess the mechanisms of Fe-isotope fractionation in redox-stratified environments and determine potential Fe-isotope signatures of groundwater sources to coastal seawater. Here, we report Fe isotope compositions of iron-coated sands and porewaters beneath the intertidal zone of Waquoit Bay. The distribution of pore water Fe shows two distinct sources of Fe: one residing in the upward rising plume of Fe-rich groundwater and the second in the salt-wedge zone of pore water. The groundwater source has high Fe(II) concentration consistent with anoxic conditions and yield ?56Fe values between 0.3 and -1.3‰. In contrast, sediment porewaters occurring in the mixing zone of the subterranean estuary have very low ?56Fe values down to -5‰. These low ?56Fe values reflect Fe-redox cycling and result from the preferential retention of heavy Fe-isotopes onto newly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides. Analysis of Fe-oxides precipitated onto subsurface sands in two cores from the subterranean estuary revealed strong ?56Fe and Fe concentration gradients over less than 2m, yielding an overall range of ?56Fe values between -2 and 1.5‰. The relationship between Fe concentration and ?56Fe of Fe-rich sands can be modeled by the progressive precipitation of Fe-oxides along fluid flow through the subterranean estuary. These results demonstrate that large-scale Fe isotope fractionation (up to 5‰) can occur in subterranean estuaries, which could lead to coastal seawater characterized by very low ?56Fe values relative to river values.

Rouxel, Olivier; Sholkovitz, Edward; Charette, Matthew; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-07-01

175

Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2) develop and test a quantitative index of the early life history diversity of juvenile salmon in the LCRE; (3) assess and, if feasible, develop and test a quantitative index of the survival benefits of tidal wetland habitat restoration (hydrologic reconnection) in the LCRE; and (4) synthesize the results of investigations into the indices for habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival benefits.

Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

2011-10-01

176

Seasonal stratification and property distributions in a tropical estuary (Cochin estuary, west coast, India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intratidal, spring-neap and seasonal variations in stratification were examined in the Cochin estuary. The observations established a strong connection with the distribution of chemical and biological properties. The influence of tides and river discharge forcing in water column stability was quantified using potential energy anomaly (PEA) and stratification parameter. Partially mixed (neap) and well-mixed (spring) conditions during low river discharge (dry) period were altered in monsoon by the salt wedge intrusions. The ecological impact of salt wedge propagation on high tides bringing upwelled water to the system was evident from the bottom hypoxic, high chlorophyll a and nutrient-rich conditions. Phosphate and nitrite concentrations were higher at the bottom saline conditions but silicate and nitrate were clearly supplied by river water. However, during ebb tide this front was driven out of the estuary. The periodic advance and retreat of the salt wedge was inevitable in making the system immune from extended hypoxia/anoxia and maintaining the health of the Cochin estuary. For the seasonally varying river flow in the estuary, salt intrusion receded with increasing river flow in monsoon and rebounded with decreasing river flow in dry season. During monsoon, the intense flushing and reduction in salinity field expansion seemed to be responsible for the limited chlorophyll a levels along the surface of the Cochin estuary.

Shivaprasad, A.; Vinita, J.; Revichandran, C.; Reny, P. D.; Deepak, M. P.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Naveen Kumar, K. R.

2013-01-01

177

Along-estuary dissolved oxygen variability in the Coos Bay estuary, Oregon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypoxia and anoxia are direct threats to the ecosystem and economic health of coastal communities. In estuaries, oceanic and terrestrial systems merge, making their relative influences on water properties such as dissolved oxygen (DO) difficult to tease apart. Recent studies show evidence for low DO conditions occurring on the Oregon shelf during the dry season on temporal and spatial scales unprecedented in the historic record. There is evidence now, too, showing that estuarine hypoxia, historically observed as a product mainly of terrestrial influences, is occurring due to the shifting properties of oceanic inputs. We report here on data collected in the Coos Bay estuary located on the southern Oregon coast, to quantify past and present DO levels to determine if hypoxia is occurring. We use monthly along-estuary sections of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and fluorescence to examine the seasonal cycle of water properties. This data will be put into temporal context through analysis of historic data collected by state, federal, and private organizations. The goal is to link patterns in DO variation to the temporal and spatial circulation of water within the estuary. We show a significant along-estuary gradient in DO and discuss the variability of this gradient in time, over both seasonal and interannual scales.

O'Neill, M.; Sutherland, D.

2013-12-01

178

Modelling Pb and Cd dynamics in the Seine estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Seine estuary (France) is currently one of the world’s most contaminated estuaries, due in particular to its high cadmium\\u000a and lead content. Proper understanding of contaminant transfer, transformation and retention mechanisms throughout the estuary\\u000a and up to the adjacent marine zone require a range of studies involving data collections, experiments, and modeling tool.\\u000a A multivariable transport model (SiAM-3D) was

B. Thouvenin; J. L. Gonzalez; J. F. Chiffoleau; B. Boutier; P. Le Hir

2007-01-01

179

Driving forces and management strategies for estuaries in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuaries, which lie at the end of rivers, belong to the interlocking area between marine ecosystems and terrestrial ecosystems.\\u000a In the estuary region, there are plenty of biological resources that carry many important ecosystem services. However, severe\\u000a degradation of the estuary ecosystem in northern China has been caused by anthropogenic disturbances, including water pollution\\u000a from upstream area, change of marine

Anning Suo; Dongzhi Zhao; Fengshou Zhang; Huaru Wang; Fengqiao Liu

2010-01-01

180

Marine geology of the St. Lawrence Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada, contains a very thick (>450 m) Quaternary sedimentary sequence. The results from recently conducted geophysical surveys in conjunction with piston coring indicate that these sediments were deposited under very high sedimentation rates, sometimes as high as ~30 m/ka during the last deglaciation. Results also reveal evidence of large submarine landslides during the Holocene, changes in sedimentation rates and the significant role of submarine canyons and channels to transfer sediments from the coast to the deeper marine environment. Finally, this paper highlights the presence of more than 1900 pockmarks on the seafloor of the St. Lawrence Estuary and discusses their possible origins: active hydrocarbon seeps in the Laurentian Channel and biogenic gas seepage on the northwestern shoulder of the Laurentian Channel.

St-Onge, Guillaume; Duchesne, Mathieu J.; Lajeunesse, Patrick

2011-05-01

181

Recent geomorphic changes in the Liaohe Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly analyzes the geomorphological changes of the tidal deposition in the Liaohe Estuary based on the multi-year\\u000a bathymetric charts in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2005 and Landsat TM images in 1987, 1994, 2002 and 2005. Evolution of the tidal\\u000a depositional system during the past 20 years in the Liaohe River was studied on the basis of 50 boreholes

Longhai Zhu; Jianzheng Wu; Yongchen Xu; Rijun Hu; Nan Wang

2010-01-01

182

Impact of climate change on Gironde Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the THESEUS European project, a simplified mathematical model for storm surge levels in the Bay of Biscay was adjusted on 10 events at Le Verdon using wind and pressure fields from CLM/SGA, so that the water levels at Le Verdon have the same statistic quantiles as observed tide records for the period [1960-2000]. The analysis of future storm surge levels shows a decrease in their quantiles at Le Verdon, whereas there is an increase of the quantiles of total water levels. This increase is smaller than the sea level rise and gets even smaller as one enters farther upstream in the estuary. A numerical model of the Gironde Estuary was then used to evaluate future water levels at 6 locations of the estuary from Le Verdon to Bordeaux and to assess the changes in the quantiles of water levels during the XXIst century using ONERC's pessimistic scenario for sea level rise (60 cm). The model was fed by several data sources : wind fields at Royan and Mérignac interpolated from the grid of the European Climatolologic Model CLM/SGA, a tide signal at Le Verdon, the discharges of Garonne (at La Réole), the Dordogne (at Pessac) and Isle (at Libourne). A series of flood maps for different return periods between 2 and 100 years and for four time periods ([1960-1999], [2010-2039], [2040-2069] and [2070-2099]) have been built for the region of Bordeaux. Quantiles of water levels in the floodplain have also been calculated. The impact of climate change on the evolution of flooded areas in the Gironde Estuary and on quantiles of water levels in the floodplain mainly depends on the sea level rise. Areas which are not currently flooded for low return periods will be inundated in 2100. The influence of river discharges and dike breaching should also be taken into account for more accurate results.

Laborie, Vanessya; Hissel, François; Sergent, Philippe

2014-05-01

183

Particle-size evidence of estuary evolution: A rapid and diagnostic tool for determining the nature of recent saltmarsh accretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual model of saltmarsh sedimentation based on high-resolution particle-size analysis has been tested on short cores (c. 0.5 m) of known age from the Dee estuary, NW England, UK. Here, two components of the particle-size distribution (PSD) are interpreted as the traction load deposited by the faster tidal flow velocities ('fast tide') and the suspension load that settles during the turn of the tide ('slow tide'). The feasibility of this model for diagnosing the driving mechanism of estuary evolution in both time and space is tested with reference to historical evidence of saltmarsh accretion, up-core trends in dated saltmarsh cores, and the PSDs of present-day saltmarsh surface sediments. Cores that show an up-core progression from very fine-skewed to near symmetrical PSDs are interpreted in the context of estuary infilling due to a positive sediment budget (sediment surplus), whilst those that show a persistence of near-symmetrical, (very) poorly sorted, mesokurtic particle-size distributions in the fine to very fine silts size range are considered to be the result of 'slow tide' sedimentation. The influences of the two 'end-member' styles of saltmarsh accretion, i.e. (i) infilling due to sediment surplus and (ii) 'slow tide' settling linked to sea level, exhibit spatial and temporal trends as predicted, particularly in cores from mid- and lower saltmarsh locations. The upper saltmarsh cores also show evidence of estuary infilling due to 'slow tide' sedimentation at rates in excess of sea-level rise. The results confirm that the diagnostic approach can be applied as a 'pre-filtering' method for assessing the suitability of saltmarsh sediments for reconstructing sea-level trends, and for providing input data for improved estuary morphological modelling.

Rahman, Rubina; Plater, Andrew J.

2014-05-01

184

An Ecosystem-Based Restoration Plan with Emphasis on Salmonid Habitats in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative

Gary E. Johnson; Ronald M. Thom; Allan H. Whiting; George B. Sutherland; Taunja J. Berquam; Blaine Ebberts; Nicole M. Ricci; John A. Southard; Jessica D. Wilcox

2003-01-01

185

Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring and Evaluation FY08 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project

GE Johnson; HL Diefenderfer

2008-01-01

186

Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY08 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is

Gary E. Johnson; Heida L. Diefenderfer

2008-01-01

187

Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY10 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is

Johnson; Gary E

2010-01-01

188

Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY09 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2009 (FY09) for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary\\/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from

Johnson; Gary E

2009-01-01

189

Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and rapid vertical mixing, inducing the highest instantaneous suspended sediment flux measured during the tidal cycle. During decelerating flood currents a lutocline is again established at a certain distance above the consolidated river bed. During slack water after the flood phase the concentration gradient increases and the thickness of the fluid mud layer below is constant, also during a significant part of the ebb phase. As water depth decreases during ebb, entrainment occurs only at the upper part of the fluid mud layer. The suspended sediment flux is low compared to the flood phase. These observations are further elaborated using turbulence parameters obtained from ADV and ADCP, explaining the difference between ebb and flood concerning the vertical location of the maximum concentration gradient. This study is funded through DFG-Research Center / Excellence Cluster "The Ocean in the Earth System". The Senckenberg Institute and the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute are acknowledged for technical support.

Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

2014-05-01

190

The Oncor Geodatabase for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Annual Report, 2012  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this project for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Corps). The purpose of the project is to develop a geospatial, web-accessible database (called “Oncor”) for action effectiveness and related data from monitoring and research efforts for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). The intent is for the Oncor database to enable synthesis and evaluation, the results of which can then be applied in subsequent CEERP decision-making. This is the first annual report in what is expected to be a 3- to 4-year project, which commenced on February 14, 2012.

Coleman, Andre M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Serkowski, John A.

2013-11-10

191

Resilience of Splittail in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splittail Pogonichthys macrolepidotus, an endemic cyprinid of the Sacramento–San Joaquin estuary, has been proposed for listing as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Almost continuous low outflow conditions in the estuary from 1987 to 1994 led to reduced abundance of young splittails, but adult abundance did not decline consistently except in the downstream portion of the species' range. This

Ted Sommer; Randall Baxter; Bruce Herbold

1997-01-01

192

INDEX OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC INTEGRITY FOR GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A benthic index for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries has been developed and successfully validated by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) in the Louisianian Province. The benthic index is a useful indicator of estuarine condition that provi...

193

Geochemistry of trace metals in the Gironde estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using clean techniques, we measured the dissolved, particulate, and (by cross-flow filtration) colloidal fractions of Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Fe in the Gironde, an estuary in southwestern France. The fractions of the particulate riverine metals that are apparently mobilized in the estuary vary from >90% for Cd to less than 2% for Pb. Observed mid-salinity maxima for

Anne M. L. Kraepiel; J JEAN-FRANCOIS CHIFFOLEAU; Jean-Marie Martin; François M. M. Morel

1997-01-01

194

TRENDS IN SALINITIES AND FLUSHING TIMES OF GEORGIA ESTUARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1973-1992, the Georgia EPD sponsored a monitoring program in which surface salinities were sampled regularly at fixed stations in many of Georgia's estuaries. We used these data to examine changes in the salinities and flushing times of the Savannah, Ogeechee, Altamaha, Satilla, and St. Marys estuaries over the period of record. Water-year average salinities increased slightly over time in

Merryl Alber; Joan E. Sheldon

195

LOWER COLUMBIA RIVER ESTUARY PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

An estuary is the area where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of an ocean. In the Columbia River system, this occurs in the lower 46 river miles. In an estuary, the river has a direct, natural connection with the open sea. This transition from fresh to salt water c...

196

ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF SOUTHEAST U. S. ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

As a means to assess ecological condition, 151 stations located in southeastern estuaries from Cape Henry, Virginia to Biscayne Bay, Florida were sampled by state agencies during the summer of 2000 using a probabilistic design. The design used 8 size classes of estuaries ranging ...

197

Life-history styles of fishes in South African estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish utilizing South African estuaries may be divided into two major groups according to the location of their spawning sites. The marine group comprises large species which spawn at sea, enter estuaries mainly as juveniles, and return to the sea prior to attaining sexual maturity. The estuarine group is dominated by small species which have the ability to complete their

Alan K. Whitfield

1990-01-01

198

Fate of methane in the Hudson River and estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane (CH4) concentrations and oxidation rates were measured throughout the Hudson River Estuary in March and August of 1991. Methane concentrations ranged from 50 to 940 nM and were supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere along the entire length of the river, with generally higher CH4 values in the lower, saline portion of the estuary. A seasonally averaged diffusive flux

Marie A. de Angelis; Mary I. Scranton

1993-01-01

199

Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2008. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eelgrass in the Great Bay Estuary in 2008 was found only in the Great Bay itself and Portsmouth Harbor. In 2008 there was a continued loss of eelgrass biomass in the Estuary. Virtually all the eelgrass in Little Bay and the Piscataqua River has died. Eelg...

F. Short

2009-01-01

200

LIMNETIC LARVAL FISH OF THE MAUMEE AND SANDUSKY RIVER ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 17 taxa were collected in the Maumee River estuary during sampling periods in 1975, 1976, and 1977. A total of 11 taxa were collected from the Sandusky River estuary in 1976. Gizzard shad/alewife, Dorosoma cepedianum/Alosa pseudoharengus, white bass/white perch, Morone...

201

The Hydrography of the Chupa Estuary, White Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the fate and fluxes of materials from Arctic estuaries to the coastal zone. The paper is the first of a series addressing questions relating to the physics and chemistry of the region. Three seasonal cruises were undertaken in the Chupa Estuary, White Sea, Russia; in summer (July 1994), autumn (September, 1995) and spring (May\\/June

R. J. M. Howland; A. N. Pantiulin; G. E. Millward; R. Prego

1999-01-01

202

Behavior of metals in the Amur River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeochemical processes in estuaries determine to a significant extent the further life of chemical compounds, including metals transported by rivers. Therefore, the characteristics of the behavior of metals in waters with intermediate salinity at the river?sea interface have both scientific and practical significance [1?5]. In terms of estimation of the concentrations of dissolved metals, the estuary of the Amur River,

V. M. Shul’kin

2006-01-01

203

Systems Engineering Capstone Marketplace Pilot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this pilot project is to determine the feasibility of and requirements for a systems engineering capstone experience marketplace environment. We hope to increase the number of systems engineering capstone projects conducted at universities eac...

M. Ardis

2013-01-01

204

Approaches for Development of Nutrient Criteria in Oregon Estuaries With a Focus on Tillamook Estuary  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

205

Post-glacial sedimentary evolution of a microtidal estuary, Dyfi Estuary, west Wales, U.K.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The,Dyfi Estuary is a microtidal estuary located on the shores of Cardigan Bay on the west coast of Wales. The inundation of the post-glacial sea-level rise has produced transgressive muddy or silly, late-glacial and post-glacial unconsolidated sediments in the pre-existing valley. These sediments are complicated by sea-level fluctuations and changes in tidal range. Modern facies-distribution patterns and sedimentary characteristics, extensive core data, and chronostratigraphic cross-sections provide a detailed history of the post-glacial sedimentary evolution of the Dyfi Estuary. The post-glacial estuarine evolution of the Dyfi Estuary has been subdivided into four phases. Phase 1: 15,000-10,000 yr BP, shallow-water, high-energy fluvially dominated facies. Phase 2: 10,000-6,000 yr BP, deep-water, low-energy, estuarine dominated facies. Phase 3: 6,000-3,500 yr BP, shallow-water, high-energy, tidally dominated facies. Phase 4: 3,500 yr BP-present, shallow-water, low-energy, estuarine salt-marshes dominated facies.

Shi, Zhong; Lamb, H. F.

1991-10-01

206

The behavior of trace metals in the Geum Estuary, Korea  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of trace metals in the Geum Estuary of western Korea were studied with regard to changes in other estuarine chemical parameters. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and alkalinity increased with increasing salinity. Dissolved aluminum concentrations increased at low salinities and were perhaps influenced by the solubility of particulate aluminosilicate phases. Iron, manganese, cobalt, and zinc are removed from solution in the low salinity end of the estuary. Cobalt and nickel have mid-estuary concentration maxima that may be due to an anthropogenic source. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations also increased in the estuary, possibly as th result of remobilization in the sediments. Cadmium increases are also linked to remineralization from tidal flat sediments in the outer estuary. The source of an increase in dissolved lead at low salinity is unclear, but may be due to release from particles.

Byrd, J.T.; Smith, R.G.; Windom, H.L. (Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)); Lee, Kwang, W. (Hanyang Univ. Ansan, Kyunggi (Korea)); Lee, Dong, S. (Korea Ocean Research and Development Inst., Ansan, Kyunggi (Korea))

1991-05-01

207

Delaware Estuary Situation Reports: Emergency Response. How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other 'manmade' emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends la...

R. T. Sylves

1991-01-01

208

AN APPROACH TO DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRITERIA FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES: A CASE STUDY OF YAQUINA ESTUARY, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

NHEERL scientists have developed an approach that could be used by the State of Oregon for development of nutrient and other water quality criteria for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The principle objective in setting protective criteria is to prevent future degradation of estuari...

209

SENSITIVITY OF NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN ESTUARIES TO LOADING AND WATER RESIDENCE TIME: APPLICATION TO THE POTOMAC ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

We use a simple nitrogen budget model to analyze concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in estuaries for which both nitrogen inputs and water residence time are correlated with freshwater inflow rates. While the nitrogen concentration of an estuary varies linearly with TN loading ...

210

Latest Holocene evolution and human disturbance of a channel segment in the Hudson River Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The latest Holocene sedimentary record of a cohesive channel and subtidal shoal in the lower Hudson River Estuary was examined to elucidate natural (sea-level rise, sediment transport) and anthropogenic (bulkheading, dredging) influences on the recent morphodynamic evolution of the system. To characterize the seafloor and shallow subbottom, ??? 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles (chirp) were collected within a 20-km reach of the estuary and correlated with sediment lithologies provided by eight vibracores recovered along seismic lines. Sediment geochronology with 137Cs and 14C was used to estimate intermediate and long-term sedimentation rates, respectively, and historical bathymetric data were analyzed to identify regional patterns of accretion and erosion, and to quantify changes in channel geometry and sediment volume. The shoal lithosome originated around 4 ka presumably with decelerating eustatic sea level rise during the latest Holocene. Long-term sedimentation rates on the shoal (2.3-2.6 mm/yr) are higher than in the channel (2 mm/yr) owing to hydrodynamic conditions that preferentially sequester suspended sediment on the western side of the estuary. As a result, the shoal accretes oblique to the principal axis of tidal transport, and more rapidly than the channel to produce an asymmetric cross-section. Shoal deposits consist of tidally bedded muds and are stratified by minor erosion surfaces that seismic profiles reveal to extend for 10s of meters to kilometers. The frequency and continuity of these surfaces suggest that the surficial shoal is catastrophically stripped on decadal-centennial time scales by elevated tidal flows; tidal erosion maintains the shoal at a uniform depth below sea level and prevents it from transitioning to an intertidal environment. Consequently, the long-term sedimentation rate approximates the rate of sea-level rise in the lower estuary (1-3 mm/yr). After the mid 1800s, the natural geometry of the lower Hudson River Estuary changed rapidly in response to engineering works that forced the channel to self-deepen. Analysis of historical bathymetric data indicates that the channel lost an estimated 3 ?? 106 tons of sediment between ca. 1939 and 2002 (50,000 tons/yr average) by subaqueous erosion, increasing in depth by as much as 4 m in places. Erosion appears to have been concurrent with systematic bulkheading of the shoreline after ca. 1865, which decreased the estuary surface area by ??? 19% overall. Evidently, self-deepening of the channel is a morphodynamic adjustment to reestablish equilibrium cross-sectional area, yet the state of this change locally and elsewhere in the estuary is unknown. Subaqueous erosion documented in this study is a significant source of sediment with implications to the sediment budget and environmental quality of the Hudson River Estuary. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Klingbeil, A. D.; Sommerfield, C. K.

2005-01-01

211

MAIA Estuaries 1997-98 Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mid Atlantic Integrated Assessment program (MAIA) of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released these estuaries data for 1997-98. Data and Metadata may be viewed or downloaded (text or .pdf) for the following variables: Sampling Station Location Data, Station Visit Data, Water Quality Physical Measurements, Water Quality- Nutrients Data, Sediment Grain Size Data, Sediment Toxicity Data, Sediment Chemistry Data, Benthic Community Grain Size Data, Benthic Abundance Data, Benthic Biomass Data, Benthic Community Summary Data, Chemical Analyte Code Table, and Benthic Taxon Code Table.

212

Ecological Engineering Practices for the Reduction of Excess Nitrogen in Human-Influenced Landscapes: A Guide for Watershed Managers  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess nitrogen (N) in freshwater systems, estuaries, and coastal areas has well-documented deleterious effects on ecosystems. Ecological engineering practices (EEPs) may be effective at decreasing nonpoint source N leaching to surface and groundwater. However, few studies have s...

213

Water Management Modernization Feasibility Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, conducted by Millennium Science and Engineering, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. This feasibility study was conducted on the request of the MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company to examine the modernization of the water manag...

2000-01-01

214

Aerostat for electrical power generation –concept feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper examines the feasibility of using a high altitude tethered aerostat as a platform for producing a substantial quantity of electric energy and transmitting it to Earth using the mooring cable. Based on realistic values for the relevant engineering parameters that describe the technical properties of the materials and subsystems, a static analysis of the aerostat in its

G S Aglietti; T Markvart; A R Tatnall; S J Walker

2008-01-01

215

A Biomimetic Flying Silicon Microchip: Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility analysis of developing an ultra-small biomimetic flying machine using the most advanced engineering technologies that exist today. Without regard for the cost and potential applications of such a machine, our motivation is driven entirely by a curiosity to know if it is possible to built a controllable flying machine using very leading-edge but available technologies

Ho-Yin Chan; Josh Hiu Man Lam; W. J. Li

2004-01-01

216

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

217

[Vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under sea-level rise].  

PubMed

To study the response of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on the coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisite for securing coastal ecosystems. In this paper, the possible impacts of sea level rise caused by climate change on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model and IPCC definition on the vulnerability. An indicator system for vulnerability assessment was established, in which sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, inundation threshold of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability index for the assessment of coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the scenarios of sea-level rise. The vulnerability assessments on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary in 2030 and 2050 were performed under two sea-level rise scenarios (the present sea-level rise trend over recent 30 years and IPCC A1F1 scenario). The results showed that with the projection in 2030 under the present trend of sea-level rise (0.26 cm x a(-1)), 6.6% and 0.1% of the coastal wetlands were in the low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively; and in 2050, 9.8% and 0.2% of the coastal wetlands were in low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively. With the projection in 2030 under the A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm x a(-1)), 9.0% and 0.1% of the coastal wetlands were in the low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively; and in 2050, 9.5%, 1.0% and 0.3% of the coastal wetlands were in the low, moderate and high vulnerabilities, respectively. PMID:24830257

Cui, Li-Fang; Wang, Ning; Ge, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Li-Quan

2014-02-01

218

Structure and Function of South-east Australian Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt is made to synthesize the geological properties, water quality attributes and aspects of the ecology of south-east Australian estuaries so as to provide a framework for addressing coastal management issues. The approach is based on the underlying causal factors of geology and morphology and more immediate environmental factors (e.g. salinity and sediments) which are associated with ecological distributions, species richness and fisheries catch. This ' broad brush ' approach seeks to maximize reality and generality, albeit at the expense of precision and local variability in individual circumstances. It disregards small-scale ecological patterns as noise. Unlike in the Northern Hemisphere, conditions in temperate Australia are characterized by irregular flood and fire regimes that strongly influence estuary hydrology and nutrient inputs. Three main types of estuary (tide-dominated, wave-dominated and intermittently closed) are recognized based on geological criteria and having particular entrance conditions that control tidal exchange. Four zones (marine flood-tidal delta, central mud basin, fluvial delta and riverine channel/alluvial plain) are also recognized common to each type of estuary. These zones correspond to mappable sedimentary environments in all estuaries and have characteristic water quality, nutrient cycling/primary productivity signatures and ecosystems. The ecology of a zone is modified by (a) estuary type which determines the salinity regime; (b) stage of sediment filling (evolutionary maturity) which controls the spatial distribution/size of the zones; and (c) impacts of various forms of development. By using the zones/habitats as a common currency among all estuaries, it is possible to link ecological aspects such as species richness and commercial fisheries production so as to compare different estuaries or within-estuary zones.

Roy, P. S.; Williams, R. J.; Jones, A. R.; Yassini, I.; Gibbs, P. J.; Coates, B.; West, R. J.; Scanes, P. R.; Hudson, J. P.; Nichol, S.

2001-09-01

219

Sediment Transport Processes In River Dominated Sub-Tropical Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to present a comparative assessment of the largest three river dominated estuaries in the southern coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil (Tubarão, Araranguá and Mampituba estuaries). The study was focused on mechanisms of transport of suspended sediments influenced by its morphologic and hydrodynamics characteristics. As shown in D'Aquino et al (2011), these estuaries share common attributes (climate and tides) and follow the basic conceptual model of fine sediment transport (presented by Toldo & Schettini (2006). However, each one has its own particularities regarding the geographical setting, land use, hypsometry, outfall, etc. The methodology used to the field measurements was the same for all estuaries, aiming at measuring the currents, water level, salinity, temperature and turbidity near the outfall for at least two complete tidal cycles (~25 hours). All the campaigns were carried on under syzygya tide conditions. During the sample collecting period, a longitudinal profile was conducted in each estuary, through acquisitions of salinity and temperature of the water column in every kilometer. In the Tubarão and Araranguá rivers estuaries, the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is mostly influenced by the periods of incoming tide, flood currents. In the Mampituba river estuary, the flocculation process was observed during the encounter of fresh and salt water in every tide entrance. It was possible to observe that the Araranguá river estuary, in what concerns the bottom SPM, responds to the variation of salinity and currents along the bottom. The Tubarão estuary presents a relation between the salinity and the bottom currents. In the Mampituba estuary no relevant correlation was found between the SPM, the salinity, and the bottom currents. Those aspects demonstrate that even sharing some characteristics there are significant differences among these estuaries. In addition, as a result of the comparative study, an analytical model was proposed that correlates the fluvial discharge, salt wedge, and SPM. This model might represent a tool to encourage discussions and help the scientific exploration of the estuaries in the south of Santa Catarina.

DAquino, Carla; Schettini, Carlos

2014-05-01

220

Feasibility Investigation of Harmonic Drive Speed Reducers for Helicopter Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents applicable helicopter and harmonic drive parameters, feasibility comparisons, data concerning the engineering and designing of a test unit, results of the test program, and recommendations for further research for improved efficiency. ...

1964-01-01

221

Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2011 - FINAL ANNUAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the University of Washington (UW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). This research project was initiated in 2007 by the Bonneville Power Administration to investigate critical uncertainties regarding juvenile salmon ecology in shallow tidal freshwater habitats of the lower Columbia River. However, as part of the Washington Memorandum of Agreement, the project was transferred to the USACE in 2010. In transferring from BPA to the USACE, the focus of the tidal freshwater research project shifted from fundamental ecology toward the effectiveness of restoration in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The research is conducted within the Action Agencies Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Data reported herein spans the time period May 2010 to September 2011.

Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Teel, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Blaine, Jennifer; Kuligowski, D. R.; Kropp, Roy K.; Dawley, Earl M.

2012-05-31

222

Forest bound estuaries are higher methane emitters than paddy fields: A case of Godavari estuary, East Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Godavari estuary, ambient methane concentrations were monitored for a period of 5 years and the data reveals that the estuary sampling stations have shown a high average maximum value of methane 14.8 ppmv while nearby paddy field sampling stations the methane concentration were 3-4 fold lower than the estuary. The acidic nature of the estuary soils (pH 5.8-6.2) along with redox potential -120mV favours high methane emissions. The samples collected from the edge of the estuary have shown 0.12-0.15% of Fe wherein ambient methane concentrations were 4.8-5.6 ppmv. It was observed that the anoxic condition with high available iron in the soil improves anaerobic decomposition of organic matter to produce methane. The litter production from nearby mangrove vegetation in the estuary is approximately 22,000 tons/annum is a causative factor for higher methane emissions. Remote sensing data was used and developed thematic maps for spatial and temporal distribution of methane using geographical information system. The seasonal trend showed high ambient concentration of methane in winter season, which is mainly due to high moisture content, (OH?) radical and lower temperature. The results suggest that high organic matter (2.5-4.2%) along with soil conditions in the estuary are influencing for higher methane emissions, while in paddy fields the available organic matter for methanogenesis is limited.

Krupadam, Reddithota J.; Ahuja, Rashmi; Wate, Satish R.; Anjaneyulu, Yerramilli

223

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska Final Health and Safety Plan. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Kotzebue Long Range, Radar Station, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The site-specific health and safety plan establishes policies and procedures to protect Tetra Tech personnel from the potential hazards posed by the Installation Restoration Program. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) conducted at the United...

1994-01-01

224

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Tin City Long Range Radar Station, Alaska Final Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Final Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study describes the work performed; explains project objectives; and presents data collected during project activities, results, and conclusions for the Installation Restoration Program at Tin City Longe Range...

1996-01-01

225

Estuary/ocean exchange and tidal mixing in a Gulf of Maine Estuary: A Lagrangian modeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Lagrangian particle method embedded within a 2-D finite element code, is used to study the transport and ocean-estuary exchange processes in the well-mixed Great Bay Estuarine System in New Hampshire, USA. The 2-D finite element model, driven by residual, semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal constituents, includes the effects of wetting and drying of estuarine mud flats through the use of a porous medium transport module. The particle method includes tidal advection, plus a random walk model in the horizontal that simulates sub-grid scale turbulent transport processes. Our approach involves instantaneous, massive [O(500,000)] particle releases that enable the quantification of ocean-estuary and inter-bay exchanges in a Markovian framework. The effects of the release time, spring-neap cycle, riverine discharge and diffusion strength on the intra-estuary and estuary-ocean exchange are also investigated. The results show a rather dynamic interaction between the ocean and the estuary with a fraction of the exiting particles being caught up in the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current and swept away. Three somewhat different estimates of estuarine residence time are calculated to provide complementary views of estuary flushing. Maps of residence time versus release location uncover a strong spatial dependency of residence time within the estuary that has very important ramifications for local water quality. Simulations with and without the turbulent random walk show that the combined effect of advective shear and turbulent diffusion is very effective at spreading particles throughout the estuary relatively quickly, even at low (1 m 2/s) diffusivity. The results presented here show that a first-order Markov Chain approach has applicability and a high potential for improving our understanding of the mixing processes in estuaries.

Bilgili, Ata; Proehl, Jeffrey A.; Lynch, Daniel R.; Smith, Keston W.; Swift, M. Robinson

2005-12-01

226

Use of the USEPA Estuary Nitrogen Model to Estimate Concentrations of Total Nitrogen in Estuaries Using Loads Calculated by Watershed Models and Monitoring Data  

EPA Science Inventory

We use USEPA?s Estuary Nitrogen Model (ENM) to calculate annual average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in ten estuaries or sub-estuaries along the Atlantic coast from New Hampshire to Florida. These include a variety of systems, ranging from strongly-flushed bays to weakly...

227

Climate Change and the Delaware Estuary: Three Case Studies in Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning.Partnership for the Delaware Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Delaware Estuary watershed and its natural resources will face a variety of challenges with climate change. Due to the many unique features of the Estuary, some aspects of changing climate may not be as severe here as in nearby watersheds and estuarie...

D. Kreeger D. Velinsky J. Adkins P. Cole R. Najjar

2010-01-01

228

75 FR 69622 - Request for Comments on the Draft Revision of the Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy Prepared...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Revision of the Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy Prepared by the Estuary Habitat Restoration Council AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...behalf of the interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is soliciting comments on...

2010-11-15

229

A Slowly - Varying Conservative Transport Model for Shallow Estuaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and application of a two-dimensional long-term dynamic numerical transport model which is capable of describing the spatial and temporal slowly-varying distributions of conservative constituents in shallow, well-mixed estuaries is presente...

R. J. Brandes F. D. Masch

1971-01-01

230

Assessing the Impact of Human Activities on British Columbia's Estuaries  

PubMed Central

The world’s marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world’s most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC’s estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

Robb, Carolyn K.

2014-01-01

231

Landscape Thresholds and the Condition of Northeastern Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic impacts to northeastern estuaries have been well documented and many researchers have quantified the associations between broad scale human land uses in contributing landscapes and impacted estuarine condition. However, associations alone are not adequate for ident...

232

FRESHWATER INFLOWS: WATER FOR HEALTHY ESTUARIES CONFERENCE (MX96476507  

EPA Science Inventory

The grantee will hold an interstate workshop on Freshwater Inflow issues in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The conference will identify water management questions to be addressed regarding providing freshwater inflows to estuaries, update participants on the current scientif...

233

Evaluating Causes of Ecological Impairments in the Estuaries of Ukraine  

EPA Science Inventory

Ukrainian estuaries have not undergone a systematic evaluation of the causes of ecological impairments caused by anthropogenic contamination. The objective of this evaluation is to use recently developed diagnostic tools to determine the causes of benthic ecological impairments. ...

234

HIGH CYANOBACTERIAL ABUNDANCE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic phytoplankton comprise a wide variety of taxa spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude in size, yet studies of estuarine phytoplankton often overlook the picoplankton, particularly chroococcoid cyanobacteria (c.f. Synechocococcus). Three Gulf of Mexico estuaries (Apalachi...

235

Guidelines for determining inputs of inorganic contaminants into estuaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes sampling and sample preparation procedures suitable to obtain unpolluted samples for the purpose of determining river inputs of inorganic pollutants into estuaries. Emphasis is placed on heavy metal pollutants but procedures are...

1987-01-01

236

CASCO BAY ESTUARY PROJECT TRIENNIAL IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW MARCH, 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

The Casco Bay Estuary Project has seven primary goals/priorities which include: minimize pollutant loading from stormwater; open and protect shellfish beds; protect and restore habitat; reduce toxic pollution; promote responsible stewardship; sustain and promote the continued eff...

237

BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EVIDENCE FOR SUBSTRATE LIMITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were measured along a transect in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA, to examine the factors that control microbial water column processes in this subtropical estuary. The microbial measures included 3 H-L-leucine incorporation, e...

238

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

239

Biogeochemistry of the Kem' River estuary, White Sea (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of the river-sea interface was studied in the Kem' River (the largest river flowing to the White Sea from Karelian coast) estuary and adjacent area of the White Sea onboard the RV \\

V. R. Shevchenko; Y. S. Dolotov; N. N. Filatov; T. N. Alexeeva; A. S. Filippov; E.-M. Nöthig; A. N. Novigatsky; L. A. Pautova; A. V. Platonov; N. V. Politova; T. N. Rat'kova; R. Stein

2005-01-01

240

Continuous resistivity profiling data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine its importance in nutrient delivery to the Chesapeake Bay. The Corsica River Estuary represents a coastal lowland setting typical of much of the eastern bay. An interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science team conducted field operations in the lower estuary in April and May 2007. Resource managers are concerned about nutrients that are entering the estuary via SGD that may be contributing to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and fish kills. Techniques employed in the study included continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), piezometer sampling of submarine groundwater, and collection of a time series of radon tracer activity in surface water. A CRP system measures electrical resistivity of saturated subestuarine sediments to distinguish those bearing fresh water (high resistivity) from those with saline or brackish pore water (low resistivity). This report describes the collection and processing of CRP data and summarizes the results. Based on a grid of 67.6 kilometers of CRP data, low-salinity (high-resistivity) groundwater extended approximately 50-400 meters offshore from estuary shorelines at depths of 5 to >12 meters below the sediment surface, likely beneath a confining unit. A band of low-resistivity sediment detected along the axis of the estuary indicated the presence of a filled paleochannel containing brackish groundwater. The meandering paleochannel likely incised through the confining unit during periods of lower sea level, allowing the low-salinity groundwater plumes originating from land to mix with brackish subestuarine groundwater along the channel margins and to discharge. A better understanding of the spatial variability and geological controls of submarine groundwater flow beneath the Corsica River Estuary could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for nutrient over-enrichment in the estuary and in other similar settings.

Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Worley, C.R.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.

2011-01-01

241

Status of Splittail in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of data from four extensive fish surveys in the Sacramento–San Joaquin estuary indicated that splittail Pogonichthys macrolepidotus, endemic to the Central Valley of California, declined by 62% over a 13-year period. Splittails are now found mostly in the estuary, a fraction of their former range. In a gill-net survey in August 1994, 50% of the splittails taken in the

Lesa Meng; Peter B. Moyle

1995-01-01

242

Sediment transport by streams draining into the Delaware Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity of sediment transported by streams draining into the Delaware estuary from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware varies areally according to geology, physiography, and land use. Of the estimated total sediment load of 1.6 million tons entering the Delaware estuary annually, about 48 percent is contributed by the Delaware River main stem at Trenton, NJ; 34 percent by Pennsylvania tributaries; and 18 percent by New Jersey and Delaware tributaries.

Mansue, Lawrence J.; Commings, Allen B.

1974-01-01

243

Distribution and Transport of Chemical Constituents in the Clyde Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five transects of the Clyde Estuary were carried out between August 1989 and March 1991, always during the last 2 h of the flood tide. The following water-column properties were examined: dissolved, leachable particulate and detrital particulate trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni), pH, alkalinity, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, suspended particulate matter and dissolved nutrients (PO 4, NH 3 + NH 4, NO 3, NO 2, Si). The distribution patterns for both dissolved metals and nutrients reflected their quasi-conservative behaviour in the lower estuary, but were more difficult to interpret in the upper estuary due to the multiplicity of inputs. The suspended particulate material (SPM) collected in the lower estuary at 3 m was depleted in leachable Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and enriched in leachable Mn and Pb relative to the upper estuary. For Mn, the degree of enrichment increased towards the mouth of the estuary, and also with decreasing 'effective freshwater input', indicating that the oxidation of Mn(II) proceeds outside the estuary (Firth of Clyde) and to an extent dependent on the residence time of water in that coastal sea area. The quasi-conservative behaviour of most dissolved and particulate constituents within the estuary results from a combination of short residence time (3-7 days) and low SPM (2-10 mg l -1). This behaviour makes it possible to estimate their net seaward fluxes before these become modified by the processes of coagulation (Fe), sorption (Zn, Pb, Co) and oxidative precipitation (Mn) operating in the Firth of Clyde. The seaward fluxes of NH 4 + NH 3, NO 2, PO 4, dissolved Mn, particulate Fe, Zn and Cu are approximately constant throughout the year. Other dissolved and particulate metal fluxes are best represented by an increasing function of freshwater discharge, although the large residual variability attests to the greater complexity of input functions for trace metals.

Muller, F. L. L.; Tranter, M.; Balls, P. W.

1994-08-01

244

The role of salt marshes in the Mira estuary (Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mira estuary is a narrow entrenched pristine estuary of the Ria type, about 30 km long. It comprises an area of 285 ha\\u000a of salt marsh, of which250 ha have been proposed for reclamation for aquaculture. Dredging, village and recreation development\\u000a menace the yet undisturbed estuarine ecosystem. To assess the biological importance of this wetland, a multidisciplinary study\\u000a was

M. J. Costa; Fernando Catarino; Alexandre Bettencourt

2001-01-01

245

Sediment transport and trapping in the Hudson River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hudson River estuary has a pronounced turbidity maximum zone, in which rapid, short-term deposition of sediment occurs\\u000a during and following the spring freshet. Water-column measurements of currents and suspended sediment were performed during\\u000a the spring of 1999 to determine the rate and mechanisms of sediment transport and trapping in the estuary. The net convergence\\u000a of sediment in the lower

W. Rockwell Geyer; Jonathan D. Woodruff; Peter Traykovski

2001-01-01

246

Attenuation of rare earth elements in a boreal estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on attenuation of rare earth elements (REE) when a boreal creek, acidified and loaded with REE and other metals as a result of wetland drainage, empties into a brackish-water estuary (salinity < 6‰). Surface water was collected in a transect from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, and settling (particulate) material in sediment traps moored at selected locations in the estuary. Ultrafiltration, high-resolution ICP-MS and modeling were applied on the waters, and a variety of chemical reagents were used to extract metals from the settling material. Aluminium, Fe and REE transported by the acidic creek were extensively removed in the inner/central estuary where the acidic water was neutralised, whereas Mn was relatively persistent in solution and thus redistributed to particles and deposited further down the estuary. The REE removal was caused by several contemporary mechanisms: co-precipitation with oxyhydroxides (mainly Al but also Fe), complexation with flocculating humic substances and sorption to suspended particles. Down estuary the dissolved REE pool, remaining after removal, was fractionated: the <1 kDa pool became depleted in the middle REE and the colloidal (0.45 ?m-1 kDa) pool depleted in the middle and heavy REE. This fractionation was controlled by the removal process, such that those REE with highest affinity for the settling particles became most depleted in the remaining dissolved pool. Modeling, based on Visual MINTEQ version 3.0 and the Stockholm Humic Model after revision and updating, predicted that the dissolved (<0.45 ?m) REE pool in the estuary is bound almost entirely to humic substances. Acid sulphate soils, the source of the REE and other metals in the creek water, are widespread on coastal plains worldwide and therefore the REE attenuation patterns and mechanisms identified in the studied estuary are relevant for recognition of similar geochemical processes and conditions in a variety of coastal locations.

Åström, Mats E.; Österholm, Peter; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Nystrand, Miriam; Peltola, Pasi; Nordmyr, Linda; Boman, Anton

2012-11-01

247

Conservation of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary, India.  

PubMed

There has been a steady decrease in the area occupied by wetlands in creeks and estuaries adjacent urban areas due to unprecedented urban growth in coastal cities, for example, Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary near Mumbai, India. Urban cities serve as centres of employment and attract a large number of migrants from other places. In case of coastal cities, due to inadequate infrastructure, wastewater and solid waste are disposed of into wetlands and estuary. Discharge of sediments and solid waste into the creeks from drains and construction activities has resulted in decreased flow depth in the coastal waters of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary. Various researchers have studied individual elements of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary at micro level. However, a holistic approach for restoration and conservation of the creek and estuary is required. This paper presents the details of an integrated approach incorporating different conservation measures such as sewerage and sewage treatment, urban drainage management, solid waste management, mangrove plantation and dredging. PMID:21117428

Nikam, Vinay S; Kumar, Arun; Lalla, Kamal; Gupta, Kapil

2009-07-01

248

Winds and the orientation of a coastal plane estuary plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a calibrated coastal plane estuary plume model, ideal model hindcasts of estuary plumes are used to describe the evolution of the plume pattern in response to river discharge and local wind forcing by selecting a typical partially mixed estuary (the Cape Fear River Estuary or CFRE). With the help of an existing calibrated plume model, as described by Xia et al. (2007), simulations were conducted using different parameters to evaluate the plume behavior type and its change associated with the variation of wind forcing and river discharge. The simulations indicate that relatively moderate winds can mechanically reverse the flow direction of the plume. Downwelling favorably wind will pin the plume to the coasts while the upwelling plume could induce plume from the left side to right side in the application to CFRE. It was found that six major types of plumes may occur in the estuary and in the corresponding coastal ocean. To better understand these plumes in the CFRE and other similar river estuary systems, we also investigated how the plumes transition from one type to another. Results showed that wind direction, wind speed, and sometimes river discharge contribute to plume transitions.

Xia, Meng; Xie, Lian; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.

2010-10-01

249

Nitinol engine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of applying the shape-memory effect in certain intermetallic compounds (particularly ''55 Nitinol'') to the conversion of low temperature heat energy to mechanical work by means of solid state heat engines. A primary milestone is the development of a prototype Nitinol engine on a scale suitable for powering a moderate-size residential

M. Wahlig; R. Banks; R. Kopa; H. Mohamed

1978-01-01

250

Aquaculture Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Klamath Tribes contracted a study to determine the feasibility of tribal members establishing aquaculture ventures in Klamath County, Oregon. An evaluation of five privately owned sites showed three as having potential for Aquaculture. Potential speci...

1995-01-01

251

Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

1986-01-01

252

A hydrologic and geomorphic model of estuary breaching and closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand how the hydrology of bar-built estuaries affects breaching and closing patterns, a model is developed that incorporates an estuary hydrologic budget with a geomorphic model of the inlet system. Erosion of the inlet is caused by inlet flow, whereas the only morphologic effect of waves is the deposition of sand into the inlet. When calibrated, the model is able to reproduce the initial seasonal breaching, seasonal closure, intermittent closures and breaches, and the low-streamflow (closed state) estuary hydrology of the Carmel Lagoon, located in Central California. Model performance was tested against three separate years of water-level observations. When open during these years, the inlet was visually observed to drain directly across the beach berm, in accordance with model assumptions. The calibrated model predicts the observed 48-h estuary stage amplitude with root mean square errors of 0.45 m, 0.39 m and 0.42 m for the three separate years. For the calibrated model, the probability that the estuary inlet is closed decreases exponentially with increasing inflow (streamflow plus wave overtopping), decreasing 10-fold in probability as mean daily inflow increases from 0.2 to 1.0 m3/s. Seasonal patterns of inlet state reflect the seasonal pattern of streamflow, though wave overtopping may become the main hydrologic flux during low streamflow conditions, infrequently causing short-lived breaches. In a series of sensitivity analyses it is seen that the status of the inlet and storage of water are sensitive to factors that control the storage, transmission, and inflow of water. By varying individual components of the berm system and estuary storage, the amount of the time the estuary is open may increase by 57%, or decrease by 44%, compared to the amount of time the estuary is open during calibrated model conditions for the 18.2-year model period. The individual components tested are: berm height, width, length, and hydraulic conductivity; estuary hypsometry (storage to stage relationship); two factors that control wave-swash sedimentation of the inlet; and sea level rise. The elevation of the berm determines the volume of water that must enter the estuary in order to breach, and it modulates the wave-overtopping flux and frequency. By increasing estuary storage capacity, the estuary will breach less frequently (- 27% change in time open for modeled excavation scenario) and store water up to 3 months later into the summer. Altering beach aquifer hydraulic conductivity affects inlet state, and patterns of breaching and water storage. As a result of sea-level rise of 1.67 m by 2100, and a beach berm that remains in its current location and accretes vertically, the amount of time the estuary remains open may decrease by 44%. Such a change is an end-member of likely scenarios given that the berm will translate landwards. Model results indicate that the amount of time the estuary is open is more sensitive to changes in wave run-up than the amount of sand deposited in the inlet per each overtopping wave.

Rich, Andrew; Keller, Edward A.

2013-06-01

253

From the utilization point of view, the two approaches seem to United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group\\/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Barrow Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Point Barrow radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

Karmi

1996-01-01

254

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study: Oliktok Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Volume 1. (Includes appendices a - b)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

NONE

1996-04-15

255

From the utilization point of view, the two approaches seem to United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Barrow Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Point Barrow radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

Karmi, S.

1996-02-19

256

United States Air Force 611th air support group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Tin City Long Range Radar Station, Alaska final remedial investigation/feasibility study. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Final Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study describes the work performed; explains project objectives; and presents data collected during project activities, results, and conclusions for the Installation Restoration Program at Tin City Longe Range Radar Station, Alaska. The report describes the risks posed by the site and gives the basis for selecting remedies to mitigate the risks.

NONE

1996-04-30

257

33 CFR 165.1190 - Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. 165.1190 Section 165.1190 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone:...

2013-07-01

258

CLASSIFYING OREGON ESTUARIES BY HABITAT: ANALYSIS OF EXISTING DATA AND A PROPOSAL FOR A PILOT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Because many estuarine resources are linked to benthic habitats, classification of estuaries by habitat types may prove a relevant approach for grouping estuaries with similar ecological values and vulnerability to landscape alterations. As a first step, we evaluated whether pub...

259

Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a larger investigation into potential effects of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest, we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries: Coquille River estuary, South Slough of Coos Bay, and Yaquina Bay in ...

C. A. Brown D. A. Reusser H. Chang I. W. Jung M. O. Steele

2012-01-01

260

A DATA SYSTEM FOR INTEGRATING DATA FROM LANDSCAPES, STREAMS AND ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries are natural integrators of substances and processes that occur internally and externally (watersheds, ocean, atmosphere). Watershed activities that contribute fresh water, nutrients, contaminants, and suspended solids have a strong effect on the health of estuaries. Res...

261

Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

2010-10-26

262

Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate warming scenarios highlighted that oxygen depletion is likely to be exacerbated through changes in flow regimes and warming temperatures; however, the increasing risk of hypoxia and anoxia can be mitigated through management of minimum flow allocations and targeted reductions in organic matter loading. A simple statistical model (R2 > 0.65) is suggested to relate riverine flow and temperature to the extent of estuary-wide anoxia.

Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

2014-04-01

263

Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary. The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership

Heida L. Diefenderfer; Gary E. Johnson; Nichole K. Sather; John R. Skalski; Earl M. Dawley; Andre M. Coleman

2010-01-01

264

Horizontal distribution and population dynamics of the dominant mysid Hyperacanthomysis longirostris along a temperate macrotidal estuary (Chikugo River estuary, Japan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) that develops in the lower salinity areas of macrotidal estuaries has been considered as an important nursery for many fish species. Mysids are one of the dominant organisms in the ETM, serving as a key food source for juvenile fish. To investigate the horizontal distribution and population dynamics of dominant mysids in relation to the fluctuation of physical conditions (temperature, salinity, turbidity, and freshwater discharge), we conducted monthly sampling (hauls of a ring net in the surface water) along the macrotidal Chikugo River estuary in Japan from May 2005 to December 2006. Hyperacanthomysis longirostris was the dominant mysid in the estuary, usually showing peaks of density and biomass in or close to the ETM (salinity 1-10). In addition, intra-specific differences (life-cycle stage, sex, and size) in horizontal distribution were found along the estuary. Larger males and females, particularly gravid females, were distributed upstream from the center of distribution where juveniles were overwhelmingly dominant. Juveniles increased in size toward the sea in marked contrast with males and females. The findings suggest a possible system of population maintenance within the estuary; gravid females release juveniles in the upper estuary, juveniles grow during downstream transport, young males and females mature during the upstream migration. Density and biomass were primarily controlled by seasonal changes of temperature, being high at intermediate temperatures (ca. 15-25 °C in late spring and fall) and being low at the extreme temperatures (ca. 10 °C in midwinter and 30 °C in midsummer). High density (up to 666 ind. m -3) and biomass (up to 168 mg dry weight m -3) of H. longirostris were considered to be comparable with those of copepods in the estuary.

Suzuki, Keita W.; Nakayama, Kouji; Tanaka, Masaru

2009-08-01

265

Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of hydrological cycle that lead to (i) an increased mean water level and (ii) provide SPM from the continental area. This feature leads to significant accretion over intertidal area. In the middle and marine estuary the TM is the main SPM supplier. In these parts of the estuary deposition over these intertidal area is driven by (i) tidal cycle in particular fortnightly cycle link to maximum TM resuspension during (strongest) spring tide and (ii) TM location controlled by river inflow that varies following an annual and inter-annual variability. Outside sedimentation period, the erosion is driven by the combination of (i) progressive erosion driven by fortnightly cycle and (ii) sudden erosion controlled either by wave or boat generated waves respectively at the mouth and in the middle/upper estuary. This last is reinforced by the rheological characteristics of deposit that correspond to fluid/low consolidated mud. During most of the year, the Seine estuary mudflats record an erosion pattern. Significant and intensive sedimentation only occurs few days per year. This pattern is linked to highly variable hydrodynamics conditions (bottom shear stress ranging from 0.5 to 5 N.m-2) that control the sediment supply availability. In this infilling macrotidal anthropized system mudflats are close to equilibrium with an annual rate ranging between +/- 5cm.yrs-1: they act as temporal storage area of fined-grained sediments.

lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

2012-12-01

266

Observations of Floc Sizes in a Muddy Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements are presented of median floc diameters and associated environmental data over spring-tide tidal cycles at two stations in the muddy Tamar Estuary, UK, for winter, spring and summer conditions. The particulate organic carbon and particulate total carbon contents of mudflats and SPM (suspended particulate matter) at the stations, together with other evidence, indicates that much of the SPM was derived from mud sources that were located between the two stations during winter and spring, and from very mobile sediment sources in the upper estuary during summer. Observed in-situ median floc sizes varied widely, from <50 to >500 ?m and rapid settling of particles close to HW and LW (high and low water) left only the smaller flocs in suspension. Time-series of depth-averaged median floc sizes generally were most closely, positively, correlated with depth-averaged SPM concentrations. Floc diameters tended to reach maximum median sizes near the time when SPM concentrations were highest. These high concentrations were in turn largely generated by resuspension of sediment during the fastest current speeds. Although such correlations may have arisen because of SPM-driven floc growth - despite fast tidal currents - there is also the possibility that tough aggregates were eroded from the intertidal mudflats and mudbanks. Although a hypothesis, such large aggregates of fine sediment may have resulted from the binding together of very fine bed particles by sticky extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) coatings, produced by benthic diatoms and by other biologically-mediated activity. A rapid reduction of SPM occurred at the up-estuary station within 2.5 h of HW on the flood, when decelerating currents were still relatively fast. It appears that at least two processes were at work: localised settling of the largest flocs and up-estuary transport in which large flocs were transported further into the estuary before settling into the Tamar's ETM (estuarine turbidity maximum) over the HW-slack period. Up-estuary advection of large flocs and their eventual settling would place the down-estuary edge of the ETM above the upper-estuary station during summer, spring-tide conditions. This position of the ETM was observed close to HW during longitudinal surveys of the estuary.

Uncles, R. J.; Bale, A. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Frickers, P. E.; Harris, C.

2010-04-01

267

Population Dynamics and Distribution Patterns of Longfin Smelt in the San Francisco Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Francisco Estuary supports several endemic species of fish and the southernmost populations of other species. Many of these native species and populations are imperiled or have experienced recent population declines that indicate a general decline in the estuary's capacity to support pelagic fish species. We studied the distribution and abundance of one of the estuary's native species, longfin

Jonathan A. Rosenfield; Randall D. Baxter

2007-01-01

268

PEER REVIEW OF PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY (EUTROPHICATION) MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Peconic Estuary is located on the eastern end of Long Island, New York. Under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Peconic Estuary was named an "Estuary of National Significance" in 1992. Because of its high concentration of rare, threatened and endangered species and habitats,...

269

Sedimentation of river-transported particles in the Öre estuary, northern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation of river transported particles in the Öre Estuary was studied during spring flow (April–May, 1989). River input was calculated as the product of discharge and particle concentration in the river water. The concentration of suspended matter in the estuary water was determined with a light-scattering probe at 25 depth profiles throughout the estuary. The sedimentation was measured using sediment

Louise Malmgren; Lars Brydsten

1992-01-01

270

Man-made radionuclides and sedimentation in the Hudson River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently deposited fine-grained sediments in the Hudson River estuary contain radionuclides from global fallout produced by atmospheric bomb tests as well as from low-level releases of a local nuclear reactor. Accumulation rates of these nuclides are dependent on rates of sediment deposition and vary with location in the estuary by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the Hudson estuary,

H. J. Simpson; C. R. Olsen; R. M. Trier; S. C. Williams

1976-01-01

271

Three-dimensional modeling of hydrodynamic processes in the St. Lucie Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing with the studies on large estuarine systems, such as the Chesapeake Bay and the San Francisco Bay, the processes of stratification and transport in small and shallow estuaries are relatively less studied. The St. Lucie Estuary (SLE) is a riverine estuary located on the east coast of south Florida. It is small and shallow, with mean depth of 2.4m.

Zhen-Gang Ji; Guangdou Hu; Jian Shen; Yongshan Wan

2007-01-01

272

Impact of different tidal renewable energy projects on the hydrodynamic processes in the Severn Estuary, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Severn Estuary, located in the UK between south east Wales and south west England, is an ideal site for tidal renewable energy projects, since this estuary has the third highest tidal range in the world, with a spring tidal range approaching 14m. The UK Government recently invited proposals for tidal renewable energy projects from the estuary and many proposals

Junqiang Xia; Roger A. Falconer; Binliang Lin

2010-01-01

273

A Simple Model of Nitrogen Concentration, Throughput, and Denitrification in Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

The Estuary Nitrogen Model (ENM) is a mass balance model that includes calculation of nitrogen losses within bays and estuaries using system flushing time. The model has been used to demonstrate the dependence of throughput and denitrification of nitrogen in bays and estuaries on...

274

Two decades of fish habitat restoration and bioengineering on the Fraser River estuary, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fraser River estuary is the most important estuary on Canada's Pacific coast. To achieve a net gain of fish habitat, a goal of Canada's fisheries management policy, a large number of habitat restoration projects have been conducted in the estuary since 1980. In this paper the author focuses on bioengineering aspects of some of the older projects and an

C. D. Levings

2004-01-01

275

Man-Made Radionuclides and Sedimentation in the Hudson River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently deposited fine-grained sediments in the Hudson River estuary contain radionuclides from global fallout produced by atmospheric bomb tests as well as from low-level releases of a local nuclear reactor. Accumulation rates of these nuclides are dependent on rates of sediment deposition and vary with location in the estuary by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the Hudson estuary,

H. J. Simpson; C. R. Olsen; R. M. Trier; S. C. Williams

1976-01-01

276

Bacterial and Phytoplankton Dynamics along a Trophic Gradient in a Shallow Temperate Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotrophic bacterial and phytoplankton biomass, production, specific growth rates and growth efficiencies were studied from June to October in 1996 and from February to May in 1997 along the longitudinal axis of the Urdaibai Estuary, a shallow temperate tidal estuary. Both phytoplankton and bacterial biomass showed a distinct lower to upper estuary increasing gradient. Longitudinal variations of phytoplankton biomass were

M. Revilla; A. Iriarte; I. Madariaga; E. Orive

2000-01-01

277

Potential intertidal habitat restoration sites in the Duwamish River estuary  

SciTech Connect

Restoration of wetland habitats in highly urbanized areas is generally constrained by scarcity of opportunity, adverse impacts of surrounding land use, and cost. Although areal wetland losses approach 98% in Seattle's Duwamish River estuary, the system continues to support important salmonid runs, as well as a variety of bird and mammal species. Estuarine-dependent organisms are likely limited by quality and quantity of intertidal habitat in the system. Because the long-range, estuary-wide benefit of site-specific mitigation and restoration projects is limited, it is imperative to develop estuary-wide restoration plans. Towards this end, an inventory and analysis of potential intertidal habitat restoration sites has been completed for the Duwamish River estuary. Twenty-four sites, ranging in size from 0.8 to 25 acres were identified and comparative functional potential assessed. The majority of these sites (18) occur in the upper estuary. Two sites are located in Elliott Bay, and four are located near the historic mouth of the river in the vicinity of Harbor Island. Spatial data have been developed in geographic information system (GIS) format. Other site-specific data relative to habitat restoration has also been assembled.

Tanner, C.D.

1991-12-01

278

Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Serotypes from Cochin Estuary  

PubMed Central

This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant serotypes of Escherichia coli in Cochin estuary, India. E. coli strains were isolated during the period January 2010–December 2011 from five different stations set at Cochin estuary. Water samples from five different stations in Cochin estuary were collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years. Isolates were serotyped, antibiogram-phenotyped for twelve antimicrobial agents, and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction for uid gene that codes for ?-D-glucuronidase. These E. coli strains from Cochin estuary were tested against twelve antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among them. The results revealed that more than 53.33% of the isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant. Thirteen isolates showed resistance to sulphonamides and two of them contained the sul 1 gene. Class 1 integrons were detected in two E. coli strains which were resistant to more than seven antibiotics. In the present study, O serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, and polymerase chain reaction were employed with the purpose of establishing the present distribution of multiple antibiotic-resistant serotypes, associated with E. coli isolated from different parts of Cochin estuary.

Sukumaran, Divya P.; Durairaj, Srinivasan; Abdulla, Mohamed Hatha

2012-01-01

279

Metals in sediments and benthic organisms in the Mersey estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of twelve metals were determined in sediments, seaweed ( Fucus vesiculosus), winkles ( Littorina littorea), polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), suspension feeding bivalves ( Mytilus edulis, Cerastoderma edule) and deposit feeding bivalves ( Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana) collected from the Mersey estuary between April 1980 and June 1984. Sediments and organisms in the Mersey are moderately contaminated with most of the metals measured, but mercury concentrations are consistently higher than in other United Kingdom estuaries. Comparisons with other sites in the North West of England indicate that mercury residues in organisms, though primarily dependent on sediment concentrations, are also influenced by complexation with particulate organic matter which reduces the availability of mercury. The biological availability of arsenic in Mersey sediments is similarly influenced by complexation with iron oxyhydroxides. Nereis diversicolor and Macoma balthica are the most suitable indicator species in terms of abundance and widespread distribution along the estuary, and, for the majority of metals, tissue concentrations increase upstream, reflecting corresponding gradients in sediment contamination. However mid-estuarine peaks for tin, chromium copper and nickel in Nereis indicate more localised inputs to the estuary. Correlations between lead in sediments and organisms are poor; it is suggested that hydrophilic alkyl lead compounds may be the predominant biologically available forms. Progressive reductions in mercury contamination in sediments and mercury and lead in organisms have occurred in recent years, which coincide with efforts to reduce inputs of these metals to teh Mersey estuary.

Langston, W. J.

1986-08-01

280

Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY09 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2009 (FY09) for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS).

Johnson, Gary E.

2009-10-22

281

A review of solar-powered Stirling engines and low temperature differential Stirling engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a literature review on solar-powered Stirling engines and low temperature differential Stirling engines technology. A number of research works on the development of Stirling engines, solar-powered Stirling engines, and low temperature differential Stirling engines is discussed. The aim of this review is to find a feasible solution which may lead to a preliminary conceptual design of a

Bancha Kongtragool; Somchai Wongwises

2003-01-01

282

Dissolved Humic Matter in Arctic Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the German-Russian bilateral SIRRO(Siberian River Runoff)-project we studied the distribution of dissolved humic matter isolated by XAD-8 in the estuarine waters of the Ob and Yenisei rivers. The relative contributions of humic matter carbon to total DOC decreased from 61-77 percent in the river freshwater endmember to 35-40 percent in the marine waters of the open Kara Sea at salinities 33 psu. Humic carbon mixed conservatively in the Yenisei and non-conservatively in the Ob, where partial removal was indicated in the low salinity range. Changes in the relative contribution of humic matter to different molecular weight classes of DOM (ultrafiltration cutoffs 150 KDa, 450 KDa, 800 KDa) were studied along the salinity gradient in the Yenisei. High molecular weight DOM is relatively enriched in humics in fresh-water compared to sea-water HMW-DOM. Low molecular weight DOM is realtively enriched in humics in sea-water compared to fresh-water LMW-DOM. Throughout the estuary humic matter is depleted in 13C and nitrogen compared to total DOM, reflecting a dominant soil source. We estimate an annual input of 5 Tg humic matter carbon by the two rivers into the Kara Sea.

Spitzy, A.; Koehler, H.; Ertl, S.

2002-12-01

283

Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility  

SciTech Connect

This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

1998-06-01

284

An analysis of the trophic network of a macrotidal estuary: the Seine Estuary (Eastern Channel, Normandy, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steady state, mass balance, trophic network has been constructed to illustrate the flow of energy in the Seine Estuary by using Network Analysis and Ecopath methods. This ecosystem shows 15 compartments from primary producers to the top consumers (fish and birds). This study has been compared with other ecosystems of comparable nature located in North America (Narragansett, Chesapeake, Delaware Bays), Europe (Ems Estuary, Dublin Bay and Bay of Somme), and South Africa (Swartkops Estuary) in which analysis of trophic network has been applied with similar methods. The Seine Estuary shows values of some global parameters and indices either close to large North American bays and a South African estuary characterised by the complexity of their trophic network, or values near European bays and estuaries, or else remain typical of the Seine estuary. All of this reflects specific functioning of the Seine Estuary which can be explained by the analysis of the dominant food web. In the upstream sector an important pelagic food web was found correlated with highest primary production, especially planktonic, which is rapidly consumed by an abundant zooplankton and suprabenthos (Mysidacae and Decapoda Crustacea). This reveals the dominant consumer role of this sector. The external fluvial inputs (277.80 gC m -2 y -1) are transferred to the downstream sector which produces the major export (548.43 gC m -2 y -1), in parallel with the low consumption and efficiency of dominant benthos component from its bentho-pelagic food web. This reflects the dominant exporter role of this sector. In the Seine Estuary low values of detritivory index D/ H (2.52), recycling index FCI (16.1%) and connectance (0.24) were found associated with high values of P/ B ratio (38.2%), sum of exports (548.43 gC m -2 y -1) and the great difference between ratio of ascendency to capacity development A/ C and internal ratio Ai/ Ci. This shows the lack of a dominant resource as in Delaware Bay, that the state of development is different from a mature ecosystem, and the dependance on external connections similar to the Bay of Somme, another ecosystem of Eastern Channel, France.

Rybarczyk, Hervé; Elka??m, Bernard

2003-12-01

285

Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited  

SciTech Connect

To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for Cu, 55--89% for Cd, 53--85% for Ni, and 53--90% for Zn over a period of 23 years. These reductions appear to reflect improvements in controlling discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants since the Clean Water Act was enacted in 1972. In contrast, levels of dissolved nutrients (PO{sub 4}) have remained relatively constant during the same period of time, suggesting that wastewater treatment plant improvements in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan area have not been as effective at reducing nutrient levels within the estuary. While more advanced wastewater treatment could potentially reduce the levels of Ag and PO{sub 4} along the estuary, these improvements would have a more limited effect on the levels of other trace metals.

Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A.; Gill, G.A.

1999-10-15

286

Wood pellet feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study effort was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using pelletized wood as an alternative fuel supply while retaining the capabilities of returning to the use of coal without interrupting steam production. Pelletized wood fuel was fired in two of four boilers rated at 80,000 pounds of steam per hour each. No modifications to the existing systems were required

Dohrer

1979-01-01

287

A Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study has produced a sporozoite-induced rodent malaria test system that is based on the mortality rather than on the morbidity of negative controls. The test is performed with the NK65 strain of Plasmodium berghei, Anopheles stephensi and IC...

D. S. Rane

1975-01-01

288

Does boat traffic cause displacement of fish in estuaries?  

PubMed

Estuaries are increasingly under threat from a variety of human impacts. Recreational and commercial boat traffic in urban areas may represent a significant disturbance to fish populations and have particularly adverse effects in spatially restricted systems such as estuaries. We examined the effects of passing boats on the abundance of different sized fish within the main navigation channel of an estuary using high resolution sonar (DIDSON). Both the smallest (100-300 mm) and largest (>501 mm) size classes had no change in their abundance following the passage of boats. However, a decrease in abundance of mid-sized fish (301-500 mm) occurred following the passage of boats. This displacement may be attributed to a number of factors including noise, bubbles and the rapidly approaching object of the boat itself. In highly urbanised estuarine systems, regular displacement by boat traffic has the potential to have major negative population level effects on fish assemblages. PMID:23938471

Becker, Alistair; Whitfield, Alan K; Cowley, Paul D; Järnegren, Johanna; Næsje, Tor F

2013-10-15

289

Hydrology of major estuaries and sounds of North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrology-related problems associated with North Carolina 's major estuaries and sounds include contamination of some estuaries with municipal and industrial wastes and drainage from adjacent, intensively farmed areas, and nuisance-level algal blooms. In addition, there is excessive shoaling in some navigation channels, salt-water intrusion into usually fresh estuarine reaches, too high or too-low salinities in nursery areas for various estuarine species, and flood damage due to hurricanes. The Cape Fear River is the only major North Carolina estuary having a direct connection to the sea. Short-term flow throughout most of its length is dominated by ocean tides. Freshwater entering the major estuaries is, where not contaminated, of acceptable quality for drinking with minimum treatment. However, iron concentrations in excess of 0.3 milligrams per liter sometimes occur and water draining from swampy areas along the Coastal Plain is often highly colored, but these problems may be remedied with proper treatment. Nuisance-level algal blooms have been a recurring problem on the lower estuarine reaches of the Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Chowan Rivers where nutrients (compounds of phosphorous and nitrogen) are abundant. The most destructive blooms tend to occur in the summer months during periods of low freshwater discharge and relatively high water temperatures. Saltwater intrusion occurs from time to time in all major estuaries except the Roanoke River, where releases from Roanoke Rapids Lake and other reservoirs during otherwise low-flow periods effectively block saline water from the estuary. New shoaling materials found in the lower channelized reaches of the Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers are primarily derived, not from upstream sources, but from nearby shore erosion, from slumping of material adjacent to the dredged channels, from old spoil areas, or from ocean-derived sediments carried upstream by near-bottom density currents.

Giese, G. L.; Wilder, Hugh B.; Parker, Garald G., Jr.

1985-01-01

290

Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of [sup 224]Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on [sup 224]Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of [sup 228]Ra in the estuary and produced the highest [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the [sup 228]Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of [sup 224]Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, [sup 224]Ra and [sup 228]Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the [sup 232]Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States))

1993-02-15

291

Impacts of pesticides in a Central California estuary.  

PubMed

Recent and past studies have documented the prevalence of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds in California. While toxic concentrations of these pesticides have been found in freshwater systems, there has been little research into their impacts in marine receiving waters. Our study investigated pesticide impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary, which provides critical habitat to numerous aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species on the central California coast. Runoff from irrigated agriculture constitutes a significant portion of Santa Maria River flow during most of the year, and a number of studies have documented pesticide occurrence and biological impacts in this watershed. Our study extended into the Santa Maria watershed coastal zone and measured pesticide concentrations throughout the estuary, including the water column and sediments. Biological effects were measured at the organism and community levels. Results of this study suggest the Santa Maria River estuary is impacted by current-use pesticides. The majority of water samples were highly toxic to invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), and chemistry evidence suggests toxicity was associated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, or mixtures of both classes of pesticides. A high percentage of sediment samples were also toxic in this estuary, and sediment toxicity occurred when mixtures of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid pesticides exceeded established toxicity thresholds. Based on a Relative Benthic Index, Santa Maria estuary stations where benthic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed were degraded. Impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary were likely due to the proximity of this system to Orcutt Creek, the tributary which accounts for most of the flow to the lower Santa Maria River. Water and sediment samples from Orcutt Creek were highly toxic to invertebrates due to mixtures of the same pesticides measured in the estuary. This study suggests that the same pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides that have been shown to cause water and sediment toxicity in urban and agriculture water bodies throughout California, have the potential to affect estuarine habitats. The results establish baseline data in the Santa Maria River estuary to allow evaluation of ecosystem improvement as management initiatives to reduce pesticide runoff are implemented in this watershed. PMID:24464329

Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer; Smalling, Kelly; Kuivila, Kathy; Hamilton, Mary; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Tjeerdema, Ron

2014-03-01

292

Modeling pesticide fate in a small tidal estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The exposure analysis modeling system (EXAMS), a pesticide fate model developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was modified to model the fate of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor in a small tidally dominated estuary (Bath Creek) in North Carolina, USA where freshwater inflow accounts for only 3% of the total flow. The modifications simulated the changes that occur during the tidal cycle in the estuary, scenarios that are not possible with the original EXAMS model. Two models were created within EXAMS, a steady-state model and a time-variant tidally driven model. The steady-state model accounted for tidal flushing by simply altering freshwater input to yield an estuary residence time equal to that measured in Bath Creek. The tidal EXAMS model explicitly incorporated tidal flushing by modifying the EXAMS code to allow for temporal changes in estuary physical attributes (e.g., volume). The models were validated with empirical measurements of atrazine and metolachlor concentrations in the estuary shortly after herbicide application in nearby fields and immediately following a rain event. Both models provided excellent agreement with measured concentrations. The steady-state EXAMS model accurately predicted atrazine concentrations in the middle of the estuary over the first 3 days and under-predicted metolachlor by a factor of 2-3. The time-variant, tidally driven EXAMS model accurately predicted the rise and plateau of both herbicides over the 6-day measurement period. We have demonstrated the ability of these modified EXAMS models to be useful in predicting pesticide fate and exposure in small tidal estuaries. This is a significant improvement and expansion of the application of EXAMS, and given the wide use of EXAMS for surface water quality modeling by both researchers and regulators and the ability of EXAMS to interface with terrestrial models (e.g., pesticide root zone model) and bioaccumulation models, we now have an easily-accessible and widely accepted means of modeling chemical fate in estuaries. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

McCarthy, A. M.; Bales, J. D.; Cope, W. G.; Shea, D.

2007-01-01

293

The Ob Estuary (Kara Sea) Coastal Dynamics Interannual Variability Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several promising gas fields in the Ob Estuary. For their development comprehensive research, including coastal dynamics assessment, is required. To estimate current and speak about future coastal dynamics rates we need to investigate its interannual variability connecting it with variability of major coastal dynamics factors. It is known that in this region one of the main coastal dynamics factors is wave action, which, in turn, depends on wind velocity and direction. Wind data for ice-free period were derived from nearby hydro-meteorological stations. The research was conducted for two sections of the Ob Estuary coast. One section is located on the eastern coast of the estuary (Taz peninsula); the other is located on the western one (Yamal peninsula). Each of these sections is 10 km length. For key-sites of the coast wave-dangerous rhumbs were determined. For ice-free period of each year accumulated summer storm duration (ASSD) - number of hours with strong winds (?10 m/s) from wave-dangerous directions - was calculated for both sections of coast. Supposing that coast retreat rate is proportional to number of hours with strong winds from wave-dangerous rhumbs, we can approximately assess interannual variability of coast retreat rate. Our research revealed that: 1)There are significant (from hours to a few hundreds of hours) differences in ASSD from year to year due to short ice-free period and high variability of wind velocity and direction. So, we can expect sharp interannual differences in coastal retreat rate. 2)The duration of strong winds from wave-dangerous rhumbs during ice-free period is more on the eastern coast of the estuary than on the western. This goes from the predominance of northern and northwestern winds during ice-free period. These winds cause waves leading to coastal erosion on the eastern coast of estuary and don't cause such waves on the western one. However, we can't draw conclusions about the comparative rates of coastal erosion on the western and eastern coasts of the estuary, because they are significantly different in morphology and lithology. 3)The specific years with frequent strong winds from wave-dangerous rhumbs during ice-free period on the western and eastern coasts of the Ob Estuary don't concur. That means, that in the same year, we can see accelerated retreat rate on the one coast of the estuary and stabilization on the other.

Kopa-Ovdienko, N.; Volobueva, N.; Ogorodov, S.

2012-04-01

294

Rhenium and Molybdenum in Rivers and Estuaries.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their redox-sensitive nature, the geochemical cycles of Re and Mo are linked to the global organic carbon cycle. Reducing sediments constitute a globally important sink and weathering of organic-rich sediments is responsible for a large portion of the Re and - to a lesser extent - Mo flux to the oceans (Colodner et al., 1993; Jaffe et al., 2002). Riverine concentrations of Re and Mo are a function of the river basin lithology, but are also likely to be affected by anthropogenic contributions (Colodner et al., 1995). Current estimates of global natural riverine Re flux are restricted to single analyses of four major rivers, which characterize only 23%\\ of the global freshwater flux (Colodner et al., 1993). Annual variability of Re and Mo concentrations in rivers has not been studied. A single study of Re concentrations along the salinity gradient of the Amazon shelf is suggestive of conservative mixing, but scatter in the data do not allow to exclude the possibility of Re addition in the low-salinity end of the profile (Colodner et al., 1993). Careful evaluation of samples from the Hudson River estuary using a variety of extraction techniques indicates that spike-sample equilibration was not fully achieved using commonly used methods. We have therefore developed a simple, clean and efficient method of extracting Re from filtered water samples. Our method utilizes syringe filtration, prolonged heating to achieve spike-sample equilibration, batch equilibration with TEVA resin, and extraction of Re and Mo using syringe filtration. Rhenium concentrations in the Hudson, Housatonic and Connecticut rivers are 38 pM, 6.6 pM and 14 pM, respectively, much higher than the estimated global average of 2.1 pM (Colodner et al., 1993). Molybdenum concentrations are 4.6 nM, 5.5 nM, 7.8 nM, respectively. These rivers drain basins of Precambrian basement as well as predominantly Paleozoic sediments and have been substantially urbanized. Data for a salinity profile along the Hudson River estuary are suggestive of conservative mixing of Mo. However, data for Re indicate non-conservative mixing with a significant Re source between 5 and 12 psu. This feature could reflect an anthropogenic point source near Croton Point. Alternatively, it could be caused by a process that transfers Re, but not Mo, from the particulate into the operationally defined dissolved phase. Preliminary data for a Mississippi delta salinity profile suggest projected Re and Mo concentrations of about 90 pM and 26 nM for the freshwater end member, respectively. Our results indicate that the surficial Re cycle is more complex then previously thought. It requires further evaluation before a global estimate of natural riverine Re flux can be accurately constrained. A revision of the marine residence time of Re may be required.

Walker, B. D.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

2004-12-01

295

Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

2008-02-05

296

The chemical oceanographic consequences of environmental restoration projects in the Golden Horn estuary (Marmara Sea, Turkey).  

PubMed

The input of industrial and domestic waste to the horizontal circulation in the Golden Horn Estuary of Marmara Sea has resulted in one of the most polluted estuaries in the past. Consequently, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in both the surface and bottom waters decreased toward to the estuary head during 1998-2005. In contrast, the total suspended solids content of the surface water decreased toward to the estuary mouth. However, construction of the operational collector system surrounding the estuary during the process of rehabilitation projects, combined with the opening of the middle pontoons of the Valide Sultan Bridge, resulted in gradually improved water quality of the estuary with a concomitant decrease in pollution. However, phytoplankton blooms and eutrophication persist especially in the innermost part of the Golden Horn in 2005. The region from the estuary mouth up to Camialti has a dynamic structure, and sufficient circulation seemingly occurs in this part of the Golden Horn. PMID:19353286

Balkis, N; Müftüo?lu, E; Aksu, A; Sur, H I; Apak, R

2010-05-01

297

Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

Thorhaug, A.

1980-03-01

298

Spatial and temporal flushing time approach in estuaries influenced by river and tide. An application in Suances Estuary (Northern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Water Policies around the world establish the need to manage the aquatic systems through the use of water bodies, a hydromorphological descriptor such as the flushing time may be utilized as a good homogeneity and water quality criterion to distinguish between different types of water bodies. In order to achieve this task, a methodological procedure has been proposed involving a hydrodynamic forcing analysis, an approach to calculate flushing time and a sensitivity analysis of the results applied to the Suances Estuary. This method allows taking into account the different spatial regions on an estuary and the temporal variations of the main forcing. Consequently, the role of bathymetry, freshwater river inflows and oceanic tides on the flushing time is investigated using a two-dimensional numerical model. The hydrodynamic module integrates the depth-averaged mass and momentum equations in the time and space domains as well the transport module solves the depth-averaged advection-diffusion equation. Both modules were calibrated and validated using field data collected during spring and neap tidal cycles. Water levels and current velocities were used in the hydrodynamic module while salinities were compared in the transport module. In order to characterize the spatial variation in water renewal conditions, several boxes were selected along the estuary to evaluate the flushing time. The mass reduction is monitored in time and the flushing time at each part of the estuary was computed for several scenarios and analyzed with a multi-sensitivity analysis. Most of the river estuary basins in Northern Spain are characterized by their small surface area, short length and steepness, leading to a rapid hydrological response to rainfall and, consequently, a high variability in the river flow. During extensive dry periods during which the river flow is very small, pollutants could remain for long periods in the estuary posing an environmental risk.

Bárcena, Javier F.; García, Andrés; Gómez, Aina G.; Álvarez, César; Juanes, José A.; Revilla, José A.

2012-10-01

299

Tripropellant Engine Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of modifying the space shuttle main engine (SSME) for dual mode operation was investigated. Various high power cycle engine configurations derived from the SSME were configurations that will allow sequential burning of LOX/hydrocarbon and LOX/hydrogen were studied in order to identify concepts that make maximum use of SSME hardware and best satisfy the dual mode booster engine system application. Engine cycles were formulated for LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 propellants. Flow rates and operating cycles were established and the adaptability of the major components of the SSME was evaluated.

Wheeler, D. B.

1977-01-01

300

REP Concept Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) may have the potential to provide certain advantages, over conventional chemical propulsion, for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigations for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a study that investigates the concept s feasibility by performing a preliminary conceptual design of an REP-based spacecraft for a design reference mission. The mission utilizes a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating for a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to ensure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current and impending technological advances, this study finds that at a conceptual design level a small body REP orbiter/explorer appears to be feasible for the design reference mission selected for this study.

Edwards, Daryl A.; Ensworth, Clinton B. F.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Wiersma, Stephen C.; Adamsen, Paul B., II; Frank, Larry

2004-01-01

301

Job Enrichment Application to Civilian Engineers in Base Civil Engineering Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examined the feasibility of applying job enrichment techniques to civilian engineers within Base Civil Engineering (BCE) organizations. Job enrichment techniques are managerial efforts to improve work environments and to motivate employees. ...

C. P. Smiley

1982-01-01

302

Circulation and Salinity Distribution in the Rio Guayas Estuary, Ecuador.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations of velocity and salinity profiles over a tidal cycle were made throughout the Guayas esturine complex. Bihourly maps of the tidal current field show a nearly 2-hour phase shift from the estuary mouth to Guayaquil and a slack-water/high-tide p...

A. Siripong D. Conlon J. Dantoro S. P. Murray

1975-01-01

303

Aging and sediment characteristics of northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight major estuarine systems present along the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico serve as primary depositional basins for all rivers draining into the gulf from central Louisiana eastward to the Florida peninsula. These estuaries consist of Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrews Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Pensacola Bay, Perdido Bay, Mobile Bay, Mississippi sound, and Lake Pontchartrainn. Because each receives sediment

W. C. Isphording; F. D. Imsand; G. C. Flowers

1989-01-01

304

Minor elements in sediments of Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of copper, zinc, chromium, lead, cadmium, and phosphorus were obtained from 81 samples of unconsolidated estuarine sediment from Great Bay, New Hampshire. Dispersal of aqueous chromium from localized industrial effluent is believed responsible for an increase in sediment chromium throughout the entire estuary. High phosphorus concentrations exist in sediment near the outfalls from several waste-water treatment plants. There is

Peter B. Armstrong; Gary M. Hanson; Henri E. Gaudette

1976-01-01

305

STATISTICAL SUMMARY EMAP-ESTUARIES VIRGINIAN PROVINCE - 1991  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual monitoring of indicators of the ecological condition of bays and estuaries within the Virginian Province (Cape Cod, MA to Cape Henry, VA) was conducted by the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) during July, August, and September, 1991. ata we...

306

Estuarine habitat utilization by birds in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

A wide variety of bird species are highly dependent on intertidal wetland habitats. Because of this dependency, birds are viewed as important indicators of wetland structure and function. Wetlands in Yaquina Bay along with the tidal wetlands in other Pacific coastal estuaries r...

307

Ecological Condition of Estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gulf of Mexico is a vast natural resource encompassing the coastal areas of western Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, as well as a portion of Mexico. Many estuaries flow into the Gulf of Mexico and serve as nursery grounds for fish,...

J. K. Summers

1999-01-01

308

FIELD SAMPLING IN ESTUARIES: THE RELATIONSHIP OF SCALE TO VARIABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial/temporal scaling problem (i.e., fitting a given research question to the dimensions of variability of the study area) is particularly pronounced in highly variable systems such as estuaries. Long-term, multidisciplinary studies in the Apalachicola Bay system were used...

309

BENTHIC NUTRIENT FLUX IN A SMALL ESTUARY IN NORTHWESTERNFLORIDA (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Benthic Nutrient Flux in a Small Estuary in Northwestern Florida(USA).Gulf and Caribbean Research 18, 15-25, 2006. Benthic nutrient fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite/nitrate (NO2-+NO3-), phosphate (PO4-), and dissolved silica (DSi) were measured in Escambia Bay, an estuar...

310

DAILY STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Daily mean discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named ...

311

PEAK STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Peak discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named by sta...

312

ANIMAL-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The mission of the Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch (EPA, Newport, OR) is to determine the effects of habitat alteration by stressors on ecological resources in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries. Research being conducted in support of this mission includes identifying critical hab...

313

COASTAL BEND BAYS & ESTUARIES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Inc. (CBBEP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)organization. The CBBEP project area encompasses 12 counties coincident with the Coastal Bend Council of Governments and extends from the Land-Cut in the Laguna Madre, through the Corpus Christi Bay s...

314

MOBILE BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

The Mobile Bay National Estuary Program's Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan was finalized on April 22, 2002. The guidance document for the preparation of this Implementation Review states "EPA, in recognition that each NEP may have different areas of emphasis, streng...

315

Approaches for Development of Nutrient Criteria in Oregon Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

316

Forward for book entitled "Estuaries: Classification, Ecology, and Human Impacts"  

EPA Science Inventory

The author was introduced to the science of estuaries as a graduate student in the early 1980s, studying the ecology of oyster populations in Chesapeake Bay. To undertake this research, he needed to learn not only about oyster biology, but also about the unique physical and chemi...

317

Water Quantity and Quality Research for the Rhine Meuse Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of boundary conditions and changes in the tidal area on Rhine Meuse estuary water quantity and quality were studied. Tests carried out under cyclic and under time series conditions of several weeks show the importance of the interactions of ha...

A. Roelfzema M. Karelese A. J. Struijk M. Adriaanse

1984-01-01

318

Waterquantity and -Quality Research for the Rhine-Meuse Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In commission of the Dutch Government (Ministry of Public Works), the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory carries out a long term research program on the water quantity and water quality of the Rhine-Meuse estuary. The research program has to provide the necessar...

A. Roelfzema M. Karelse A. J. Struijk M. Adriaanse

1984-01-01

319

BIVALVES AS BIOMONITORS IN THE NEUSE RIVER AND ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

In eastern North Carolina the Neuse River and Neuse Estuary have been heavily impacted by the byproducts of row crop and livestock agriculture, forestry operations, and industry as well as effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Non-point pollutants derived from thes...

320

Biological Uptake of Dissolved Silica in the Amazon River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 25 percent of the dissolved silica carried by the Amazon River is depleted through diatom production in the inner estuary. Annual production of opaline frustules is estimated to be 15 million tons. However, few diatoms accumulate in modern shelf sediments and chemical recycling appears to be slight. Instead, many frustules apparently are transported landward into the river system, where

John D. Milliman; Edward Boyle

1975-01-01

321

Metals in the sediments along the Hudson River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in bottom and suspended sediments from the ocean up the Hudson River estuary for 70 km were analyzed. The bottom sediments has a metal concentration maximum in the harbor. Everywhere studied, the metal concentrations in suspension are much higher than in the bottom sediments by 30

R Gibbs

1994-01-01

322

Sources and Loading of Nitrogen to U.S. Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous assessments of land-based nitrogen loading and sources to U.S. estuaries have been limited to estimates for larger systems with watersheds at the scale of 8-digit HUCs and larger, in part due to the coarse resolution of available data, including estuarine watershed bound...

323

Numerical study on salinity stratification in the Oujiang River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations of current, salt intrusion and vertical stratification under different conditions of river flow and wind in the Oujiang River Estuary (ORE) were investigated in this article using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was verified against water level variation, velocity, and salinity variations in June 2005. The simulation results agreed well with measured data. Six sensitivity

Heng-zhi JIANG; Yong-ming SHEN; Shou-dong WANG

2009-01-01

324

Saltwater intrusion in the Pearl River Estuary during winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intensive observation and a three-dimensional finite-difference model of Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code were used to study saltwater intrusion in the Pearl River Estuary. The model simulation was carried out for December 2007 to February 2008, which covered the in situ observation. The model was forced by observed winds, tidal elevation at open boundaries, and river discharges from eight inlets

Wei Zhou; Lin Luo; Hongzhou Xu; Dongxiao Wang

2012-01-01

325

Geochemical processes in the Yenisei River and Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the Russian-German project “Siberian River-Runoff (SIRRO)” the major element composition of the dissolved load and the major and trace element composition of particulate load and bottom sediment of the Yenisei River and Estuary were analyzed and examined in context of the basin lithology and climate> In addition, the processes controlling the transformation of the river load

B. Beeskow; V. Rachold

2003-01-01

326

A Temporarily Anoxic Water Mass in an Alaska Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The note reports on the occurrence of a temporary anoxic condition in Little Port Walter Estuary on southern Baranoff Island, Alaska. The condition was observed on 4 October 1971, and the mass of anoxic water was abruptly flushed out of the bay sometime b...

J. R. Knull

1973-01-01

327

Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary for 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eelgrass in the Great Bay Estuary in 2009 was once again present only in Great Bay itself and in Portsmouth Harbor. For the second year in a row, there was no eelgrass in Little Bay or in the Piscataqua River. In 2009, there was a continued loss of eelgra...

F. T. Short

2010-01-01

328

Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2003. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is an essential habitat for the Great Bay Estuary (GBE) because it provides food for wintering waterfowl and habitat for juvenile fish. Eelgrass is the basis of an estuarine food chain that supports many of the recreationally, co...

F. Short

2005-01-01

329

Eelgrass Distribution in the Great Bay Estuary 2004. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is an essential habitat for the Great Bay Estuary (GBE) because it provides food for wintering waterfowl and habitat for juvenile fish and shellfish. Eelgrass is the basis of an estuarine food chain that supports many of the recr...

F. Short

2006-01-01

330

APPENDIX C - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON FLUSHING IN ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water residence time is an important determinant of the sensitivity of the response of estuaries and other water bodies to nutrient loading. A variety of terms such as residence time, flushing time, transit time, turnover time, and age are used to describe time scales for transpo...

331

Reference Condition Approach for Numeric Nutrient Criteria for Oregon Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

332

MORRO BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM, FIRST IR 2002  

EPA Science Inventory

The Morro Bay National Estuary Program is a "Tier V program and is, therefore, required to submit a "full review" of its CCMP implementation progress and overall status of the program in 2002. The MBNEP1s Local Policy Committee completed and approved the CCMP in mid-2001; the CCM...

333

Primary Productivity Regime and Nutrient Removal in the Danube Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary productivity regime, as well as the distribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients and particulate organic matter in the Danube estuary, were investigated during several cruises at different discharge regimes of the Danube River. The shallowness of the upper surface layer due to insignificant tidal mixing and strong stratification of the Danube estuary, as well as the high nutrient concentrations, are favourable for elevated primary production. The incident light levels at the bottom of the upper surface layer of the water column (0·5-3·0 m) were generally higher than 20% of the surface irradiance. Elevated chlorophyll (Chl) aconcentrations with maxima at mid salinities were found during each survey. Within the upper mixed layer estimated primary production of 0·2-4·4 g m -2day -1is very high compared with estuaries of other major world rivers. Mixing diagrams of dissolved inorganic nutrients reveal removal of significant quantities of nutrients during estuarine mixing. These observations were consistent with the distribution of particular organic matter, which was negatively correlated to the nutrient distribution during each survey. C:Chl aratios, as well as the elevated estimated production, indicate that biological transformation processes govern the nutrient distribution in this estuary.

Humborg, C.

1997-11-01

334

The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

1986-01-01

335

Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower [sup

Willard S. Moore; James F. Todd

1993-01-01

336

Community structure and productivity of the Cornwallis Estuary, Minas Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results of a seasonal study of the pelagic community at a station on the outer edge of the Cornwallis Estuary suggest that the seasonal variation in plankton community respiration (PCR) is related to organic inputs from nearby salt marshes. Annual phytoplankton production is low (<30 g C m-2 y-1) and exhibits a seasonal cycle very different from PCR. There

Michael Brylinsky; Graham R. Daborn

1987-01-01

337

Phytoplankton diversity and ecology in estuaries of southeastern NSW, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton, as one of the most important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, have been widely used to indicate the health of such ecosystems, but they are a poorly understood component of coastal plant communities in Australia. The primary objective of this study was to address a number of gaps in the current knowledge of phytoplankton in the estuaries of southeastern

Dongyan Liu

2008-01-01

338

THE ATLANTIC STURGEON, ACIPENSER OXYRHYNCHUS, IN THE DELAWARE RIVER ESTUARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipemeroxyrhynchus, captured in the Delaware River estuary from 1958 through 1980 were obtained from the literature, unpublished data, and logs maintained by commercial fishermen who took Atlantic sturgeon incidental to their operations for other species. During the period reviewed, there were 130 Atlantic sturgeon reported captured; 64 in commercially fished gill nets and 66 incidental to

HAROLD M. BRUNDAGE III; ROBERT E. MEADOWS

339

New perspectives on radium behavior within a subterranean estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, radium isotopes have been frequently applied as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The unique radium signature of SGD is acquired within the subterranean estuary, a mixing zone between fresh groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers, yet little is known about what controls Ra cycling in this system. The focus of this study was to examine

Meagan Eagle Gonneea; Paul J. Morris; Henrieta Dulaiova; Matthew A. Charette

2008-01-01

340

The behaviour of uranium and radium in an inverse estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spencer Gulf in South Australia is an inverse estuary, where an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the absence of major rivers lead to a well defined horizontal salinity gradient from 36‰ near its entrance to about 46‰ at its head. The excess of salt is exported annually from the gulf as a gravity current moving along the sea floor

H. Herbert Veeh; Willard S. Moore; Stephen V. Smith

1995-01-01

341

ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF ESTUARIES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gulf of Mexico is a vast natural resource that encompasses the coastal areas of western Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, as well as a portion of Mexico. Many estuaries flow into the Gulf of Mexico and serve as nursery grounds for fish, habitat for a wide va...

342

Fish Diseases of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concern of fisheries managers over disease problems that appear in important sport and commercial fishes in the Tar-Pamlico Estuary was the reason for the study. Through a monitoring program in the Tar-Pamlico River the investigators assessed the occu...

E. J. Noga M. J. Dykstra J. F. Levine

1989-01-01

343

ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE ESTUARIES OF OREGON AND WASHINGTON  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries are bodies of water that receive freshwater and sediment from rivers and saltwater from the oceans. They are transition zones between the fresh water of a river and the salty environment of the sea. This interaction produces a unique environment that supports wildlife...

344

ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF VERACRUZ, MX ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an international technology transfer activity between EPA's Office of Research and Development and the state of Veracruz's Sub-secretary of the Environment, 50 stations within estuaries along the gulf coast of the state of Veracruz MX, were sampled during June and July...

345

ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Macauley, John, Hector A. Vasquez, George Craven and P. Thomas Heitmuller. In press. Assessing the Ecological Condition of Veracruz, Mexico Estuaries (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL...

346

Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from industries have given rise to a gradient in concentration of metals in estuarine sediments. Metal accumulation initiated by precipitation of iron

K. K. Balachandran; C. M. Lalu Raj; M. Nair; T. Joseph; P. Sheeba; P. Venugopal

2005-01-01

347

Particulate metals contamination in the Kishon River estuary, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected along the axis of the Kishon River, its estuary and Haifa Bay were analysed for trace metal concentrations together with measurements of water density, pH and dissolved oxygen. The concentrations of particulate Cd, Zn and Cu generally increased from the upper Kishon system (upstream from Tzipori-Kishon Junction) downstream and decreased from the Kishon Harbour seaward,

Barak Herut; Nurit Kress

1997-01-01

348

Icebreaker Feasibility Design Computer Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer program determines the feasibility of producing an icebreaker having a given set of dimensions (input) which will satisfy given icebreaking requirements and other principal operational requirements. A ship is considered feasible if it can sat...

G. E. Hirschberg J. Meakin

1967-01-01

349

The stirling engine for vehicle propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance data of experimental Stirling engines are considered along with questions of exhaust-gas composition, engine noise, engine volume and weight, engine control, and the engine-starting process. The Stirling engine can use practically any liquid or gaseous fuel for its operation. It is found that technically a use of the Stirling engine in motor vehicles is feasible. Economic questions related to an introduction of the Stirling engine are discussed along with possible new developments which could improve the economic situation in favor of a use of Stirling engine.

Kuhlman, P.

1978-01-01

350

Spawning of Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolusin the Mondego Estuary, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries of the Iberian Peninsula west coast are preferential spawning areas of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus(L.). This is an unusual reproductive strategy, since pelagic spawnings inside estuaries are uncommon. In order to contribute to the understanding of this reproductive strategy, a study of adult and planktonic phases of anchovy was undertaken in the Mondego river estuary (Portugal), where this species spawns almost exclusively in a brackish area of the upper estuary. This paper focuses on the daily period of spawning, the health condition of spawners, the batch fecundity, the spawning rate and the parental investment on reproduction. The daily spawning of the anchovy took place at dusk and during the first hours of darkness. Photoperiod appears to be the most important factor determining the beginning of the daily spawning. The differences found in the absolute batch fecundity between age classes were only due to the differences in the average weight of each age class: no differences were found in the relative batch fecundity. During the reproductive season, the batch fecundity decreased, which reflects a reduction in the parental investment in reproduction due to the exhaustion of energetic reserves. With only one exception, the majority (>85%) of females caught in each sampling date spawned or would spawn simultaneously, i.e. in the same day. This high fraction of simultaneously spawning females, together with both the predominance of males in almost all samples and the absence of immature and atretic females, indicated that sampled anchovies only represent a small fraction of the overall anchovy population, from which spawning schools migrate frequently to the upper estuary and return.

Ribeiro, Rui; Reis, João; Santos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.

1996-04-01

351

Feasibility of Interfacing POD (Performance Oriented Design) and PSL/PSA (Problem Statement Language/Problem Statement Analyzer).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the feasibility of and requirements for interfacing two powerful software engineering tools - POD(Performance Oriented Design) and PSL/PSA (Problem Statement Language/Problem Statement Analyzer. POD is a software engineering tool for...

J. P. Buzen R. P. Goldberg D. E. Hall K. Hua A. M. Langer

1980-01-01

352

Explaining the Physical Relation of Estuaries Shape and Bankfull Flood Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating flood discharge in the tidal region of estuaries is always difficult as most of the available gauging stations are installed much further upstream outside the tidal region. Inside the tidal region, it is hard to observe the river discharge accurately. In the morphology and hydrodynamic studies of estuaries, it is known that river discharge is one of the important parameters. Unfortunately, research on morphology and hydrodynamics in estuaries is done separately. Until today, little research has been done to identify the relationship between these two processes in alluvial estuaries, and to understand why certain relations in nature exist. This study aims to discover the physical explanation for the relation between the geometrical characteristics of estuaries and flood discharge. The relationship between the ideal estuary depth and fresh water discharge was analyzed in 13 estuaries around the world using a stepwise regression and the outcome was compared to Lacey's theory of hydraulic geometry. From the analysis, it shows that the ideal depth of the estuaries is a function to the bankfull flood discharge to the power of 1/3 to 1/2 which indicates an agreement with Lacey's formula. In order to verify the accuracy of the relation, more data on the morphology and hydrodynamics are required. Thus, existing and new measurement data from estuaries worldwide will be collected and compiled to strengthen the reliability of the finding. Keywords: estuaries, geometry, flood discharge, alluvial, tidal

Anak Gisen, Jacqueline Isabella; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

2013-04-01

353

Temporal changes in physical, chemical and biological sediment parameters in a tropical estuary after mangrove deforestation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dated sediment cores taken near the head and mouth of a tropical estuary, Nha-Phu/Binh Cang, in south central Viet Nam were analyzed for changes over time in physical, chemical and biological proxies potentially influenced by removal of the mangrove forest lining the estuary. A time-series of satellite images was obtained, which showed that the depletion of the mangrove forest at the head of the estuary was relatively recent. Most of the area was converted into aquaculture ponds, mainly in the late 1990's. The sediment record showed a clear increase in sedimentation rate at the head of the estuary at the time of mangrove deforestation and a change in diatom assemblages in the core from the mouth of the estuary indicating an increase in the water column turbidity of the entire estuary at the time of the mangrove deforestation. The proportion of fine-grained sediment and the ?13C signal both increased with distance from the head of the estuary while the carbon content decreased. The nitrogen content and the ?15N signal were more or less constant throughout the estuary. The proportion of fine-grained material and the chemical proxies were more or less stable over time in the core from the mouth while they varied synchronously over time in the core from the head of the estuary. The sediment proxies combined show that mangrove deforestation had large effects on the estuary with regard to both the physical and chemical environment with implications for the biological functioning.

Ellegaard, Marianne; Nguyen, Ngoc Tuong Giang; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Michelsen, Anders; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Doan, Nhu Hai; Kristensen, Erik; Weckström, Kaarina; Son, Tong Phuoc Hoang; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

2014-04-01

354

Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States  

PubMed Central

Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography.

Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

2011-01-01

355

Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.

1979-01-01

356

An analysis of the trophic network of a macrotidal estuary: the Seine Estuary (Eastern Channel, Normandy, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state, mass balance, trophic network has been constructed to illustrate the flow of energy in the Seine Estuary by using Network Analysis and Ecopath methods. This ecosystem shows 15 compartments from primary producers to the top consumers (fish and birds). This study has been compared with other ecosystems of comparable nature located in North America (Narragansett, Chesapeake, Delaware

Hervé Rybarczyk

2003-01-01

357

Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

358

Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

359

Response of the turbidity maximum zone to fluctuations in sediment discharge from river to estuary in the Changjiang Estuary (China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Changjiang Estuary, interactions between the sea and the river result in the development of a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Riverine sediments are an important source for TMZ formation. Since the 1960s, sediment discharge from the river basin to the estuary has decreased due to dam construction, water and soil conservation, and water diversion projects. Thirty-two Landsat images of the estuary, covering the period from 1979 to 2008, were collected to identify the TMZ response to sediment decline. A threshold value of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of 0.7 kg/m3, corresponding to a spectrum reflectance of 5% of Landsat MSS band 7 and 7% of Landsat TM/ETM band 4, was used to identify the Changjiang Estuary TMZ. The TMZ area was then extracted from each image to investigate its temporal and spatial variations during the past 30 years. The images were grouped into five time series; the average TMZ area of each series was estimated. The results show that the TMZ area declined 23% from series (a) to series (e), responding to a 77% reduction in riverine sediment discharge. In addition, the TMZ had strong seasonal and tidal variations; it was generally larger during flood seasons than during dry seasons and during spring tides compared to neap tides. The spring/neap tidal cycle played a more important role in TMZ change than did the seasonal cycle. Due to the continued reduction of sediment discharge to the estuary resulting from dams already constructed and to those that will be constructed upstream in the Changjiang River, it is predicted that the TMZ area will continue decreasing and that the re-suspension of local sediments will play a more important role in the formation of the TMZ.

Jiang, Xuezhong; Lu, Bing; He, Yuhong

2013-10-01

360

Ecological Condition of the Columbia River Estuary: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Report. Modeling Fish Distributions in the Pacific Northwest Coast Range Ecoregion Using EMAP Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Columbia River estuary is a unique and important ecological resource. EPA's National Estuary Program (NEP) was established by Congress in 1987 in Clean Water Act amendments to improve the quality of estuaries of national significance. The Columbia Riv...

G. Hayslip, H. Lee, L. Edmond, V. Partridge, W. Nelson

2007-01-01

361

Feasibility of remote sensing benthic microalgae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of data analyses from multispectral scanning data are presented. The data was collected in July 1977 for concentration of chlorophyll in benthic microalgae (mainly diatoms) on an estuary mudflat.

Zingmark, R. G.

1979-01-01

362

Influence of Exceptionally High Salinities, Marked Variations in Freshwater Discharge and Opening of Estuary Mouth on the Characteristics of the Ichthyofauna of a Normally-Closed Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to determine how the characteristics of the ichthyofauna of the normally-closed Wellstead Estuary on the south coast of Western Australia are influenced by the exceptionally high salinities attained during protracted periods of landlocking and, at other times, by atypically heavy freshwater discharge and consequently the opening of the estuary mouth. After 47 months of continuous closure, this estuary became open to the sea for 30 days in September/October 1997 and then closed again for a further six months. Nearshore, shallow and offshore, deeper waters of the lower, middle and upper regions of this estuary were sampled using seine and gill nets, respectively, in alternate months between July 1996 and May 1998. Mean monthly salinities in each region were >40 on all sampling occasions, except immediately preceding and following the opening of the estuary mouth and, in the lower estuary, they rose to a maximum of 112 in March 1997, before declining to a minimum of 14 in September 1997. The fish fauna of Wellstead Estuary was highly depauperate (20 species), presumably due mainly to the very limited opportunities for the immigration of marine species. However, appreciable numbers of two marine species ( Mugil cephalus and Aldrichetta forsteri) entered from the sea when the estuary was open in the period prior to October 1993 and were able to survive in the highly variable salinities found in this estuary when it was landlocked for the following 47 months. There was strong evidence that, as salinities rose to very high levels in 1997, all of the Leptatherina wallacei and Amoya bifrenatus found in the estuary died and some other species moved from the lower to upper reaches of the estuary where salinities did not rise to such high levels. The atherinid Atherinosoma elongata was the only species caught in March 1997 at the site in the lower estuary where the salinity reached 122. Subsequently, the number of species and overall density of fish in the lower estuary, and particularly in nearshore, shallow waters, increased markedly, presumably due to the downstream flushing effects of heavy freshwater discharge and a decline in salinity. When the bar was breached, small numbers of certain marine species, e.g. Sardinops neopilchardus, Sillaginodes punctata, Arripis georgiana, Arripis truttaceus and Pomatomus saltatrix, entered from the sea, while some individuals of M. cephalus and A. forsteri emigrated from the estuary.

Young, G. C.; Potter, I. C.

2002-08-01

363

Planetary engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

1991-01-01

364

The Ichthyoplankton of Selected Estuaries in Sarawak and Sabah: Composition, Distribution and Habitat Affinities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ichthyoplankton assemblages of 23 estuaries in Sarawak and Sabah were surveyed with particular reference to the culturally and commercially important clupeid Tenualosa toli. The species composition, distribution and density of all fish larvae were recorded, together with the physical characteristics of each estuary. A more detailed study was made of the Lupar and Lassa estuaries, which are the ' core area ' for T. toli. The estuaries fall into two groups. The first consists of the estuaries of the ' core area ' from the Sebako in the west to the Lassa in the east, and the Labuk and Kinabatangan estuaries of eastern Sabah. They are large and deep, have middle-range salinities with no halocline, are highly turbid and have tidal ranges of >3·5 m and strong currents. There is little seasonal change in freshwater input and their waters are not peat-stained. Their total zooplankton biomasses (approximately 0·05 g m -3dry weight, excluding fish larvae) are an order of magnitude greater than biomasses in the second group of estuaries. The second group consists of all estuaries east of the Lassa as far as the Papar in Sabah. They are mostly smaller, shallower and have more variable salinities than the ' core area ' estuaries, with marked haloclines and seasonal changes in freshwater inflow, lower turbidities, weaker currents, tidal ranges of <2 m and low overall zooplankton biomasses. The composition of the ichthyoplankton is different in these two groups of estuaries. The assemblage in the first group (' core area ') of estuaries consists primarily of taxa associated with estuarine and/or turbid water conditions, whereas those in the smaller estuaries of the second group have mainly marine and clearer water affinities. Only the Gobiidae are ubiquitous. Very few larvae of freshwater species were recorded in any of the estuaries. The number of fish larvae was highly variable, but the mean densities (0·01-9·23 m -3) were similar, and similarly variable, to the densities reported for other tropical estuaries. The diversity of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in Sarawak and Sabah estuaries (56 taxa, 26 families) is lower than in most other tropical estuaries of the Indo-west Pacific. This is possibly because of their rigorous physical nature, particularly the very high turbidities and current speeds, or in smaller, less physically rigorous estuaries, the low biomass of zooplankton available as food for the larvae.

Blaber, S. J. M.; Farmer, M. J.; Milton, D. A.; Pang, J.; Boon-Teck, O.; Wong, P.

1997-08-01

365

Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures for the estuary are monitored indicators that reflect the status of habitat conditions and fish performance, e.g., habitat connectivity, survival, and life history diversity. Performance measures also pertain to implementation and compliance. Such measures are part of the monitoring, research, and action plans in this estuary RME document. Performance targets specific to the estuary were not included in the 2007 draft Biological Opinion.

Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2008-02-20

366

Estuary Turbulence and Air-Water Carbon Dioxide Exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mixing of constituents between estuarine bottom and surface waters or between estuarine surface waters and the atmosphere are two topics of growing interest, in part due to the potentially important role of estuaries in global carbon budgets. These two types of mixing are typically driven by turbulence, and a research project was developed to improve the scientific understanding of atmospheric and tidal controls on estuary turbulence and airwater exchange processes. Highlights of method development and field research on the Hudson River estuary include several deployments of bottom mounted current profilers to quantify the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget, and construction and deployment of an instrumented catamaran that makes autonomous measurements of air-water CO2 exchange (FCO2), water TKE dissipation at 50 cm depth (epsilon50), and other physical properties just above and below the air-water interface. On the Hudson, wind correlates strongly with epsilon50, but surface water speed and airwater heat flux also have moderate correlations with epsilon50. In partially mixed estuaries such as the Hudson, as well as salt wedge estuaries, baroclinic pressure forcing typically causes spring ebb tides to have much stronger upper water column shear than flood tides. The Hudson data are used to show that this shear leads to local shear instability and stronger near-surface turbulence on spring ebbs. Also, buoyancy budget terms are compared to demonstrate how water-to-air heat fluxes can influence stratification and indirectly influence epsilon50. Looking more closely at the role of wind forcing, it is demonstrated that inland propagation of the sea breeze on warm sunny days leads to arrival in phase with peak solar forcing at seaward stations, but several hours later at up-estuary stations. Passage of the sea breeze front raises the air-water CO2 flux by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and drives epsilon50 comparable to spring tide levels in the upper meter of the water column. Modeling and observational studies often use remotely-measured winds to compute airwater fluxes (e.g. momentum, CO2), and this is shown to cause large flux errors during these periods, in terms of magnitude and diurnal phase.

Orton, Philip Mark

367

Gas rotary engine technology development. Final Report, April-December 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of developing a small natural gas oil-cooled rotary engine for long life gas heat pump applications was explored. A literature search was conducted, rotary engine manufacturers were contacted and questioned, experts in engine materials and engine lubricants furnished reports, and discussions were held with engineering management and staff engineers to review rotary engine technology and discuss practical ideas

T. A. Kuchnicki; B. E. Goodrich; R. A. Page

1990-01-01

368

A Decade of Change in the Skidaway River Estuary. III. Plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Skidaway River estuary, GA (USA), a tidally dominated subtropical system surrounded by extensive Spartina salt marshes, is experiencing steady increases in nutrients, chlorophyll, and particulate matter and decline in dissolved\\u000a oxygen, associated with cultural eutrophication. A long-term study is documenting changes in these parameters: previous papers\\u000a Verity (Estuaries 25:944–960, 2002a, Estuaries 25:961–975, b) reported on hydrography, nutrients, chlorophyll, and

Peter G. Verity; David G. Borkman

2010-01-01

369

Physical, hydrological, and biological characteristics of the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Loxahatchee River estuary in southeast Florida has periodically closed and opened to the sea as a result of natural causes. In the last 30 years, the estuary has remained open only by dredging. Activities of man in the estuary and basin affect freshwater and tidal flow which in turn affect bathymetry, bottom sediment, and biota. Under present conditions, tidal flow is much larger than freshwater inflow. (USGS)

McPherson, Benjamin F.; Sabanskas, Maryann; Long, William Atwood.

1982-01-01

370

Rapid Communication: Climatic Control on Eutrophication of the Hudson River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication is arguably the biggest pollution problem facing estuaries globally, with extensive consequences including\\u000a anoxic and hypoxic waters, reduced fishery harvests, toxic algal blooms, and loss of biotic diversity. However, estuaries\\u000a vary greatly in their susceptibility to eutrophication. The Hudson River estuary receives very high levels of nutrient inputs\\u000a yet in the past has shown relatively low rates of phytoplankton

Robert W. Howarth; Dennis P. Swaney; Thomas J. Butler; Roxanne Marino

2000-01-01

371

Using a multi-component indicator toward reducing phytoplankton bloom occurrences in the Swan River estuary.  

PubMed

The Swan River estuary is an icon of the city of Perth, Western Australia, running through the city centre and dividing the northern from the southern part of the city. However, frequent phytoplankton blooms have been observed in the estuary as a result of eutrophication. The Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF), a composite index able to indicate for sustainable health of the estuary, was applied, taking into account the hydrology and highly seasonal nature of the estuary to inform the management of the estuary, towards the aim of reducing bloom occurrences. The study period was from the beginning of intensive monitoring in 1995 to mid-2009. The results emphasize the importance of physical controls on the ecology of the estuary. No significant trend in the estuary's low functionality was found, indicating that despite extensive restoration efforts, the frequency of algal bloom occurrences has remained relatively stationary and other mitigating factors have maintained an annual average ISF value at around 70 % functionality. We identified that the low flow season consistently performs the worst, with (high) temperature found as the most dominant variable for phytoplankton growth and bloom. Thus in managing the estuary, vigilance is required during periods of high temperature and low flow. Focusing on the risk of phytoplankton bloom, a nutrient reduction program that is in place is a long term solution due to high concentrations in the estuary. Other management measures need to be considered and adopted to effectively reduce the occurrences of future phytoplankton blooms. PMID:22669343

Kristiana, Ria; Antenucci, Jason P; Imberger, Jorg

2012-08-01

372

Circulation and Physical Processes within the San Gabriel River Estuary During Summer 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP) is developing a hydrodynamic model of the SGR estuary, which is part of the comprehensive water-quality model of the SGR estuary and watershed investigated by SCCWRP and other local agencies. The hydrodynamic model will help understanding of 1) the exchange processes between the estuary and coastal ocean; 2) the circulation patterns in the estuary; 3) upstream natural runoff and the cooling discharge from PGS. Like all models, the SGR hydrodynamic model is only useful after it is fully calibrated and validated. In May 2005, SCCWRP requested the assistance of the U.S. geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology team (CMG) in collecting data on the hydrodynamic conditions in the estuary during the summer dry season. The summer was chosen for field data collection as this was assumed to be the season with the greatest potential for chronic degraded water quality due to low river flow and high thermal stratification within the estuary (due to both higher average air temperature and PGS output). Water quality can be degraded in winter as well, when higher river discharge events bring large volumes of water from the Los Angeles basin into the estuary. The objectives of this project were to 1) collect hydrodynamic data along the SGR estuary; 2) study exchange processes within the estuary through analysis of the hydrodynamic data; and 3) provide field data for model calibration and validation. As the data only exist for the summer season, the results herein only apply to summer conditions.

Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Xu, Jingping; Stein, Eric D.; Noble, Marlene A.; Gartner, Anne L.

2007-01-01

373

Macrobenthic community in the Xiaoqing River Estuary in Laizhou Bay, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrobenthic community of the Xiaoqing River Estuary and the adjacent sea waters was investigated in May and November 2008, August 2009, and May and September 2010, respectively. A total of 95 species of macrobenthos were identified in the five cruises and most of them were polychaetes (46.39%), mollusks (28.86%) and crustaceans (20.62%). The Shannon-Wiener index of macrobenthos was lower than 2 in 67% sites. Along the stream channel, estuary and the coastal waters, the species of polychaetes reduced gradually, while the abundance increased at first and then decreased. The abundance was the biggest at regions with salinity of 5-20 in the estuary. The species and abundance of mollusks and crustaceans increased gradually. As for seasonal distribution, the species, abundance and biomass were higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn. Contemporaneously compared with Laizhou Bay and Yellow River Estuary, the species of macrobenthos appeared in the Xiaoqing River Estuary were much less, while the percentage of polychaetes was higher. Abundance and biomass were higher in Xiaoqing River estuary, then consequently followed by Laizhou Bay and Yellow River Estuary. The dominant species in Xiaoqing River Estuary was polychaete, and Layzhou Bay mollusk. The community structure characteristics of macrobenthos in the Xiaoqing River Estuary revealed a significant pollution status in this region.

Luo, Xianxiang; Zhang, Shanshan; Yang, Jianqiang; Pan, Jinfen; Tian, Lin; Zhang, Longjun

2013-09-01

374

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Assistant Tool Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effort to determine the feasibility of a software tool to assist in Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been completed. This new and unique approach to FMEA uses model based systems engineering concepts to recommend failure modes, causes, and...

J. T. Malin M. Flores

2013-01-01

375

Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic

Daniel Torrent; José Sánchez-Dehesa

2008-01-01

376

The PNC\\/SNL SERAPH advanced test reactor feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the feasibility of the Safety Engineering Reactor for Accident Phenomenology (SERAPH), a research reactor with the capability to perform a wide array of safety experiments important in the design of commercial nuclear reactors. The study proceeded in two phases. In Phase 1, the experimental needs were examined and a wide-ranging survey of many fuel\\/coolant options for the

G. A. Harms; P. S. Pickard; J. G. Kelly; S. A. Wright; Nobuo Tanaka; A. J. Suo-Anttila

1991-01-01

377

Phase 1 Feasibility Study: Seawater Hydraulic Transfer Pump.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has completed a Phase 1 feasibility study to determine whether or not a seawater hydraulic design for the CCN-150 transfer pump system would reduce weight thereby making the system easier for U.S. Co...

J. Kunsemiller

1996-01-01

378

Effects of prevailing winds on turbidity of a shallow estuary.  

PubMed

Estuarine waters are generally more turbid than lakes or marine waters due to greater algal mass and continual re-suspension of sediments. The varying effects of diurnal and seasonal prevailing winds on the turbidity condition of a wind-dominated estuary were investigated by spatial and statistical analyses of wind direction, water level, turbidity, chlorophyll a, and PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) collected in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA. The prolonged prevailing winds were responsible for the long-term, large-scale turbidity pattern of the estuary, whereas the short-term changes in wind direction had differential effects on turbidity and water level in varying locations. There were temporal and spatial changes in the relationship between vertical light attenuation coefficient (Kd) and turbidity, which indicate difference in phytoplankton and color also affect Kd. This study demonstrates that the effect of wind on turbidity and water level on different shores can be identified through system-specific analyses of turbidity patterns. PMID:17617683

Cho, Hyun Jung

2007-06-01

379

Explicit solution to tidal damping equation in alluvial estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explicit solution of the tidal damping equation is derived in a Lagrangean reference frame. Simple expressions for the tidal amplitude and velocity amplitude are proposed under the assumption that the tidal amplitude is small with respect to the flow depth. The solutions were compared with the classic linear solutions, which have been the reference test for a long time. It was found that an asymptote exists due to the balance between friction and convergence of banks. Given the detailed time varying, space varying tidal current distribution that the explicit solution provides, it is possible to estimate the net transport of water through estuary, i.e., the Stokes drift velocity. In general, the Stokes drift velocity increases proportionately with the square of velocity amplitude but inversely with the celerity of tidal wave. Sensitivity experiments were carried out in order to investigate the relation between stokes drift velocity and other parameters, such as channel depth, bed roughness, shape estuary, and river discharge.

Cai, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2012-04-01

380

Radium and radon in Charlotte Harbor Estuary, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium-226 and 222Rn activities are greater in the estuarine waters of northern Charlotte Harbor and the lower tidal Peace and Myakka Rivers, Florida, than in either the freshwater reaches of the rivers or waters of the lower estuary and the Gulf of Mexico. The activity of 226Ra in the tidal rivers increases with decreasing river inflow, with a maximum value of 548 dpm 1001 -1 measured in the tidal Myakka River. The source of the high activity of 226Ra and 222Rn is predominantly ground water inflow. Because of the large ground water input, the contribution of 226Ra from suspended and bottom sediments is a smaller fraction of the total 226Ra input than in many other estuaries. Although ground water 226Ra activity in the area varies widely, we estimate that artesian ground water inflow to the tidal rivers is similar in magnitude to the flow of the rivers above the tidal reach during the dry season.

Miller, Ronald L.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

1990-10-01

381

Clostridium botulinum type C in the Mersey estuary.  

PubMed Central

Nineteen of 98 samples of mud or sand taken from the Mersey estuary in 1981 contained Clostridium botulinum type C, the organism almost always responsible for botulism in water birds. In the Dungeon and Score Bank areas, where many dead and dying birds were found during the period September-December 1979, almost half the samples contained type C. Most of the positive samples were essentially muddy rather than sandy. The findings do not prove that botulism contributed to the 1979 mortality but are nonetheless thought-provoking, particularly because type C--unlike type B--is by no means ubiquitous in Britain. Type B was present in 12.2% of samples from the Mersey estuary.

Smith, G. R.; Oliphant, J. C.; White, W. R.

1982-01-01

382

Metals in the sediments along the Hudson River estuary  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in bottom and suspended sediments from the ocean up the Hudson River estuary for 70 km were analyzed. The bottom sediments has a metal concentration maximum in the harbor. Everywhere studied, the metal concentrations in suspension are much higher than in the bottom sediments by 30 times for Cd, 20 times for Cu, and 10 to 15 times for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The composition of metals in the suspended material varied along the estuary with a large metal maximum in the harbor and again in Haverstraw Bay. By standardizing toxic metal concentrations to Fe, a maximum level of pollution in New York Harbor is indicated, along with a lesser maximum in Haverstraw Bay.

Gibbs, R.J. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States))

1994-01-01

383

Chlorofluorocarbons in the Hudson estuary during summer months  

SciTech Connect

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations in the Hudson estuary were found to be greater than the atmospheric solubility equilibrium concentration, demonstrating that the entire reach is contaminated with CFCs from local wastewater discharge. Samples have been collected along the axis of the lower Hudson estuary over a 5-month period to assess temporal and spatial variability of their wastewater sources. The highest CFC concentrations were found in water collected near Manhattan. In this region, CFC-11 (CCl{sub 3}F) and CFC-12 (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}) were 3 to 5 and 10 to 20 times saturation, respectively. There appears to be a continuous CFC source in the New York City area, although the magnitude of this source declined during summer months. Other large CFC source were found near Albany, and in Haverstraw Bay (60 km north of Manhattan). 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Clark, J.F.; Smethie, W.M. Jr.; Simpson, H.J. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)] [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)

1995-10-01

384

Contaminant inputs to the Hudson-Raritan estuary  

SciTech Connect

Source locations and an estimate of the magnitude of contaminant inputs to the Hudson-Raritan Estuary are presented. The relative contribution of the various sources is indicated and data gaps are identified. Six sources of contaminant inputs were evaluated: nontidal tributary, municipal and industrial wastewater, atmospheric, urban runoff, accidental spills, and landfill leachate. The latter five sources were evaluated downstream of the tributary water quality stations, since sources above these points are reflected in the tributary inputs. In addition to flow or volume for each source, data on concentrations of conventional pollutants (solids, organic matter, nutrients, and bacterial indicators), organic toxics, and heavy metals were sought. A large quantity of data was obtained from numerous federal, state, county, and municipal agencies, and private firms. The data were analyzed to obtain average mass loads of specific contaminants into the Hudson-Raritan Estuary.

Mueller, J.A.; Gerrish, T.A.; Casey, M.C.

1982-08-01

385

Fault detection for salinity sensors in the Columbia estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors deployed in the Columbia River estuary gather information on physical dynamics and changes in estuary habitat. Of these sensors, conductivity sensors are particularly susceptible to biofouling, which gradually degrades sensor response and corrupts critical data. Several weeks may pass before degradation is visibly detected. Since the onset time of biofouling is unknown, an indeterminate amount of measurement data is corrupted. To speed detection and minimize data loss, we develop automatic biofouling detectors based on machine learning approaches for these conductivity sensors. We demonstrate that our detectors identify biofouling at least as reliably as human experts. In addition, these detectors provide accurate estimates of biofouling onset time. Real-time detectors installed during the summer of 2001 produced no false alarms yet detected all episodes of sensor degradation before the field staff.

Archer, Cynthia; Baptista, Antonio; Leen, Todd K.

2003-03-01

386

Vertical eddy diffusivity estimations in Swan river estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experiment is described in which diapycnal diffusivity is estimated by direct and indirect methods in Swan river estuary, Perth, Western Australia. The microstructure profiles were collected in a narrow and straight part of this estuary using a portable flux profiler (PFP). The profiles were segmented into stationary parts and the rate of vertical eddy diffusivity was estimated for the segments within the pycnocline. The direct measurement showed that instantaneous flux could be positive or negative with a low net rate of vertical eddy diffusivity for mass of about 6.5 × 10 -8 m 2 s -1. All the indirect methods overestimated this rate. However, within the indirect methods, the method of Osborn yielded the poorest estimate while the method of Osborn and Cox gave the closest estimate.

Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Imberger, Jorg

2005-05-01

387

Community structure and productivity of the Cornwallis Estuary, Minas Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of a seasonal study of the pelagic community at a station on the outer edge of the Cornwallis Estuary suggest that the seasonal variation in plankton community respiration (PCR) is related to organic inputs from nearby salt marshes. Annual phytoplankton production is low (<30 g C m -2 y -1) and exhibits a seasonal cycle very different from PCR. There is no indication that resuspension of benthic diatoms is an important energy input to the pelagic system. PCR, however, is quite high and exhibits a seasonal trend similar to the export of salt marsh detritus. Zooplankton densities (5-200 l -1) and biomass (<0.4 g m -3) appear to be much greater than could be supported by phytoplankton alone. The Cornwallis Estuary may be an estuarine system exhibiting a net export of organic matter to nearby offshore waters.

Brylinsky, Michael; Daborn, Graham R.

1987-11-01

388

Bedforms and Evolution of Tropical Estuaries: Examples from Northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper intends to show the geomorphological and sedimentary responses of tropical estuaries to meteorological and oceanographic forcing. The study area is located on the coastal zone of Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil. This coast is under natural influence of waves and tides with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime and anthropogenic influence (urbanization, oil and salt industries, shrimp farms, and tourism). An operational methodology was developed using collection and analysis of an integrated dataset (comprising remote sensing, oceanographic, hy-droacoustic, and sedimentologic data). All data were integrated through a geographical infor-mation system database. The imaging of subaqueous features allowed the identification of differ-ent bedforms as well as submerged rocky outcrops. Four main groups of bedforms were identi-fied: 2D and 3D large dunes, ripples and flat bottom, and rocky outcrops as well. Rocky outcrops were correlated to Barreiras Formation and beachrocks. The estuarine channel is filled by Holocene sandy- to silt sediments, with sandy sediments in the main channel ranging from well-selected to selected grains, and silty sediments in the river margins. The integration and analysis of currents velocity and other physical parameters with bedforms characterization and different sedimentary textures in the study area allows a better knowledge of the active sedimentary processes, which are responsible for the formation of morphologic features of these estuaries. The evolution of estuary settings, led by the postglacial sea-level rise, is recorded in the subsurface an present-day riverbed. These results contribute to a better understanding of tropical estuaries.; Location of the study area

Vital, H.; Soares, C.; Rocha, G.; Pereira, T.; Eichler, P.

2012-12-01

389

Minor elements in sediments of Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of copper, zinc, chromium, lead, cadmium, and phosphorus were obtained from 81 samples of unconsolidated estuarine\\u000a sediment from Great Bay, New Hampshire. Dispersal of aqueous chromium from localized industrial effluent is believed responsible\\u000a for an increase in sediment chromium throughout the entire estuary. High phosphorus concentrations exist in sediment near\\u000a the outfalls from several waste-water treatment plants. There is

Peter B. Armstrong; Gary M. Hanson; Henri E. Gaudette

1976-01-01

390

Energy flow in the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady-state energy flow model has been constructed for the Ythan estuary. Nutrient and particulate organic carbon flux has been described in relation to freshwater drainage and tidal action. No rates of retention however, could be provided. Organic C to organic N ratios of detritus vary from 1:14 to 1:200 in the water column, whilst this ratio is 1:8 in

D. Baird; H. Milne

1981-01-01

391

Fine-sediment Dynamics in the Mekong River Estuary, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies of fine-sediment transport were carried out in the Mekong River estuary, Vietnam, in the high-flow season of November 1993. In the freshwater region, erosion and deposition of suspended sediment occurred at tidal frequency with a strong down-river transport at a mean velocity of 1ms?1and mean suspended-solid concentration of about 250mgl?1. Also, the suspended sediment was mostly fine silt,

Eric Wolanski; Nguyen Ngoc Huan; Le Trong Dao; Nguyen Huu Nhan; Nguyen Ngoc Thuy

1996-01-01

392

Tidal circulation and energy dissipation in a shallow, sinuous estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tidal dynamics in a pristine, mesotidal (>2 m range), marsh-dominated estuary are examined using moored and moving vessel field observations. Analysis focuses on the structure of the M\\u000a 2 tide that accounts for approximately 80% of the observed tidal energy, and indicates a transition in character from a near standing wave on the continental shelf to a more progressive wave

Harvey Seim; Jackson Blanton; Susan Elston

2006-01-01

393

Effects of wave forcing on a subterranean estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave and tide are important forcing factors that typically coexist in coastal environments. A numerical study was conducted to investigate individual and combined effects of these forces on flow and mixing processes in a nearshore subterranean estuary. A hydrodynamic model based on the shallow water equations was used to simulate dynamic sea level oscillations driven by wave and tide. The oscillating sea levels determined the seaward boundary condition of the coastal aquifer, where variably saturated, variable density flow was modeled. The simulation results showed that waves induced an onshore upward tilt in the phase-averaged sea level (wave setup). The resulting hydraulic gradient generated pore water circulations in the nearshore zone of the coastal aquifer, which led to formation of an upper saline plume (USP) similar to that formed due to tides. However, mixing of recirculating seawater in the USP with underlying fresh groundwater was less intensive under the high-frequency wave oscillations. In the case of combined forcing, wave-induced circulations coupled with the intratidal flows strengthened the averaged, circulating pore water flows in the nearshore zone over the tidal period. The circulating flows increased exchange between the subterranean estuary and ocean, contributing 61% of the total submarine groundwater discharge for the simulated condition in comparison with the 40% and 49% proportions caused by the same but separate tidal and wave forcing, respectively. The combined forces also created a more extensive USP with the freshwater discharge zone shifted farther seaward. The freshwater flow paths in the intertidal subterranean estuary were modified with a significant increase in the associated transit times. The interplay of wave and tide led to increased mixing between discharging fresh groundwater and recirculating seawater. These results further demonstrate the complexity of nearshore groundwater systems and have implications for future investigations on the fate of land-sourced chemicals in the subterranean estuary prior to discharge to the ocean.

Xin, Pei; Robinson, Clare; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.; Bakhtyar, R.

2010-12-01

394

Phosphorus distribution in sediments of the Delaware River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the primary factors related to the accumulation of phosphorus in estuarine sediments, a study of phosphorus\\u000a fractions in sediments of the Delaware River Estuary was undertaken. A correlation matrix between the phosphorus fractions,\\u000a determined by serial extraction, and 14 sediment variables was computed. Total phosphorus and total inorganic phosphorus in\\u000a the sediment-phosphorus reservoir decreases with increasing

Richard N. Strom; Robert B. Biggs

1982-01-01

395

Environmental public health surveillance: possible estuary-associated syndrome.  

PubMed

Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in environmental public health surveillance involves human exposure to the toxins produced by microorganisms present in oceans and estuaries. One of these organisms is Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder, a dinoflagellate found in estuaries along the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the United States. There have been reports of both human illness associated with occupational exposures to concentrated laboratory cultures of P. piscicida and massive fill kills associated with the presence of the organism in rivers and estuaries. These reports, and anecdotal reports from people who worked on rivers where the organism has been found, generated concern that environmental exposures to P. piscicida, similar organisms, or perhaps a toxin or toxins produced by the organism(s), could cause adverse human health effects. To begin to evaluate the public health burden associated with P. piscicida, investigators from the National Center for Environmental Health at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and health agencies from states along the Atlantic coast collaborated to develop a passive surveillance system for collecting, classifying, and tracking public inquiries about the organism. Specifically, the group developed exposure and symptom criteria and developed data collection and reporting capabilities to capture the human health parameters collectively referred to as possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS). The surveillance system was implemented in six states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia) beginning in June 1998. From 1 June 1998 through 30 June 2001, the six state health agencies participating in the PEAS surveillance system received 3,859 calls: 3,768 callers requested information and 91 callers reported symptoms. Five individuals have been identified as meeting PEAS criteria. PMID:11677192

Backer, L C; Niskar, A S; Rubin, C; Blindauer, K; Christianson, D; Naeher, L; Rogers, H S

2001-10-01

396

Trace metal distributions in the Hudson River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentations of reactive PO4, particulate Al and dissolved and particulate Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn were measured in the Hudson River estuary. Soluble trace metal concentrations ranged from 1 to 7 parts 10-9 Cu; 1 to 60 parts 10-9 Mn; 0·8 to 11 parts 10-9 Ni; 3 to 33 parts 10-9 Zn; 0·1 to 0·5 parts 10-9 Cd

G. P. Klinkhammer; M. L. Bender

1981-01-01

397

Spatiotemporal distribution of pharmaceuticals in the Douro River estuary (Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount and distribution of six pharmaceutical compounds belonging to distinct therapeutic classes were investigated along the navigation channel of the Douro River estuary. Distinct spatial and temporal trends were considered and a total of 87 water samples were pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) with an ion trap (IT) analyzer and

Tânia Vieira Madureira; Juliana Cristina Barreiro; Maria João Rocha; Eduardo Rocha; Quezia Bezerra Cass; Maria Elizabeth Tiritan

2010-01-01

398

Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics in a Laurentian Great Lakes estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and dynamics of phytoplankton populations were examined in Old Woman Creek estuary, Lake Erie (USA). The centric bacillariophytes,Cyclotella atomus Hust.,Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz., andAulacoseira alpigena (Grun.) Krammer, and the cryptophytes,Cryptomonas erosa Ehren. andRhodomonas minuta var. nannoplanctonica Skuja, dominated the phytoplankton most of the year. Chlorophytes, euglenophytes, and cyanophytes were observed less frequently. Estuarine and Lake Erie phytoplankton were considered

David M. Klarer; David F. Millie

1994-01-01

399

Feasibility of advanced fuels  

SciTech Connect

Various fusion fuel cycles are reviewed in view of a commercial fusion reactor. Among exothermic fusion reactions, D-{sup 3}He fusion appears attractive because it mitigate engineering problems of DT fusion attributed to 14 MeV neutrons. The safety of the reactor is inherent and environmentally sound with D-{sup 3}He fuelled fusion. Nevertheless, the helium-3 resource is very rare and attempts to breed helium-3 seem unsatisfactory. Lunar helium-3 alone seems to provide the world a needed energy. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Momota, Hiromu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

1995-04-01

400

Local flows in the Quequén Grande River Estuary, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quequén Grande River is one of the most important water courses of Buenos Aires Province due to the economic and strategic significance of its estuary, where the populous Quequén-Necochea area and Quequén Port are located. The minor Las Cascadas falls, at 15 km from the place where the river meets the sea is the point where the maximum tidal propagation is detected marking the head of the estuary. Artificial dredging is needed to insure the adequate navigability conditions in the Quequén harbour, which has induced a highly stratified water column in the last 2 km of the estuary. Thus, an abrupt step is established at the head of the harbour, implying a much reduced water circulation and in some cases nonexistent, producing strong reductive and even anoxic conditions. The foot of the step is a sediment and organic matter trap and becomes an interesting place of study. The goal of this article is to present the information obtained with Doppler sonar at the neighborhood of the step, which allows distinguishing local turbidity currents that may influence the deposition patterns of the sediments.

Pereyra, M. G.; Thomas, L. P.; Marino, B. M.

2009-05-01

401

Counting on ?-diversity to safeguard the resilience of estuaries.  

PubMed

Coastal ecosystems are often stressed by non-point source and cumulative effects that can lead to local-scale community homogenisation and a concomitant loss of large-scale ecological connectivity. Here we investigate the use of ?-diversity as a measure of both community heterogeneity and ecological connectivity. To understand the consequences of different environmental scenarios on heterogeneity and connectivity, it is necessary to understand the scale at which different environmental factors affect ?-diversity. We sampled macrofauna from intertidal sites in nine estuaries from New Zealand's North Island that represented different degrees of stress derived from land-use. We used multiple regression models to identify relationships between ?-diversity and local sediment variables, factors related to the estuarine and catchment hydrodynamics and morphology and land-based stressors. At local scales, we found higher ?-diversity at sites with a relatively high total richness. At larger scales, ?-diversity was positively related to ?-diversity, suggesting that a large regional species pool was linked with large-scale heterogeneity in these systems. Local environmental heterogeneity influenced ?-diversity at both local and regional scales, although variables at the estuarine and catchment scales were both needed to explain large scale connectivity. The estuaries expected a priori to be the most stressed exhibited higher variance in community dissimilarity between sites and connectivity to the estuary species pool. This suggests that connectivity and heterogeneity metrics could be used to generate early warning signals of cumulative stress. PMID:23755252

de Juan, Silvia; Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E

2013-01-01

402

Counting on ?-Diversity to Safeguard the Resilience of Estuaries  

PubMed Central

Coastal ecosystems are often stressed by non-point source and cumulative effects that can lead to local-scale community homogenisation and a concomitant loss of large-scale ecological connectivity. Here we investigate the use of ?-diversity as a measure of both community heterogeneity and ecological connectivity. To understand the consequences of different environmental scenarios on heterogeneity and connectivity, it is necessary to understand the scale at which different environmental factors affect ?-diversity. We sampled macrofauna from intertidal sites in nine estuaries from New Zealand’s North Island that represented different degrees of stress derived from land-use. We used multiple regression models to identify relationships between ?-diversity and local sediment variables, factors related to the estuarine and catchment hydrodynamics and morphology and land-based stressors. At local scales, we found higher ?-diversity at sites with a relatively high total richness. At larger scales, ?-diversity was positively related to ?-diversity, suggesting that a large regional species pool was linked with large-scale heterogeneity in these systems. Local environmental heterogeneity influenced ?-diversity at both local and regional scales, although variables at the estuarine and catchment scales were both needed to explain large scale connectivity. The estuaries expected a priori to be the most stressed exhibited higher variance in community dissimilarity between sites and connectivity to the estuary species pool. This suggests that connectivity and heterogeneity metrics could be used to generate early warning signals of cumulative stress.

de Juan, Silvia; Thrush, Simon F.; Hewitt, Judi E.

2013-01-01

403

Holocene deltaic sequence in the Saloum estuary, Senegal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2250 km 2 Saloum delta, south of Dakar, Senegal, consists of a Holocene sedimentary sequence deposited during five evolutionary stages: submerged postglacial ria, funnel-like estuary, barred estuary, cuspate delta, and reverse estuary. The passage from one stage to another was marked by the deposition of sedimentary units consisting of shelly sands, silty or sandy clays, and an extensive thick green mud. Muds in the lower strata, dating between 6130 and 3500 yr B.P., were deposited on a subtidal mudflat, while fine sands and silty clays characterize intertidal deposits. A drastic change in sedimentation patterns, resulting in the accumulation of a series of beach barriers, likely was associated with a major climatic change. The regional climate was then very dry, and silt and sand were trapped in the water behind the barriers in two stages, from 1990 to 1510 and 1020 to 600 yr B.P. Each event was accompanied by construction of shell middens that demonstrate the presence of humans who exploited newly available shallows and banks. Relative sea level did not change significantly between 6000 yr B.P. and the present. Morphological and sedimentological changes observed in the late Holocene sequences were apparently induced by a constraining climatic background.

Ausseil-Badie, Josiane; Barusseau, J. Paul; Descamps, Cyr; Salif Diop, E. H.; Giresse, Pierre; Pazdur, Mieczyslaw

1991-09-01

404

Dissolved oxygen conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because deficient dissolved oxygen (DO) levels may have severe detrimental effects on estuarine and marine life, DO has been widely used as an indicator of ecological conditions by environmental monitoring programs. The U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) monitored DO conditions in the estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to 1994. DO was measured in two ways: 1)instantaneous profiles from the surface to the bottom were taken during the day, and 2) continuous measurements were taken near the bottom at 15 min intervals for at least 12 h. This information was summarized to assess the spatial distribution and severity of DO conditions in these estuaries. Depending on the criteria used to define hypoxia (DO concentrations usually < 2 mg L-1 or 15 mg L-1) and the method by which DO is measured, we estimate that between 5.2 and 29.3% of the total estuarine area in the Louisianian Province was affected by low DO conditions.

Engle, V. D.; Kevin, Summers, J.; Macauley, J. M.

1999-01-01

405

Distributions of particle-bound phosphorus in an urbanized estuary  

SciTech Connect

The buffering of phosphate concentrations has been suggested in many estuaries including the Delaware. Previous study in the Delaware Estuary has shown that throughout most of the year (July-February) phosphate concentrations in the low salinity (S < 15 ppt) region are fairly constant ranging 1.5-2.5 [mu]M. Analysis of the suspended particulate matter reveals that there is a continual decrease in total particulate phosphorus ([mu]mole/g) with increasing salinity suggesting the release of particle-bound phosphorus. Analysis of the suspended particulate matter of the Delaware Estuary through sequential leaching extractions reveals phosphorus to be associated with iron, aluminum, calcium, and organic matter. In the organized river, a majority of the inorganic particulate phosphorus (67%) is associated with iron (25%) and aluminum (18%) while only a small fraction (3%) is associated with calcium. The proportions of each fraction, however, change during estuarine mixing. As salinity increases, less particulate phosphorus is associated with iron and aluminum, and calcium-bound phosphorus becomes more important. Simulated estuarine mixing in the laboratory revealed a release of phosphorus with increasing salinity. Particle-bound phosphorus associated with iron and aluminum was observed to decrease during mixing suggesting iron- and aluminum-bound phosphorus are important in the buffering of phosphate in the Delaware.

Lebo, M.L. (Univ. of Delaware, Lewes (United States))

1990-01-09

406

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

407

78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FXRS12610800000-134-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit...for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration Project. As originally proposed, the project involved the restoration of estuarine and salt marsh...

2013-01-08

408

76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1261-0000-81680-W5] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of...for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration Project. The proposed project involves the restoration of 66.4 acres of estuarine...

2011-11-14

409

Variation in tidal wetland plant diversity and composition within and among coastal estuaries: assessing the relative importance of environmental gradients  

EPA Science Inventory

Question: Does wetland plant composition vary more by estuarine type (differentiated by the degree of riverine versus oceanic influence) or habitat type within estuaries (defined by US National Wetlands Inventory [NWI] marsh classes)? Location: Oregon estuaries: Netarts Bay, Yaq...

410

Development of a coastal geographical information system for flow and water quality in the Pearl River estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, the Pearl River estuary (PRE) has gone through a very rapid economic and industrial development. The consequence of the development is serious deterioration of water quality in the estuary. In view of this, a coastal geographical information system, for storing various types of hydrodynamic and water quality field and satellite data, integrating available information with a 3D finite element hydrodynamic-sediment transport coupled model and visualizing information in graphic interfaces, has been developed to assist engineers and decision makers in managing and predicting water quality in the PRE. Since coastal environments are highly dynamic, the majority of coastal-related data are constantly varying with 3- dimensional spaces as well as the time. In the present system, a three-level £­attribute-based, spatial-based and constraint-based £­ spatiotemporal database and metadata have been proposed to store and manage the 4- dimensional data which can not be efficiently managed and visualized by traditional 2-dimenstional geographical information systems. The integration of a complex predictive hydrodynamic-sediment transport model with the coastal geographical information system provides not only a user-friendly graphic interface for generating the model input parameters but also for comprehensive model result visualization. Moreover, historical field collected data and predicted model results could be managed and visualized in one system that could provide decision makers a more clear view of the 4-dimensional changes of different decision options.

Wai, O. W.; Chen, B.; Chen, X.

2008-05-01

411

The MRIS feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) is an instrument being developed for use in detecting and ranging of electron density layers in the reentry plasma of a space transfer vehicle. The rationale for the selection of the Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) system used in the feasibility study for the MRIS is presented. A 25 GHz single-oscillator system and a 220 GHz double-oscillator system are described. The 25 GHz system was constructed and tested in the laboratory and test results are presented. As developed, the system employs a sideband spacing of 160 MHz. Based on an estimated electromagnetic wave velocity in the plasma, a round-trip phase shift measurement accuracy of +/- 7.6 degrees was required for the desired +/- 1/2 cm distance measurement accuracy. The interaction of parallel ground and reflecting planes produces interference that prevents the basic DSBSC system from meeting the accuracy goal so a frequency modulation was added to the system to allow averaging of the measured phase deviation. With an FM deviation of +/- 1 GHz, laboratory measurements were made for distances from 5 to 61 cm tip free space. Accounting for the plasma velocity factor, 82 percent of the data were equal to or better than the desired accuracy. Based on this measured result a sideband spacing to 250 MHz could be expected to yield data approximately 96 percent within the accuracy goal.

Neece, Robert T.; Cross, Aubrey E.; Schrader, James H.

1993-01-01

412

Estuaries of the northeastern United States: Habitat and land use signatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographic signatures are physical, chemical, biotic, and human-induced characteristics or processes that help define similar or unique features of estuaries along latitudinal or geographic gradients. Geomorphologically, estuaries of the northeastern U.S., from the Hudson River estuary and northward along the Gulf of Maine shoreline, are highly diverse because of a complex bedrock geology and glacial history. Back-barrier estuaries and lagoons occur within the northeast region, but the dominant type is the drowned-river valley, often with rocky shores. Tidal range and mean depth of northeast estuaries are generally greater when compared to estuaries of the more southern U.S. Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Because of small estuarine drainage basins, low riverine flows, a bedrock substrate, and dense forest cover, sediment loads in northeast estuaries are generally quite low and water clarity is high. Tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, intertidal mudflats, and rocky shores represent major habitat types that fringe northeast estuaries, supporting commercially-important fauna, forage nekton and benthos, and coastal bird communities, while also serving as links between deeper estuarine waters and habitats through detritus-based pathways. Regarding land use and water quality trends, portions of the northeast have a history of over a century of intense urbanization as reflected in increased total nitrogen and total phosphorus loadings to estuaries, with wastewater treatment facilities and atmospheric deposition being major sources. Agricultural inputs are relatively minor throughout the northeast, with relative importance increasing for coastal plain estuaries. Identifying geographic signatures provides an objective means for comparing the structure function, and processes of estuaries along latitudinal gradients.

Roman, C.T.; Jaworski, N.; Short, F.T.; Findlay, S.; Warren, R.S.

2000-01-01

413

Feasibility Study of Linear Induction Motor Thrust Boosters for Diesel-Electric Locomotives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing surplus power available from the diesel engine, by adhesion-independent thrust boosters were reviewed. First the power available for thrust boosting was determined. Then several linear motor reactio...

G. P. Kalman B. W. Hafele

1969-01-01

414

Silver behaviour along the salinity gradient of the Gironde Estuary.  

PubMed

Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (Ag(D) and Ag(P), respectively) were measured in surface water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) along the salinity gradient of the Gironde Estuary, South West France, during three cruises (2008-2009) covering contrasting hydrological conditions, i.e. two cruises during intermediate and one during high freshwater discharge (~740 and ~2,300 m(3)/s). Silver distribution reflected non-conservative behaviour with 60-70 % of Ag(P) in freshwater particles being desorbed by chlorocomplexation. The amount of Ag(P) desorbed was similar to the so-called reactive, potentially bioavailable Ag(P) fraction (60 ± 4 %) extracted from river SPM by 1 M HCl. Both Ag(P) (0.22 ± 0.05 mg/kg) and Ag(P)/Th(P) (0.025-0.028) in the residual fraction of fluvial and estuarine SPM were similar to those in SPM from the estuary mouth and in coastal sediments from the shelf off the Gironde Estuary, indicating that chlorocomplexation desorbs the reactive Ag(P). The data show that desorption of reactive Ag(P) mainly occurs inside the estuary during low and intermediate discharge, whereas expulsion of partially Ag(P)-depleted SPM (Ag(P)/Th(P) ~0.040) during the flood implies ongoing desorption in the coastal ocean, e.g. in the nearby oyster production areas (Marennes-Oléron Bay). The highest Ag(D) levels (6-8 ng/L) occurred in the mid-salinity range (15-20) of the Gironde Estuary and were decoupled from freshwater discharge. In the maximum turbidity zone, Ag(D) were at minimum, showing that high SPM concentrations (a) induce Ag(D) adsorption in estuarine freshwater and (b) counterbalance Ag(P) desorption in the low salinity range (1-3). Accordingly, Ag behaviour in turbid estuaries appears to be controlled by the balance between salinity and SPM levels. The first estimates of daily Ag(D) net fluxes for the Gironde Estuary (Boyle's method) showed relatively stable theoretical Ag(D) at zero salinity (Ag (D) (0) = 25-30 ng/L) for the contrasting hydrological situations. Accordingly, Ag(D) net fluxes were very similar for the situations with intermediate discharge (1.7 and 1.6 g/day) and clearly higher during the flood (5.0 g/day) despite incomplete desorption. Applying Ag (D) (0) to the annual freshwater inputs provided an annual net Ag(D) flux (0.64-0.89 t/year in 2008 and 0.56-0.77 t/year in 2009) that was 12-50 times greater than the Ag(D) gross flux. This estimate was consistent with net Ag(D) flux estimates obtained from gross Ag(P) flux considering 60 % desorption in the estuarine salinity gradient. PMID:22782792

Lanceleur, Laurent; Schäfer, Jörg; Blanc, Gérard; Coynel, Alexandra; Bossy, Cécile; Baudrimont, Magalie; Glé, Corine; Larrose, Aurélie; Renault, Sophie; Strady, Emilie

2013-03-01

415

Conceptualizing the Structure of Coupled Estuary, Coast and Inner Shelf Sediment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the coastal cell has endured for 50 years as a geomorphological framework for coastal engineering and management. Cells are readily defined for coasts dominated by alongshore transport of beach-grade material, but the concept struggles to accommodate long range cohesive sediment fluxes. Moreover, the challenges of predicting, understanding and mitigating climate change impacts at the coast demand a richer conceptualization that embraces the connectedness of open coasts with estuaries and the inner shelf at broader scales and that also acknowledges the extent of anthropogenic control. Accordingly, this paper presents a new approach that re-engages with formal systems analysis and restores a geomorphological focus to coastal management problems that have latterly been tackled primarily by engineers. At the heart of this approach is an ontology of landforms and interventions (both structural and non-structural) that is partly inspired by the coastal tract concept and its temporal hierarchy of sediment sharing systems, but which also emphasizes a spatial hierarchy in scale, from coastal regions, through landform complexes, to landforms and human interventions. The complex web of interactions is represented through an influence network in which a sub-set of mass transfer pathways define the sediment system. Guided by a machine-readable ontology and produced within a geospatial framework, such system ';maps' can be utilized in several ways. First, their generation constitutes a form of knowledge formalization in which disparate sources of information (published research, data etc) are generalized into usable knowledge. Second, system maps also provide a repository for more quantitative analyses and system-level modelling at the scales that really matter. Third, they can also be analyzed using methods derived from graph theory to yield potentially valuable insights into the scale linkages that govern the mutual adjustment of estuary, coast and inner shelf morphology and their implications for the development of quantitative models able to capture such behaviour. Illustrative results, produced as a contribution to the NERC Integrated Coastal Sediment Systems (iCOASST) project, are presented for demonstration regions in Liverpool Bay and Suffolk, UK.

French, J.; Burningham, H.

2013-12-01

416

Feasibility Test of CADD Webmenus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) initiated SPR Project 683: CADD Webmenus Feasibility Study to conduct a proof-of-concept test of Web-based CADD menus for ADOT agency-wide CADD applications. ADOT is currently interested in the feasibility o...

C. Pausch K. Fern

2009-01-01

417

Micro electric propulsion feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. &The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

1992-11-01

418

Micro electric propulsion feasibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

1992-01-01

419

Relationships between Zoo and Phytoplankton in a Warm-temperate, Semi-permanently Closed Estuary, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal surveys were carried out in the shallow, well-conserved temporarily open Nyara Estuary in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Although temporarily open estuaries constitute over 70% of estuaries in South Africa, few data are available on the structure and functioning of these systems in the region. The main aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that owing to

R. Perissinotto; D. R. Walker; P. Webb; T. H. Wooldridge; R. Bally

2000-01-01

420

The Future of Fish in Response to Large-Scale Change in the San Francisco Estuary, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Francisco Estuary is the largest estuary on the west coast of North America and one of the most altered . It supports a diverse fish fauna in which key species are in severe decline . T he estuary is faced with catastrophic structural and ecological changes, especially in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Marsh, as the result

PETER B. MOYLE

2008-01-01

421

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and surface sediment from two estuaries in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in oysters and sediments collected from two high salinity estuaries from the coast of South Carolina. The two estuaries were Murrells Inlet (urban), an estuary receiving urbanized drainage and run-off, and North Inlet (non-urban), receiving drainage from heavily forested terrarin and minimal anthropogenic input. A minimum of thirty (30 stations were

M. Sanders

1995-01-01

422

E-Estuary: Developing a Decision Support System for Coastal Management in the Conterminous United States (IAHR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

423

E-Estuary: Developing a Decision-support System for Coastal Management in the Counterminous Untied States (Coastal Geotools 09)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

424

E-estuary: A Decision Support System for Coastal Water and Ecosystem Management in the US (CZ09)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

425

Ecological Aspects of the Annapolis Estuary With Specific Reference to Operational Effects of the Annapolis Tidal Power Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of physico-chemical and biological studies in the Annapolis Estuary are reviewed with reference to possible environmental effects of the Annapolis Tidal Power Station. Tidal barrage construction in 1960 transformed a vertically homogenous type of estuary into a highly stratf- fled salt wedge estuary with a reduced tidal range. Stratification is highly stable in the lower river and variable in

Anna M. Redden; Graham R. Daborn; Robert S. Gregory

426

Measuring Fluxes in Tidal Estuaries: Sensitivity to Instrumentation and Associated Data Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the feasibility of quantifying net fluxes across a macrotidal estuary employing a range of available instrumentation. The observational programme in the Mersey Estuary used the following array of instruments to measure tidal currents: bottom mounted and towed ADCPs (acoustic Doppler current profiler); bottom and (floating) platform- mounted electromagnetic current meters; and moored rotary meters. In 1992, observations extending over a 15-day spring-neap tidal cycle included near-continuous half-hourly towed ADCP transects across the 1·5 km wide Mersey Narrows. The ADCPs also recorded acoustic backscatter, used here to indicate concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Tidal analyses of data of this type are complicated by the effect of the change in cross-sectional area between low and high waters. Here, an appropriate vertical reference frame is suggested that optimizes the tidal analyses (especially where drying occurs) and allows both the comparison of moored and floating instruments, and subsequent synthesis into cross-sectionally integrated parameters. Formulation of a related cross-sectional grid scheme for analyses of the towed ADCP data is also described. After careful adoption of the above frameworks, coherent horizontal and vertical distributions were identified from analyses of the towed ADCP data for amplitude, phase and direction of N 2, M 2, S 2, M 4, MSf and Z 0tidal ellipses. Encouraging comparisons were found between tidal current constituents derived from the various instrument arrays. Similarly, coherent cross-sectional distributions for both tidal and residual fluxes of water and SPM were obtained. Residual current time series recorded at fixed positions showed good cross-correlation, but limited correlation against local wind data. By contrast, the residual time series for the principal mode representing the towed ADCP current data was uncorrelated with these fixed position data. It is possible that extraneous noise inherent in the towed instruments is not effectively filtered in the tidal analysis, and contaminates the residual current time series. Although the spatial distributions of the various estimates of Z 0for the net water flux are coherent, the values (mean over 15 days) are clearly unrepresentative. Thus, despite the scale of the observational programme, it is concluded that where net fluxes are less than a few percent of tidal oscillations, these can not be determined by direct measurements of the sort described, even with state-of-the-art instrumentation. This conclusion essentially confirms experience elsewhere. Alternative methods of determining net fluxes include interpretation of measurements (of the present cross-sectional kind) with the aid of numerical models, or for ' conservative ' riverine tracers, calculation from longitudinal profiles.

Lane, A.; Prandle, D.; Harrison, A. J.; Jones, P. D.; Jarvis, C. J.

1997-10-01

427

Implications of a saltmarsh chronology for the Severn Estuary based on independent lines of dating evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much work done on metal trends in salt marsh sediment sequences, but relatively little on radiometric dating of these same deposits. Using the example of the Severn Estuary, southwest England, both of these techniques are used to demonstrate how temporal metal pollution trends can be spatially correlated throughout the estuary to provide a series of dated time

Peter W. French

1996-01-01

428

EFFECTS OF EROSION AND MACROALGAE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN A NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC ESTUARY (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in open-coast northeastern Pacific estuaries is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on the natural factors controlling its upper intertidal growth limits. This two-year study in the Yaquina Estuary (Newport, Oregon, USA) evaluated the...

429

The effect of interacting downstream branches on saltwater intrusion in the Modaomen Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the increased pressure of saltwater intrusion in the Modaomen Estuary, one of the outlets in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, has threatened the freshwater supply for the surrounding regions. The estuary has complex geometry and bathymetry and branches into three waterways, Madaomen Waterway, Hongwan Waterway, and Hezhou Waterway, entering into the coastal sea. In this study, a three-dimensional baroclinic model (EFDC) was used to investigate salt transport among these branches and saltwater intrusion in the mainstem of the estuary. The salt transport at selected cross sections was decomposed into three components: advection, steady shear, and tidal oscillatory, following the method of Lerczak et al. (Lerczak, J.A., Geyer, W.R., Chant, R.J., 2006. Mechanisms driving the time-dependent salt flux in a partially stratified estuary. Journal of Physical Oceanography 36, 2296-2311). Results from this study indicate that the Hongwan Waterway serves as a salt source for the mainstem of the estuary, especially during spring tides, while the Hezhou Waterway mainly acts as a salt sink for the mainstem. The down-estuary wind increases the steady shear transport in the Modaomen Waterway and the advection transport in the Hongwan Waterway, which alters the saltwater intrusion in the estuary. Closure of the Hongwan and the Hezhou Waterways could result in a 20% decrease of saltwater intrusion in the estuary. These results provide scientific basis for water resource management in the region.

Gong, Wenping; Wang, Yaping; Jia, Jianjun

2012-02-01

430

COMPARING TRANSPORT TIMES THROUGH SALINITY ZONES IN THE OGEECHEE AND ALTAMAHA RIVER ESTUARIES USING SQUEEZEBOX  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored differences in the transit times of dissolved substances through salinity zones in the Altamaha and Ogeechee River estuaries under a range of flow conditions. Salinity distributions and transit times were estimated from box models generated using the SqueezeBox modeling framework. The estuaries were compared in spite of the large difference in their river flow ranges by using

Joan E. Sheldon; Merryl Alber

431

Ecosystem Modulation of Dissolved Carbon Age in a Temperate Marsh-Dominated Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the concentrations and isotopic values (? 14C and d 13C) of dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic, and particulate organic carbon (DIC, DOC, and POC, respectively) in the Parker River watershed and estuary in Massachusetts, USA, to determine the age of carbon (C) entering the estuary and how estuarine processing affects the quantity and apparent age of C transported to

Peter A. Raymond; Charles S. Hopkinson

2003-01-01

432

Linking Data Access to Data Models to Applications: The Estuary Data Mapper  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary has three elements: an estuarine geo-referenced relational database, watershed GIS coverages, and tools to support decision-making. To facilita...

433

REGIONAL TRANSPORT AND SECONDARY SPREAD OF INVASIVE SPECIES ACROSS PACIFIC ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

San Francisco Bay is considered to be the most highly invaded estuary in North America, and is suspected of acting as a local source pool for secondary invasions of other Pacific estuaries. With support from the Regional Applied Research Effort programs in EPA Regions 9 and 10, ...

434

Bioavailability of heavy metals monitoring water, sediments and fish species from a polluted estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) were measured in water, sediment and two fish species, Sparus aurata and Solea senegalensis, from the estuary of Tinto and Odiel rivers in Huelva (Spain), one of the most metallic polluted estuaries in Europe.As a forward step to understand metal bioavailability and assess the potential impact on aquatic biota, a

Juan J. Vicente-Martorell; María D. Galindo-Riaño; Manuel García-Vargas; María D. Granado-Castro

2009-01-01

435

Developing Nitrogen Load-Eelgrass Response Relationshups for New England Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

We have accumulated and analyzed eelgrass areal extent data for 67 estuaries from three New England states. To our knowledge this is the largest data set of its kind. Previous comparative studies have utilized data from a far smaller number of estuaries (ten or less) to develop e...

436

Rapid coastal geomorphic change in the River Murray Estuary of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The River Murray Estuary, a Ramsar Wetland Site, has experienced considerable rapid coastal change during the Quaternary. The interplay of aeolian processes, river flows, tidal oscillations, wave action and variations in relative sea-level due to global sea-level changes and land subsidence, provides the energy for the ongoing dynamism, often accelerated by human impacts. The estuary is the terminus of the

R. P. Bourman; C. V. Murray-Wallace; A. P. Belperio; N. Harvey

2000-01-01

437

Estimates of flushing times, submarine groundwater discharge, and nutrient fluxes to Okatee Estuary, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical model based on determining the fraction of the tidal prism that returns to the estuary on the next high tide is used to estimate the flushing time of the Okatee River estuary. The return flow factor (b) of 0.81 yields a flushing time of 2 days. A mass balance model of 228Ra and salinity is also used to

Willard S. Moore; Jackson O. Blanton; Samantha B. Joye

2006-01-01

438

River discharge, sediment transport and exchange in the Tana Estuary, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on sediment transport and exchange dynamics in the 27km2 Tana Estuary located at Kipini in the north Kenya coast. The estuary is drained by the Tana River, which contributes more than 50% of the total river discharges into the Kenyan sector of the Indian Ocean. The study involved measurement of river discharges, estuarine flood–ebb tidal discharges, total

J. U. Kitheka; M. Obiero; P. Nthenge

2005-01-01

439

Second international symposium on the biogeochemistry of model estuaries: Estuarine processes in global change  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of abstracts of papers presented at the symposium of Biogeochemistry. The main topics discussed at the meeting are; nutrient and mineral cycling, trace element distribution, sources and sinks of estuaries, sedimentation, importance of organic matter, and other biogeochemical processes of estuaries.

Not Available

1991-12-31

440

Concentration and Distribution of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants and Metals in the Estuaries of Ukraine  

EPA Science Inventory

In this baseline study of Ukrainian estuaries, sediments and organisms from the Dnieper and Boh estuaries and Danube Delta on the mainland, Sevastopol and Balaklava Bays on the Crimean Peninsula, and coastal Black Sea along the Crimean Peninsula were collected in 2006. Contamina...

441

Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary  

SciTech Connect

The transport and fate of Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Plutonium 239, 240 in the Hudson River Estuary is discussed. Rates of radionuclide deposition and accumulation over time and space are calculated for the Hudson River watershed, estuary, and continental shelf offshore. 37 references, 7 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

Simpson, H.J.; Linsalata, P.; Olsen, C.R.

1982-01-01

442

Responses of the river plume to the external forcing in Pearl River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of river flow, tidal mixing, basin morphology and wind produces a different type of river plume in the Pearl River Estuary. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model has been used to study the response of the river plume to different forcings in the Pearl River Estuary. The results indicate that river discharge determines the font size of

L. Luo; W. Zhou; D. Wang

2012-01-01

443

A numerical study of the plume in Cape Fear River Estuary and adjacent coastal ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), located in southeast North Carolina, is the only river estuary system in the state which is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. It is also an important nursery for economically and ecologically important juvenile fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species because of the tidal influence and saline waters. In this study, Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code

M. Xia; L. Xia; L. J. Pietrafesa

2006-01-01

444

Determination and distribution of endosulfan and malathion in an indian estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted to determine the spatial and seasonal distribution of two very common pesticides, Endosulfan and Malathion, in Cochin estuary, India. Six sampling stations along the estuary were identified and analyses were carried out during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons. Pesticide levels were higher during the premonsoon period than during the postmonsoon season. Throughout the monsoon season,

C. H Sujatha; S. M Nair; J Chacko

1999-01-01

445

Copper addition by organic matter degradation in the freshwater reaches of a turbid estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the relationship between copper (Cu) behavior and organic matter (OM) transformation along the turbidity gradient in the freshwater reaches of the Gironde Estuary. During a one-year survey, surface water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were sampled at least monthly at three sites along the Garonne Branch, representing the main fluvial branch of the Gironde Estuary. Additionally,

Matthieu Masson; Gérard Blanc; Jörg Schäfer; Edith Parlanti; Philippe Le Coustumer

2011-01-01

446

The Application of a Segmented Tidal Mixing Model to the Great Bay Estuary, N.H.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Bay Estuarine System has a very complex geometry. Measurements show that in general salt is vertically well-mixed everywhere in the estuary except near the river entrances at the head of the estuary. Dyer and Taylor's (1973) modified version of ...

W. S. Brown E. Arrelano M

1979-01-01

447

Biogeochemistry of the MAximum TURbidity Zone of Estuaries (MATURE): some conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we give a short overview of the activities and main results of the MAximum TURbidity Zone of Estuaries (MATURE) project. Three estuaries (Elbe, Schelde and Gironde) have been sampled intensively during a joint 1-week campaign in both 1993 and 1994. We introduce the publicly available database, and compare trends and patterns in suspended matter, nutrients and organic

Peter M. J Herman; Carlo H. R Heip

1999-01-01

448

Total and inorganic arsenic in the fauna of the Guadalquivir estuary: environmental and human health implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the impact on fauna of the release of toxic waste from the tailings dam operated by the Boliden Apirsa S.L company at Aznalcóllar, Seville (Spain) a study was carried out of total and inorganic arsenic contents in 164 samples from six different estuary species, including molluscs, crustaceans and fish, collected at six sampling stations distributed along the estuary

M. A Suñer; V Devesa; O Muñoz; F López; R Montoro; A. M Arias; J Blasco

1999-01-01

449

The distribution and influence of heavy metals in mangrove forests of the Tamshui Estuary in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tamshui estuary area is one of the few locations in Taiwan where mangroves are still growing. Heavy metals are generally carried by the water of the Tamshui river and accumulate in the estuary soil. Their accumulation is closely related to the frequency and duration of tidal flood. The concentration of heavy metals in Kandelia candel showed a sequential decline

Chih-Yu Chiu; Chang-Hung Chou

1991-01-01

450

A MODEL OF ESTUARY RESPONSE TO NITROGEN LOADING AND FRESHWATER RESIDENCE TIME  

EPA Science Inventory

We have developed a deterministic model that relates average annual nitrogen loading rate and water residence time in an estuary to in-estuary nitrogen concentrations and loss rates (e.g. denitrification and incorporation in sediments), and to rates of nitrogen export across the ...

451

Middle-Late Holocene Evolution of the Morphology of a Drowned Estuary System: The Delaware Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Delaware estuary lies along the axis of the pre-Holocene channel of the ancestral Delaware River, which was incised over 220 feet below present sea level near the mouth of the present estuary. This ancestral Delaware River drainage system was drowned ...

J. C. Kraft R. E. Sheridan R. D. Moose R. N. Strom C. B. Weil

1974-01-01

452

Report on benthic survey/sampling at Coquille Estuary, OR: June 30-July 3, 2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Zostera japonica is a non-native seagrass first reported in the PNW in Willapa Bay in 1957 (Harrison and Bigley 1982). Since the, Z. japonica has been reported from 16 estuaries in the PNW (Lee and Reusser 2007), including the Yaquina Estuary in 1974-1975 (Bayer 1996). Besides ...

453

Paleo-Environmental Change in the San Francisco Estuary Using Marsh Vegetation Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable carbon isotopes, fossil pollen and stratigraphic analyses are used to reconstruct the paleo-environmental history of the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Research sites were selected along a salinity gradient spanning the northern reaches of the Estuary, from the west end of San Pablo Bay to the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. We collected sediment cores from tidal marshes which

F. P. Malamud-Roam; L. Ingram

2001-01-01

454

Long-term morphological change and its causes in the Mersey Estuary, NW England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the morphology of the Mersey Estuary, and their possible causes, have been investigated using Historical Trend Analysis and Expert Geomorphological Assessment. Historical bathymetric charts were digitised and analysed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimates of changes in areas and sediment volumes above and below selected elevation planes. The results show that the estuary experienced major changes over the last 150 years, notably between the late 19th century and ca. 1950. An analysis of data relating to possible natural and human factors which could have influenced these changes suggests that training wall construction and dredging in the Outer Estuary and Liverpool Bay was the most significant factor contributing to change during this period. These activities modified the hydrodynamic and sediment transport regime in a way which enhanced an existing natural tendency for movement of sediment from Liverpool Bay and the Outer Estuary into the Inner Estuary. Changes in other factors, including sea level, tidal range, wind/wave climate, freshwater flow and embanking/land reclamation, were of relatively minor importance. Between 1950 and 1977 the rate of sediment accumulation in the Inner Estuary declined as the estuary approached a new condition of dynamic equilibrium, and since 1977 there has been a slight net loss of sediment. Under these conditions the changes in natural forcing factors, such as sea level and storminess, are likely to have a relatively greater effect on the estuary than in the past.

Blott, Simon J.; Pye, Kenneth; van der Wal, Daphne; Neal, Adrian

2006-11-01

455

Quantifying anthropogenic shoreline modification of the Hudson River and Estuary from European contact to modern time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic modifications to the shoreline of the New York Harbor estuary and the tidal portion of the Hudson River have been mapped and quantitatively assessed. Modifications studied include the filling of tidal salt? and freshwater marshes and the creation of fast land as well as dredging, shoreline armoring, and dike installation. Because the Hudson Estuary and River comprise a historically

Donald F. Squires

1992-01-01

456

The relationship between dissolved humic acids and soluble iron in estuaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dissolved humic acid and soluble iron appear to be chemically unassociated in estuaries despite their coincident removal. This conclusion is supported by differences in the aggregation kinetics of soluble iron and dissolved humic acid, the inability of extracted humic acid to stabilize laboratory preparations of ferric hydroxide, and decreasing ratios of humic acid carbon to soluble iron along the axes of some estuaries.

Fox, L. E.

1984-01-01

457

Distribution, transport and exchanges of fine sediment, with tidal power implications: Severn Estuary, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Severn, a hypertidal, high turbidity estuary, has a bed largely stripped of unconsolidated sediment. Its inter-tidal zone is mainly mudflats, the universal erosional trend of which is now proven. These are a source for sub-tidal mud accumulations in Newport Deep, much of Bridgwater Bay, less so in Bristol Deep and Cardiff Roads. The main estuary turbidity maximum is dominated

R. Kirby

2010-01-01

458

An approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest Estuaries: A case study  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an overview of an approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, based on a case study of Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The approach is based on a synthesis of research from field studies, analyses of historical trends in wat...

459

Transport of dissolved nutrients and chlorophyll a in a tropical estuary, southwest coast of India.  

PubMed

Intra-tidal variability in the transport of materials through the Cochin estuary was studied over successive spring and neap tides to estimate the export fluxes of nutrients and chlorophyll a into the adjoining coastal zone. The results showed that there was a substantial increase in the freshwater flow into the estuary following heavy rains (~126 mm) prior to the spring tide observations. The estuary responded accordingly with a relatively larger export through the Cochin inlet during spring tide over neap tide. Despite an increased freshwater discharge during spring tide, the export fluxes of phosphate and ammonia were high during neap tide due to their input into the estuary through anthropogenic activities. The significance of this study is that the export fluxes from the Cochin estuary could be a major factor sustaining the spectacular monsoon fishery along the southwest coast of India. PMID:24771463

Lallu, K R; Fausia, K H; Vinita, J; Balachandran, K K; Naveen Kumar, K R; Rehitha, T V

2014-08-01

460

Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in the sediments and biota of two adjacent estuaries, the Orwell and the Stour, in eastern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the concentrations of the elements As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediments and biota of two adjacent estuaries, the Orwell and Stour, in eastern England. The Orwell Estuary, with its urbanized head, was more contaminated with heavy metals than the Stour Estuary. Generally, in both estuaries, concentrations of metals were

P Wright; C. F Mason

1999-01-01

461

(Feasibility study of the San Lorenzo River hydroelectric project)  

SciTech Connect

I travelled to San Jose, Costa Rica on July 8, 1990 to evaluate all of the completed elements of the ongoing feasibility study for the San Lorenzo River hydroelectric project. The feasibility study is being supported by ORNL under the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project. The project is being studied for implementation by CONELECTRICAS, a consortium of rural electric cooperatives and the study itself is being conducted by BEL Engineering, a Costa Rican consulting firm under contract to CONELECTRICAS, USAID/PIC and NRECA.

Chronowski, R.A.

1990-07-19

462

Influence of habitat structure and mouth dynamics on avifauna of intermittently-open estuaries: A study of four small South African estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat composition was a major factor in determining waterbird species composition and abundance, particularly the area of floodplain and vegetated channel in four intermittently open estuaries (IOEs) in the warm-temperate coastal biogeographical region of South Africa. Average bird densities on the four estuaries varied from 0.5 to 4.2 birds per hectare, and community composition differed significantly between estuaries. However, the considerable variation in abundance of macrophytes did not have a detectable effect on waterbirds. Under closed mouth conditions, piscivorous birds dominated the avifauna. Each estuary's avifauna responded differently in terms of changes in feeding guild composition when the mouth opened. Bird abundance changed immediately after breaching, but not consistently. Diversity was significantly higher under open-mouth conditions for three of the four estuaries, and species composition was significantly different from that under closed-mouth conditions at all four estuaries. Changes in mouth dynamics as a result of climate change, water abstraction and artificial breaching could lead to significant changes in estuarine fauna.

Terörde, Anja I.; Turpie, Jane K.

2013-07-01

463

Indicators of AEI applied to the Delaware Estuary.  

PubMed

We evaluated the impacts of entrainment and impingement at the Salem Generating Station on fish populations and communities in the Delaware Estuary. In the absence of an agreed-upon regulatory definition of "adverse environmental impact" (AEI), we developed three independent benchmarks of AEI based on observed or predicted changes that could threaten the sustainability of a population or the integrity of a community. Our benchmarks of AEI included: (1) disruption of the balanced indigenous community of fish in the vicinity of Salem (the "BIC" analysis); (2) a continued downward trend in the abundance of one or more susceptible fish species (the "Trends" analysis); and (3) occurrence of entrainment/impingement mortality sufficient, in combination with fishing mortality, to jeopardize the future sustainability of one or more populations (the "Stock Jeopardy" analysis). The BIC analysis utilized nearly 30 years of species presence/absence data collected in the immediate vicinity of Salem. The Trends analysis examined three independent data sets that document trends in the abundance of juvenile fish throughout the estuary over the past 20 years. The Stock Jeopardy analysis used two different assessment models to quantify potential long-term impacts of entrainment and impingement on susceptible fish populations. For one of these models, the compensatory capacities of the modeled species were quantified through meta-analysis of spawner-recruit data available for several hundred fish stocks. All three analyses indicated that the fish populations and communities of the Delaware Estuary are healthy and show no evidence of an adverse impact due to Salem. Although the specific models and analyses used at Salem are not applicable to every facility, we believe that a weight of evidence approach that evaluates multiple benchmarks of AEI using both retrospective and predictive methods is the best approach for assessing entrainment and impingement impacts at existing facilities. PMID:12805941

Barnthouse, Lawrence W; Heimbuch, Douglas G; Anthony, Vaughn C; Hilborn, Ray W; Myers, Ransom A

2002-05-18

464

Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flux of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac riverine and estuarine sediments is controlled by processes occurring at the water-sediment interface and within surficial sediment. In situ benthic fluxes (0.1 to 2.0 mmoles m-2 day-1) are generally five to ten times higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.020 to 0.30 mmoles m-2 day-1). The discrepancy between the two flux estimates is greatest in the transition zone (river mile 50 to 70) and is attributd to macrofaunal irrigation. Both in situ and diffusive fluxes of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac tidal river sediments are low while those from anoxic lower estuarine sediments are high. The net accumulation rate of phosphorus in benthic sediment exhibits an inverse pattern. Thus a large fraction of phosphorus is retained by Potomac tidal river sediments, which contain a surficial oxidized layer and oligochaete worms tolerant of low oxygen conditions, and a large fraction of phosphorus is released from anoxic lower estuary sediments. Tidal river sediment pore waters are in equilibrium with amorphous Fe (OH)3 while lower estuary pore waters are significantly undersaturated with respect to this phase. Benthic regeneration of dissolved reactive phosphorus is sufficient to supply all the phosphorus requirements for net prim