Science.gov

Sample records for estuary engineering feasibility

  1. Deschutes estuary feasibility study: hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

    2006-01-01

    - Provide the completed study to the CLAMP Steering Committee so that a recommendation about a long-term aquatic environment of the basin can be made. The hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling task developed a number of different model simulations using a process-based morphological model, Delft3D, to help address these goals. Modeling results provide a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior both prior to dam construction and after various post-dam removal scenarios. Quantitative data from the model is used in the companion biological assessment and engineering design components of the overall study. Overall, the modeling study found that after dam removal, tidal and estuarine processes are immediately restored, with marine water from Budd Inlet carried into North and Middle Basin on each rising tide and mud flats being exposed with each falling tide. Within the first year after dam removal, tidal processes, along with the occasional river floods, act to modify the estuary bed by redistributing sediment through erosion and deposition. The morphological response of the bed is rapid during the first couple of years, then slows as a dynamic equilibrium is reached within three to five years. By ten years after dam removal, the overall hydrodynamic and morphologic behavior of the estuary is similar to the pre-dam estuary, with the exception of South Basin, which has been permanently modified by human activities. In addition to a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior, process-based modeling provides the ability address specific questions to help to inform decision-making. Considering that predicting future conditions of a complex estuarine environment is wrought with uncertainties, quantitative results in this report are often expressed in terms of ranges of possible outcomes.

  2. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ariwite, Roderick

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  3. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-08-03

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

  4. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-01-01

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding anddrainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

  5. Artemis: Results of the engineering feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form for the Engineering Feasibility Study of the Artemis Project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Topics covered include the Common Lunar Lander (CLL), lunar lander engineering study results, lunar lander trajectory analysis, lunar lander conceptual design and mass properties, the lunar lander communication subsystem design, and product assurance.

  6. Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

  7. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  8. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  9. Laser engines operating by resonance absorption. [thermodynamic feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Pechersky, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    Basic tutorial article on the thermodynamic feasibility of laser engines at the present state of the art. Three main options are considered: (1) laser power applied externally to a heat reservoir (boiler approach); (2) internal heating of working fluid by resonance absorption; and (3) direct conversion of selective excitation into work. Only (2) is considered practically feasible at present. Basic concepts and variants, efficiency relations, upper temperature limits of laser engines, selection of absorbing gases, engine walls, bleaching, thermodynamic cycles of optimized laser engines, laser-powered turbines, laser heat pumps are discussed. Photon engines and laser dissociation engines are also considered.

  10. 75 FR 77798 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational...Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational...Audrey Profitt, Senior Industrial Hygienist, Directorate of...Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

  11. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  12. 75 FR 64216 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...Audrey Profitt, Senior Industrial Hygienist, Directorate...feasible administrative or engineering controls in 29 CFR...administrative and engineering controls are unable...reliance on feasible engineering and administrative...is supported by good industrial hygiene practice...

  13. Civil Engineering Feasibility Studies for Future Ring Colliders at CERN

    E-print Network

    Bruning, O; Myers, S; Osborne, J; Rossi, L; Waaijer, C; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    CERN civil engineers are studying the feasibility of several potential ring colliders to complement the LHC: an 80km circular tunnel to house the TLEP and VHE-LHC, and the ring-ring and linac-ring options for the LHeC. The feasibility of these projects is largely dependent on civil design and geotechnical and environmental risks. As civil infrastructure works typically represent one third of the cost of major physics projects, it is critical that the construction costs are well understood from the conceptual stage. This proceeding presents the first results of the feasibility studies for the 80km tunnel and the linac-ring LHeC. Presented at IPAC'13 Shanghai, 12-17 May 2013

  14. MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

  15. 75 FR 77798 - Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    .... Authority: 29 U.S.C. 655; 29 CFR 1910.95(b)(1) & 1926.52(b); Secretary of Labor's Order 4-2010, 75 FR 55355... for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational Noise AGENCY: Occupational Safety... Interpretation of OSHA's Provisions for Feasible Administrative or Engineering Controls of Occupational...

  16. Will the balance of power shift among native eastern Pacific estuary ecosystem engineers with the introduced bopyrid isopod parasite orthione griffenis?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The blue mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis, the bay ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, and eelgrass, Zostera marina are endemic ecosystem engineers that define the ecological structure and function of estuaries along the Pacific coast of the US as significantly as do marshes...

  17. GEO-ENGINEERING TO CONFINE CLIMATE CHANGE: IS IT AT ALL FEASIBLE?

    E-print Network

    Begstsson, Lennart

    GEO-ENGINEERING TO CONFINE CLIMATE CHANGE: IS IT AT ALL FEASIBLE? An Editorial Comment 1 for proposing the experiment is the observed cooling of the atmosphere following the recent major volcanic erup before any geo-engineering of climate could be considered, if at all. The three issues are (i) the lack

  18. Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Ian

    2001-01-01

    The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accomodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part I-Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2-Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25.800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3-Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine, two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC material in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

  19. Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Ian

    2001-01-01

    The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accommodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part 1: Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2: Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3: Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine. two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR = 2.0 were investigated. The single-spool 5.000-lbf-thrust turbofan was refined and the small engine study was extended to include a 2,000-lbf-thrust turbojet. More attention was paid to optimizing the turbomachinery. Turbine cooling flows were eliminated, in keeping with the use of uncooled CMC materials in exoskeletal engines. The turbine performance parameters moved much closer to the nominal target values, demonstrating the great benefits to the cycle of uncooled turbines.

  20. Engineering feasibility of in-situ subsurface isolation barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.

    2007-07-01

    In the remediation of radioactive waste disposal sites there are occasional situations where it is not feasible to remove the waste or contaminated soil and a containment approach is more appropriate. This paper is a discussion of a DOE funded research and development study [1] on the feasibility of in situ construction bottom barrier containment structures in soil under and around large contaminated sites. The evaluated bottom barrier method begins with a conventional slurry trench around the perimeter of a site. The method utilizes high-density slurry grout and a cable saw mechanism to make a controlled horizontal cut at the base of the slurry trench. Gravity alone forces the dense slurry into the horizontal cut and causes the entire block of earth to literally float in a slurry grout that cures into an impermeable barrier material. The work included evaluation of a completed field test that floated a 50-ton block of earth, development of a computer model of the process, evaluation of structural hydraulic and shearing forces on the earth block, measurement of friction and cutting forces in a field test, hardware design drawings, cost analysis, and an ASME review. The study evaluated issues such as scalability, and adaptability to various geologic conditions such as soil types and layers, hills, rocks, saturated soil, faults, waste density variations, fractures and unconsolidated soil formations. A method to measure the integrity of the barrier both after construction and periodically in the future was also evaluated. Barrier durability, erosion, bio-penetration, and moisture related cracking, and response to earth movements is also considered. Reactive and adsorptive chemistry to relatively thick layers of barrier material are proposed that may further improve long term containment. (authors)

  1. Krypton-85 hydrofracture engineering feasibility and safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Muller, M.E.; Pan, P.Y.

    1981-07-01

    Engineering studies have been made to determine the hazards associated with the disposal of /sup 85/Kr using the hydrofracture process. To assess the hazards, an effort has been made to identify the equipment required to entrain and dissolve the noble gas into the grout stream at hydrofracture pressure (up to 350 bar). Off-the-shelf or slightly modified equipment has been identified for safe and effective compression and gas-grout mixing. Each monthly injection disposes of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 85/Kr. By connecting only one gas cylinder to the injection system at a time, the maximum amount of krypton likely to be released as a result of equipment failure is limited to 128,000 Ci. An evaluation by Los Alamos Technical Associates shows that releasing this amount of gas in less than one hour under worst-case meteorological conditions through a 30-m stack would result in a whole-body dose of 170 millirem at a distance of 1 km from the facility. A krypton collection and recovery system can further reduce this dose to 17 millirem; increasing the distance to the site boundary to 3 km can also reduce the dose by a factor of ten. Lung and skin dose estimates are 1.6 and 120 times the whole-body dose, respectively. These are all worst-case values; releases under more typical conditions would result in a significantly lower dose. No insurmountable safety or engineering problems have been identified.

  2. Converting an estuary to Lake Grevelingen: Environmental review of a coastal engineering project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeijs, H. L. F.; Stortelder, P. B. M.

    1982-09-01

    To guarantee protection from storm floods in the southwestern part of the Netherlands, the length of exposed coastline is being greatly reduced by the construction of dams and a storm surge barrier. As part of the Delta Project, the mouth of the Grevelingen estuary was closed in 1971. Due to the closure, tidal movement was eliminated, which resulted in changes in environmental factors such as transparency and chloride and phosphate concentration. The number of plant and animal groups decreased. Large areas of sand flats and salt marshes, which were formerly exposed to the tides, were left “high and dry.” This resulted in enormous changes for the communities living in these areas. The development of a new ecological system and the changed potential afforded by the water and land areas for human use, emphasized the need for physical planning. The potential uses (functions) of the new system are discussed in this article. Special attention is given to the demand for recreational facilities and nature conservation and to the balanced realization of these main functions. The methods applied in choosing between alternatives in physical planning are explained. Water quality and ecosystem management are discussed. One of the main management objectives is the prevention of a further decrease in the chloride concentration and the number of species. A sluice was, therefore, put into operation in 1978, by means of which water was exchanged between the North Sea and Lake Grevelingen. The responses observed are discussed here. In the near future, a crucial decision will have to be made: Will Lake Grevelingen remain a salt-water lake or will it become a fresh-water lake?

  3. Feasibility study of a CVT system for an internal-combustion engine/flywheel-drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, Y.; Elfes, L.E.; Trachman, E.G.

    1980-10-01

    The results are presented of an engineering feasibility study of a continuously variable transmission (CVT) for an automobile equipped with a conventional internal combustion engine and a flywheel energy storage device. The objectives of this study were to: complete a preliminary design layout of the vehicle engine compartment with the engine, drive train and flywheel installed to establish the feasibility of installing the package in an existing vehicle; perform a computer simulation of the vehicle fuel consumption in order to identify and minimize energy losses and to predict vehicle mileage performance; and perform a detailed analysis of the traction drive, including efficiency estimates, contact stresses, film temperatures, etc. The final design is shown. The arrangement can be installed in the engine compartment of a citation with no major structural changes. After multiple runs to optimize the CVT design and to minimize power losses in the accessory drives, computer simulation showed that the baseline vehicle (Std. Citation w/2.5L, 4-cyl. engine and 4 speed manual transmission) achieved 21.6 mpg in the EPA Urban Cycle and 33.3 mpg in the EPA Highway Cycle. The comparable fuel economies for the Flywheel Energy Storage Vehicle (CVT driveline) were 30.8 mpg and 34.6 mpg. (LCL)

  4. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  5. Estuary Habitat Restoration INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    1 Estuary Habitat Restoration STRATEGY 2012 INTRODUCTION The Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 (ERA agencies to maximize benefits derived from estuary habitat restoration projects and address the pressures facing our nation's estuaries. The ERA established an inter-agency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council

  6. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  7. A hingeless rotor XV-15 design integration feasibility study. Volume 1: Engineering design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    A design integration feasibility study was carried out to investigate what modifications to the basic XV-15 were necessary to accomplish a flight demonstration of the XV-15 with a Boeing hingeless rotor. Also investigated were additional modifications which would exploit the full capability provided by the combination of the new rotor and the existing T53 engine. An evaluation of the aircraft is presented and the data indicate improved air vehicle performance, acceptable aeroelastic margins, lower noise levels and improved flying qualities compared with the XV-15 aircraft. Inspection of the rotor system data provided shows an essentially unlimited life rotor for the flight spectrum anticipated for the XV-15.

  8. Feasibility Investigation on the Development of a Structural Damage Diagnostic and Monitoring System for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Ji Y.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The research activity for this project is mainly to investigate the necessity and feasibility to develop a structural health monitoring system for rocket engines, and to carry out a research plan for further development of the system. More than one hundred technical papers have been searched and reviewed during the period. We concluded after this investigation that adding a new module in NASA's existing automated diagnostic system to monitor the healthy condition of rocket engine structures is a crucial task, and it's possible to develop such a system based upon the vibrational-based nondestructive damage assessment techniques. A number of such techniques have been introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A global research plan has been figured out. As the first step of the overall research plan, a proposal for the next fiscal year has been submitted.

  9. Feasibility analysis of an open cycle thermoacoustic engine with internal pulse combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, Nathan T.

    Thermoacoustic engines convert thermal energy into acoustic energy with few or no moving parts, thus they require little maintenance, are highly reliable, and are inexpensive to produce. These traits make them attractive for applications in remote or portable power generation, where a linear alternator converts the acoustic power into electric power. Their primary application, however, is in driving thermoacoustic refrigerators, which use acoustic power to provide cooling at potentially cryogenic temperatures, also without moving parts. This dissertation examines the feasibility of a new type of thermoacoustic engine, where mean flow and an internal pulse combustion process replace the hot heat exchanger in a traditional closed cycle thermoacoustic engine, thereby eliminating the heat exchanger's cost, inefficiency, and thermal expansion stresses. The theory developed in this work reveals that a large temperature difference must exist between the hot face of the regenerator and the hot combustion products flowing into it, and that much of the convective thermal energy input from the combustion process is converted into conductive and thermoacoustic losses in the regenerator. The development of the Thermoacoustic Pulse Combustion Engine, as described in this study, is designed to recover most of this lost thermal energy by routing the inlet pipes through the regenerator to preheat the combustion reactants. Further, the developed theory shows that the pulse combustion process has the potential to add up to 7% to the engine's acoustic power output for an acoustic pressure ratio of 10%, with linearly increasing contributions for increasing acoustic pressure ratios. Computational modeling and optimization of the Thermoacoustic Pulse Combustion Engine yield thermal efficiencies of about 20% for atmospheric mean operating pressures, though higher mean engine pressures increase this efficiency considerably by increasing the acoustic power density relative to the thermal losses. However, permissible mean engine pressures are limited by the need to avoid fouling the regenerator with condensation of water vapor out of the cold combustion products. Despite lower acoustic power densities, the Thermoacoustic Pulse Combustion Engine is shown to be well suited to portable refrigeration and power generation applications, due to its reasonable efficiency and inherent simplicity and compactness.

  10. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Burrell Township site residues. [UMTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The Burrell Township site, located in western Pennsylvania, received approximately 11,600 tons of radioactively-contaminated material in late 1956 and early 1957 from the Vitro Manufacturing Company's operations in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. WESTON was requested to conduct an engineering study to determine the feasibility of stabilizing the site in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) interim and proposed standards (45 FR 27366--27368, April 22, 1980, and 46 FR 2556--2563, January 9, 1981). The scope of this study is limited to those alternatives that can be implemented on the site and will not require removal and offsite disposal of radioactively-contaminated material. Four alternatives for control of the radioactive material at the Burrell site were considered and evaluated, as follows: 1. Site stabilization and closure. 2. Site control and containment. 3. Waste excavation and encapsulation. 4. Waste excavation, incineration, and encapsulation. 2 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Operational feasibility of underwater Stirling engine systems using oxygen-seawater extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The exploration of the oceans whether for societal, commercial, scientific or military reasons requires efficient and cost effective underwater vehicles. In turn, these vessels require efficient means of producing on board power for the propulsion and hotel load requirements of long endurance missions. The Stirling engine, because of its inherent closed-cycle operation, has long been an attractive candidate for underwater use and now has proved its reliability and maintainability in the arduous environment of a naval submarine application. More recently the Stirling has been considered for use in small long endurance unmanned underwater vessels (UUVs). However, with these type of vehicles the need to carry an on board oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design problems. The concept of using multi-stage vehicles with disposable energy pods has been explored and appears attractive although a major change in submarine design philosophy will be required if such vehicles are to launched from submarines. Another approach is to use a more space efficient source of oxygen. As seawater contains dissolved oxygen then if this source could be utilized to meet all or at least part of the engine`s need than a major design problem could be overcome. In this paper the findings of an initial study into the use of membranes or artificial gill techniques to provide oxygen for a Stirling powered DARPA type vehicle are presented. It has been found that only in certain sea areas is the concept of oxygen extraction feasible for use with power systems. Even in situations where there are sufficient levels of dissolved oxygen the gill system approach appears to have limited utility for UUV applications and a number of practical problems still need to be addressed.

  12. CARS temperature measurements in the fuel preburner of the Space Shuttle main engine: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiting, E. J.; Luthe, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    This report discusses the feasibility of making temperature profile measurements in the fuel preburner of the main engine of the space shuttle (SSME) using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). The principal thrust of the work is to identify problems associated with making CARS measurements in high temperature gas phase hydrogen at very high pressures (approx 400 atmospheres). To this end a theoretical study was made of the characteristics of the CAR spectra of H2 as a function of temperature and pressure and the accuracy with which temperatures can be extracted from this spectra. In addition the experimental problems associated with carrying out these measurements on a SSME at NSTL were identified. A conceptual design of a CARS system suitable for this work is included. Many of the results of the calculations made in this report are plotted as a function of temperature. In the course of presenting these results, it was necessary to decide whether the number of density or the pressure should be treated as a fixed parameter.

  13. Injectable Tissue-Engineered Pulmonary Heart Valve Implantation Into the Pig Model: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Franziska; Salameh, Aida; Oelmann, Katja; Halling, Michelle; Dhein, Stefan; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement is currently performed in clinical trials, but is limited by the use of glutaraldehyde-treated bioprostheses. This feasibility study was performed to evaluate delivery-related tissue distortion during implantation of tissue-engineered (TE) heart valves. Material/Methods The injectable TE heart valve was mounted on a self-expanding nitinol stent (n=7) and delivered into the pulmonary position in 7 pigs, (weight 26 to 31 kg), performing a sternotomy or limited lateral thoracotomy. Prior to implantation, the injectable TE heart valves were crimped and inserted into an applicator. Positioning of the implants was guided by fluoroscopy, and after careful deployment, angiographic examination was performed to evaluate the correct delivered position. Hemodynamic measurements were performed by epicardial echocardiography. Finally, the animals were sacrificed and the injectable TE heart valves were inspected by gross examination and histological examination. Results Orthotopic deliveries of the injectable TE heart valves were all successful performed, expect in 1 where the valve migrated due to a discrepancy between pulmonary valve annulus size and injectable TE valve size. Angiographic evaluation (n=6) showed normal valve function, supported by epicardial echocardiography in which no increased flow velocity was measured, neither trans- nor paravalvular regurgitation. Histological evaluation demonstrated absence of tissue damage from the delivery process. Conclusions Transcatheter implantation of an injectable TE heart valve seems to be possible without tissue distortion due to the delivery system. PMID:26104851

  14. Engineering Feasibility and Trade Studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelkhalik, Ossama O.; Nairouz, Bassem; Weaver, Timothy; Newman, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of airborne CO concentrations is critical for accurate scientific prediction of global scale atmospheric behavior. MicroMaps is an existing NASA owned gas filter radiometer instrument designed for space-based measurement of atmospheric CO vertical profiles. Due to programmatic changes, the instrument does not have access to the space environment and is in storage. MicroMaps hardware has significant potential for filling a critical scientific need, thus motivating concept studies for new and innovative scientific spaceflight missions that would leverage the MicroMaps heritage and investment, and contribute to new CO distribution data. This report describes engineering feasibility and trade studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission. Conceptual studies encompass: 1) overall mission analysis and synthesis methodology, 2) major subsystem studies and detailed requirements development for an orbital platform option consisting of a small, single purpose spacecraft, 3) assessment of orbital platform option consisting of the International Space Station, and 4) survey of potential launch opportunities for gaining assess to orbit. Investigations are of a preliminary first-order nature. Results and recommendations from these activities are envisioned to support future MicroMaps Mission design decisions regarding program down select options leading to more advanced and mature phases.

  15. Introduction to Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries, although minor geographical features at the global scale, have major importance for society and the world’s economies. This chapter introduces estuaries by presenting an overview of definitions, origins, physical, chemical and ecological attributes, and the interaction...

  16. A feasibility study on using inkjet technology, micropumps, and MEMs as fuel injectors for bipropellant rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynne-Jones, Peter; Coletti, M.; White, N. M.; Gabriel, S. B.; Bramanti, C.

    2010-07-01

    Control over drop size distributions, injection rates, and geometrical distribution of fuel and oxidizer sprays in bi-propellant rocket engines has the potential to produce more efficient, more stable, less polluting rocket engines. This control also offers the potential of an engine that can be throttled, working efficiently over a wide range of output thrusts. Inkjet printing technologies, MEMS fuel atomizers, and piezoelectric injectors similar in concept to those used in diesel engines are considered for their potential to yield a new, more active injection scheme for a rocket engine. Inkjets are found to be unable to pump at sufficient pressures, and have possibly dangerous failure modes. Active injection is found to be feasible if high pressure drop along the injector plate is used. A conceptual design is presented and its basic behavior assessed.

  17. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  18. Learning Lessons from Estuaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittka, Christine

    2006-01-01

    There is something that draws all people to the sea and especially to the fertile estuaries that nuzzle up to its shores. An estuary serves as both a nursery and a grave for sea creatures. If life evolved from some primordial sea, it may well have been an estuary--a place where ocean and rivers meet and fresh and salty waters mingle in the…

  19. The feasibility of ureteral tissue engineering using autologous veins: an orthotopic animal model with long term results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an earlier study we demonstrated the feasibility to create tissue engineered venous scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. In this study we investigated the use of tissue engineered constructs for ureteral replacement in a long term orthotopic minipig model. In many different projects well functional ureretal tissue was established using tissue engineering in animals with short-time follow up (12 weeks). Therefore urothelial cells were harvested from the bladder, cultured, expanded in vitro, labelled with fluorescence and seeded onto the autologous veins, which were harvested from animals during a second surgery. Three days after cell seeding the right ureter was replaced with the cell-seeded matrices in six animals, while further 6 animals received an unseeded vein for ureteral replacement. The animals were sacrificed 12, 24, and 48 weeks after implantation. Gross examination, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), H&E staining, Trichrome Masson’s Staining, and immunohistochemistry with pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, smooth muscle alpha actin, and von Willebrand factor were performed in retrieved specimens. Results The IVP and gross examination demonstrated that no animals with tissue engineered ureters and all animals of the control group presented with hydronephrosis after 12 weeks. In the 24-week group, one tissue engineered and one unseeded vein revealed hydronephrosis. After 48 weeks all tissue engineered animals and none of the control group showed hydronephrosis on the treated side. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed a multilayer of urothelial cells attached to the seeded venous grafts. Conclusions Venous grafts may be a potential source for ureteral reconstruction. The results of so far published ureteral tissue engineering projects reveal data up to 12 weeks after implantation. Even if the animal numbers of this study are small, there is an increasing rate of hydronephrosis revealing failure of ureteral tissue engineering with autologous matrices in time points longer than 3 months after implantation. Further investigations have to prove adequate clinical outcome and appropriate functional long-term results. PMID:25381044

  20. CF6 jet engine performance improvement program. Task 1: Feasibility analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic engine improvement concepts selected for subsequent development include: (1) fan improvement; (2) short core exhaust; (3) HP turbine aerodynamic improvement; (4) HP turbine roundness control; (5) HP turbine active clearance control; and (6) cabin air recirculation. The fuel savings for the selected engine modification concepts for the CF6 fleet are estimated.

  1. Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary has three elements: an estuarine geo-referenced relational database, watershed GIS coverages, and tools to support decision-making. To facilita...

  2. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Canonsburg residues. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering several methods for carrying out remedial actions in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, at the site of an inactive uranium-processing mill. The main objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of in-situ stabilization as the remedial action. In-situ stabilization is an alternative to site decontamination and offsite disposal. The problems associated with offsite hauling of large quantities of contaminated material and with the location and development of a new disposal site could be avoided by the implementation of an in-situ stabilization concept. In addition, the in-situ approach would be more cost-effective than offsite disposal. This study will establish that a technically feasible and implementable in-situ stabilization concept can be developed that meets regulatory requirements and is cost effective. This study in no way commits the DOE to implement any specific actions described herein. 11 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: (1) Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion; (2) Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced; (3) Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine; (4) Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust; (5) Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust; (6) Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust; and (7) Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry. The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: (1) A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. (2) A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen. (3) The benefits of using hydrogen to extend, up to a limit, the stable operating window for HCCI combustion of natural gas at higher intake pressures, leaner air to fuel ratios or lower inlet temperatures was documented.

  4. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

  5. DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A 500 GBITS/S AES CYPHER DECYPHER ENGINE

    E-print Network

    Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

    Computer Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals P.O.Box 969, Dhahran, 31261. After an initial round key bitwise addition (XOR), a round function consisting of four different

  6. Prediction in ungauged estuaries: An integrated theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2015-04-01

    Many estuaries in the world are ungauged. The International Association of Hydrological Sciences completed its science decade on Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) in 2012 (Hrachowitz et al.). Prediction on the basis of limited data is a challenge in hydrology, but not less so in estuaries, where data on fundamental processes are often lacking. In this paper, relatively simple, but science-based, methods are presented that allow researchers, engineers, and water managers to obtain first-order estimates of essential process parameters in estuaries, such as the estuary depth, the tidal amplitude, the tidal excursion, the phase lag, and the salt water intrusion, on the basis of readily obtainable information, such as topographical maps and tidal tables. These apparently simple relationships are assumed to result from the capacity of freely erodible water bodies to adjust themselves to external drivers and to dissipate the free energy from these drivers as efficiently as possible. Thus, it is assumed that these systems operate close to their thermodynamic limit, resulting in predictable patterns that can be described by relatively simple equations. Although still much has to be done to develop an overall physics-based theory, this does not prevent us from making use of the empirical "laws" that we observe in alluvial estuaries.

  7. Estuary Restoration Act Estuary Habitat Restoration Council

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    densiflora) ("Spartina") as part of a regional eradication program. 3. Eelgrass Restoration in Puget Sound estuary restoration efforts and to contribute to the Puget Sound Partnership's Action Agenda recovery goal, 2013 1. Grassy Flats Estuarine Habitat Restoration Project, FL This project will cap anoxic, fine

  8. JT8D and JT9D jet engine performance improvement program. Task 1: Feasibility analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.; Webb, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    JT8D and JT9D component performance improvement concepts which have a high probability of incorporation into production engines were identified and ranked. An evaluation method based on airline payback period was developed for the purpose of identifying the most promising concepts. The method used available test data and analytical models along with conceptual/preliminary designs to predict the performance improvements, weight, installation characteristics, cost for new production and retrofit, maintenance cost, and qualitative characteristics of candidate concepts. These results were used to arrive at the concept payback period, which is the time required for an airline to recover the investment cost of concept implementation.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

    This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT for HER2+ breast cancers for deep seated tumors using MITRII-FCB facility with an 8 cm diameter beam (port closest-to-tumor position), with boron concentrations in the tumor higher than 32 mug/g, and for a tumor-to-healthy tissue boron concentration ratio of 8:1. The therapeutic ratios for the proposed treatment would be higher than five for skin and adipose tissue and higher than three for tumor surrounding fibroglandular tissue. The microdosimetry study shows potential improvements in the therapeutic ratios based on the expected sub-cellular boron biodistributions. The engineering simulation study of clinical cases shows the advantages of using BNCT for HER+ breast cancers. Assuming an assured high efficiency of the boron agent delivery, the proposed concept can be considered for stage IV HER2+ breast cancers in treating the metastasized tumors in brain, head and neck, and lungs.

  10. Feasibility of using a high-level waste canister as an engineered barrier in disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Pitman, S.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Partain, W.L.

    1982-08-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of designing a process canister that could also serve as a barrier canister. To do this a general set of performance criteria is assumed and several metal alloys having a high probability of demonstrating high corrosion resistance under repository conditions are evaluated in a qualitative design assessment. This assessment encompasses canister manufacture, the glass-filling process, interim storage, transportation, and to a limited extent, disposal in a repository. A series of scoping tests were carried out on two titanium alloys and Inconel 625 to determine if the high temperature inherent in the glass-fill processing would seriously affect either the strength or corrosion resistance of these metals. This is a process-related concern unique to the barrier canister concept. The material properties were affected by the heat treatments which simulated both the joule-heated glass melter process (titanium alloys and Inconel 625) and the in-can melter (ICM) process (Inconel 625). However, changes in the material properties were generally within 20% of the original specimens. Accelerated corrosion testing of the heat treated coupons in a highly oxygenated brine showed basic corrosion resistance of titanium grade 12 and Inconel 625 to compare favorably with that of the untreated coupons. The titanium grade 2 coupons experienced severe corrosion pitting. These corrosion tests were of a scoping nature and suitable primarily for the detection of gross sensitivity to the heat treatment inherent in the glass-fill process. They are only suggstive of repository performance since the tests do not adequately model the wide range of repository conditions that could conceivably occur.

  11. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae: a feasible approach to address biological issues.

    PubMed

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Bland, Michael J; Mazel, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has become a preferred model to study bacteria with multipartite genomes. However, most in vivo studies in V. cholerae have been hampered by its genome architecture, as it is difficult to give phenotypes to a specific chromosome. This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae mutants with various genome configurations: one with a single chromosome, one with two chromosomes of equal size, and one with both chromosomes controlled by identical origins. We used these synthetic strains to address several biological questions--the specific case of the essentiality of Dam methylation in V. cholerae and the general question concerning bacteria carrying circular chromosomes--by looking at the effect of chromosome size on topological issues. In this article, we show that Dam, RctB, and ParA2/ParB2 are strictly essential for chrII origin maintenance, and we formally demonstrate that the formation of chromosome dimers increases exponentially with chromosome size. PMID:22253612

  12. Feasibility of Conducting J-2X Engine Testing at the Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station B-2 Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Charles F.; Cheston, Derrick J.; Worlund, Armis L.; Brown, James R.; Hooper, William G.; Monk, Jan C.; Winstead, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A trade study of the feasibility of conducting J-2X testing in the Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) B-2 facility was initiated in May 2006 with results available in October 2006. The Propulsion Test Integration Group (PTIG) led the study with support from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jacobs Sverdrup Engineering. The primary focus of the trade study was on facility design concepts and their capability to satisfy the J-2X altitude simulation test requirements. The propulsion systems tested in the B-2 facility were in the 30,000-pound (30K) thrust class. The J-2X thrust is approximately 10 times larger. Therefore, concepts significantly different from the current configuration are necessary for the diffuser, spray chamber subsystems, and cooling water. Steam exhaust condensation in the spray chamber is judged to be the key risk consideration relative to acceptable spray chamber pressure. Further assessment via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other simulation capabilities (e.g. methodology for anchoring predictions with actual test data and subscale testing to support investigation.

  13. 75 FR 2517 - Notice of Solicitation for Estuary Habitat Restoration Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Register (67 FR 71942) on December 3, 2002. It is also accessible at http://www.usace.army.mil/CECW/ERA... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Solicitation for Estuary Habitat Restoration Program... Habitat Restoration Program as authorized in Section 104 of the Estuary Restoration Act of 2000, Title...

  14. DELAWARE ESTUARY PCB MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Delaware River Basin Commission recently completed the first phase of a program to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for toxic pollutants for the Delaware Estuary. This complex body of water extends from the head of tide at Trenton, NJ (River Mile 133.2...

  15. Feasibility study of using the RoboEarth cloud engine for rapid mapping and tracking with small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the ongoing development of a small unmanned aerial mapping system (sUAMS) that in the future will track its trajectory and perform 3D mapping in near-real time. As both mapping and tracking algorithms require powerful computational capabilities and large data storage facilities, we propose to use the RoboEarth Cloud Engine (RCE) to offload heavy computation and store data to secure computing environments in the cloud. While the RCE's capabilities have been demonstrated with terrestrial robots in indoor environments, this paper explores the feasibility of using the RCE in mapping and tracking applications in outdoor environments by small UAMS. The experiments presented in this work assess the data processing strategies and evaluate the attainable tracking and mapping accuracies using the data obtained by the sUAMS. Testing was performed with an Aeryon Scout quadcopter. It flew over York University, up to approximately 40 metres above the ground. The quadcopter was equipped with a single-frequency GPS receiver providing positioning to about 3 meter accuracies, an AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) estimating the attitude to about 3 degrees, and an FPV (First Person Viewing) camera. Video images captured from the onboard camera were processed using VisualSFM and SURE, which are being reformed as an Application-as-a-Service via the RCE. The 3D virtual building model of York University was used as a known environment to georeference the point cloud generated from the sUAMS' sensor data. The estimated position and orientation parameters of the video camera show increases in accuracy when compared to the sUAMS' autopilot solution, derived from the onboard GPS and AHRS. The paper presents the proposed approach and the results, along with their accuracies.

  16. Ecology of estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kennish, M.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects represents the most definitive and comprehensive source of reference information available on the human impact on estuarine ecosystems. The book discusses both acute and insidious pollution problems plaguing these coastal ecotones. It also provides a detailed examination of the deleterious and pervasive effects of human activities on biotic communities and sensitive habitat areas in estuaries. Specific areas covered include organic loading, oil pollution, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dredging and dredge-spoil disposal, radionuclides, as well as other contaminants and processes. The diverse components of these anthropogenic influences are assembled in an organized framework and presented in a clear and concise style that will facilitate their understanding.

  17. THE IMPACTS OF UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS POPULATIONS ON ORGANIC MATTER AND NUTRIENT CYCLING IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing thalassinid shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis, is a major ecosystem engineering species of Pacific estuaries and can structure the physical, chemical, and biotic properties of benthic habitats. This study utilized incubations, benthic chambers and porewater peepers to q...

  18. Ecology of estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kennish, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a summary of information available on estuarine ecology, that reviews concepts and problems of estuaries and assesses the value of these coastal systems. It investigates such topics as water circulation and mixing, trace elements, nutrients, organic matter, and sedimentary processes, with reviews on more than two decades of intense study. Chapters reflect contributions from a variety of interdisciplinary sciences including botany, chemistry, ecology, geology, physics, and zoology.

  19. Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

  20. Monitoring and Managing Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary San Francisco Estuary Institute and the

    E-print Network

    Monitoring and Managing Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary San Francisco Estuary Institute and the Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary #12;www.sfei.org #12;Contribution 517 Monitoring and Managing Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary San Francisco Estuary

  1. Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 Title I of Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 Title I of Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000 Public Law 106 of the Estuary Restoration Act, Title I of P.L. 106-457 (Act). The contents reflect the views of the Estuary). Background: The purposes of the Act are to promote the restoration of estuary habitat; develop a national

  2. JT9D engine diagnostics. Task 2: Feasibility study of measuring in-service flight loads. [747 aircraft performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafka, P. G.; Skibo, M. A.; White, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring JT9D propulsion system flight inertia loads on a 747 airplane is studied. Flight loads background is discussed including the current status of 747/JT9D loads knowledge. An instrumentation and test plan is formulated for an airline-owned in-service airplane and the Boeing-owned RA001 test airplane. Technical and cost comparisons are made between these two options. An overall technical feasibility evaluation is made and a cost summary presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in regard to using existing inertia loads data versus conducting a flight test to measure inertia loads.

  3. Engineering and economic feasibility of using poultry litter as a fuel to generate electric power at Maryland`s Eastern Correctional Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Estomin, S.L.; Walters, G.; Prasad, A.; Ross, J.

    1998-02-16

    This report presents an analysis of the engineering, environmental, and economic feasibility of the Eastern Correctional Institute (ECI) meeting its electric power and thermal requirements by relying on poultry litter as a fuel. In addition to satisfying all or a portion of the utility requirements of ECI, a maximum/medium security prison located in Princess Anne, Maryland, the use of poultry litter as a fuel would reduce the amount of poultry waste currently used on the Eastern Shore as fertilizer. Based on the engineering and environmental assessments conducted, three alternative scenarios to satisfy ECI`s electric power supply and thermal requirements using poutlry litter as a fuel were developed. For all scenarios, as well as a base case defined by current operations at ECI, 20-year life-cycle costs were estimated based on projections of usage, capital costs, fuel costs, labor costs, and other relevant factors.

  4. Visualizing feasible operating ranges within tissue engineering systems using a "windows of operation" approach: a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor case study.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ryan J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2012-12-01

    Tissue engineering approaches to developing functional substitutes are often highly complex, multivariate systems where many aspects of the biomaterials, bio-regulatory factors or cell sources may be controlled in an effort to enhance tissue formation. Furthermore, success is based on multiple performance criteria reflecting both the quantity and quality of the tissue produced. Managing the trade-offs between different performance criteria is a challenge. A "windows of operation" tool that graphically represents feasible operating spaces to achieve user-defined levels of performance has previously been described by researchers in the bio-processing industry. This paper demonstrates the value of "windows of operation" to the tissue engineering field using a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor system as a case study. In our laboratory, perfusion bioreactor systems are utilized in the context of bone tissue engineering to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of cell-seeded scaffolds. A key challenge of such perfusion bioreactor systems is to maximize the induction of osteogenesis but minimize cell detachment from the scaffold. Two key operating variables that influence these performance criteria are the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate. Using cyclooxygenase-2 and osteopontin gene expression levels as surrogate indicators of osteogenesis, we employed the "windows of operation" methodology to rapidly identify feasible operating ranges for the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate that achieved user-defined levels of performance for cell detachment and differentiation. Incorporation of such tools into the tissue engineer's armory will hopefully yield a greater understanding of the highly complex systems used and help aid decision making in future translation of products from the bench top to the market place. PMID:22627891

  5. A feasibility study of dynamic stress analysis inside a running internal combustion engine using synchrotron X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Baimpas, Nikolaos; Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Song, Xu; Pandazaras, Costas; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation establishes the feasibility of using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams for time-resolved in situ imaging and diffraction of the interior components of an internal combustion engine during its operation. The demonstration experiment was carried out on beamline I12 (JEEP) at Diamond Light Source, UK. The external hutch of the JEEP instrument is a large-scale engineering test bed for complex in situ processing and simulation experiments. The hutch incorporates a large capacity translation and rotation table and a selection of detectors for monochromatic and white-beam diffraction and imaging. These capabilities were used to record X-ray movies of a motorcycle internal combustion engine running at 1850 r.p.m. and to measure strain inside the connecting rod via stroboscopic X-ray diffraction measurement. The high penetrating ability and high flux of the X-ray beam at JEEP allowed the observation of inlet and outlet valve motion, as well as that of the piston, connecting rod and the timing chain within the engine. Finally, the dynamic internal strain within the moving connecting rod was evaluated with an accuracy of ~50 × 10(-6). PMID:23412489

  6. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  7. Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 Title I of Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 Title I of Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000 Public Law 106 of Section 108 of the Estuary Restoration Act, Title I of P.L. 106-457 (Act). This report covers the fiscal years 2004 through 2006 and reflects the views of the Estuary Habitat Restoration Council (Council

  8. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: The importance of the ocean-estuary connection

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean –estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

  9. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: Importance of the ocean-estuary connection

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean –estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

  10. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: Importance of the ocean-estuary connection - March 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean–estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO w...

  11. PECONIC ESTUARY EELGRASS HABITAT CRITERIA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PECONIC ESTUARY EELGRASS HABITAT CRITERIA STUDY The main objective of this study is to develop criteria for eelgrass habitat establishment and persistence within the Peconic Estuary utilizing various environmental analyses. The Program evaluated water and sediment quality data to...

  12. Stream, lake, estuary, and ocean pollution, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Nemerow, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book, an updated version of the 1985 edition, contains thirteen chapters, beginning with a preface which provides the objective of the book. The primary objective is to offer a comprehensive survey of the biological, hydrological, mathematical, and biochemical aspects of stream, lake, estuary, and ocean pollution analysis. The book also contains ten appendices of useful tables and nomographs of pertinent data. This book provides a very good summary and review of stream, lake, estuary, and ocean pollution. This book is recommended for environmental engineering students, environmental consulting engineers, and regulatory personnel. It provides an excellent summary of the field of stream and lake analysis and modeling. Every chapter includes a significant number of questions and pertinent references.

  13. PECONIC ESTUARY STORMWATER ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PECONIC ESTUARY STORMWATER ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING TOOL Horsley & Witten, Inc. was contracted by the Peconic Estuary Program to create a Regional Stormwater Runoff Management Plan designed to mitigate loadings of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrogen to the Peconic Estuary. The pu...

  14. KNOW YOUR ESTUARY: THE WATER THROUGH TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on historical changes in water quality in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon, and factors which influence water quality within this estuary. Topics presented will include the importance of ocean conditions on water quality in the estuary; historical changes...

  15. Feasibility of the Ultrasound Checking of the First-Stage Engine of the Zenith Rocket Carrier. 2. Results of the Ultrasound Diagnostics of the Engine Defectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezmyannyi, Yu. G.; Borovik, V. G.; Galas, M. I.; Trefilov, V. I.; Frolov, G. A.

    The authors investigate the possibility revealing a gap in the juncture of the terminal welding junction on the assembled first-stage engine of the Zenith rocket carrier by the non-destructive ultrasound checking methods. Principles of ultrasound diagnostics were developed, and methods for measuring the diagnostic parameters were selected. A technique for their realization based on an original apparatus complex for ultrasound measurements is described, as well as some results of the experimental measurements of selected diagnostic parameters which were obtained on samples produced of full-size engines. The analysis of the results obtained shows that the task set can be solved in principle.

  16. Valuing environmental water pulses into the Incomati estuary: Key to achieving equitable and sustainable utilisation of transboundary waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengo, D. José; Kachapila, Albert; Zaag, Pieter van der; Mul, Marloes; Nkomo, Sakhiwe

    Upstream developments in the Incomati river basin, shared by South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique, have altered downstream flows significantly. The frequency of small floods into the estuary has been reduced dramatically. This change in the flow regime has impacted on the state of the environment downstream, and the Incomati estuary in particular. The estuary requires fresh water pulses that naturally occur, and the resulting seasonal flooding of the plains. Resource-poor rural households depend on the goods and services that the estuary and flood plains provide such as wood, charcoal, building materials, fish and shrimp, wetland farming, and tourism. Alteration of the flow regime into the estuary has a negative impact on the state of the environment and hence on the goods and services the estuary yields; a phenomenon the people living near the estuary are keenly aware of. The article estimates the value of the goods and services that the estuary currently provides, that is under the conditions of a changed flow regime. A linear relationship is then assumed between fresh water pulses into the estuary and the goods and services it provides, so that the order of magnitude of the economic value of fresh water pulses into the estuary may be approximated. Various development scenarios in the Incomati basin are then considered, that have different upstream and downstream impacts on water availability, and the basin-wide benefits and costs are compared. The paper concludes that the principle of sharing the benefits derived from the water resources, rather than the water itself, as proposed by authors such as [Sadoff, C.W., Grey, D., 2002. Beyond the river: the benefits of cooperation on international rivers. Water Policy 4, 389-403], may be a feasible approach only if the less tangible benefits and functions, especially those of the environment, are assigned an appropriate value and corresponding priority.

  17. Ecology of estuaries: Anthropogenic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kennish, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Estuaries and near-shore oceanic water are subjected to a multitude of human wastes. The principal objective of this book is to examine anthropogenic effects on estuaries, and it focuses primarily on contaminants in coastal systems. Covered within various chapters are the following topics: waste disposal strategies; definition and classification of pollutants (including organic loading, oil pollution, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons; chlorinated hydrocarbons; heavy metals; radionuclides) biological impacts; waste management; impacts of power plants; dredging and spoil disposal; case studies, primarily Chesapeake Bay. The book serves as a text and as a reference.

  18. DELAWARE ESTUARY A MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE DELAWARE ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wise conservation and management of the Delaware Estuary is arguably the most important cooperative environmental initiative ever jointly undertaken by the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. While much has been accomplished over the past few decades to improve wate...

  19. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY08 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2008-09-29

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In fiscal year 2008 (FY08), EOS project accomplishments included 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, Pisces; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME document and its subsequent regional release (new version January 2008). Many of the estuary RME recommendations in this document were incorporated into the Biological Opinion on hydrosystem operations (May 2008). In summary, the FY08 EOS project resulted in expanded, substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, a new version of the federal Estuary RME program document, and implementation coordination. This annual report is a FY08 deliverable for the project titled Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup.

  20. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring and Evaluation FY08 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, GE; Diefenderfer, HL

    2008-09-29

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In fiscal year 2008 (FY08), EOS project accomplishments included (1) subgroup meetings; (2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; (3) project management via BPA's project tracking system, Pisces; (4) quarterly project status reports; and (5) a major revision to the Estuary RME document and its subsequent regional release (new version January 2008). Many of the estuary RME recommendations in this document were incorporated into the Biological Opinion on FCRPS operations (May 2008). In summary, the FY08 EOS project resulted in expanded, substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, a new version of the federal Estuary RME program document, and implementation coordination. This annual report is a FY08 deliverable for the project titled Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup.

  1. Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Campbell, Lance

    2009-05-15

    In 2002 with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an interagency research team began investigating salmon life histories and habitat use in the lower Columbia River estuary to fill significant data gaps about the estuary's potential role in salmon decline and recovery . The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided additional funding in 2004 to reconstruct historical changes in estuarine habitat opportunities and food web linkages of Columbia River salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.). Together these studies constitute the estuary's first comprehensive investigation of shallow-water habitats, including selected emergent, forested, and scrub-shrub wetlands. Among other findings, this research documented the importance of wetlands as nursery areas for juvenile salmon; quantified historical changes in the amounts and distributions of diverse habitat types in the lower estuary; documented estuarine residence times, ranging from weeks to months for many juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha); and provided new evidence that contemporary salmonid food webs are supported disproportionately by wetland-derived prey resources. The results of these lower-estuary investigations also raised many new questions about habitat functions, historical habitat distributions, and salmon life histories in other areas of the Columbia River estuary that have not been adequately investigated. For example, quantitative estimates of historical habitat changes are available only for the lower 75 km of the estuary, although tidal influence extends 217 km upriver to Bonneville Dam. Because the otolith techniques used to reconstruct salmon life histories rely on detection of a chemical signature (strontium) for salt water, the estuarine residency information we have collected to date applies only to the lower 30 or 35 km of the estuary, where fish first encounter ocean water. We lack information about salmon habitat use, life histories, and growth within the long tidal-fresh reaches of the main-stem river and many tidally-influenced estuary tributaries. Finally, our surveys to date characterize wetland habitats within island complexes distributed in the main channel of the lower estuary. Yet some of the most significant wetland losses have occurred along the estuary's periphery, including shoreline areas and tributary junctions. These habitats may or may not function similarly as the island complexes that we have surveyed to date. In 2007 we initiated a second phase of the BPA estuary study (Phase II) to address specific uncertainties about salmon in tidal-fresh and tributary habitats of the Columbia River estuary. This report summarizes 2007 and 2008 Phase II results and addresses three principal research questions: (1) What was the historic distribution of estuarine and floodplain habitats from Astoria to Bonneville Dam? (2) Do individual patterns of estuarine residency and growth of juvenile Chinook salmon vary among wetland habitat types along the estuarine tidal gradient? (3) Are salmon rearing opportunities and life histories in the restoring wetland landscape of lower Grays River similar to those documented for island complexes of the main-stem estuary? Phase II extended our analysis of historical habitat distribution in the estuary above Rkm 75 to near Bonneville Dam. For this analysis we digitized the original nineteenth-century topographic (T-sheets) and hydrographic (H-sheets) survey maps for the entire estuary. Although all T-sheets (Rkm 0 to Rkm 206) were converted to GIS in 2005 with support for the USACE estuary project, final reconstruction of historical habitats throughout the estuary requires completion of the remaining H-sheet GIS maps above Rkm 75 and their integration with the T-sheets. This report summarizes progress to date on compiling the upper estuary H-sheets above Rkm 75. For the USACE estuary project, we analyzed otoliths from Chinook salmon collected near the estuary mouth in 2003-05 to estimate variability in estuary residence times among juvenile out migrants. In Phase II we expanded these analyses to comp

  2. Food Webs in an Estuary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Barbara B.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on food chains in an estuary. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  3. Simulated Sampling of Estuary Plankton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jenkins, Deborah Bainer

    2009-01-01

    To find out about the microscopic life in the valuable estuary environment, it is usually necessary to be near the water. This dry lab offers an alternative, using authentic data and a simulation of plankton sampling. From the types of organisms found in the sample, middle school students can infer relationships in the biological and physical…

  4. Transient silencing of the KASII genes is feasible in Nicotiana benthamiana for metabolic engineering of wax ester composition

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sitbon, Folke; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-01-01

    The beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) is an enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, catalyzing the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. Mutations in KASII genes in higher plants can lead to lethality, which makes it difficult to utilize the gene for lipid metabolic engineering. We demonstrated previously that transient expression of plastid-directed fatty acyl reductases and wax ester synthases could result in different compositions of wax esters. We hypothesized that changing the ratio between C16 (palmitoyl-compounds) and C18 (stearoyl-compounds) in the plastidic acyl-ACP pool by inhibition of KASII expression would change the yield and composition of wax esters via substrate preference of the introduced enzymes. Here, we report that transient inhibition of KASII expression by three different RNAi constructs in leaves of N. benthamiana results in almost complete inhibition of KASII expression. The transient RNAi approach led to a shift of carbon flux from a pool of C18 fatty acids to C16, which significantly increased wax ester production in AtFAR6-containing combinations. The results demonstrate that transient inhibition of KASII in vegetative tissues of higher plants enables metabolic studies towards industrial production of lipids such as wax esters with specific quality and composition. PMID:26063537

  5. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...Policy task force goals and in identifying focus areas for the estuary habitat restoration strategy, such as: climate adaptation restoration, socio-economic benefits of estuary habitat restoration, and geographic restoration...

  6. Comparison of Nutrient Drivers and Response Metrics in Oregon Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the goal of assessing sensitivity to nutrient enrichment, we present a cross-estuary comparison of nutrient sources, levels, and biological responses (phytoplankton and macroalgae) for thirteen Oregon estuaries. Nitrogen levels in the upstream portions of the estuaries are ...

  7. MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

  8. Technical and Engineering Feasibility Study of the Vitrification of Plutonium-Bearing Sludges at the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine by Means of Microwave Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Revenko, Y.A.; Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Vassilyev, A.V.; Borisov, G.B.; Nazarov, A.V.; Aloy, A.S.; Shvedov, A.A.; Gusakov, B.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    2000-03-03

    This engineering feasibility study compared three possible technical options and their economic viability of processing plutonium-bearing sludges containing 0.6 MT of weapons-grade Pu accumulated at the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC) at Krasnoyarsk. In Option 1, the baseline, the sludges are processed by extraction and purification of plutonium for storage using existing technologies, and the non-soluble radioactive residues generated in these processes undergo subsequent solidification by cementation. Options 2 and 3 involve the direct immobilization of plutonium-bearing sludges into a solid matrix (without any Pu extraction) using a microwave solidification process in a metal crucible to produce a glass, which is boron-silicate in Option 2 and phosphate glass in Option 3. In all three options, the solid radioactive waste end products will be placed in storage for eventual geologic disposal. Immobilization of residual plutonium into glass-like matrices provides both safer storage over the lifetime of the radionuclides and greater security against unauthorized access to stored materials than does the extraction and concentration of PuO{sub 2}, supporting our efforts toward non-proliferation of fissile materials. Although immobilization in boron-silicate glass appears now to be marginally preferable compared to the phosphate glass option, a number of technical issues remain to be assessed by further study to determine the preferable immobilization option.

  9. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... the Final Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy (67 FR 71942). Section 106(f) of the Act authorizes the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX00 Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request for Public Comment...

  10. NTRE extended life feasibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

  11. Morphodynamic equilibrium of alluvial estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambroni, Nicoletta; Bolla Pittaluga, Michele; Canestrelli, Alberto; Lanzoni, Stefano; Seminara, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the longitudinal bed profile of an estuary, with given plan-form configuration, subject to given tidal forcing at the mouth and prescribed values of water and sediment supply from the river is investigated numerically. Our main goal is to ascertain whether, starting from some initial condition, the bed evolution tends to reach a unique equilibrium configuration asymptotically in time. Also, we investigate the morphological response of an alluvial estuary to changes in the tidal range and hydrologic forcing (flow and sediment supply). Finally, the solution helps characterizing the transition between the fluvially dominated region and the tidally dominated region of the estuary. All these issues play an important role also in interpreting how the facies changes along the estuary, thus helping to make correct paleo-environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretations of sedimentary successions (Dalrymple and Choi, 2007). Results show that the model is able to describe a wide class of settings ranging from tidally dominated estuaries to fluvially dominated estuaries. In the latter case, the solution is found to compare satisfactory with the analytical asymptotic solution recently derived by Seminara et al. (2012), under the hypothesis of fairly 'small' tidal oscillations. Simulations indicate that the system always moves toward an equilibrium configuration in which the net sediment flux in a tidal cycle is constant throughout the estuary and equal to the constant sediment flux discharged from the river. For constant width, the bed equilibrium profile of the estuarine channel is characterized by two distinct regions: a steeper reach seaward, dominated by the tide, and a less steep upstream reach, dominated by the river and characterized by the undisturbed bed slope. Although the latter reach, at equilibrium, is not directly affected by the tidal wave, however starting from an initial uniform stream with the constant 'fluvial' slope, the final equilibrium state is reached through an erosional wave, which leads to bed degradation of the upstream 'fluvial reach'. For a given river discharge, the length of the tidal reach increases quite rapidly with tidal amplitude, up to some threshold value of the tidal amplitude above which the length of the estuary becomes comparable with the length of the tidal wave. When the channel plan-form is convergent, deposition of sediments of fluvial origin in the funnel-shaped region drastically changes the equilibrium configuration. The effect of an increasing channel convergence is thus to induce bed aggradation close to the inlet. Nevertheless, tidal forcing only slightly changes the non-tidal profile. The effect of increasing tidal oscillations again leads to an increase of the bed slope at the inlet and to a general bed degradation upstream. The effects of varying sediment supply, flow discharge and river width in the upstream reach have also been investigated and play an important role. Further geomorphological implications of these results will be discussed at the meeting. References Dalrymple, R. W., and K. Choi (2007), Morphologic and facies trends through the fluvialmarine transition in tide-dominated depositional systems: A schematic framework for environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation, Earth-Science Reviews, 81(3-4), 135-174, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.10.002. Seminara, G., M. Bolla Pittaluga, and N. Tambroni (2012), Morphodynamic equilibrium of tidal channels, Environmental Fluid Mechanics: Memorial Volume in Honour of Prof. Gerhard H. Jirka, 153-174

  12. Country-wide assessment of estuary health: An approach for integrating pressures and ecosystem response in a data limited environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Niekerk, L.; Adams, J. B.; Bate, G. C.; Forbes, A. T.; Forbes, N. T.; Huizinga, P.; Lamberth, S. J.; MacKay, C. F.; Petersen, C.; Taljaard, S.; Weerts, S. P.; Whitfield, A. K.; Wooldridge, T. H.

    2013-09-01

    Population and development pressures increase the need for proactive strategic management on a regional or country-wide scale - reactively protecting ecosystems on an estuary-by-estuary basis against multiple pressures is 'resource hungry' and not feasible. Proactive management requires a strategic assessment of health so that the most suitable return on investment can be made. A country-wide assessment of the nearly 300 functional South African estuaries examined both key pressures (freshwater inflow modification, water quality, artificial breaching of temporarily open/closed systems, habitat modification and exploitation of living resources) and health state. The method used to assess the type and level of the different pressures, as well as the ecological health status of a large number of estuaries in a data limited environment is described in this paper. Key pressures and the ecological condition of estuaries on a national scale are summarised. The template may also be used to provide guidance to coastal researchers attempting to inform management in other developing countries. The assessment was primarily aimed at decision makers both inside and outside the biodiversity sector. A key starting point was to delineate spatially the estuary functional zone (area) for every system. In addition, available data on pressures impacting estuaries on a national scale were collated. A desktop national health assessment, based on an Estuarine Health Index developed for South African ecological water requirement studies, was then applied systematically. National experts, all familiar with the index evaluated the estuaries in their region. Individual estuarine health assessment scores were then translated into health categories that reflect the overall status of South Africa's estuaries. The results showed that estuaries in the warm-temperate biogeographical zone are healthier than those in the cool-temperate and subtropical zones, largely reflecting the country's demographics and developmental pressures. A major finding was that, while a large number of South Africa's estuaries are still in an excellent to good condition, they tend to represent very small systems (<150 ha in size) in rural areas with few pressures. Larger systems, which are more important as nursery grounds because of their size, and also of higher economic and ecological importance, are in a fair to poor condition. This was due to pressures within the catchments influencing these downstream systems, and degradation as a result of direct development within the estuary functional zone.

  13. SSPA Equipment Engineering Feasibility Report

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; C.R. Clark

    2011-09-01

    In response to a demanding reactor conversion schedule, construction of the Shielded Sample Preparation Area (SSPA) was initiated in 2010 to augment the existing capabilities of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). While HFEF is and will remain the workhorse for post irradiation sample preparation, there is currently a large backlog of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) experiments caused by numerous competing projects (this backlog is expected to continue for the foreseeable future). HFEF, in its present configuration also lacks the ability to prepare samples suitable for several of the tests that have been identified for the successful conclusion of the RERTR program; these samples require fine detail machining of irradiated fuel plates.

  14. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  15. NEW HAMPSHIRE ESTUARIES PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN, 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project presents a broad framework and specific list of actions to protect and enhance the environmental quality of the estuaries of the State of New Hampshire. It is intended to be a guide for all ...

  16. NEW HAMPSHIRE ESTUARIES PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan of the New Hampshire Estuaries Project presents a broad framework and specific list of actions to protect and enhance the environmental quality of the estuaries of the State of New Hampshire. It is intended to be a guide for all...

  17. NEW HAMPSHIRE'S ESTUARIES, THE STATE OF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The State of the New Hampshire Estuary Report describes the region's valuable natural resources, explains how natural resources are linked to the cultural and economic well being of New Hampshire, and identifies threats to these resources. This State of the Estuaries Report summa...

  18. A Climate Ready Estuaries Vulnerability Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the the Climate Ready Estuaries program is to build capacity in the National Estuary Programs (NEPs) for local leadership and expertise to adapt to the effects of climate change through a joint effort with the NEPs and EPA.

    Background
    The Climate Ready...

  19. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  20. Estuary Habitat Restoration Council ACTION PLAN

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Estuary Habitat Restoration Council ACTION PLAN 2012 The purpose of this Action Plan is to support the 2012 Estuary Habitat Restoration (EHR) Strategy by identifying specific actions and milestones Service (NRCS). Several federal agencies fund and implement coastal and estuarine habitat restoration

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Data for Coos Estuary (Oregon)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is the transmittal of dissolved oxygen data collected in the Coos Estuary, Oregon to Ms. Molly O'Neill (University of Oregon), for use in her studies on the factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved oxygen in this estuary. These d...

  2. AFS Estuaries Section Newsletter Newsletter Editor Lee Benaka

    E-print Network

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    1 AFS Estuaries Section Newsletter July 2014 Newsletter Editor ­ Lee Benaka NOAA, NMFS, F/ST4 1315--Secretary http://www.fisheriessociety.org/estuaries/ http://www.facebook.com/EstuariesSectionAFS PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE Happy Summer, Estuaries Section members! Warm weather has finally arrived on Cape Cod, and I took

  3. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY10 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-10-26

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. The EOS is one of multiple work groups in the federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the FCRPS. The EOS is tasked by NOAA Fisheries and the Action Agencies to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the plume.

  4. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: The importance of the ocean-estuary connection - May 16, 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean –estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

  5. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring and Evaluation - FY07 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2007-10-10

    This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2007 (FY07) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort of the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In FY07, EOS project accomplishments included (1) subgroup meetings; (2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; (3) project management via the project tracking system, PISCES; (4) quarterly project status reports; and (5) a major revision to the Estuary RME Plan (new version September 2007) based on comments by EOS members and invited reviewers.

  6. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY07 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2007-10-10

    This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2007 (FY07) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In FY07, EOS project accomplishments included 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, PISCES; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME Plan (new version September 2007) based on comments by EOS members and invited reviewers.

  7. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) system. Volume 3: Engineering creative/evaluation processes, phase 1, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrocq, C. A.; Hosek, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A series of functional flow charts are considered that were developed to properly identify and record the degree of participation of the disciplines considered in this feasibility study and the type of data required in the design process.

  8. Salinity of the Delaware Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Bernard; McCarthy, Leo T., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain data on and study the factors affecting the salinity of the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pa., to the Appoquinimink River, Del. The general chemical quality of water in the estuary is described, including changes in salinity in the river cross section and profile, diurnal and seasonal changes, and the effects of rainfall, sea level, and winds on salinity. Relationships are established of the concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids to specific conductance. In addition to chloride profiles and isochlor plots, time series are plotted for salinity or some quantity representing salinity, fresh-water discharge, mean river level, and mean sea level. The two major variables which appear to have the greatest effect on the salinity of the estuary are the fresh-water flow of the river and sea level. The most favorable combination of these variables for salt-water encroachment occurs from August to early October and the least favorable combination occurs between December and May.

  9. Water Column Methylation in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartup, A. T.; Calder, R.; Soerensen, A. L.; Mason, R. P.; Balcom, P. H.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and affects humans and wildlife through fish consumption. Many studies have measured active methylation/demethylation in ocean margin sediments but few have reported similar rates for the marine water column. This presentation will review available evidence for water column methylation in estuaries, including new experimental measurements of methylation/demethylation rates from a deep subarctic fjord in Labrador Canada collected in Spring and Fall of 2012-2013. We used these and other data to construct a mass budget for MeHg in the estuary and show that water column methylation (with rates ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 % day-1), is the largest contributor, followed by inputs from rivers (4.9 mol year-1), to the in situ pool of MeHg available for uptake by biota. By contrast, the sediment in this system is a net sink for MeHg (-1.5 mol year-1). We discuss the relationship between observed MeHg and other ancillary environmental factors (organic carbon, sulfur and nutrients) as well as implications for the response time of fish to future changes in mercury inputs.

  10. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an acid mine drainage affected estuary.

    PubMed

    Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

    2015-02-15

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). PMID:25530015

  11. D-21B RBCC Modification Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a feasibility study on the modifications required to re-engine the Lockheed D-21 Drone for use as a NASA RBCC engine. An introduction, background information, engine configuration and performance, propulsion system integration, loads/thermal analysis, avionics/systems, flight test results, costs and work schedule, and some conclusions are presented.

  12. Estimating bankfull discharge and depth in ungauged estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisen, Jacqueline Isabella Anak; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2015-04-01

    It is difficult to measure river discharge accurately in an estuary, and particularly, in the region where the tidal flow dominates over the river discharge. River discharge is important for the morphology and hydrodynamics of estuaries as it influences the salt intrusion process, tidal dynamics, freshwater supply (water resources management), and the occurrence of floods. Here we try to derive river regime characteristics from the seaward end: the estuary. It is found that there are empirical relationships that link the geometry of an estuary to its river regime, which can be used to estimate river discharge characteristics with the least of data available. The aims of this study are: (1) to derive empirical relations between geometrical characteristics of estuaries and the bankfull discharge; (2) to explore a physical explanation for this relation; and (3) to estimate the bankfull discharge in estuaries. The physical connection between an estuary and its river regime is found by combining estuary shape analysis, tidal dynamic analysis, and Lacey's hydraulic geometry theory. The relationships found between the estuary depth, width, and bankfull river discharge have been tested in 23 estuaries around the world (including seven recently surveyed estuaries). From the analysis, it shows that the depth of an estuary is a function of the bankfull flood discharge to the power of 1/3, which is in agreement with Lacey's formula. This finding not only provides a method to estimate estuary depth, it also allows estimating flood discharge characteristics from readily available estuary shape indicators.

  13. Alien reef-building polychaete drives long-term changes in invertebrate biomass and diversity in a small, urban estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuaid, K. A.; Griffiths, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Two of the greatest threats to native biodiversity are the construction of artificial structures in natural environments and the introduction of invasive species. As the development and urbanisation of estuaries continues at an increasing rate worldwide, these environments are being simultaneously affected by these threats. This study quantifies the spread of an invasive reef-building polychaete, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, in a small, highly manipulated urban estuary in South Africa and investigates its role as an ecosystem engineer. Anthropogenic changes to the Zandvlei Estuary, including construction of a rubble weir and canalisation near the estuary mouth, construction of an extensive marina development and hardening of the banks with concrete, have facilitated the expansion of F. enigmaticus. The standing stock of F. enigmaticus increased from 13.69 t, as measured in 1986, to 50.03 t in 2012, due both to increase in the total area colonised and standing stock per m2. Since F. enigmaticus reefs support a greater biomass of infauna than adjacent sandy areas, total invertebrate biomass in the estuary is estimated to have increased from less than 0.30 t in 1942, to over 56.80 t in 2012, due mainly to hardening of banks in parts of the main estuary with concrete and construction of a marina system. A positive correlation between reef mass and infaunal biomass, density and diversity was also found.

  14. EPA'S BENTHIC HABITAT DATA FOR YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists at EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division (WED) have been studying seafloor (benthic) habitats in Yaquina estuary for several years. Those studies were conducted as parts of several research projects, including: e...

  15. PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM TIDAL CREEK STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EEA evaluated ten tidal creeks throughout the Peconic Estuary representing a wide range of watershed variables. Primary focus was directed towards the collection and analysis of the macrobenthic invertebrate communities of these ten tidal creeks. Analysis of the macrobenthic comm...

  16. Copper speciation in estuaries and coastal waters

    E-print Network

    Kogut, Megan Brook, 1972-

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this dissertation are to better understand the sources and the Cu binding ability of ligands that control Cu toxicity in estuaries and harbors, where elevated Cu concentrations have caused documented toxic ...

  17. The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)

  18. Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shiye; Zhu, Lixin; Li, Daoji

    2015-11-01

    Estuarine Microplastics (MPs) are limited to know globally. By filtering subsurface water through 330 ?m nets, MPs in Jiaojiang, Oujiang Estuaries were quantified, as well as that in Minjiang Estuary responding to Typhoon Soulik. Polymer matrix was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. MP (<5 mm) comprised more than 90% of total number plastics. The highest MPs density was found in Minjiang, following Jiaojiang and Oujiang. Fibers and granules were the primary shapes, with no pellets found. Colored MPs were the majority. The concentrations of suspended microplastics determine their bioavailability to low trophic organisms, and then possibly promoting the transfer of microplastic to higher trophic levels. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the prevalent types of MPs analyzed. Economic structures in urban estuaries influenced on MPs contamination levels. Typhoon didn't influence the suspended MP densities significantly. Our results provide basic information for better understanding suspended microplastics within urban estuaries and for managerial actions. PMID:26312741

  19. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  20. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  1. Estuaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean understanding to high school students. When the student has completed this unit, he should be able to: (1) define an…

  2. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  3. The Estuary Book: A Guide to Promoting Understanding and Regional Management of Maine's Estuaries and Embayments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffing, Jenny

    The objective of this document is to provide information about estuaries, the impact of uses on the environmental health of an estuary, and what communities and concerned individuals can do to manage and protect their local estuarine resources successfully. Much of the information presented here pertains to other embayments along the Maine coast…

  4. Fish track wastewater pollution to estuaries.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Liddell, Ben; Gaston, Troy F; Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Monika

    2005-08-01

    Excess nitrogen is a forceful agent of ecological change in coastal waters, and wastewater is a prominent source of nitrogen. In catchments where multiple sources of nitrogen pollution co-exist, biological indicators are needed to gauge the degree to which wastewater-N can propagate through the receiving food webs. The purpose of this study was to test whether estuarine fish are suitable as indicators of sewage-N pollution. Fish were analysed from three estuaries within a 100-km strip on the Australian East Coast. The estuaries differ substantially in wastewater loading: (1) the Maroochy Estuary receives a large fraction of the local shire's treated sewage, (2) the Mooloolah Estuary has no licensed treated wastewater outfalls but marinas/harbours and storm-water may contribute nitrogen, and (3) the Noosa Estuary which neither receives licensed discharges nor has suspected wastewater loads. Sampling for fish included both high rainfall ('wet' season) and low rainfall ('dry' season) periods. Muscle-delta15N was the variable predicted to respond to treated wastewater loading, reflecting the relative enrichment in 15N resulting from the treatment process and distinguishing it from alternative N sources such as fertiliser and natural nitrogen inputs (both 15N-depleted). Of the 19 fish species occurring in all three estuaries, those from the Maroochy Estuary had significantly elevated delta15N values (up to 9.9 per thousand), and inter-estuarine differences in fish-delta15N were consistent across seasons. Furthermore, not only did all fish from the estuary receiving treated wastewater carry a very distinctive sewage-N tissue signal, but enriched muscle-delta15N was also evident in all species sampled from the one estuary in which sewage contamination was previously only suspected (i.e. the Mooloolah Estuary: 0.2-4.8 per thousand enrichment over fish from reference system). Thus, fish-delta15N is a suitable indicator of wastewater-N not only in systems that receive large loads, but also for the detection of more subtle nitrogen inputs. Arguably, fish may be preferred indicators of sewage-N contamination because they: (1) integrate nitrogen inputs over long time periods, (2) have an element of 'ecological relevance' because fish muscle-delta15N reflect movement of sewage-N through the food chain, and (3) pollution assessments can usually be based on evidence from multiple species. PMID:15891851

  5. Estuaries. Estuaries are places where fresh and salt water mix. Typically they occur where rivers enter the sea. Estero Limantour, Drakes' Bay, Point Reyes National Seashore.

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Estuaries Lecture 18 #12;Estuaries. Estuaries are places where fresh and salt water mix. Typically;Estuary development is quite pronounced in to today's world. During the Pleistocene, low sea level stands,000 years ago, these valleys flooded to form estuaries like the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. If the sea

  6. MOBILE BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In simplest terms, an estuary is defined as an area where rivers meet the sea. They are transitional zones where freshwater rivers meet tidally influenced marine waters. Estuaries are considered environmentally and economically important because of their exceptional biological di...

  7. Phytoplankton Ecology of North Carolina Estuaries Michael A. Mallin

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    Phytoplankton Ecology of North Carolina Estuaries Michael A. Mallin Estuaries, Vol. 17, No. 3. (Sep%3APEONCE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H Estuaries is currently published by Estuarine Research Federation. Your use@jstor.org. http://www.jstor.org Wed Mar 26 15:41:46 2008 #12;Estuaries Vol. 17, No. 3, p. 561-574 September 1994

  8. SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY PROJECT COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuary, a significant natural resource, San Francisco Bay and the Delta combine to form the West Coast's largest estuary. The Estuary conveys the waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers to the Pacific Ocean. It encompasses roughly 1,600 square miles, drains over 40 p...

  9. UNCORRECTED 2 Iron isotope fractionation in subterranean estuaries

    E-print Network

    UNCORRECTED PROOF 1 2 Iron isotope fractionation in subterranean estuaries 3 Olivier Rouxel a estuaries, like their river-seawater counterparts, are strongly controlled by 10 non-conservative behavior estuary of Waquoit Bay on Cape Cod, USA demonstrate extensive precipitation of groundwater-borne dissolved

  10. Personal connections with rivers, estuaries and wetlands in Victoria

    E-print Network

    Roe, Paul

    Personal connections with rivers, estuaries and wetlands in Victoria Waterway My Victorian #12 importance of our rivers, creeks, wetlands and estuaries (i.e. waterways). The research, undertaken and estuaries · our knowledge of what makes a waterway healthy · what we Victorians do / are prepared to do

  11. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  12. Environmental flow assessments for transformed estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Heyue; Yang, Zhifeng; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose an approach to environmental flow assessment that considers spatial pattern variations in potential habitats affected by river discharges and tidal currents in estuaries. The approach comprises four steps: identifying and simulating the distributions of critical environmental factors for habitats of typical species in an estuary; mapping of suitable habitats based on spatial distributions of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) and adopting the habitat aggregation index to understand fragmentation of potential suitable habitats; defining variations in water requirements for a certain species using trade-off analysis for different protection objectives; and recommending environmental flows in the estuary considering the compatibility and conflict of freshwater requirements for different species. This approach was tested using a case study in the Yellow River Estuary. Recommended environmental flows were determined by incorporating the requirements of four types of species into the assessments. Greater variability in freshwater inflows could be incorporated into the recommended environmental flows considering the adaptation of potential suitable habitats with variations in the flow regime. Environmental flow allocations should be conducted in conjunction with land use conflict management in estuaries. Based on the results presented here, the proposed approach offers flexible assessment of environmental flow for aquatic ecosystems that may be subject to future change.

  13. Estuaries and coastal waters need help

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, H.

    1987-11-01

    For years, our marine environments-estuaries, coastal waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by coastal communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and coastal waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some coastal waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat marine pollution: the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in coastal and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all marine waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and coastal waters from degradation.

  14. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  15. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Jeff; Skalski, J. R.; Teel, D. J.; Brewer, Taylor; Bryson, Amanda J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Kuligowski, D. R.; Whitesel, T.; Mallette, Christine

    2013-11-30

    The study reported herein was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), University of Washington (UW), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The goal of the study was to evaluate the ecological benefits of restoration actions for juvenile salmon in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; rkm 0–234).

  16. Feasibility of Air Capture Manya Ranjan

    E-print Network

    the biological process of CO2 capture by biomass. The cost of direct air capture reported in literatureFeasibility of Air Capture by Manya Ranjan Bachelor of Technology, Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 2006 Master of Technology, Process Engineering and Design Indian Institute

  17. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2014-09-01

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2014 for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration. The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program.

  18. National Estuary Program after four years: A report to congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The National Estuary Program After Four Years: A Report to Congress is a status report on the National Estuary Program (NEP) and the seventeen Management Conferences that are part of the NEP. The Report is divided into: Part I Meeting a Need: The National Estuary Program; Part II Understanding Estuaries: The Key to Better Management; Part III Managing Estuaries: The Best Methods; Part IV Assessing the NEP: What Has Been Learned; Part V Looking to the Future: Trends and Needs; and Part VI Moving Ahead: The NEP Projects.

  19. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.

    2013-10-30

    This project covers facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) for federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) for estuary habitat restoration. The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The EOS is tasked by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Action Agencies (AAs) to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the river’s plume in the ocean. Initiated in 2002, the EOS is composed of members from BPA, the Corps, NMFS, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) Marine Sciences Laboratory, and other agencies as necessary.

  20. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE ST. LOUIS NORTH COUNTY SITE

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FINAL VOLUME I: FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE ST. LOUIS NORTH COUNTY SITE MAY 1, 2003 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers St. Louis District Office Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program #12;FINAL VOLUME I: FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE ST. LOUIS NORTH COUNTY SITE MAY 1, 2003 prepared by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St

  1. PECONIC ESTUARY: AN ASSESSMENT OF SHELLFISH RESOURCES IN THE TRIBUTARIES AND EMBAYMENTS OF THE PECONIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary Historically, the Peconic Estuary's shellfish resources have supported significant fisheries for a number of species including hard clams, oysters and bay scallops. However, distribution and abundance data for the tributaries and embayments within the Peconic Es...

  2. National estuary program guidance: Technical characterization in the National Estuary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Estuaries are waterways, such as bays and sounds, where fresh water drained from the surrounding watershed mixes with salt water from the ocean. Section 320 of the Clean Water Act established the National Estuary Program (NEP) to identify nationally significant estuaries threatened by pollution, development, or overuse and to promote the preparation of comprehensive management plans to ensure their ecological integrity. The program's goals are protection and improvement of water quality and enhancement of living resources. To reach these goals, the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) convenes management conferences for each estuary in the NEP to provide a forum for consensus building and problem solving among interested agencies and user groups.

  3. Baseline ecological risk assessment of the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana: 1. Overview and problem formulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, Donald D.; Moore, Dwayne R.J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Smorong, Dawn E.; Carr, R. Scott; Gouguet, Ron; Charters, David; Wilson, Duane; Harris, Tom; Rauscher, Jon; Roddy, Susan; Meyer, John

    2011-01-01

    A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) of the Calcasieu Estuary cooperative site was initiated in 1998. This site, which is located in the southwestern portion of Louisiana in the vicinity of Lake Charles, includes the portion of the estuary from the saltwater barrier on the Calcasieu River to Moss Lake. As part of the RI/FS, a baseline ecological risk assessment (BERA) was conducted to assess the risks to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent wildlife exposed to environmental contaminants. The purpose of the BERA was to determine if adverse effects on ecological receptors are occurring in the estuary; to evaluate the nature, severity, and areal extent of any such effects; and to identify the substances that are causing or substantially contributing to effects on ecological receptors. This article describes the environmental setting and site history, identifies the chemicals of potential concern, presents the exposure scenarios and conceptual model for the site, and summarizes the assessment and measurement endpoints that were used in the investigation. Two additional articles in this series describe the results of an evaluation of effects-based sediment-quality guidelines as well as an assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates associated with exposure to contaminated sediment.

  4. Brackish Groundwater Desalination Feasibility

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Brackish Groundwater Desalination Feasibility Assessment Report VOLUME I -- October 2008 SAN Groundwater Desalination Feasibility Report San Antonio Water System Table of Contents Table of Contents List Plant Location....................................................................... 3-19 Section 4

  5. San Francisco Estuary Institute 7770 Pardee Road

    E-print Network

    San Francisco Estuary Institute 7770 Pardee Road Oakland, CA 94621 (510) 746­7334 www Drawbridge (Courtesy of UCB and UCSB) 1857 Near the mouth of Alameda Creek 1896 Development of modern salt the origin of many of the early Euro-American salt pond complexes. Management for salt production most likely

  6. INDICATORS OF ECOSYSTEM INTEGRITY FOR ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Jordan, Stephen J. and Lisa M. Smith. In press. Indicators of Ecosystem Integrity for Estuaries. In: Proceedings of the Estuarine Indicators Workshop, 29-31 October 2003, Sanibel Island, FL. Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation, Sanibel, FL. 23 p. (ERL,GB 1194).

    Ideal ...

  7. TAMPA BAY ESTUARY PROGRAM, 2004 IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program and its partners have made measurable progress toward implementation of the adopted CCMP goals. Progress has occurred in the following areas: bay habitats, with an increase in seagrass, estuarine habitat restoration and preservation; water and sedime...

  8. VOLUNTEER ESTUARY MONITORING: A METHOD MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary: This manual focuses on volunteer estuary monitoring. As concern over the well-being of the environment has increased during the past couple of decades, volunteer monitoring has become an integral part of the effort to assess the health of our nation’s wat...

  9. DELAWARE ESTUARY PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION STREAMLINE REVIEW, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of the Delaware Estuary Program implementation review (formerly known as the biennial review) has been to assist EPA in. making funding decisions for those NEPs that are in the post-CCMP, or implementation, phase, and to evaluate implementation progress. The i...

  10. Estuaries and Tidal Marshes. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…

  11. Listening to Estuary English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deterding, David

    2005-01-01

    In Singapore, many people are not familiar with Estuary English (EE), the variety of English becoming popular in much of southern England. In the current study, when students listened to interviews with EE speakers and were asked to transcribe orthographically what they heard, most of them had severe problems. Features of pronunciation that…

  12. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  13. BCG Approaches for Improved Management of Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries and other complex aquatic systems are exposed to a variety of stressors that act at several scales, but are managed piecemeal - - often resulting in a “death by 1000 cuts” caused by cumulative impacts to these valued resources. To address this, managers need tools that...

  14. Climate change and its impacts on estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past, present, and future research by WED scientists in the TEP region will be described to lay the foundation for examination of potential climate change effects on estuaries and the broader coastal zone in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Results from National Coastal Assessments,...

  15. MODELING FINE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment transport model (SEDIMENT IIIA) was developed to assist in predicting the fate of chemical pollutants sorbed to cohesive sediments in rivers and estuaries. Laboratory experiments were conducted to upgrade an existing two-dimensional, depth-averaged, finite element, coh...

  16. Kaua'i: Streams and Estuaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John, Ed.; Murakami, Colleen, Ed.

    Designed to help teachers develop students' awareness and understanding of some of Hawaii's endangered aquatic resources, this module contains activities and instructional suggestions for use with intermediate as well as high school students. The module is divided into two sections which explore the streams and estuaries of Kauai. Activities in…

  17. THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During June and July, 2002, forty-seven stations were sampled within estuaries along the gulf coast of the state of Veracruz, MX, using a probabilistic survey design and a common set of response indicators. The objective of the study was to collect information to assess the condi...

  18. Reversing circulation patterns in a tropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Bosley, Kathryn T.

    2003-10-01

    A combination of current velocity and water density measurements was used to characterize the basic patterns of water exchange in the Gulf of Fonseca, a tropical estuary on the Pacific Ocean side of Central America. The measurements were obtained during spring and neap tides in March (dry season) and June (wet season) of 2001 and consisted of profiles of current velocity and density along four transects. From mid-March to mid-April a time series of hourly surface current velocity maps was also obtained with a high-frequency radar system of two antennas. The sampling transects and the radar coverage concentrated in the portion of the estuary that has open communication with the ocean. During the dry season, water exchange at the entrance to the gulf suggested an inverse estuarine circulation that was more robust, and its dynamics were closer to geostrophy during neap than during spring tides. It is likely that salinity increased toward the tributaries of the system and then decreased within those tributaries because of the persistent influence of fresh water. In contrast, during the wet season, salinity decreased into the estuary, and the circulation resembled that of a typical estuary. In this season the fortnightly modulation of exchange flows was masked by wind effects, which also played a relevant role in the dynamics. The net volume inflows measured in both seasons suggested that the residence time of the Gulf of Fonseca varies from 2 weeks to 1 month.

  19. Feasibility Study for a New Business Jet

    E-print Network

    Mousa, Yasser Abdullah

    2009-05-15

    complete the requirements for a field project (EMGT 835) in Engineering Management. The study is conducted during global economic crisis to identify a promising opportunity in business jet market and then analyze its feasibility as a business opportunity. The... feasibility study starts with a general review of the market of business jet. The review contains customer analysis, which is studying the market definition based on the customer needs and their segments. Then, the industry of business aviation is studied based on the...

  20. Comet nucleus impact probe feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    A top level listing of the comet nucleus impact probe (CNIP) feasibility experiments requirements are presented. A conceptual configuration which shows that the feasibility of engineering the experiment is possible and describes the candidate hardware is discussed. The design studies required in order to design the operating experiment are outlined. An overview of a program plan used to estimate a rough order of magnitude cost for the CNIP experiment is given.

  1. Geophysical Assessment of the Control of a Jetty on a Barrier Beach and Estuary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, C.; Hubbard, S. S.; Peterson, J.; Blom, K.; Black, W.; Delaney, C.; Mendoza, J.

    2014-12-01

    An evaluation is underway at the Goat Rock State Park, located at the mouth of the Russian River near Jenner, CA, to quantify the influence of a man made jetty on the functioning of a barrier beach and associated implications for estuary fish habitat and flood control. Flow through the beach results from water level differences between the estuary and the ocean. When the estuary is closed or perched, one of the major sources of outflow from the lagoon is seepage flow through the barrier beach. The location and design of the jetty could be altering subsurface flow paths through the jetty and possibly impeding subsurface flow where the jetty is still intact. This will result in unnatural connectivity between the ocean and the estuary leading to atypical surface water elevations and possibly salinity imbalance. We are monitoring seepage through the jetty and beach berm with multiple surface and borehole geophysical methods, including: electrical resistivity (ERT), seismic refraction (SR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and electromagnetic methods (EM). We use SR data to characterize deeper bedrock controls on beach barrier functioning; ERT and EM methods to characterize the beach sediment layers that could contribute to preferential flow paths during tide cycles in addition to preferential flow paths created by the jetty structure; time-lapse ERT and EM data to monitor moisture changes and mixing of saline and fresh water within the beach berm, and borehole ERT and GPR data to delineate the geometry of the (often buried) jetty. Preliminary ERT and EM results indicate two preferential flow paths through zones of missing jetty structure, while time-lapse borehole ERT data is expected to image saltwater flow impedance in zones of intact jetty structure. All data are being integrated with topography, tidal, borehole, and hydrological information and the results of the assessment will enable the Sonoma County Water Agency to develop the feasibility of alternatives to the existing jetty that may help achieve target estuarine water surface elevations.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan).

  3. Second International Symposium on the Biogeochemistry of Model Estuaries: Estuarine processes in global change. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Windom, H.L.

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes estuary events discussed at the symposium on biogeochemistry. Topics include; sedimentation, salinity, inputs and outputs of the estuary, effects of global change, and the need for effective sampling and modeling of estuaries.

  4. 78 FR 9887 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; National Estuaries Restoration Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Collection; Comment Request; National Estuaries Restoration Inventory AGENCY: National...information collection. Collection of estuary habitat restoration project information...restoration project database mandated by the Estuary Restoration Act of 2000. The...

  5. 78 FR 46332 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; National Estuary Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ...Collection Request; Comment Request; National Estuary Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection...collection request (ICR), ``National Estuary Program'' (EPA ICR No. 1500.08...comments to OMB. Abstract: The National Estuary Program (NEP) involves collecting...

  6. 75 FR 17382 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water Level Management Activities, California...Authorization (IHA) to the Sonoma County Water Agency (herein after ``Agency...incidental to Russian River Estuary (Estuary) water level management and monitoring...

  7. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post-restoration conditions at both the Kandoll and Vera study areas.

  9. Geothermal feasibility study for Malting Investments Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The engineering feasibility of using geothermal heat in the kilning, germination, and steep water cooling processes for a malting facility is determined. The study is based upon a malting facility with an annual capacity of malting three million bushels of clean graded barley per year or 8220 bushels per day. Capital cost figures used in the feasibility study are budget prices for the basic equipment only, they do not include any other costs such as installation, instrumentation or design and engineering costs. Utility prices are based upon $0.03 per kilowatt hour and $0.4548 per therm for natural gas.

  10. Scales of variation in Pacific Northwest outer-coast estuaries This chapter provides an overview of the small, coastal-plain estuaries of the

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    1 CHAPTER I Scales of variation in Pacific Northwest outer-coast estuaries This chapter provides an overview of the small, coastal-plain estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, a system of estuaries that, freshwater forcing, and tidal regime of these estuaries is described, with comparison to the more commonly

  11. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2) develop and test a quantitative index of the early life history diversity of juvenile salmon in the LCRE; (3) assess and, if feasible, develop and test a quantitative index of the survival benefits of tidal wetland habitat restoration (hydrologic reconnection) in the LCRE; and (4) synthesize the results of investigations into the indices for habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival benefits.

  12. A fully predictive model for salt intrusion in estuaries applied to the Yangtze estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huayang; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zuo, Shuhua; Jiang, Chenjuan; Chua, Vivien P.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the way the salinity distribution in an estuary reacts to external drivers (e.g., tide, fresh water discharge, dredging etc.) is important for both water quality and water resources management in estuaries. The salinity distribution depends strongly on the geometry of an estuary, but also on the fresh water discharge that counteracts the salt intrusion. In estuaries it is notoriously hard to estimate this discharge and subsequently to predict the parameters that determine the mixing behaviour depending on it. Recently a method has been developed to predict the fresh water discharge on the basis of water level observations. In addition predictive equations for tidal mixing have been updated and revised. In this paper, these two predictive methods are combined and subsequently applied to the Yangtze estuary under a wide variation of fresh water discharge. The predicted salt distribution appears to be in good agreement with observations. To provide insight into the optimum use of water resources (e.g., to determine the amount of fresh water discharge required to maintain a specific salt intrusion length), we further studied the salt intrusion pattern under different fresh water discharge conditions.

  13. A predictive model for salt intrusion in estuaries applied to the Yangtze estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huayang; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zuo, Shuhua; Jiang, Chenjuan; Chua, Vivien P.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the way salinity distribution in an estuary reacts to external drivers (e.g., tide, fresh water discharge, dredging, etc.) is important for both water quality and water resources management in estuaries. The salinity distribution depends strongly on the geometry of an estuary, but also on the fresh water discharge that counteracts the salt intrusion. In estuaries it is notoriously hard to estimate this discharge and subsequently to predict the parameters that determine the mixing behaviour depending on it. Recently a method has been developed to predict the fresh water discharge on the basis of water level observations. In addition, predictive equations for tidal mixing have been updated and revised. In this paper, these two predictive methods are combined and subsequently applied to the Yangtze estuary under a wide variation of fresh water discharge. The predicted salt distribution appears to be in good agreement with observations. To provide insight into the optimum use of water resources (e.g., to determine the amount of fresh water discharge required to maintain a specific salt intrusion length), we further study the salt intrusion pattern under different tide and fresh water discharge conditions.

  14. Small estuary, big port - progress in the management of the Stour-Orwell Estuary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearman, Jeremy; Baugh, John; Feates, Nigel; Dearnaley, Mike; Eccles, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Management of port development is increasingly challenging because of the competitive requirement for deeper channels and because of the need to preserve important coastal wetlands which function as both habitat and flood defence. This paper describes the management of the Stour/Orwell Estuary system, Eastern England, an estuary system which has experienced considerable development and morphological change. The estuary is internationally important for its wetland bird populations and the intertidal areas of the estuary system are protected under European legislation. It is also the location of the Port of Felixstowe. In 1998/2000 the approach channel to the Port of Felixstowe was deepened from -12.5 mCD to -14.5 mCD. This paper describes the effects of the approach channel deepening, the approach taken to identifying the potential impact to intertidal habitat resulting from the deepening, the sediment recycling implemented as mitigation to prevent increased loss of habitat and the subsequent response of the estuary system to this intervention.

  15. An Ecosystem-Based Restoration Plan with Emphasis on Salmonid Habitats in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Sutherland, George B.; Berquam, Taunja J.; Ebberts, Blaine; Ricci, Nicole M.; Southard, John A.; Wilcox, Jessica D.

    2003-10-14

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative Action 159 of the 2000 National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. This document focuses on salmon habitat, although its ecosystem-based approach necessarily affects other species as well. Salmon habitat restoration is best undertaken within the context of other biota and physical processes using an ecosystem perspective. The anticipated audience for the plan includes entities responsible for, interested in, or affected by habitat restoration in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Timeframes to apply this plan extend from the immediate (2003-2004) to the near-term (2005-2006) to the long-term (2007 and beyond). We anticipate and encourage that the plan be revised as new knowledge and experience are attained. A team comprised of the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) wrote this document. The BPA and the COE, as the responsible Action Agencies, provided technical oversight. The Estuary Partnership's Science Work Group, NOAA Fisheries Habitat Conservation Division, Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) staff, and state and tribal fisheries management agencies reviewed drafts. The Independent Scientific Advisory Board of the NPPC reviewed and commented on the 90% draft. Revisions were incorporated into the final draft document subsequently released for public review. Extensive efforts were made to ensure a sound technical and policy basis and to solicit input from all interested parties.

  16. DPC loading feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect

    Dafoe, R.E.; Lopez, D.A.; Williams, K.L.

    1997-11-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a ``Settlement Agreement`` between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This study investigates the feasibility of using the Dry Transfer Cell facility to package waste into Dual Purpose Canisters for interim storage at the adjacent Dry Storage System comprised of an interim storage pad with NUHOMS{reg_sign} storage modules. The wastes would then be road-ready for eventual disposal in a permanent repository. The operating period for these activities is expected to be from 2015 to 2035.

  17. Particle-size evidence of estuary evolution: A rapid and diagnostic tool for determining the nature of recent saltmarsh accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Rubina; Plater, Andrew J.

    2014-05-01

    A conceptual model of saltmarsh sedimentation based on high-resolution particle-size analysis has been tested on short cores (c. 0.5 m) of known age from the Dee estuary, NW England, UK. Here, two components of the particle-size distribution (PSD) are interpreted as the traction load deposited by the faster tidal flow velocities (‘fast tide') and the suspension load that settles during the turn of the tide (‘slow tide'). The feasibility of this model for diagnosing the driving mechanism of estuary evolution in both time and space is tested with reference to historical evidence of saltmarsh accretion, up-core trends in dated saltmarsh cores, and the PSDs of present-day saltmarsh surface sediments. Cores that show an up-core progression from very fine-skewed to near symmetrical PSDs are interpreted in the context of estuary infilling due to a positive sediment budget (sediment surplus), whilst those that show a persistence of near-symmetrical, (very) poorly sorted, mesokurtic particle-size distributions in the fine to very fine silts size range are considered to be the result of ‘slow tide' sedimentation. The influences of the two ‘end-member' styles of saltmarsh accretion, i.e. (i) infilling due to sediment surplus and (ii) ‘slow tide' settling linked to sea level, exhibit spatial and temporal trends as predicted, particularly in cores from mid- and lower saltmarsh locations. The upper saltmarsh cores also show evidence of estuary infilling due to ‘slow tide' sedimentation at rates in excess of sea-level rise. The results confirm that the diagnostic approach can be applied as a ‘pre-filtering' method for assessing the suitability of saltmarsh sediments for reconstructing sea-level trends, and for providing input data for improved estuary morphological modelling.

  18. Tidal exchange between a freshwater tidal marsh and an impacted estuary: the Scheldt estuary, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Damme, Stefan; Frank, Dehairs; Micky, Tackx; Olivier, Beauchard; Eric, Struyf; Britta, Gribsholt; Oswald, Van Cleemput; Patrick, Meire

    2009-11-01

    Tidal marsh exchange studies are relatively simple tools to investigate the interaction between tidal marshes and estuaries. They have mostly been confined to only a few elements and to saltwater or brackish systems. This study presents mass-balance results of an integrated one year campaign in a freshwater tidal marsh along the Scheldt estuary (Belgium), covering oxygen, nutrients (N, P and Si), carbon, chlorophyll, suspended matter, chloride and sulfate. The role of seepage from the marsh was also investigated. A ranking between the parameters revealed that oxygenation was the strongest effect of the marsh on the estuarine water. Particulate parameters showed overall import. Export of dissolved silica (DSi) was more important than exchange of any other nutrient form. Export of DSi and import of total dissolved nitrogen (DIN) nevertheless contributed about equally to the increase of the Si:N ratio in the seepage water. The marsh had a counteracting effect on the long term trend of nutrient ratios in the estuary.

  19. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of avian predators should prove useful in developing or assessing management actions to reduce losses of juvenile salmonid smolts that attempt to pass through the estuary on their seaward migration.

  20. Saving Bays and Estuaries: A primer for establishing and managing Estuary programs. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The appendix of Saving Bays and Estuaries is: A Primer for Establishing and Managing Estuary Projects. The Primer, which describes the National Estuary Program's origin, statutary provisions, and approach, is designed for EPA's program and Regional offices, coastal States, and other interested parties. For more information, contact an EPA Regional office. Section 320 of the Clean Water Act provides for the development of Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMPs) for estuaries of National significance. To ensure the greatest return on resources spent, it is often necessary to document the economic benefits associated with alternative management strategies.

  1. Remote Sensing of Railroad Locomotive Emissions: A Feasibility Study

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    Remote Sensing of Railroad Locomotive Emissions: A Feasibility Study Peter J. Popp, Gary A. Bishop, DC 20590 #12;Remote Sensing of Railroad Engine Emissions 2 INTRODUCTION Many cities in the United be #12;Remote Sensing of Railroad Engine Emissions 3 operated at a preset power output and fixed engine

  2. Flow Liner Slot Edge Replication Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    Surface replication has been proposed as a method for crack detection in space shuttle main engine flowliner slots. The results of a feasibility study show that examination of surface replicas with a scanning electron microscope can result in the detection of cracks as small as 0.005 inch, and surface flaws as small as 0.001 inch, for the flowliner material.

  3. Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary

    E-print Network

    Kelley, Dan

    Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary Clark Richards,1 Daniel internal waves may represent an important source of mixing and transport in estuaries and coastal seas of the turbulent energetics, and two main features were studied. First, during a period of shoaling internal waves

  4. PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peconic Estuary, situated between the North and South Forks of eastern Long Island, New York, consists of more than 100 distinct bays, harbors, embayments, and tributaries. The area surrounding the Peconic Estuary's watershed is rich in rolling farmland, scenic beaches and cr...

  5. LOWER COLUMBIA RIVER ESTUARY PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An estuary is the area where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of an ocean. In the Columbia River system, this occurs in the lower 46 river miles. In an estuary, the river has a direct, natural connection with the open sea. This transition from fresh to salt water c...

  6. YAQUINA BAY AND BEYOND: WHAT SHAPE ARE OUR ESTUARIES IN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The great natural beauty of Oregon's estuaries gives an impression of systems that are far less altered than those in other areas of the US. However, over the years, Yaquina Bay and other western estuaries have been variously affected by habitat loss and alteration, over harvest...

  7. Trace metal concentrations in estuaries and coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    Estuaries and coastal regions are highly variable in the physical and hydrographic conditions. As a result of heavy urbanization and industrialization of the head waters of most estuaries, there are substantial localized inputs of contaminants to the estuary. These factors combined with the flushing characteristics of individual estuaries to create relatively unique features that result in variation in the typical levels of trace metals for these systems. This makes intercomparison of the estuaries difficult. Comparability among estuaries becomes even more difficult when metals analyses are conducted without proper control of field and laboratory contamination, now firmly established in the trace metal analytical literature as a prerequisite for reliable marine trace metals analysis. This paper compares the concentrations of selected trace metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the waters of several major estuaries of the United States. The basis of comparison is that all samples war collected under rigid trace metal clean collection and analysis procedures. Generally, metal concentrations within the estuaries are similar. Metal concentrations in the higher salinity coastal regions are more similar in concentration. The comparison provides a baseline of typical concentrations of these trace metals in the coastal waters against which future analytical results can be compared.

  8. Macroalgae, pore water sulfides and eelgrass in Yaquina estuary, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that relatively high nutrients in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) can lead to eutrophication and degradation of critical eelgrass habitat was examined. Yaquina estuary was surveyed for cover and above-ground biomass of benthic macroalgae (Ulva spp.) and n...

  9. Nitrogen Source and Loading Data for EPA Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen source and loading data have been compiled and aggregated at the scale of estuaries and associated watersheds of the conterminous United States, using the spatial framework in EPA's Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to provide system boundaries. Original sources of data include...

  10. FOOD PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH PENAEID SHRIMPS IN A MANGROVEFRINGED ESTUARY

    E-print Network

    FOOD PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH PENAEID SHRIMPS IN A MANGROVE·FRINGED ESTUARY ALLAN W. STONERl AND Ro estuaries has been attributed to high concentrations of mangrove-derived detritus in the nursery habitats. Examination of the diets ofPII7UUl'UIl noOO/is, P. subti/is, and P. braBiliensis in the mangrove

  11. WATER QUALITY MODELING IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the Rio Chone Estuary, a seasonally inverse, tropical estuary, in Ecuador was characterized by modeling the distribution of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the water column. These two variables are modeled using modif...

  12. INDEX OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC INTEGRITY FOR GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A benthic index for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries has been developed and successfully validated by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) in the Louisianian Province. The benthic index is a useful indicator of estuarine condition that provi...

  13. ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF SOUTHEAST U. S. ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a means to assess ecological condition, 151 stations located in southeastern estuaries from Cape Henry, Virginia to Biscayne Bay, Florida were sampled by state agencies during the summer of 2000 using a probabilistic design. The design used 8 size classes of estuaries ranging ...

  14. NAME: Port Susan Bay Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Snohomish County, Washington

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Restoration Project proposes to reintroduce the full tidal prism and inundation regime to 150 acres of diked farmland in the Stillaguamish River estuary in Puget Sound. In doing this, self sustaining native tidal in the northeastern portion of Port Susan Bay will be increased. This project will restore estuary-scale sediment

  15. PECONIC ESTUARY: RECREATIONAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMIC VALUES FOR THE PECONIC ESTUARY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental and natural resources ("natural assets") of the Peconic Estuary System--the bay waters, beaches, wetlands, ecosystems, habitats, and parks and watershed lands--provide many services to the public. Outdoor recreation, scenic views, and the productivity of wetland...

  16. Approaches for Development of Nutrient Criteria in Oregon Estuaries With a Focus on Tillamook Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

  17. 1322004 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 27, No. 1, p. 132146 February 2004

    E-print Network

    North, Elizabeth W.

    1322004 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 27, No. 1, p. 132­146 February 2004 to a straight-channel estuary and enhanced with sediment transport, erosion, deposition, and burial components and wind. Although increases and decreases in river flow caused down- estuary and up-estuary (respectively

  18. Optimal Migration Routes of Dusky Canada Geese: Can They Indicate Estuaries in British Columbia

    E-print Network

    Optimal Migration Routes of Dusky Canada Geese: Can They Indicate Estuaries in British Columbia Routes of Dusky Canada Geese: Can They Indicate Estuaries in British Columbia for Conservation? Project threats, habitat loss, and degradation of British Columbian (BC) estuaries, the Pacific Estuary

  19. Thank you to our sponsors Thinking about healthy estuaries in the Year 2111 and

    E-print Network

    #12;Thank you to our sponsors #12;Thinking about healthy estuaries in the Year 2111 and assuming support and resources: What is your vision of what an estuary should look like? Think about: What do you value in an estuary? How do you use estuaries? #12;Why

  20. Continental Shelf Research 29 (2009) 136147 Initial growth of phytoplankton in turbid estuaries: A simple model

    E-print Network

    Horner-Devine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Continental Shelf Research 29 (2009) 136­147 Initial growth of phytoplankton in turbid estuaries the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in well-mixed, suspended sediment dominated estuaries. The model describes problem. The growth rates depend on the position in the estuary due to along-estuary variations

  1. AN APPROACH TO DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRITERIA FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES: A CASE STUDY OF YAQUINA ESTUARY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHEERL scientists have developed an approach that could be used by the State of Oregon for development of nutrient and other water quality criteria for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The principle objective in setting protective criteria is to prevent future degradation of estuari...

  2. PECONIC ESTUARY: AN INVENTORY OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION AND HARDENED SHORELINES FOR THE PECONIC ESTUARY, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary The Peconic Estuary Program (PEP) is interested in the extent of eelgrass and other submerged aquatic vegetation and in documenting changes in the shorelines of the Peconic Estuary. The Suffolk County Department of Health Services' Office of Ecology provided fun...

  3. Global patterns and predictors of fish species richness in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Rita P; Henriques, Sofia; França, Susana; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Cardoso, Inês; Laborde, Marina; Cabral, Henrique N

    2015-09-01

    1. Knowledge of global patterns of biodiversity and regulating variables is indispensable to develop predictive models. 2. The present study used predictive modelling approaches to investigate hypotheses that explain the variation in fish species richness between estuaries over a worldwide spatial extent. Ultimately, such models will allow assessment of future changes in ecosystem structure and function as a result of environmental changes. 3. A comprehensive worldwide data base was compiled of the fish assemblage composition and environmental characteristics of estuaries. Generalized Linear Models were used to quantify how variation in species richness among estuaries is related to historical events, energy dynamics and ecosystem characteristics, while controlling for sampling effects. 4. At the global extent, species richness differed among marine biogeographic realms and continents and increased with mean sea surface temperature, terrestrial net primary productivity and the stability of connectivity with a marine ecosystem (open vs. temporarily open estuaries). At a smaller extent (within a marine biogeographic realm or continent), other characteristics were also important in predicting variation in species richness, with species richness increasing with estuary area and continental shelf width. 5. The results suggest that species richness in an estuary is defined by predictors that are spatially hierarchical. Over the largest spatial extents, species richness is influenced by the broader distributions and habitat use patterns of marine and freshwater species that can colonize estuaries, which are in turn governed by history contingency, energy dynamics and productivity variables. Species richness is also influenced by more regional and local parameters that can further affect the process of community colonization in an estuary including the connectivity of the estuary with the adjacent marine habitat, and, over smaller spatial extents, the size of these habitats. In summary, patterns of species richness in estuaries across large spatial extents seem to reflect from global to local processes acting on community colonization. The importance of considering spatial extent, sampling effects and of combining history and contemporary environmental characteristics when exploring biodiversity is highlighted. PMID:25788236

  4. The feasibility of deep well injection for brine disposal 

    E-print Network

    Spongberg, Martin Edward

    1994-01-01

    A generalized methodology for evaluating the technical feasibility of projects involving the disposal of waste brine by injection into deep saline aquifers is developed, primarily from the hydrology and petroleum engineering literature. Data...

  5. The Oncor Geodatabase for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Annual Report, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Serkowski, John A.

    2013-11-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this project for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Corps). The purpose of the project is to develop a geospatial, web-accessible database (called “Oncor”) for action effectiveness and related data from monitoring and research efforts for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). The intent is for the Oncor database to enable synthesis and evaluation, the results of which can then be applied in subsequent CEERP decision-making. This is the first annual report in what is expected to be a 3- to 4-year project, which commenced on February 14, 2012.

  6. Phosphorous dynamics in a temperate intertidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillebø, A. I.; Neto, J. M.; Flindt, M. R.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2004-09-01

    Conservation and management of aquatic systems require detailed information of the processes that affect their functioning and development. The objectives of the present work were to describe the phosphorus dynamics during a complete tidal cycle and to quantify the relative contribution of the most common estuarine areas (e.g. seagrass beds, salt marshes, mud- and sand-flats without vegetation) to phosphorus net internal loading in a temperate intertidal estuary. Results show that phosphate efflux rates were higher during the first hours of tidal flood, and that phosphate concentrations were lowest at high tide. During tidal ebbing, ephemeral tide pools may cover a considerable percentage of the intertidal area. In these tide pools, water shallowness combined with enhanced temperatures stimulate the occurrence of high phosphate effluxes. The effluxes to the main water body during high tide contributed 57% of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and efflux during low tide contributed 43% to the net internal loading. Calculations of the phosphate net effluxes (kg P) indicate a strong contribution of the bare bottom mud-flats to the whole system internal phosphate loading, especially during the warmer periods. As a consequence of eutrophication, perennial benthic macrophytes are commonly replaced by fast-growing epiphytic macroalgae. Calculations showed that for a hypothetical intertidal estuary in a temperate region, management programs considering an eventual re-colonization of mud-flats by seagrasses or salt marsh plants may reduce the P-efflux by 13-16 kg ha -1. For example, in the small Mondego estuary, eutrophication has contributed to a reduction of the Zostera noltii meadows, leading to an increase in 190 kg of phosphorus net internal loading.

  7. Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

  8. Latest Holocene evolution and human disturbance of a channel segment in the Hudson River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klingbeil, A.D.; Sommerfield, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The latest Holocene sedimentary record of a cohesive channel and subtidal shoal in the lower Hudson River Estuary was examined to elucidate natural (sea-level rise, sediment transport) and anthropogenic (bulkheading, dredging) influences on the recent morphodynamic evolution of the system. To characterize the seafloor and shallow subbottom, ??? 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles (chirp) were collected within a 20-km reach of the estuary and correlated with sediment lithologies provided by eight vibracores recovered along seismic lines. Sediment geochronology with 137Cs and 14C was used to estimate intermediate and long-term sedimentation rates, respectively, and historical bathymetric data were analyzed to identify regional patterns of accretion and erosion, and to quantify changes in channel geometry and sediment volume. The shoal lithosome originated around 4 ka presumably with decelerating eustatic sea level rise during the latest Holocene. Long-term sedimentation rates on the shoal (2.3-2.6 mm/yr) are higher than in the channel (2 mm/yr) owing to hydrodynamic conditions that preferentially sequester suspended sediment on the western side of the estuary. As a result, the shoal accretes oblique to the principal axis of tidal transport, and more rapidly than the channel to produce an asymmetric cross-section. Shoal deposits consist of tidally bedded muds and are stratified by minor erosion surfaces that seismic profiles reveal to extend for 10s of meters to kilometers. The frequency and continuity of these surfaces suggest that the surficial shoal is catastrophically stripped on decadal-centennial time scales by elevated tidal flows; tidal erosion maintains the shoal at a uniform depth below sea level and prevents it from transitioning to an intertidal environment. Consequently, the long-term sedimentation rate approximates the rate of sea-level rise in the lower estuary (1-3 mm/yr). After the mid 1800s, the natural geometry of the lower Hudson River Estuary changed rapidly in response to engineering works that forced the channel to self-deepen. Analysis of historical bathymetric data indicates that the channel lost an estimated 3 ?? 106 tons of sediment between ca. 1939 and 2002 (50,000 tons/yr average) by subaqueous erosion, increasing in depth by as much as 4 m in places. Erosion appears to have been concurrent with systematic bulkheading of the shoreline after ca. 1865, which decreased the estuary surface area by ??? 19% overall. Evidently, self-deepening of the channel is a morphodynamic adjustment to reestablish equilibrium cross-sectional area, yet the state of this change locally and elsewhere in the estuary is unknown. Subaqueous erosion documented in this study is a significant source of sediment with implications to the sediment budget and environmental quality of the Hudson River Estuary. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Near coastal program plan for 1991: Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Environmental regulatory programs in the United States have been estimated to cost more than $70 billion annually. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is a nationwide initiative being implemented by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). It was developed in response to the demand for information on the condition of the nation's ecological resources. The goal of EMAP is to assess and document the status and trends in the condition of the nation's forests, wetlands, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes, rivers, and streams, Great Lakes, agricultural lands, and arid lands on an integrated and continuing basis.

  10. Synthesis and Modelling of Intermittent Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjerfve, Bjürn

    Port Hacking is a small subtropical estuary, relatively unpolluted despite its location only 30 km south of Sydney on Australia's Pacific coast. It was the site of a 5-year (1973-1978) multidisciplinary ecosystem project, focusing on the flow of carbon into, within, and out of the estuarine system. The ultimate goal of the project was the formulation and implementation of a predictive model of the carbon dynamics. However, this book, which summarizes the project, reports that the scientific team failed in its effort to reach the goal of a predictive model.

  11. 14-plex Feasibility Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kotongan, Victoria Hazel

    2013-06-21

    The Native Village of Unalakleet project was a feasibility study for a retrofit of a “tribally owned” three story, 14 apartment complex located in Unalakleet, Alaska. The program objective and overall goal was to create a plan for retrofitting to include current appraised value and comparable costs of new construction to determine genuine feasibility as low-income multi-family housing for tribal members.

  12. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Annual Report for 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2015-08-01

    This document is the annual report for the period September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015 for the project—Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). BPA/Corps (2015) explain the CEERP and the role of RME and the ERTG. For the purposes of this report, the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) includes the floodplain from Bonneville Dam down through the lower river and estuary into the river’s plume in the ocean. The main purpose of this project is to facilitate EOS and ERTG meetings and work products. Other purposes are to provide technical support for CEERP adaptive management, CEERP restoration design challenges, and tributary RME. From 2002 through 2008, the EOS worked to design the federal RME program for the estuary/ocean (Johnson et al. 2008). From 2009 to the present day, EOS activities have involved RME implementation; however, EOS activities were minimal during the current reporting period. PNNL provided technical support to CEERP’s adaptive management process by convening 1.2 meetings of the Action Agencies (AAs) and drafting material for the “CEERP 2015 Restoration and Monitoring Plan” (BPA/Corps 2015).

  13. Scavenging Rate Ecoassay: A Potential Indicator of Estuary Condition

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Augustine G.; Scanes, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of estuary condition is essential due to the highly productive and often intensely impacted nature of these ecosystems. Assessment of the physico-chemical condition of estuaries is expensive and difficult due to naturally fluctuating water quality and biota. Assessing the vigour of ecosystem processes is an alternative method with potential to overcome much of the variability associated with physico-chemical measures. Indicators of estuary condition should have small spatial and temporal variability, have a predictable response to perturbation and be ecologically relevant. Here, we present tests of the first criterion, the spatio-temporal variability of a potential ecoassay measuring the rate of scavenging in estuaries. We hypothesised that the proposed scavenging ecoassay would not vary significantly among A) sites in an estuary, B) trips separated by weeks, or C) days in a trip. Because not all habitats are present in all estuaries, this test was undertaken in two habitats. When conducted over bare substrate there were occasional significant differences, but no discernible patterns, within levels of the experiment. When conducted over vegetated substrate, days within a trip did not vary significantly, but later trips experienced greater scavenging. This scavenging ecoassay shows potential as a tool for assessing the condition of estuarine ecosystems, and further exploration of this protocol is warranted by implementation in estuaries across a gradient of anthropogenic stress. PMID:26024225

  14. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  15. Vulnerability Assessments in Support of the Climate Ready Estuaries Program: A Novel Approach Using Expert Judgment, Volume I: Results for the San Francisco Estuary Partnership (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the San Francisco <span class=Estuary Partnership Climate Ready Estuaries Program Final Report"> As part of the Climate Ready Estuaries (CRE) pr...

  16. Use of the USEPA Estuary Nitrogen Model to Estimate Concentrations of Total Nitrogen in Estuaries Using Loads Calculated by Watershed Models and Monitoring Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use USEPA’s Estuary Nitrogen Model (ENM) to calculate annual average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in ten estuaries or sub-estuaries along the Atlantic coast from New Hampshire to Florida. These include a variety of systems, ranging from strongly-flushed bays to weakly...

  17. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2011 - FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Teel, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Blaine, Jennifer; Kuligowski, D. R.; Kropp, Roy K.; Dawley, Earl M.

    2012-05-31

    The study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the University of Washington (UW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). This research project was initiated in 2007 by the Bonneville Power Administration to investigate critical uncertainties regarding juvenile salmon ecology in shallow tidal freshwater habitats of the lower Columbia River. However, as part of the Washington Memorandum of Agreement, the project was transferred to the USACE in 2010. In transferring from BPA to the USACE, the focus of the tidal freshwater research project shifted from fundamental ecology toward the effectiveness of restoration in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The research is conducted within the Action Agencies Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Data reported herein spans the time period May 2010 to September 2011.

  18. MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

  19. CASCO BAY ESTUARY PROJECT TRIENNIAL IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW MARCH, 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Casco Bay Estuary Project has seven primary goals/priorities which include: minimize pollutant loading from stormwater; open and protect shellfish beds; protect and restore habitat; reduce toxic pollution; promote responsible stewardship; sustain and promote the continued eff...

  20. SAN JUAN BAY ESTUARY PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW ATTACHMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compilation of attachments referenced in the San Juan Bay Estuary Program Implementation Review (2004). Materials include, entity reports, water and sediment quality action plans, progress reports, correspondence with local municipalities and Puerto Rican governmental agencies,...

  1. OXYGEN UPTAKE AND NUTRIENT REGENERATION IN THE PECONIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: OXYGEN UPTAKE AND NUTRIENT REGENERATION IN THE PECONIC ESTUARY Rates of oxygen consumption and nutrient regeneration were measured annually throughout the Peconic Estuarine System. Sediment and water column oxygen uptake were measured to determine the potential...

  2. Mixing processes and hydraulic control in a highly stratified estuary

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Daniel George, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis utilizes field data from the Fraser River Estuary, a highly stratified system located in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to investigate the nature of mixing processes in a highly stratified environment, ...

  3. INTRODUCTION The euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus lives in estuaries and

    E-print Network

    Scott, Graham

    2450 INTRODUCTION The euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus lives in estuaries and salt been used extensively to understand fish osmoregulation (Wood and Marshall, 1994), the mechanisms for divergent physiological mechanisms of ion transport in freshwater between these two organs (Wood

  4. Landscape Thresholds and the Condition of Northeastern Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impacts to northeastern estuaries have been well documented and many researchers have quantified the associations between broad scale human land uses in contributing landscapes and impacted estuarine condition. However, associations alone are not adequate for ident...

  5. FRESHWATER INFLOWS: WATER FOR HEALTHY ESTUARIES CONFERENCE (MX96476507

    EPA Science Inventory

    The grantee will hold an interstate workshop on Freshwater Inflow issues in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The conference will identify water management questions to be addressed regarding providing freshwater inflows to estuaries, update participants on the current scientif...

  6. BARNEGAT BAY ESTUARY PROGRAM - OCEAN COUNTY BUILD-OUT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rutgers University, under contract with NJDEP, using funds available through Section 320 of the Clean Water Act (National Estuary Program), has completed an analysis of possible future conditions of the Barnegat Bay watershed using existing zoning ordinances throughout Ocean Coun...

  7. Evaluating Causes of Ecological Impairments in the Estuaries of Ukraine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ukrainian estuaries have not undergone a systematic evaluation of the causes of ecological impairments caused by anthropogenic contamination. The objective of this evaluation is to use recently developed diagnostic tools to determine the causes of benthic ecological impairments. ...

  8. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EVIDENCE FOR SUBSTRATE LIMITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were measured along a transect in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA, to examine the factors that control microbial water column processes in this subtropical estuary. The microbial measures included 3 H-L-leucine incorporation, e...

  9. HIGH CYANOBACTERIAL ABUNDANCE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic phytoplankton comprise a wide variety of taxa spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude in size, yet studies of estuarine phytoplankton often overlook the picoplankton, particularly chroococcoid cyanobacteria (c.f. Synechocococcus). Three Gulf of Mexico estuaries (Apalachi...

  10. MODIS water quality algorithms for northwest Florida estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters from satellite is useful for determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or waters influenced by chlo...

  11. DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION OF SALMONID SMOLTS IN OREGON RIVERS AND ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migratory fish passage is an important designated use for many Oregon estuaries. Acoustic transmitters were implanted in coho smolts in 2004 and 2006 to evaluate how estuarine habitat, and habitat loss, might affect population health. Acoustic receivers that identified individu...

  12. NEKTON-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nekton?habitat associations were determined in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, United States, using a stratified-by-habitat, random, estuary-wide sampling design. Three habitats (intertidal eelgrass [Zostera marina], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], and ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californie...

  13. Nutrients, hypoxia and Mass Fishkill events in Tapi Estuary, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Anirudh; Jaiswar, Jiyalal Ram M.; Rokade, M. A.; Bharti, S.; Vishwasrao, C.; Majithiya, D.

    2014-07-01

    From 1983 to 2011, dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in the Tapi Estuary changed from normoxic to hypoxic due to increased and untreated discharge of sewage. Both tidal and day-night variations of DO were best explained by hydrographic factors, sewage pollution and phytoplankton dynamics in upper, middle, lower estuary and the coastal water. Hypoxia/anoxia was associated with low-flow periods due to riverine restrictions and changing in climatic condition. The upper Tapi Estuary becomes anoxic during summer irrespective of tide while the middle estuary was anoxic (<0.2 mg O2 l-1) during post and premonsoon seasons and hypoxic (<2.0 mg O2 l-1) during monsoon season. Differences in the degree of stratification, sewage discharge and flushing accounted for differences in DO. Because of high nutrient concentrations (maximum NO3--N 103.1, NO2--N 26.0, NH4+-N 104.0 and PO43--P 99.0 ?mol l-1), the lower estuary remains DO deficient between 2.0 and 5.0 mg O2 l-1, most of the time. The environmental condition of Tapi Estuary has impacted the coastal water of the Arabian Sea in recent years with fish kills attributed to its hypoxic/anoxic condition. Enhanced concentrations of nutrients and organic matter from indiscriminate discharge of sewage into the Tapi Estuary and restricted flushing as a result of construction of a series of dams in the catchment area of the estuary are the primary factors that have lead to the development of hypoxia.

  14. Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, B.; Adelsbach, T.; Brown, C.; Hunt, J.; Kuwabara, J.; Neale, J.; Ohlendorf, H.; Schwarzbach, S.; Spies, R.; Taberski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been associated with biological effects elsewhere, so there is a potential for them to cause biological effects in the Estuary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information about biological effects on the Estuary's plankton, benthos, fish, birds, and mammals, gathered since the early 1990s, focusing on key accomplishments. These studies have been conducted at all levels of biological organization (sub-cellular through communities), but have included only a small fraction of the organisms and contaminants of concern in the region. The studies summarized provide a body of evidence that some contaminants are causing biological impacts in some biological resources in the Estuary. However, no general patterns of effects were apparent in space and time, and no single contaminant was consistently related to effects among the biota considered. These conclusions reflect the difficulty in demonstrating biological effects due specifically to contamination because there is a wide range of sensitivity to contaminants among the Estuary's many organisms. Additionally, the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination in the Estuary is highly variable, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment-type. Federal and State regulatory agencies desire to develop biological criteria to protect the Estuary's biological resources. Future studies of biological effects in San Francisco Estuary should focus on the development of meaningful indicators of biological effects, and on key organism and contaminants of concern in long-term, multifaceted studies that include laboratory and field experiments to determine cause and effect to adequately inform management and regulatory decisions. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reprint of Water renewal timescales in the Scheldt Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brye, Benjamin; de Brauwere, Anouk; Gourgue, Olivier; Delhez, Eric J. M.; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Using the concepts of the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory (CART), we compute timescales related to the water renewal in the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands/Belgium). Three different timescales are used to better understand and characterize the dynamics of the estuary: the age of the renewing water, the residence time and the exposure time. The residence time is the time taken by a water parcel to leave the estuary for the first time while the exposure time is the total time spent by a water parcel in the estuary including re-entries. The age of a renewing water parcel is defined as the time elapsed since it entered the estuary. The renewing water was split into three types: the water originating from the sea, the water originating from the upstream fresh tidal rivers and the water originating from the different canals and docks connected to the estuary. Every timescale is computed at any time and position by means of the finite-element, unstructured-mesh model SLIM. This results in movies of the timescale fields (shown as Supplementary material), allowing a detailed analysis of their spatial and temporal variabilities. The effect of the M2 tide and the discharge regime (winter, summer or average situation) on the timescales is also investigated.Tidally-averaged timescales vary little over the width of the estuary and hence exhibit a virtually one-dimensional behaviour. However, around these average values, the timescales can vary hugely over a tidal cycle, with amplitudes that significantly depend on the space coordinates. The reason thereof has yet to be elucidated. These results underscore the need for two- or three-dimensional models with high temporal resolution for investigating the dynamics of the Scheldt Estuary.

  16. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected. PMID:25749488

  17. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected. PMID:25749488

  18. Remote sensing of tidal chlorophyll-a variations in estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catts, Glenn P.; Khorram, Siamak; Cloern, James E.; Knight, Allen W.; Degloria, Stephen D.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of phytoplankton and the location of this zone of high biomass is valuable in establishing management policies for this ecologically important estuary. Furthermore, the techniques used here may provide an alternative cost-effective method for assessing water-quality conditions and they may prove useful for studying spatial variations (patchiness) and seasonal variations in phytoplankton biomass in other estuaries and coastal waters.

  19. Continuous resistivity profiling data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Worley, C.R.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine its importance in nutrient delivery to the Chesapeake Bay. The Corsica River Estuary represents a coastal lowland setting typical of much of the eastern bay. An interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science team conducted field operations in the lower estuary in April and May 2007. Resource managers are concerned about nutrients that are entering the estuary via SGD that may be contributing to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and fish kills. Techniques employed in the study included continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), piezometer sampling of submarine groundwater, and collection of a time series of radon tracer activity in surface water. A CRP system measures electrical resistivity of saturated subestuarine sediments to distinguish those bearing fresh water (high resistivity) from those with saline or brackish pore water (low resistivity). This report describes the collection and processing of CRP data and summarizes the results. Based on a grid of 67.6 kilometers of CRP data, low-salinity (high-resistivity) groundwater extended approximately 50-400 meters offshore from estuary shorelines at depths of 5 to >12 meters below the sediment surface, likely beneath a confining unit. A band of low-resistivity sediment detected along the axis of the estuary indicated the presence of a filled paleochannel containing brackish groundwater. The meandering paleochannel likely incised through the confining unit during periods of lower sea level, allowing the low-salinity groundwater plumes originating from land to mix with brackish subestuarine groundwater along the channel margins and to discharge. A better understanding of the spatial variability and geological controls of submarine groundwater flow beneath the Corsica River Estuary could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for nutrient over-enrichment in the estuary and in other similar settings.

  20. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Monitoring Rehabilitation in Temperate North American Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Casimir A.; Hood, W Gregory; Tear, Lucinda M.; Simenstad, Charles; Williams, Gregory D.; Johnson, L. L.; Feist, B. E.; Roni, P.

    2005-02-01

    In this chapter, we propose that monitoring rehabilitation in estuarine ecosystems by necessity requires quantifying relationships between dynamic estuarine processes and sensitive indicators of ecosystem function. While we do discuss temperate systems in general, emphasis is placed on anadromous salmon habitats in the Pacific Northwest because anadromous fishes are such a major focus of rehabilitation efforts, and present some of the greater challenges in linking function of one segment of their life history to conditions in a specific habitat. We begin with a basic overview of the ecological and socioeconomic significance of, as well as anthropogenic effects on, estuaries. Next, we briefly summarize the various kinds of estuarine rehabilitation historically practiced in temperate regions, and review estuarine rehabilitation monitoring design and methods, highlighting the unique challenges involved in monitoring estuarine systems. We then close with a summary and conclusions.

  2. Yeast community survey in the Tagus estuary.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, João M G C F

    2005-07-01

    The yeast community in the waters of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, was followed for over a year in order to assess its dynamics. Yeast occurrence and incidence were measured and this information was related to relevant environmental data. Yeast occurrence did not seem to depend upon tides, but river discharge had a dramatic impact both on the density and diversity of the community. The occurrence of some yeasts was partially correlated with faecal pollution indicators. Yeast isolates were characterized by microsatellite primed PCR (MSP-PCR) fingerprinting and rRNA gene sequencing. The principal species found were Candida catenulata, C. intermedia, C. parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia guilliermondii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodosporidium diobovatum. The incidence of these species was evaluated against the environmental context of the samples and the current knowledge about the substrates from which they are usually isolated. PMID:16329949

  3. Columbia Bay, Alaska: an 'upside down' estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Josberger, E.G.; Driedger, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Circulation and water properties within Columbia Bay, Alaska, are dominated by the effects of Columbia Glacier at the head of the Bay. The basin between the glacier terminus and the terminal moraine (sill depth of about 22 m) responds as an 'upside down' estuary with the subglacial discharge of freshwater entering at the bottom of the basin. The intense vertical mixing caused by the bouyant plume of freshwater creates a homogeneous water mass that exchanges with the far-field water through either a two- or a three-layer flow. In general, the glacier acts as a large heat sink and creates a water mass which is cooler than that in fjords without tidewater glaciers. The predicted retreat of Columbia Glacier would create a 40 km long fjord that has characteristics in common with other fjords in Prince William Sound. ?? 1988.

  4. Educational Feasibility Study -- 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C., Comp.; And Others

    By virtue of a Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act grant, the feasibility of consolidating 7 Illinois high schools was studied. Areas of consideration were geographic characteristics, high school and elementary curriculum, and cost considerations relative to high school and elementary school buildings, curriculum, transportation,…

  5. Nonlinear interactions of waves and tides in a subterranean estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Wang, Shen S. J.; Lu, Chunhui; Robinson, Clare; Li, Ling

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed hysteretic behavior in subterranean estuaries in response to intensified wave conditions caused by offshore storm events, showing dependence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and subsurface salt distribution on historic wave conditions. Although most shorelines worldwide are also exposed to tidal fluctuations, it is unclear how tides moderate wave-induced SGD and salinity distribution in subterranean estuaries. This study presents numerical simulations that explore the combined influence of intensified wave conditions and tides on groundwater flow and salt transport in a subterranean estuary. The results show that tides weaken the hysteretic wave effect on SGD, suggesting that a tidally influenced subterranean estuary is less sensitive to intensified wave conditions with respect to the water fluxes across the aquifer-sea interface. However, due to enhancement of salt-freshwater mixing, tides strengthen the hysteretic wave effect on the salt fluxes across the aquifer-sea interface, prolonging the recovery of salt distribution in the subterranean estuary to the prestorm state. These findings reveal the nonlinear, coupling nature of processes driven by oceanic oscillations at different time scales in subterranean estuaries.

  6. Aging and sediment characteristics of northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Isphording, W.C. ); Imsand, F.D. ); Flowers, G.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Eight major estuarine systems present along the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico serve as primary depositional basins for all rivers draining into the gulf from central Louisiana eastward to the Florida peninsula. These estuaries consist of Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrews Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Pensacola Bay, Perdido Bay, Mobile Bay, Mississippi sound, and Lake Pontchartrainn. Because each receives sediment from a different river system (or systems), each estuary is characterized by sediments that are both physically and mineralogically distinct. Estuaries in the eastern Gulf, for example, possess a clay mineral suite dominated by kaolinite (derived from deeply weathered piedmont rocks), whereas those from the western Gulf are rich in smectite and mixed layer clays (reflecting a Western Interior or provenance from Paleozoic or older coastal plain sources). Similarly, weathering of rocks in the southern piedmont has provided eastern Gulf estuarine sediments with a suite of largely metamorphic rock-derived heavy minerals, whereas those in the western Gulf contain a mixed suite of both igneous- and metamorphic-derived minerals. Equally distinctive, however, are the textures of the bottom sediments themselves for each estuary when plotted on standard sand-silt-clay ternary diagrams. The relative percentages of these components are uniquely different for most of the estuaries and reflect both natural and anthropogenic conditions that exist in the watershed areas that drain into each estuary.

  7. PCBs in the fish assemblage of a southern European estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    The Mondego estuary fish assemblage was studied for the accumulation of PCBs. Three sampling stations were visited along an estuarine salinity gradient, and, in total, 15 species were collected. Analysis of PCBs revealed no significant differences among the sampling stations, although differences were observed among the fish assemblages. Fish assemblages could be divided into three groups. The first group comprised those with higher concentration (more than 10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Gobius niger, Sardina pilchardus, Anguilla anguilla, Pomatoschistus microps, Chelidonichthys lucerna and Liza ramada; the second group with medium concentration (5-10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Pomatoschistus minutus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Diplodus vulgaris, Platichthys flesus and Cilata mustela; and a third group with low concentration (less than 5 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Solea solea and Callionymus lyra. A positive correlation was found between lipid content and PCB concentrations. To evaluate the influence of the residence time of species on the accumulation of PCBs, species were divided into two groups: species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary, and species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. Species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary presented higher concentrations than species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. CBs 138 and 153 had higher concentration, and tended to increase with time spent in the estuary.

  8. REP Concept Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.; Ensworth, Clinton B. F.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Wiersma, Stephen C.; Adamsen, Paul B., II; Frank, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) may have the potential to provide certain advantages, over conventional chemical propulsion, for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigations for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a study that investigates the concept s feasibility by performing a preliminary conceptual design of an REP-based spacecraft for a design reference mission. The mission utilizes a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating for a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to ensure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current and impending technological advances, this study finds that at a conceptual design level a small body REP orbiter/explorer appears to be feasible for the design reference mission selected for this study.

  9. Ecological Engineering Practices for the Reduction of Excess Nitrogen in Human-Influenced Landscapes: A Guide for Watershed Managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen (N) in freshwater systems, estuaries, and coastal areas has well-documented deleterious effects on ecosystems. Ecological engineering practices (EEPs) may be effective at decreasing nonpoint source N leaching to surface and groundwater. However, few studies have s...

  10. Design feasibility via ascent optimality for next-generation spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miele, A.; Mancuso, S.

    This paper deals with the optimization of the ascent trajectories for single-stage-sub-orbit (SSSO), single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) rocket-powered spacecraft. The maximum payload weight problem is studied for different values of the engine specific impulse and spacecraft structural factor. The main conclusions are that: feasibility of SSSO spacecraft is guaranteed for all the parameter combinations considered; feasibility of SSTO spacecraft depends strongly on the parameter combination chosen; not only feasibility of TSTO spacecraft is guaranteed for all the parameter combinations considered, but the TSTO payload is several times the SSTO payload. Improvements in engine specific impulse and spacecraft structural factor are desirable and crucial for SSTO feasibility; indeed, aerodynamic improvements do not yield significant improvements in payload. For SSSO, SSTO, and TSTO spacecraft, simple engineering approximations are developed connecting the maximum payload weight to the engine specific impulse and spacecraft structural factor. With reference to the specific impulse/structural factor domain, these engineering approximations lead to the construction of zero-payload lines separating the feasibility region (positive payload) from the unfeasibility region (negative payload).

  11. Connectivity, neutral theories and the assessment of species vulnerability to global change in temperate estuaries

    E-print Network

    Borges, Rita

    in temperate estuaries Guillem Chust a,*, Aitor Albaina b , Aizkorri Aranburu a , Ángel Borja a , Onno E 2013 Keywords: Zostera Cerastoderma diversity climate change estuary neutral theory a b s t r a c t One

  12. CLASSIFYING OREGON ESTUARIES BY HABITAT: ANALYSIS OF EXISTING DATA AND A PROPOSAL FOR A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because many estuarine resources are linked to benthic habitats, classification of estuaries by habitat types may prove a relevant approach for grouping estuaries with similar ecological values and vulnerability to landscape alterations. As a first step, we evaluated whether pub...

  13. 76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...water surface elevation management in the estuary-lagoon system. SCWA's estuary management activities generally...approximately during the lagoon management period (mid- May through...depending on river dynamics. Beach...

  14. Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed semidiurnal/diurnal tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzieko, Nicholas J.

    2010-08-01

    Tidal asymmetry in estuaries with mixed, mainly semidiurnal tides arises from both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within the estuary. The duration asymmetry in rise and fall of water level caused by principal tides on the west coast of the continental United States is ebb-dominant, and so the tide entering estuaries is also ebb-dominant, prior to any internal distortions within the estuary. The interaction of higher harmonics with principal constituents either augments or cancels the duration asymmetry in the principal tides. In estuaries where tidal elevation and velocity phase are near quadrature (90° out of phase), the duration asymmetry in tidal elevation leads to asymmetries in tidal current magnitude. Asymmetry can be conveniently quantified in terms of the sample skewness, ?1, the normalized third sample moment about the mean. An analytic approximation to the skewness shows that traditional metrics of asymmetry, namely the ratio of constituent amplitudes and the relative constituent phase difference, arise from calculating the third sample moment. Observations from three California estuaries of different morphologies are presented as an illustration of how skewness can be used to quantify asymmetry in real systems. As in semidiurnal systems, morphology is a good predictor of whether higher harmonics engender ebb-dominance or flood-dominance, however asymmetry imposed by principal tides at the mouth must first be overcome and so there is a spatial evolution in the total asymmetry. Quantifying observations via skewness should be considered in addition to traditional metrics in estuaries with mixed tides.

  15. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate warming scenarios highlighted that oxygen depletion is likely to be exacerbated through changes in flow regimes and warming temperatures; however, the increasing risk of hypoxia and anoxia can be mitigated through management of minimum flow allocations and targeted reductions in organic matter loading. A simple statistical model (R2 > 0.65) is suggested to relate riverine flow and temperature to the extent of estuary-wide anoxia.

  16. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.

  17. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Geomorphic Catena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.

  18. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.

  19. Modelling of cohesive sediment dynamics in tidal estuarine systems: Case study of Tagus estuary, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, G.; Pinto, L.; Ascione, I.; Mateus, M.; Fernandes, R.; Leitão, P.; Neves, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cohesive sediment dynamics in estuarine systems is a major issue in water quality and engineering problems. Numerical models can help to assess the complex dynamics of cohesive sediments, integrating the information collected in monitoring studies. Following a numerical approach we investigated the main factors that influence the cohesive sediment dynamics in an estuarine system composed of large mudflats (Tagus estuary, Portugal). After a spin up period of the bottom layer and considering the combined effect of waves and currents on the bottom shear stress, the dynamics of cohesive sediment during the fortnightly and daily erosion-sedimentation cycle was properly reproduced by the model. The results of cohesive suspended sediments were validated with data from sixteen monitoring stations located along the estuary and turbidity data measured by two multiparametric probes. The hydrodynamics were previously validated by harmonic analysis and with ADCP data. Although tidal currents are the major cause of cohesive sediment erosion, the results suggest that wind waves also play an important role. The simulated sediment mass involved in the fortnightly tidal cycle was in the same order of magnitude of the annual load from the rivers, as observed in previous studies based on field data.

  20. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  1. Horizontal distribution and population dynamics of the dominant mysid Hyperacanthomysis longirostris along a temperate macrotidal estuary (Chikugo River estuary, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Keita W.; Nakayama, Kouji; Tanaka, Masaru

    2009-08-01

    The estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) that develops in the lower salinity areas of macrotidal estuaries has been considered as an important nursery for many fish species. Mysids are one of the dominant organisms in the ETM, serving as a key food source for juvenile fish. To investigate the horizontal distribution and population dynamics of dominant mysids in relation to the fluctuation of physical conditions (temperature, salinity, turbidity, and freshwater discharge), we conducted monthly sampling (hauls of a ring net in the surface water) along the macrotidal Chikugo River estuary in Japan from May 2005 to December 2006. Hyperacanthomysis longirostris was the dominant mysid in the estuary, usually showing peaks of density and biomass in or close to the ETM (salinity 1-10). In addition, intra-specific differences (life-cycle stage, sex, and size) in horizontal distribution were found along the estuary. Larger males and females, particularly gravid females, were distributed upstream from the center of distribution where juveniles were overwhelmingly dominant. Juveniles increased in size toward the sea in marked contrast with males and females. The findings suggest a possible system of population maintenance within the estuary; gravid females release juveniles in the upper estuary, juveniles grow during downstream transport, young males and females mature during the upstream migration. Density and biomass were primarily controlled by seasonal changes of temperature, being high at intermediate temperatures (ca. 15-25 °C in late spring and fall) and being low at the extreme temperatures (ca. 10 °C in midwinter and 30 °C in midsummer). High density (up to 666 ind. m -3) and biomass (up to 168 mg dry weight m -3) of H. longirostris were considered to be comparable with those of copepods in the estuary.

  2. Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

    2012-12-01

    Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of hydrological cycle that lead to (i) an increased mean water level and (ii) provide SPM from the continental area. This feature leads to significant accretion over intertidal area. In the middle and marine estuary the TM is the main SPM supplier. In these parts of the estuary deposition over these intertidal area is driven by (i) tidal cycle in particular fortnightly cycle link to maximum TM resuspension during (strongest) spring tide and (ii) TM location controlled by river inflow that varies following an annual and inter-annual variability. Outside sedimentation period, the erosion is driven by the combination of (i) progressive erosion driven by fortnightly cycle and (ii) sudden erosion controlled either by wave or boat generated waves respectively at the mouth and in the middle/upper estuary. This last is reinforced by the rheological characteristics of deposit that correspond to fluid/low consolidated mud. During most of the year, the Seine estuary mudflats record an erosion pattern. Significant and intensive sedimentation only occurs few days per year. This pattern is linked to highly variable hydrodynamics conditions (bottom shear stress ranging from 0.5 to 5 N.m-2) that control the sediment supply availability. In this infilling macrotidal anthropized system mudflats are close to equilibrium with an annual rate ranging between +/- 5cm.yrs-1: they act as temporal storage area of fined-grained sediments.

  3. Determination of water mass ages using radium isotopes as tracers: Implications for phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries

    E-print Network

    dynamics in estuaries Gabrielle Tomasky-Holmes a , Ivan Valiela a , Matthew A. Charette b, a The Ecosystem-enclosed estuaries, phytoplankton blooms in nutrient enriched systems are a common phenomenon. This poses of shallow estuaries, if the water residence times are similar to cell division times? To address

  4. 5612004 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 27, No. 4, p. 561570 August 2004

    E-print Network

    MacCready, Parker

    5612004 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 27, No. 4, p. 561­570 August 2004 Toward-averaged, width-averaged estuarine salinity and circulation in a rectangular estuary. Width and depth may vary-channel distribution of the diffusive fraction of up-estuary salt flux. It is shown that the Hansen and Rattray

  5. 78 FR 68995 - Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard...in the navigable waters of the Oakland Estuary just north of the Park Street Bridge in Alameda, CA in support of the Oakland Estuary Closure for the Vessel Removal...

  6. An Idealized Model and Systematic Process Study of Oxygen Depletion in Highly Turbid Estuaries

    E-print Network

    Horner-Devine, Alex

    An Idealized Model and Systematic Process Study of Oxygen Depletion in Highly Turbid Estuaries S. A The sensitivity of oxygen depletion in turbid estuaries to parameters like freshwater discharge, depth module of dissolved oxygen (DO). Based on the analysis of field data collected in the Ems estuary

  7. Many fish species use estuaries of the southeastern United States as nurser-

    E-print Network

    443 Many fish species use estuaries of the southeastern United States as nurser- ies (e.g. Skud with respect to habitat in different estuaries. Associa- tions between abundance and habitat can assist inflows to estuaries of the southeast United States have been severely altered in the last 150 years

  8. 10102003 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 26, No. 4B, p. 10101031 August 2003

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    10102003 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 26, No. 4B, p. 1010­1031 August 2003 Oceanography of the U.S. Pacific Northwest Coastal Ocean and Estuaries with Application to Coastal Ecology of planktonic larvae and to the development of harmful algal blooms. The coastal plain estuaries

  9. 8251999 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 22, No. 4, p. 825836 December 1999

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    8251999 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 22, No. 4, p. 825­836 December 1999 Alternation of Factors Limiting Phytoplankton Production in the Cape Fear River Estuary MICHAEL A. MALLIN1 Fear River Estuary, a riverine system originating in the North Carolina piedmont. Nutrient addition

  10. 7562001 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 24, No. 5, p. 756769 October 2001

    E-print Network

    North, Elizabeth W.

    7562001 Estuarine Research Federation Estuaries Vol. 24, No. 5, p. 756­769 October 2001 Retention, a two-layer response to wind forcing shifted the ETM up-estuary, while a high discharge event resulted in a down-estuary shift in the salt front and ETM location. In 1999, extremely low discharge rates shifted

  11. How Estuaries Work: A Charlotte Harbor Example R.H. Weisberg and L. Zheng

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    How Estuaries Work: A Charlotte Harbor Example by R.H. Weisberg and L. Zheng College of Marine: "How estuaries work." The venue is the Charlotte Harbor on Florida's west coast, and the analysis medium is the primitive equation ECOM3D-si model. We are motivated by an estuary classification dilemma

  12. Estuaries are highly productive habi-tats that support a diversity of spe-

    E-print Network

    186 Estuaries are highly productive habi- tats that support a diversity of spe- cies, but have coastline. Fjord estuaries differ from other estuar- ies by possessing a deep inner basin that is separated from continental shelf waters by a shallow sill near the mouth of the estuary. Although some

  13. FISH LARVAE OF THE ESTUARIES AND COAST OF CENTRAL MAINE STANLEY B. CHENOWETH'

    E-print Network

    FISH LARVAE OF THE ESTUARIES AND COAST OF CENTRAL MAINE STANLEY B. CHENOWETH' ABSTRACT Seasonal in the winter and early spring. These hatched from demersal eggs and were concentrated in the upper estuaries. There is little information on the species com- position and abundance of larval fishes in the numerous estuaries

  14. Estuaries are more and more called upon to act as repositories for immediate direct point

    E-print Network

    ! " # ! $ ! % & ' $ ( ) * + ,- , * Estuaries are more and more called upon to act as repositories and naturally suited set of tools to investigate and model the transport pathways, mixing and ocean-estuary residence time scales within the estuary? How dependent are exchanges and pathways on the existence

  15. PEER REVIEW OF PECONIC ESTUARY PROGRAM HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY (EUTROPHICATION) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peconic Estuary is located on the eastern end of Long Island, New York. Under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Peconic Estuary was named an "Estuary of National Significance" in 1992. Because of its high concentration of rare, threatened and endangered species and habitats,...

  16. Mapping exchange and residence time in a model of Willapa Bay, Washington, a branching, macrotidal estuary

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    estuary N. S. Banas and B. M. Hickey School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington with every tide, average retention times in the upper third of the estuary are 3­5 weeks. Citation: Banas, N input [Hickey and Banas, 2003] that we do not treat it as part of this series. These estuaries

  17. Photo: TH DeWitt, USEPA EPA's benthic habitat data for Yaquina estuary

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    lower & mid estuary Intertidal submerged aquatic vegetation (seagrass & macroalgae) 1997, 1998, 2004/A HMSC, GP mill (Toledo)whole estuaryIntertidalJune2004 Seagrass cover & shoot density, macroalgae cover density by type, macroalgae cover and volume RM 1, RM 8lower estuary Intertidal & subtidalJuly-Aug2000

  18. A comparative study of carbon dioxide degassing in river-and marine-dominated estuaries

    E-print Network

    Cai, Wei-Jun

    .'' According to this definition, all river mouths and coastal brackish lagoons qualify as estuaries, although adopted the most widely held point of view that considers both river mouths and coastal brackish lagoons to be estuaries. The inclusion of coastal brackish lagoons as estuaries is also consistent with the fact

  19. Sediment Flushing at the Nakdong River Estuary Barrage ; P. Y. Julien, M.ASCE2

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    accumulated sedi- ments behind estuary barrages. Estuary barrages are typically de- signed to prevent salt-water ; and S. K. Park, M.ASCE3 Abstract: The Nakdong River Estuary Barrage (NREB) prevents salt-water intrusion to annually rebuilding 300 large dams at an estimated cost of $9 billion to replace the worldwide storage loss

  20. A Simple Model of Nitrogen Concentration, Throughput, and Denitrification in Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuary Nitrogen Model (ENM) is a mass balance model that includes calculation of nitrogen losses within bays and estuaries using system flushing time. The model has been used to demonstrate the dependence of throughput and denitrification of nitrogen in bays and estuaries on...

  1. Potential intertidal habitat restoration sites in the Duwamish River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, C.D.

    1991-12-01

    Restoration of wetland habitats in highly urbanized areas is generally constrained by scarcity of opportunity, adverse impacts of surrounding land use, and cost. Although areal wetland losses approach 98% in Seattle's Duwamish River estuary, the system continues to support important salmonid runs, as well as a variety of bird and mammal species. Estuarine-dependent organisms are likely limited by quality and quantity of intertidal habitat in the system. Because the long-range, estuary-wide benefit of site-specific mitigation and restoration projects is limited, it is imperative to develop estuary-wide restoration plans. Towards this end, an inventory and analysis of potential intertidal habitat restoration sites has been completed for the Duwamish River estuary. Twenty-four sites, ranging in size from 0.8 to 25 acres were identified and comparative functional potential assessed. The majority of these sites (18) occur in the upper estuary. Two sites are located in Elliott Bay, and four are located near the historic mouth of the river in the vicinity of Harbor Island. Spatial data have been developed in geographic information system (GIS) format. Other site-specific data relative to habitat restoration has also been assembled.

  2. Metals in sediments and benthic organisms in the Mersey estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, W. J.

    1986-08-01

    Concentrations of twelve metals were determined in sediments, seaweed ( Fucus vesiculosus), winkles ( Littorina littorea), polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), suspension feeding bivalves ( Mytilus edulis, Cerastoderma edule) and deposit feeding bivalves ( Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana) collected from the Mersey estuary between April 1980 and June 1984. Sediments and organisms in the Mersey are moderately contaminated with most of the metals measured, but mercury concentrations are consistently higher than in other United Kingdom estuaries. Comparisons with other sites in the North West of England indicate that mercury residues in organisms, though primarily dependent on sediment concentrations, are also influenced by complexation with particulate organic matter which reduces the availability of mercury. The biological availability of arsenic in Mersey sediments is similarly influenced by complexation with iron oxyhydroxides. Nereis diversicolor and Macoma balthica are the most suitable indicator species in terms of abundance and widespread distribution along the estuary, and, for the majority of metals, tissue concentrations increase upstream, reflecting corresponding gradients in sediment contamination. However mid-estuarine peaks for tin, chromium copper and nickel in Nereis indicate more localised inputs to the estuary. Correlations between lead in sediments and organisms are poor; it is suggested that hydrophilic alkyl lead compounds may be the predominant biologically available forms. Progressive reductions in mercury contamination in sediments and mercury and lead in organisms have occurred in recent years, which coincide with efforts to reduce inputs of these metals to teh Mersey estuary.

  3. Feasibility studies of aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Determining the feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for a particular heating or cooling application is an interdisciplinary effort, requiring (at a minimum) expertise in engineering and hydrology. The feasibility study should proceed in two distinct stages. The first stage, which is limited in scope and detail, is intended to show if an ATES system is technically and economically suited to the application. Focus of this preliminary investigation is on revealing the existence of factors that might weigh heavily against the use of ATES methods, and, in the absence of such factors, on choosing a suitable scale for the ATES plant and well field. The results of the preliminary investigation are used to determine if more detailed investigation--including field studies--are justified, and to facilitate comparing the advantages of ATES to those of other means of providing heating or cooling. The second stage of the feasibility study focuses on detailed aquifer characterization, refinement of engineering design and cost estimates, and economic and environmental risk analysis. The results of this investigation, if favorable, will be used to justify the expense of constructing the ATES system.

  4. Numerical modeling of circulation in high-energy estuaries: A Columbia River estuary benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärnä, Tuomas; Baptista, António M.; Lopez, Jesse E.; Turner, Paul J.; McNeil, Craig; Sanford, Thomas B.

    2015-04-01

    Numerical modeling of three-dimensional estuarine circulation is often challenging due to complex flow features and strong density gradients. In this paper the skill of a specific model is assessed against a high-resolution data set, obtained in a river-dominated mesotidal estuary with autonomous underwater vehicles and a shipborne winched profiler. The measurements provide a detailed view of the salt wedge dynamics of the Columbia River estuary. Model skill is examined under contrasting forcing conditions, covering spring freshet and autumn low flow conditions, as well as spring and neap tides. The data set provides a rigorous benchmark for numerical circulation models. This benchmark is used herein to evaluate an unstructured grid circulation model, based on linear finite element and finite volume formulations. Advection of momentum is treated with an Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme. After the model's sensitivity to grid resolution and time step is examined, a detailed skill assessment is provided for the best model configuration. The simulations reproduce the timing and tidal asymmetry of salinity intrusion. Sharp density gradients, however, tend to be smoothed out affecting vertical mixing and gravitational circulation. We show that gravitational salt transport is underestimated in the model, but is partially compensated through tidal effects. The discrepancy becomes most pronounced when the stratification is strongest, i.e., under high river discharge and neap tide conditions.

  5. United States Air Force 611th air support group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Tin City Long Range Radar Station, Alaska final remedial investigation/feasibility study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    This Final Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study describes the work performed; explains project objectives; and presents data collected during project activities, results, and conclusions for the Installation Restoration Program at Tin City Longe Range Radar Station, Alaska. The report describes the risks posed by the site and gives the basis for selecting remedies to mitigate the risks.

  6. The frictional nature of tidal propagation in channelized estuaries, with applications to a tidal marsh in Delaware

    E-print Network

    Kirby, James T.

    The frictional nature of tidal propagation in channelized estuaries, with applications to a tidal the variable width of the estuary with rising and falling tides. A field study was conducted on the main of an estuary dominated by tidal variations in channel depth, rather than variations in estuary width

  7. Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A.; Gill, G.A.

    1999-10-15

    To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for Cu, 55--89% for Cd, 53--85% for Ni, and 53--90% for Zn over a period of 23 years. These reductions appear to reflect improvements in controlling discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants since the Clean Water Act was enacted in 1972. In contrast, levels of dissolved nutrients (PO{sub 4}) have remained relatively constant during the same period of time, suggesting that wastewater treatment plant improvements in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan area have not been as effective at reducing nutrient levels within the estuary. While more advanced wastewater treatment could potentially reduce the levels of Ag and PO{sub 4} along the estuary, these improvements would have a more limited effect on the levels of other trace metals.

  8. The geomorphology of UK estuaries: The role of geological controls, antecedent conditions and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, Kenneth; Blott, Simon J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the geomorphological characteristics of UK estuaries and the factors which control them. Many of the features included in previous classifications of UK estuaries are not true estuaries since they do not possess significant river influence. The features considered in this paper to be 'true' estuaries are divided into 'restricted entrance' and 'unrestricted entrance' types on the grounds that the size and geometry of the estuary mouth exerts a critical influence on water levels, tidal currents, wave action, sediment transport and morphological evolution. An estuary which has a wide mouth, narrows and becomes shallower towards the head is likely to be flood dominated, especially if it has a large tidal range, whereas an estuary which has a narrow mouth and widens and/or becomes deeper towards the head is more likely to display ebb dominance, especially if it has a relatively small tidal range. Wide-mouthed estuaries are influenced to a greater degree by wave processes than estuaries with a narrow mouth. Previous authors have hypothesised that estuaries may maintain a state of dynamic equilibrium through alternating periods of flood and ebb dominance, but it is concluded that there is presently no substantive evidence to support this hypothesis. UK estuaries have been affected to varying degrees by embanking, land claim, dredging, sea wall breaching and managed realignment. Some estuaries have adjusted quickly to such perturbations, but others continue to show progressive change, either sedimentary infilling or erosion and sediment loss. The quantification of estuary morphometry, identification of change over time, and testing of hypotheses regarding the morphodynamics and stability of estuaries requires adequate bathymetric/topographic, hydrodynamic and sediment data. At present, such data are available for relatively few UK estuaries.

  9. A MEDLINE feasibility study.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, J L

    1980-01-01

    A MEDLINE feasibility study was conducted with the Northeastern Consortium for Health Information (NECHI) and sponsored by the New England Regional Medical Library Service. It is based on the theory that most potential users and supporters of MEDLINE within hospitals are unaware of its usefulness and applications, and that there exists a need for expanding MEDLINE services to more hospital libraries. The purpose of the study was to provide NECHI with an evaluation of MEDLINE as a feasible service by ascertaining the need and by evaluating the usefulness, satisfaction, and costs of the system. The study demonstrated sufficient use of MEDLINE to justify implementation within NECHI and it provided useful data to determine the future of MEDLINE in each institution. It documented that utilization improved rapidly with publicity and the presence of the system within an institution, that MEDLINE can be an effective and economical complement to the traditional reference services used to support information needs in hospitals, and that more hospital libraries should be able to implement MEDLINE to their advantage once potential users and supporters have been exposed to the system. PMID:6998531

  10. Methane in surface waters of Oregon estuaries and rivers

    SciTech Connect

    de Angelis, M.A.; Lilley, M.D. )

    1987-05-01

    Methane concentrations in surface waters of Oregon rivers and estuaries were measured over a four-year period. Geographic variations in riverine CH{sub 4} were observed. Results from undisturbed forest streams indicate that rivers can contain high natural levels of CH{sub 4} not attributable to pollution. Lateral diffusion and runoff from saturated forest and fertilized agricultural soils may be important in determining methane levels in rivers. Methane concentrations in well-flushed estuaries appear to be controlled mainly by mixing between high CH{sub 4}-containing river water and low CH{sub 4}-containing seawater endmembers. Rivers and estuaries were found to be sources of methane to the atmosphere. Calculated daily fluxes to the atmosphere ranged from 1.2 to 71 mg CH{sub 4} sq m for rivers and from 0.04 to 21 mg CH{sub 4} sq m for estuarine samples. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Origin of carbon in organic matter in the Neva estuary.

    PubMed

    Golubkov, S M; Tiunov, A V

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the isotopic composition of tissues of representatives of zoobenthos and organic matter of seston have shown that the major part of carbon participating in the biological turnover in the ecosystem of the upper part of the Neva estuary is of terrestrial origin. Obviously, it is discharged from the lake drainage area to the Lake Ladoga-Neva-Neva estuary system. The results have revealed an important role in aquatic ecosystems of the humid zone of allochthonous humic substances creating a supplementary stock of nutrients and enhancing the productivity of ecosystems. Detailed investigations of the role of various forms of allochthonous organic compounds of terrestrial origin are necessary for elaboration of efficient measures for alleviation of eutrophication of the Neva estuary. PMID:26725237

  12. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.

  13. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY09 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2009-10-22

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2009 (FY09) for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS).

  14. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of [sup 224]Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on [sup 224]Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of [sup 228]Ra in the estuary and produced the highest [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the [sup 228]Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of [sup 224]Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, [sup 224]Ra and [sup 228]Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the [sup 232]Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Mud transport in the Microtidal San Jacinto Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.; Strom, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of this research is to better understand the sediment transport processes in the microtidal San Jacinto Estuary (near Houston, TX) under variable hydrologic conditions. A numerical modeling approach is selected to answer the main question of; how will changes in freshwater input change the sedimentation pattern of the region? In this computational work, no new numerical method or code is developed, but rather an existing technology (MIKE 3D developed by DHI) is used to build a virtual San Jacinto Estuary laboratory where boundary conditions could be applied and altered to the domain to observe the general functional response of the system. Two synthetic freshwater inflows, simulating dry and wet conditions, were used in the numerical modeling experiments. Simulations showed that change in freshwater inflow has major impact on the salinity magnitude within the estuary. In dry conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline traveled all the way upstream of Morgans Point, almost to the confluence of San Jacinto River with Buffalo Bayou. During the extreme wet weather conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline of the surface water was pushed almost as far as Galveston Island. Overall erosion and deposition pattern showed little change between extreme dry and wet years. In general, part of the shallow areas experienced erosion whereas deeper parts of the estuary were under deposition. High freshwater inflow caused around 30% higher deposition in some parts of the channel compared with the low freshwater. Furthermore, examining the mass balance within the whole San Jacinto Estuary showed that around 28% of the input sediment was flushed out during the wet season. But in dry season, not only no sediment left the domain but also it received around 17% of the total available sediment within the estuary from the shelf.

  16. Mud transport in the Microtidal San Jacinto Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this research is to better understand the sediment transport processes in the microtidal San Jacinto Estuary (near Houston, TX) under variable hydrologic conditions. A numerical modeling approach is selected to answer the main question of; how will changes in freshwater input change the sedimentation pattern of the region? In this computational work, no new numerical method or code is developed, but rather an existing technology (MIKE 3D developed by DHI) is used to build a virtual San Jacinto Estuary laboratory where boundary conditions could be applied and altered to the domain to observe the general functional response of the system. Two synthetic freshwater inflows, simulating dry and wet conditions, were used in the numerical modeling experiments. Simulations showed that change in freshwater inflow has major impact on the salinity magnitude within the estuary. In dry conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline traveled all the way upstream of Morgans Point, almost to the confluence of San Jacinto River with Buffalo Bayou. During the extreme wet weather conditions, the 5 ppt isohaline of the surface water was pushed almost as far as Galveston Island. Overall erosion and deposition pattern showed little change between extreme dry and wet years. In general, part of the shallow areas experienced erosion whereas deeper parts of the estuary were under deposition. High freshwater inflow caused around 30% higher deposition in some parts of the channel compared with the low freshwater. Furthermore, examining the mass balance within the whole San Jacinto Estuary showed that around 28% of the input sediment was flushed out during the wet season. But in dry season, not only no sediment left the domain but also it received around 17% of the total available sediment within the estuary from the shelf.

  17. Spatial variability of suspended sediment concentration within a tidal marsh in San Francisco Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, K.; Drexler, J. Z.; Schoellhamer, D. H.; Buffington, K.; Takekawa, J.

    2012-12-01

    The sustainability of existing marshes and feasibility of future marsh restoration projects in San Francisco Estuary and elsewhere are threatened by a potential imbalance between accelerating sea-level rise and tidal marsh accretion rates. Marsh accretion is, in large part, dependent upon the availability of suspended sediment supplied from adjacent waterways. As water and sediment move across a marsh plain, suspended sediment settles and is trapped by vegetation near the source, resulting in less suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and deposition in the interior of the marsh. Measurements of deposition and limited observations of SSC within marshes have confirmed a decrease in sediment supply and accumulation from the marsh edge to the marsh interiors, but the spatial variability of SSC has not been quantified in a manner that allows for comparison to a theoretical sediment transport model. For this study, transects of SSC were collected within a marsh at China Camp State Park in the San Francisco Estuary which demonstrate that a dominant pattern of settling can be quantified and generally matches the exponentially decreasing pattern of SSC predicted by a simple advection-settling model. The observed pattern suggests that sediment settling and marsh flow characteristics are consistent both spatially (between transects) and temporally (between monthly sampling events). However, deviations from the predicted pattern occurred systematically at some locations and are likely related to resuspension of sediment from the marsh surface or small, unmapped creek channels that supply sediment to the marsh. Despite these deviations, our data show this simple 1-D model of advection and settling can be used to generalize within-marsh sediment transport as a function of distance from the nearest sediment source.

  18. Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-03-01

    The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

  19. Impacts of pesticides in a Central California estuary.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer; Smalling, Kelly; Kuivila, Kathy; Hamilton, Mary; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Tjeerdema, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Recent and past studies have documented the prevalence of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds in California. While toxic concentrations of these pesticides have been found in freshwater systems, there has been little research into their impacts in marine receiving waters. Our study investigated pesticide impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary, which provides critical habitat to numerous aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species on the central California coast. Runoff from irrigated agriculture constitutes a significant portion of Santa Maria River flow during most of the year, and a number of studies have documented pesticide occurrence and biological impacts in this watershed. Our study extended into the Santa Maria watershed coastal zone and measured pesticide concentrations throughout the estuary, including the water column and sediments. Biological effects were measured at the organism and community levels. Results of this study suggest the Santa Maria River estuary is impacted by current-use pesticides. The majority of water samples were highly toxic to invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), and chemistry evidence suggests toxicity was associated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, or mixtures of both classes of pesticides. A high percentage of sediment samples were also toxic in this estuary, and sediment toxicity occurred when mixtures of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid pesticides exceeded established toxicity thresholds. Based on a Relative Benthic Index, Santa Maria estuary stations where benthic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed were degraded. Impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary were likely due to the proximity of this system to Orcutt Creek, the tributary which accounts for most of the flow to the lower Santa Maria River. Water and sediment samples from Orcutt Creek were highly toxic to invertebrates due to mixtures of the same pesticides measured in the estuary. This study suggests that the same pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides that have been shown to cause water and sediment toxicity in urban and agriculture water bodies throughout California, have the potential to affect estuarine habitats. The results establish baseline data in the Santa Maria River estuary to allow evaluation of ecosystem improvement as management initiatives to reduce pesticide runoff are implemented in this watershed. PMID:24464329

  20. Physical biological coupling in the Pearl River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Paul J.; Yin, Kedong; Lee, J. H. W.; Gan, Jianping; Liu, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    The Pearl River Estuary is a subtropical estuary and the second largest in China based on discharge volume from the Pearl River. Processes in the estuary vary spatially and temporally (wet vs dry season). In the dry season at the head of the estuary, hypoxic and nearly anoxic conditions occur and NH 4 reaches >600 ?M, NO 3 is ˜300 ?M and nitrite is ˜60 ?M indicating that nitrification and denitrification may be important dry season processes in the region extending 40 km upstream of the Humen outlet. There are very few biological studies conducted in this upper section of the estuary in either the dry or wet seasons and hence there is a need for further research in this region of the river. In the wet season, the salinity wedge extends to the Hongqimen outlet and oxygen is low (35-80% saturation). Nitrate is ˜100 ?M, silicate ˜140 ?M; and phosphate is relatively low at ˜0.5 ?M, yielding an N:P ratio up to ˜200:1 in summer. Nutrients decrease in the lower estuary and primary productivity may become potentially P-limited. Eutrophication is not as severe as one would expect from the nutrient inputs from the Pearl River and from Hong Kong's sewage discharge. This estuary shows a remarkable capacity to cope with excessive nutrients. Physical processes such as river discharge, tidal flushing, turbulent dispersion, wind-induced mixing, and estuarine circulation play an important role in controlling the production and accumulation of algal blooms and the potential occurrence of hypoxia. Superimposed on the physical processes of the estuary are the chemical and biological processes involved in the production of the bloom. For example, the 100N:1P ratio indicates that P potentially limits the amount of algal biomass (and potential biological oxygen demand) in summer. While extended periods of hypoxia are rare in Hong Kong waters, episodic events have been reported to occur during late summer due to factors such as low wind, high rainfall and river discharge which result in strong density stratification that significantly dampens vertical mixing processes. Nutrient loads are likely to change over the next several decades and monitoring programs are essential to detect the response of the ecosystem due to the future changes in nutrient loading and the ratio of nutrients.

  1. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  2. Large-scale spatial patterns in estuaries: estuarine macrobenthic communities in the Schelde estuary, NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P. M. J.; Meire, P.; Craeymeersch, J.; Verbeek, H.; Heip, C. H. R.

    2003-05-01

    Few macrobenthic studies have dealt simultaneously with the two major gradients in estuarine benthic habitats: the salinity gradient along the estuary (longitudinal) and the gradients from high intertidal to deep subtidal sites (vertical gradient). In this broad-scale study, a large data set (3112 samples) of the Schelde estuary allowed a thorough analysis of these gradients, and to relate macrobenthic species distributions and community structure to salinity, depth, current velocities and sediment characteristics. Univariate analyses clearly revealed distinct gradients in diversity, abundance, and biomass along the vertical and longitudinal gradients. In general, highest diversity and biomass were observed in the intertidal, polyhaline zone and decreased with decreasing salinity. Abundance did not show clear trends and varied between spring and autumn. In all regions, very low values for all measures were observed in the subtidal depth strata. Abundance in all regions was dominated by both surface deposit feeders and sub-surface deposit feeders. In contrast, the biomass of the different feeding guilds showed clear gradients in the intertidal zone. Suspension feeders dominated in the polyhaline zone and showed a significant decrease with decreasing salinity. Surface deposit feeders and sub-surface deposit feeders showed significantly higher biomass values in the polyhaline zone as compared with the mesohaline zone. Omnivores showed an opposite trend. Multivariate analyses showed a strong relationship between the macrobenthic assemblages and the predominant environmental gradients in the Schelde estuary. The most important environmental factor was depth, which reflected also the hydrodynamic conditions (current velocities). A second gradient was related to salinity and confirms the observations from the univariate analyses. Additionally, sediment characteristics (mud content) explained a significant part of the macrobenthic community structure not yet explained by the two other main gradients. The different assemblages are further described in terms of indicator species and abiotic characteristics. The results showed that at a large, estuarine scale a considerable fraction of the variation in abundance and biomass of the benthic macrofauna correlated very well with environmental factors (depth, salinity, tidal current velocity, sediment composition).

  3. Abandoned Channel Fill Sequences in Tidal Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a modification of the current model for abandoned channel fill stratigraphy produced in unidirectional flow river reaches to incorporate seasonal tidal deposition. Evidence supporting this concept came from a study of two consecutive channel abandonment sequences in Ropers Slough of the lower Eel River Estuary in northern California. Aerial photographs showed that Ropers Slough was abandoned around 1943, reoccupied after the 1964 flood, and abandoned again in 1974 with fill continuing to the present. Planform geomorphic characteristics derived from these images were used in conjunction with sub-cm resolution stratigraphic analyses to describe the depositional environment processes and their resultant sedimentary deposits. Results showed that both abandonment sequences recorded quasi-annual scale fluvial/tidal deposition couplets. In both cases tidal deposits contained very little sand, and were higher in organic and inorganic carbon content than the sandier fluvial through-flow deposits. However, the two abandonment fills differed significantly in terms of the temporal progression of channel narrowing and fluvial sediment deposition characteristics. The first abandonment sequence led to a more rapid narrowing of Ropers Slough and produced deposits with a positive relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The second abandonment resulted in a much slower narrowing of Ropers Slough and generally thinner fluvial deposits with no clear relationship between grain size/deposit thickness and discharge. The ?13C values and organic nitrogen to organic carbon ratios of deposits from the first phase overlapped with Eel River suspended sediment characteristics found for low flows (1-5 times mean discharge), while those of the second phase were consistent suspended sediment from higher flows (7-10 times mean discharge). The abandoned channel fill sequences appeared to differ due to the topographic steering of bed sediment transport and deposition previously identified in rivers experiencing only unidirectional flow, while also expressing the seasonal dichotomy of fluvial and tidal deposits.

  4. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  5. APPENDIX C - ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON FLUSHING IN ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water residence time is an important determinant of the sensitivity of the response of estuaries and other water bodies to nutrient loading. A variety of terms such as residence time, flushing time, transit time, turnover time, and age are used to describe time scales for transpo...

  6. Staff summary of Issues & Recommendations Ocean, Estuary and Plume

    E-print Network

    of adult returns, research on forage fish habitat needs and food-web impacts in the estuary and nearshore11-13) 1. Ecosystem objective: Include the goal of a "restored, resilient and healthy CRB will enhance food web and increase juvenile fish survival. (UCUT) 2. Lower River Objectives: Include biological

  7. STATISTICAL SUMMARY EMAP-ESTUARIES VIRGINIAN PROVINCE - 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual monitoring of indicators of the ecological condition of bays and estuaries within the Virginian Province (Cape Cod, MA to Cape Henry, VA) was conducted by the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) during July, August, and September, 1991. ata we...

  8. Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary

    E-print Network

    Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary Clark Richards,1 Daniel 2012; accepted 30 October 2012. [1] The shoaling of horizontally propagating internal waves may energetics, and two main features were studied. First, during a period of shoaling internal waves, turbulence

  9. BENTHIC NUTRIENT FLUX IN A SMALL ESTUARY IN NORTHWESTERNFLORIDA (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic Nutrient Flux in a Small Estuary in Northwestern Florida(USA).Gulf and Caribbean Research 18, 15-25, 2006.

    Benthic nutrient fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite/nitrate (NO2-+NO3-), phosphate (PO4-), and dissolved silica (DSi) were measured in Escambia Bay, an estuar...

  10. NEW YORK HARBOR ESTUARY PROGRAM: TOXICS MONITORING MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This activity has resulted in the completion of a toxics model for the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary that is now being used for developing TMDLs for the Harbor. Chemicals of concern center on metals, PCBs, Dioxin, PAHs and Pesticides.

  11. MORRO BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM, FIRST IR 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Morro Bay National Estuary Program is a "Tier V program and is, therefore, required to submit a "full review" of its CCMP implementation progress and overall status of the program in 2002. The MBNEP1s Local Policy Committee completed and approved the CCMP in mid-2001; the CCM...

  12. COASTAL BEND BAYS & ESTUARIES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program, Inc. (CBBEP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)organization. The CBBEP project area encompasses 12 counties coincident with the Coastal Bend Council of Governments and extends from the Land-Cut in the Laguna Madre, through the Corpus Christi Bay s...

  13. SARASOTA BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM, A FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sarasota Bay: Framework for Action was produced by the Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program to characterize the condition of Sarasota Bay and present preliminary options for Bay improvement. The publication is a precursor to the CCMP. Past destruction of sea grasses and mangrove...

  14. SAN JUAN BAY ESTUARY, COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP) contains information about the overall health of the San Juan Bay Estuary (SJBE) as well as proposed solutions to identified problems. These solutions, or Action Plans, are the result of a more than 4-year process of cons...

  15. MOBILE BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mobile Bay National Estuary Program's Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan was finalized on April 22, 2002. The guidance document for the preparation of this Implementation Review states "EPA, in recognition that each NEP may have different areas of emphasis, streng...

  16. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE ESTUARIES OF OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries are bodies of water that receive freshwater and sediment from rivers and saltwater from the oceans. They are transition zones between the fresh water of a river and the salty environment of the sea. This interaction produces a unique environment that supports wildlife...

  17. Revised predictive equations for salt intrusion modelling in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisen, J. I. A.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Nijzink, R. C.

    2015-06-01

    For one-dimensional salt intrusion models to be predictive, we need predictive equations to link model parameters to observable hydraulic and geometric variables. The one-dimensional model of Savenije (1993b) made use of predictive equations for the Van der Burgh coefficient K and the dispersion at the seaward boundary D0. Here we have improved these equations by using an expanded database, including new previously un-surveyed estuaries. Furthermore, we derived a revised predictive equation for the dispersion at tidal average condition and with the boundary situated at the well identifiable inflection point where the estuary changes from wave-dominated to tide-dominated geometry. We used 89 salinity profiles in 30 estuaries (including seven recently studied estuaries in Malaysia), and empirically derived a range of equations using various combinations of dimensionless parameters. We split our data in two separated data sets: (1) with more reliable data for calibration, and (2) with less reliable data for validation. The dimensionless parameters that gave the best performance depended on the geometry, tidal strength, friction and the Richardson number. The limitation of the equations is that the friction is generally unknown. In order to overcome this problem, a coupling has been made with the analytical hydraulic model of Cai et al. (2012), which makes use of observed tidal damping and by which the friction can be determined.

  18. ACROCHEMICAL AND NUTRIENT IMPACTS ON ESTUARIES AND OTHER AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes the Agrochemical and Nutrient Impacts on Estuaries Symposium held at the 220th American Chemical Society National Meeting. The focus of the symposium was to highlight on-going research efforts to understand estuarine function and pollutant fate in these important ecosystems. E...

  19. Fluid Spatial Imaginaries: evolving estuarial city-regional spaces

    E-print Network

    Haughton, Graham; Allmendinger, Phil

    2015-09-09

    This article looks at successive attempts to create new spatial imaginaries around three estuary-based city regions in England: the London–Thames Gateway, the Atlantic Gateway/Mersey Belt (Manchester and Liverpool), and Hull and the Humber ports. We...

  20. The Columbia River Estuary the Columbia River Basin

    E-print Network

    " fish and wildlife in the Columbia River as affected by development and operation of the hydroelectric River estuary was a high-energy environment dominated by physical forces, with extensive sand modified in terms of physical and biological processes. The development and operation of the hydroelectric

  1. Invasion by stages in the St Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River estuary is recognized as an invasive species “hotspot” - the harbor ranks among the top locations in the Great Lakes reporting the first occurrence of new, aquatic non-native species. To date, 18 non-native benthic invertebrate, 4 non-native crusta...

  2. Credit: Michael Anderson. NOAA Selects St. Louis River Estuary as

    E-print Network

    Credit: Michael Anderson. NOAA Selects St. Louis River Estuary as Habitat Focus Area The St. Louis scale. A Watershed in Need The St. Louis River runs along the border of Minnesota and Wisconsin will be an important addition to the restoration effort. The objectives we have identified in the St. Louis River

  3. Man's Impact on the Environment: The Estuary as an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard County School Board, Cocoa, FL.

    This environmental education guide focuses on man's impact on the estuary. The program contained in the guide is developed around the following nine questions: (1) What is a definition of the ecosystem being investigated?; (2) What are some of the biotic and abiotic features of the ecosystem and how do these features interrelate?; (3) Where are…

  4. LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN ATLANTIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year period (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...

  5. Hudson River Estuary Program NYS Department of Environmental Conservation

    E-print Network

    Lance, Veronica P.

    graphs to see patterns and relationships observed in the physical environment. · Use whole numbers colored pencils of different hues Ruler Hudson River Miles map (helpful but not required) #12;Hudson River to erosion and human activity. Salinity greatly influences where the estuary's animals and plants are found

  6. Estuarine habitat utilization by birds in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of bird species are highly dependent on intertidal wetland habitats. Because of this dependency, birds are viewed as important indicators of wetland structure and function. Wetlands in Yaquina Bay along with the tidal wetlands in other Pacific coastal estuaries r...

  7. Plutonium isotope ratios in the Yenisey and Ob estuaries.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, L; Oughton, D H; Fifield, L K; Lind, O C; Tims, S; Brown, J; Sickel, M

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, nuclear weapons' tests and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic plutonium into the environment. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from the atmospheric weapons testing, but previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases can give rise to enhanced local concentrations. The present paper presents results from determination of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios in the sediment samples collected during various expeditions to the Kara Sea, the Ob and Yenisey estuaries and their river systems. The data indicated a clear influence from a low 240Pu:239Pu source in surface sediments collected from the Yenisey estuary, whereas plutonium in Ob estuary sediments is dominated by global fallout. The results also show an increase in plutonium concentration (from 0.003 to 11Bq/kg) and a decrease in 240Pu:239Pu isotope ratio (from 0.16 to 0.05) going upstream from the Yenisey estuary towards the nuclear installation at Krashnoyarsk. PMID:14987709

  8. IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL __________________ Date #12;II ABSTRACT The San Jose Lagoon (SJL) is located in the northern coast of Puerto Rico in eutrophic tropical lagoons though a hyperspectral sensor. Its use in water quality model #12;III validation

  9. Salt dynamics of a highly unsteady estuary 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    the net fluxes of salt in and out of Willapa Bay, Washington, USA on event (2-10 d) and seasonal, the northern reach of the California Current System (Hickey 1989). The interest of salt dynamics in this estuary is on one level regional and ultimately ecological, while at the same time tied to a general

  10. FIELD SAMPLING IN ESTUARIES: THE RELATIONSHIP OF SCALE TO VARIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial/temporal scaling problem (i.e., fitting a given research question to the dimensions of variability of the study area) is particularly pronounced in highly variable systems such as estuaries. Long-term, multidisciplinary studies in the Apalachicola Bay system were used...

  11. BIVALVES AS BIOMONITORS IN THE NEUSE RIVER AND ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In eastern North Carolina the Neuse River and Neuse Estuary have been heavily impacted by the byproducts of row crop and livestock agriculture, forestry operations, and industry as well as effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Non-point pollutants derived from thes...

  12. DYNAMIC TIDAL EFFECTS ON TSUNAMI COASTAL HAZARD IN LARGE ESTUARIES

    E-print Network

    Grilli, Stéphan T.

    1 DYNAMIC TIDAL EFFECTS ON TSUNAMI COASTAL HAZARD IN LARGE ESTUARIES: CASE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 MODELING OF SMF TSUNAMI GENERATION AND REGIONAL IMPACT ALONG THE UPPER U of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 #12;2 Abstract This work was performed as part of a tsunami inundation

  13. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF ESTUARIES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Mexico is a vast natural resource that encompasses the coastal areas of western Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, as well as a portion of Mexico. Many estuaries flow into the Gulf of Mexico and serve as nursery grounds for fish, habitat for a wide va...

  14. PEAK STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peak discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named by sta...

  15. DAILY STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily mean discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named ...

  16. Reference Condition Approach for Numeric Nutrient Criteria for Oregon Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

  17. Approaches for Development of Nutrient Criteria in Oregon Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of nutrient criteria for all water body types of the US remains a top priority for EPA. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest receive nutrients from both the watershed and the coastal ocean, and thus are particularly complex systems in which to establish water quality c...

  18. Response of a Macrotidal Estuary to Changes in Anthropogenic Mercury

    E-print Network

    Gobas, Frank

    Response of a Macrotidal Estuary to Changes in Anthropogenic Mercury Loading between 1850 and 2000 and test an estuarine mercury cycling model for a coastal embayment of the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Mass in mercury inputs, reaching 95% of steady state in approximately 2 months. Thus, MeHg concentrations

  19. The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

  20. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF A NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARY TO HYPOXIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottom water hypoxia is a common adverse consequence of nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters. To protect against hypoxia, it is helpful to know which waters are most susceptible to hypoxia. Hypoxia has been observed regularly in Pensacola Bay, a northeastern Gulf o...

  1. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Estuary hydrogeomorphology affects carbon sources

    E-print Network

    Hoeinghaus, David J.

    of individuals among marine, estuarine and freshwater zones. We used stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen pro- duction sources and differed across estuary types (choked lagoon, coastal river). Consumer and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

  2. SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY INSTITUTE & THE AQUATIC SCIENCE CENTER Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    integrate science and policy. Objective 3.1 Facilitate integration of science and policy by: (1) providingSAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY INSTITUTE & THE AQUATIC SCIENCE CENTER Strategic Plan September 2011 TAB 1 TAB 2 TAB 3 TAB 4 Preamble Vision, Mission, Goals, & Objectives Strategic Priorities #'s 1, 2 and 3

  3. Estuaries May Face Increased Parasitism as Sea Levels Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-12-01

    Invertebrates in estuaries could be at a greater risk of parasitism as climate change causes sea levels to rise. A new paper published 8 December in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (doi:10.1073/pnas.1416747111) describes how rapid sea level rise in the Holocene affected the population of parasitic flatworms called trematodes.

  4. Do Sturgeon limit burrowing shrimp populations in Pacific Northwest estuaries?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common seasonal inhabitants of coastal estuaries from California USA to British Columbia, Canada. Both species are anadromous spending significant portions of their lives at sea and in their natal streams, but t...

  5. THE ATLANTIC STURGEON, ACIPENSER OXYRHYNCHUS, IN THE DELAWARE RIVER ESTUARY

    E-print Network

    THE ATLANTIC STURGEON, ACIPENSER OXYRHYNCHUS, IN THE DELAWARE RIVER ESTUARY HAROLD M. BRUNDAGE III AND ROBERT E. MEADOWS 1 ABSTRACT Records of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipemeroxyrhynchus, captured in the Delaware maintained by commercial fishermen who took Atlantic sturgeon incidental to their operations for other

  6. PERSISTENCE OF AROCLOR (TRADE NAME) 1254 IN A CONTAMINATED ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The brief report summarizes the concentrations of PCB's in oyster tissue (Crassostrea virginica) observed from April 1969 to June 1976 at three locations in the Escambia Bay estuary, following elimination of an accidental leak of Aroclor 1254 from an industrial site. Data showed ...

  7. Forward for book entitled "Estuaries: Classification, Ecology, and Human Impacts"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The author was introduced to the science of estuaries as a graduate student in the early 1980s, studying the ecology of oyster populations in Chesapeake Bay. To undertake this research, he needed to learn not only about oyster biology, but also about the unique physical and chemi...

  8. Haplosporidian Diseases of Imported Oysters, Ostrea edulis, in Dutch Estuaries

    E-print Network

    Haplosporidian Diseases of Imported Oysters, Ostrea edulis, in Dutch Estuaries PAUL van BANNING and growing of mussels, Mytilus edulis, and oysters. Concerning the lat- ter, it can be stated that apart from some small samples of Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea

  9. ANIMAL-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch (EPA, Newport, OR) is to determine the effects of habitat alteration by stressors on ecological resources in Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries. Research being conducted in support of this mission includes identifying critical hab...

  10. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

  11. The MRIS feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neece, Robert T.; Cross, Aubrey E.; Schrader, James H.

    1993-01-01

    The Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) is an instrument being developed for use in detecting and ranging of electron density layers in the reentry plasma of a space transfer vehicle. The rationale for the selection of the Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) system used in the feasibility study for the MRIS is presented. A 25 GHz single-oscillator system and a 220 GHz double-oscillator system are described. The 25 GHz system was constructed and tested in the laboratory and test results are presented. As developed, the system employs a sideband spacing of 160 MHz. Based on an estimated electromagnetic wave velocity in the plasma, a round-trip phase shift measurement accuracy of +/- 7.6 degrees was required for the desired +/- 1/2 cm distance measurement accuracy. The interaction of parallel ground and reflecting planes produces interference that prevents the basic DSBSC system from meeting the accuracy goal so a frequency modulation was added to the system to allow averaging of the measured phase deviation. With an FM deviation of +/- 1 GHz, laboratory measurements were made for distances from 5 to 61 cm tip free space. Accounting for the plasma velocity factor, 82 percent of the data were equal to or better than the desired accuracy. Based on this measured result a sideband spacing to 250 MHz could be expected to yield data approximately 96 percent within the accuracy goal.

  12. Aircraft towing feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Energy costs and availability are major concerns in most parts of the world. Many ways of increasing energy supply and reducing consumption are being proposed and investigated. One that holds considerable promise is the extended towing of aircraft between airport runways and terminal gate areas with engines shut down. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the constraints on and feasibility of extended aircraft towing. Past aircraft towing experience and the state-of-the-art in towing equipment are reviewed. Safety and operational concerns associated with aircraft towing are identified, and the benefits and costs of implementing aircraft towing at 20 major US airports are analyzed. It was concluded that extended aircraft towing is technically feasible and that substantial reductions in aircraft fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions can be achieved through its implementation. It was also concluded that, although capital and operating costs associated with towing would be increased, net savings could generally be attained at these airports. Because of the lack of past experience and the necessity of proving the cost effectiveness of the towing concept, a demonstration of the feasibility of large-scale aircraft towing is necessary. The study evaluates the suitability of the 20 study airports as potential demonstration sites and makes recommendations for the first demonstration project.

  13. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification — Concept and application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simenstad, Charles A.; Burke, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Cannon, Charles; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Jones, Krista L.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the concept, organization, and application of a hierarchical ecosystem classification that integrates saline and tidal freshwater reaches of estuaries in order to characterize the ecosystems of large flood plain rivers that are strongly influenced by riverine and estuarine hydrology. We illustrate the classification by applying it to the Columbia River estuary (Oregon-Washington, USA), a system that extends about 233 river kilometers (rkm) inland from the Pacific Ocean. More than three-quarters of this length is tidal freshwater. The Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification ("Classification") is based on six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. We define and map Levels 1-3 for the entire Columbia River estuary with existing geospatial datasets, and provide examples of Levels 4-6 for one hydrogeomorphic reach. In particular, three levels of the Classification capture the scales and categories of ecosystem structure and processes that are most tractable to estuarine research, monitoring, and management. These three levels are the (1) eight hydrogeomorphic reaches that embody the formative geologic and tectonic processes that created the existing estuarine landscape and encompass the influence of the resulting physiography on interactions between fluvial and tidal hydrology and geomorphology across 230 kilometers (km) of estuary, (2) more than 15 ecosystem complexes composed of broad landforms created predominantly by geologic processes during the Holocene, and (3) more than 25 geomorphic catenae embedded within ecosystem complexes that represent distinct geomorphic landforms, structures, ecosystems, and habitats, and components of the estuarine landscape most likely to change over short time periods.

  14. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  15. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  16. Temporal changes in physical, chemical and biological sediment parameters in a tropical estuary after mangrove deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Nguyen, Ngoc Tuong Giang; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Michelsen, Anders; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Doan, Nhu Hai; Kristensen, Erik; Weckström, Kaarina; Son, Tong Phuoc Hoang; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

    2014-04-01

    Dated sediment cores taken near the head and mouth of a tropical estuary, Nha-Phu/Binh Cang, in south central Viet Nam were analyzed for changes over time in physical, chemical and biological proxies potentially influenced by removal of the mangrove forest lining the estuary. A time-series of satellite images was obtained, which showed that the depletion of the mangrove forest at the head of the estuary was relatively recent. Most of the area was converted into aquaculture ponds, mainly in the late 1990's. The sediment record showed a clear increase in sedimentation rate at the head of the estuary at the time of mangrove deforestation and a change in diatom assemblages in the core from the mouth of the estuary indicating an increase in the water column turbidity of the entire estuary at the time of the mangrove deforestation. The proportion of fine-grained sediment and the ?13C signal both increased with distance from the head of the estuary while the carbon content decreased. The nitrogen content and the ?15N signal were more or less constant throughout the estuary. The proportion of fine-grained material and the chemical proxies were more or less stable over time in the core from the mouth while they varied synchronously over time in the core from the head of the estuary. The sediment proxies combined show that mangrove deforestation had large effects on the estuary with regard to both the physical and chemical environment with implications for the biological functioning.

  17. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Computational Investigation of Heavy Fuel Feasibility in a

    E-print Network

    timing and particle size in order to determine the engine operating characteristics using diesel fuel study is needed to find out the operating conditions suitable for diesel in a DISI engine. However. Results demonstrate that it is feasible to use diesel fuel in DISI engine and get a similar performance

  18. NEWSLETTER OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR THE DELAWARE ESTUARY: A NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM VOLUME 20 ISSUE 5 SUMMER 2010

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Estuary is home to the second-largest petrochemical refining center in the nation, supported with Michael Freda (right) of EDiS Company about the firm's new solar array. These 231 solar panels now supply mix of energy for the future. But develop- ing non-polluting sources of energy -- like the new solar

  19. Seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in a South African temporarily open/closed estuary (Mdloti Estuary, Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozais, Christian; Perissinotto, Renzo; Tita, Guglielmo

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-four of the 250 estuaries in South Africa are currently classified as temporarily open/closed and close off from the sea during the dry season, under low river inflow. The subtropical Mdloti Estuary, on the KwaZulu-Natal north coast, is one of these systems and hardly any information is available on its meiofauna. The abundance, biomass, composition, and grazing impact of meiofauna, as well as the key environmental factors that affect these variables, were investigated with emphasis on the contrast between open and closed phases of the estuary. Microphytobenthic chlorophyll a concentrations varied between 1.4 to 480 mg m -2. Meiofauna were composed of nematodes, harpacticoid copepods, crustacean nauplii, mites, turbellarians, polychaetes, oligochaetes, ostracods and chironomids. Total abundance of meiofauna showed large variability both spatially and temporally and ranged from 0.4 to 88×10 4 ind. m -2. Nematodes, mites and harpacticoid copepods occurred more often than other groups in the sediment. Total meiofauna carbon biomass exhibited similar temporal as well as spatial patterns as abundance and varied from 0.5 to 440 mg C m -2. A carbon-based grazing model, applied to the total meiofauna, provided estimates of potential daily ingestion rates ranging from 1.8 to 857 mg C m -2. Nematodes, mites and harpacticoid copepods contributed the most to the total potential daily ingestion rate of meiofauna in the Mdloti Estuary. Potential ingestion rates, determined using allometric equations, showed that meiofauna consumed from 0.1 to 254% of the microphytobenthic standing stock. Overall, meiofauna were likely not food limited and grazing on microphytobenthos was low, averaging 11% for the whole survey. A principal component analysis, applied to the whole study area and sampling period, indicated that major variations in meiofaunal community are mainly controlled by temperature and the state of the estuary's mouth (i.e. open/closed). Typically, meiofauna abundance in the estuary peaked after periods of prolonged mouth closure and decreased dramatically after the breaching of the estuary at the mouth.

  20. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  1. Assessment on vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, L.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Yangtze Delta in China is vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism as well as of great environmental significance. In recent decades, the prospect of climate change, in particular sea level rise and its effects on low lying coastal areas have generated worldwide attention to coastal ecosystems. Coastal wetlands, as important parts of coastal ecosystem, are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal zone ecosystems. In this study, taking the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary as a case study, the potential impacts of sea-level rise to coastal wetlands habitat were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model. The key indicators, such as the sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, elevation, daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate, were selected to build a vulnerability assessment system according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the sea level rise rate of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed that at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.26 cm/a, 92.3 % of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary was in the EVI score of 0 in 2030s, i.e. the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of coastal wetlands was negligible. While 7.4 % and 0.3 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 1(low vulnerability) and 2 (moderate vulnerability), respectively. In 2050s, 88.8 %, 10.7 % and 0.5 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1 and 2, respectively. In 2100s, 85.7 %, 7.3 % , 2.0 % and 5.0 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1, 2 and 3(high vulnerability), respectively. At the A1F1 scenario of sea level rise rate of 0.59 cm/a, 91.0 %, 8.7 % and 0.3 % of the coastal wetlands in 2030s were in the EVI score of 0, 1 and 2 , respectively. In 2050s, 86.9 %, 10.5 % , 2.4 % and 0.2 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In 2100s, 82.4 %, 7.1 % , 2.4 % and 8.1 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The spatiotemporal occurrences of vulnerability were mainly where the subsidence rate is relatively higher and the sedimentation rate is lower or even negative. The results from this study indicated that the combined effects of sea level rise, land subsidence, reducing sediment discharge could give rise to the high risk of a considerable decrease or even habitat loss of coastal wetland in the Yangtze Estuary (particularly in 2050s and 2100s). Therefore some mitigation measures should be considered in the future, including management of sedimentation, reducing land subsidence, recreating and extending wetland habitat, and controlling reclamation.

  2. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  3. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  4. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

  5. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-11-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. &The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

  6. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2008-02-20

    The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures for the estuary are monitored indicators that reflect the status of habitat conditions and fish performance, e.g., habitat connectivity, survival, and life history diversity. Performance measures also pertain to implementation and compliance. Such measures are part of the monitoring, research, and action plans in this estuary RME document. Performance targets specific to the estuary were not included in the 2007 draft Biological Opinion.

  7. Why Do Some Estuaries Close: A Model of Estuary Entrance Morphodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSweeney, S. L.; Kennedy, D. M.; Rutherfurd, I.

    2014-12-01

    Intermittently Closed/Open Coastal Lakes/Lagoons (ICOLLs) are a form of wave-dominated, microtidal estuary that experience periodic closure in times of low river flow. ICOLL entrance morphodynamics are complex due to the interaction between wave, tidal and fluvial processes. Managers invest substantial funds to artificially open ICOLLs as they flood surrounding property and infrastructure, and have poor water quality. Existing studies examine broad scale processes but do not identify the main drivers of entrance condition. In this research, the changes in entrance geomorphology were surveyed before and after artificial entrance openings in three ICOLLs in Victoria, Australia. Changes in morphology were related to continuous measures of sediment volume, water level, tide and wave energy. A six-stage quantitative phase model of entrance geomorphology and hydrodynamics is presented to illustrate the spatio-temporal variability in ICOLL entrance morphodynamics. Phases include: breakout; channel expansion with rapid outflow; open with tidal exchange; initial berm rebuilding with tidal attenuation; partial berm recovery with rising water levels; closed with perched water levels. Entrance breakout initiates incision of a pilot channel to the ocean, whereby basin water levels then decline and channel expansion as the headcut migrates landwards. Peak outflow velocities of 5 m/s-3 were recorded and channel dimensions increased over 6 hrs to 3.5 m deep and 140 m wide. When tidal, a clear semi-diurnal signal is superimposed upon an otherwise stable water level. Deep-water wave energy was transferred 1.8 km upstream of the rivermouth with bores present in the basin. Berm rebuilding occurred by littoral drift and cross-shore transport once outflow ceased and microscale bedform features, particularly antidunes, contributed to sediment progradation. Phase duration is dependant on how high the estuary was perched above mean sea level, tidal prism extent, and onshore sediment supply. High offshore wave height and frequency, in addition to littoral drift magnitude, were main drivers of closure. This study presents a predictive model of entrance morphodynamics whereby managers can determine proximity to natural closure or opening, and as a result identify whether implementing an artificial opening is worthwhile.

  8. Plastic pollution in five urban estuaries of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Trishan; Glassom, David; Smit, Albertus J

    2015-12-15

    Monitoring plastic concentrations in estuaries is vital in assessing the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to oceanic environments. Data on plastics ?5mm in estuaries are scant. This study determined microplastic levels within five estuaries along the Durban coastline and on intervening beaches. Plastics were isolated from estuarine sediment, beach sediment and the surface water of each estuary and characterised. Sediment at the Bayhead area of Durban harbour had the highest average plastic concentrations (745.4±129.7 particles per 500ml) and an attenuating concentration trend away from the city centre was found. Prevailing south to north longshore drift was hypothesised to result in plastic accumulation on the northern shores of beaches with estuarine effluents, however, this was not found. Fragments composed the largest percent of plastics (59%) found in Bayhead, whereas fibres dominated other estuaries with proportions ranging from 38% of total plastics in the uMgeni estuary to 66% in the Mdloti. PMID:26476863

  9. Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood Risk Management Feasibility Study Report with Integrated Environmental Assessment

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood Risk Management Feasibility Study Report with Integrated for the Public Review Draft of the Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood Risk Management Feasibility Study of Engineers (USACE) has developed a plan for the flood risk management for the Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

  10. ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    3/20/09 ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam to produce engines, microturbines, steam turbines, fuel cells · CHP waste-heat-activated technologies -- generation of hot water and steam, absorption cooling, desiccant dehumidification · Feasibility issues -- emissions

  11. Erratum to \\Feasible sequential quadratic programming for nely dicretized problems from

    E-print Network

    Tits, André L.

    T. Lawrence and Andre L. Tits Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Systems. References 1] C. T. Lawrence and A. L. Tits. Feasible sequential quadratic program- ming for nely discretized

  12. Contemporary distribution of macrozoobenthic communities of the Yeisk estuary (Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabozhenko, M. V.; Kovalenko, E. P.

    2011-08-01

    The contemporary distribution of macrozoobenthic communities of the Yeisk estuary is considered. Four basic types of communities are classified. Communities with domination of Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) occupy the greatest part of the estuary. Communities with domination of Amphipoda (Corophiidae) remained only in the northeast part of the reservoir. The unstable hydrological conditions and the absence of clearly expressed horohalinicum lead to mixing of Ponto-Caspian and Azov-Black Sea faunas in the Yeisk estuary.

  13. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  14. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  15. An engine air-brake integration study

    E-print Network

    Mulchandani, Hiten

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of operating an engine air-brake (EAB) integrated with a pylon duct bifurcation in a realistic aircraft engine environment has been analyzed. The EAB uses variable exit guide vanes downstream of a high ...

  16. Multnomah County Hydrokinetic Feasibility Study: Final Feasibility Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Spain

    2012-03-15

    HDR has completed a study of the technical, regulatory, and economic feasibility of installing hydrokinetic turbines under the Morrison, Broadway, and Sellwood bridges. The primary objective of installing hydrokinetic turbines is a demonstration of in-stream hydrokinetic technologies for public education and outreach. Due to the low gradient of the Lower Willamette and the effects of the tide, velocities in the area in consideration are simply not high enough to economically support a commercial installation. While the velocities in the river may at times provide enough energy for a commercial turbine to reach capacity, the frequency and duration of high flow events which provide suitable velocities is not sufficient to support a commercial hydrokinetic installation. We have observed that over an 11 year period, daily average velocities in the Lower Willamette exceeded a nominal cut-in speed of 0.75 m/s only 20% of the time, leaving net zero power production for the remaining 80% of days. The Sellwood Bridge site was estimated to have the best hydrokinetic resource, with an estimated average annual production of about 9,000 kWh. The estimated production could range from 2,500 kWh to 15,000 kWh. Based on these energy estimates, the amount of revenue generated through either a power purchase agreement (PPA) or recovered through net metering is not sufficient to repay the project costs within the life of the turbine. The hydrokinetic resource at the Morrison and Broadway Bridges is slightly smaller than at the Sellwood Bridge. While the Broadway and Morrison Bridges have existing infrastructure that could be utilized, the project is not expected to generate enough revenue to repay the investment. Despite low velocities and energy production, the sites themselves are favorable for installation of a demonstration or experimental project. With high public interest in renewable energy, the possibility exists to develop a hydrokinetic test site which could provide developers and scientists a location to temporarily deploy and test hydrokinetic devices, and also function as an educational tool for the general public. Bridge piers provide an excellent pre-existing anchor point for hydrokinetic devices, and existing infrastructure at the Morrison and Broadway Bridges may reduce installation costs. Opportunity exists to partner with local universities with engineering and environmental interest in renewable energy. A partnership with Portland State University�¢����s engineering school could provide students with an opportunity to learn about hydrokinetics through senior design projects. Oregon State University and University of Washington, which are partnered through the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) to study and test hydrokinetic technology, are also relatively local to the site. In addition to providing an opportunity for both public and private entities to learn technically about in-stream kinetics, this approach will encourage grant funding for outreach, education, and product development, while also serving as a positive community relations opportunity for the County and its partners.

  17. Circulation and physical processes within the San Gabriel River Estuary during summer 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Xu, Jingping; Stein, Eric D.; Noble, Marlene A.; Gartner, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP) is developing a hydrodynamic model of the SGR estuary, which is part of the comprehensive water-quality model of the SGR estuary and watershed investigated by SCCWRP and other local agencies. The hydrodynamic model will help understanding of 1) the exchange processes between the estuary and coastal ocean; 2) the circulation patterns in the estuary; 3) upstream natural runoff and the cooling discharge from PGS. Like all models, the SGR hydrodynamic model is only useful after it is fully calibrated and validated. In May 2005, SCCWRP requested the assistance of the U.S. geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology team (CMG) in collecting data on the hydrodynamic conditions in the estuary during the summer dry season. The summer was chosen for field data collection as this was assumed to be the season with the greatest potential for chronic degraded water quality due to low river flow and high thermal stratification within the estuary (due to both higher average air temperature and PGS output). Water quality can be degraded in winter as well, when higher river discharge events bring large volumes of water from the Los Angeles basin into the estuary. The objectives of this project were to 1) collect hydrodynamic data along the SGR estuary; 2) study exchange processes within the estuary through analysis of the hydrodynamic data; and 3) provide field data for model calibration and validation. As the data only exist for the summer season, the results herein only apply to summer conditions.

  18. Distribution and sources of particulate organic matter in the Indian monsoonal estuaries during monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Krishna, M. S.; Prasad, V. R.; Kumar, B. S. K.; Naidu, S. A.; Rao, G. D.; Viswanadham, R.; Sridevi, T.; Kumar, P. P.; Reddy, N. P. C.

    2014-11-01

    The distribution and sources of particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN) in 27 Indian estuaries were examined during the monsoon using the content and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen. Higher phytoplankton biomass was noticed in estuaries with deeper photic zone than other estuaries receiving higher suspended matter. The ?13CPOC and ?15NPN data suggest that relatively higher ?13CPOC (-27.9 to -22.6‰) and lower ?15NPN (0.7 to 5.8‰) were noticed in the estuaries located in the northern India, north of 16°N, and lower ?13CPOC (-31.4 to -28.2‰) and higher ?15NPN (5 to 10.3‰) in the estuaries located in the southern India. This is associated with higher Chl a in the northern than southern estuaries suggesting that in situ production contributed significantly to the POC pool in the former, whereas terrestrial sources are important in the latter estuaries. The spatial distribution pattern of ?15NPN is consistent with fertilizer consumption in the Indian subcontinent, which is twice as much in the northern India as in the south whereas ?13CPOC suggests that in situ production is a dominant source in the southern and terrestrial sources are important in the northern estuaries. Based on the Stable Isotope Analysis in R model, 40-90% (70-90%) of organic matter is contributed by C3 plants (freshwater algae) in the estuaries located in the northern (southern) India.

  19. 78 FR 9887 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; National Estuaries Restoration Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Estuaries Restoration Inventory AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written comments must be submitted on or before April 15, 2013....

  20. Chlorofluorocarbons in the Hudson estuary during summer months

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.F.; Smethie, W.M. Jr.; Simpson, H.J.

    1995-10-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations in the Hudson estuary were found to be greater than the atmospheric solubility equilibrium concentration, demonstrating that the entire reach is contaminated with CFCs from local wastewater discharge. Samples have been collected along the axis of the lower Hudson estuary over a 5-month period to assess temporal and spatial variability of their wastewater sources. The highest CFC concentrations were found in water collected near Manhattan. In this region, CFC-11 (CCl{sub 3}F) and CFC-12 (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}) were 3 to 5 and 10 to 20 times saturation, respectively. There appears to be a continuous CFC source in the New York City area, although the magnitude of this source declined during summer months. Other large CFC source were found near Albany, and in Haverstraw Bay (60 km north of Manhattan). 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Assessment of sediment contaminants and toxicity in the Delaware estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, H.J.; Sauer, T.C.; Ward, T.J.; Boeri, R.L.; Nyman, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In support of the Delaware Estuary Program`s Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, a study was performed to assess the spatial distribution of sediment toxicity in the Delaware Estuary and investigate potential causative contaminants. Twelve stations were sampled along the Delaware River covering 55 river miles between the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal and Torresdale, PA. Four additional stations were sampled in the mid-bay portion of Delaware Bay. Ten-day sediment static acute toxicity tests with amphipods (Ampelisca abdita) were performed for all stations. Sediments were analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, priority pollutant metals, and supporting parameters. Statistical analyses revealed positive correlations between sediment toxicity and PAH, lead, copper, and mercury concentrations. The highest incidences of sediment toxicity and highest concentrations of chemical contaminants occurred in the portion of the Delaware River between River Miles 60 and 75.

  2. Effects of Prevailing Winds on Turbidity of a Shallow Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Jung

    2007-01-01

    Estuarine waters are generally more turbid than lakes or marine waters due to greater algal mass and continual re-suspension of sediments. The varying effects of diurnal and seasonal prevailing winds on the turbidity condition of a wind-dominated estuary were investigated by spatial and statistical analyses of wind direction, water level, turbidity, chlorophyll a, and PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) collected in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA. The prolonged prevailing winds were responsible for the long-term, large-scale turbidity pattern of the estuary, whereas the short-term changes in wind direction had differential effects on turbidity and water level in varying locations. There were temporal and spatial changes in the relationship between vertical light attenuation coefficient (Kd) and turbidity, which indicate difference in phytoplankton and color also affect Kd. This study demonstrates that the effect of wind on turbidity and water level on different shores can be identified through system-specific analyses of turbidity patterns. PMID:17617683

  3. Clostridium botulinum type C in the Mersey estuary.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. R.; Oliphant, J. C.; White, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Nineteen of 98 samples of mud or sand taken from the Mersey estuary in 1981 contained Clostridium botulinum type C, the organism almost always responsible for botulism in water birds. In the Dungeon and Score Bank areas, where many dead and dying birds were found during the period September-December 1979, almost half the samples contained type C. Most of the positive samples were essentially muddy rather than sandy. The findings do not prove that botulism contributed to the 1979 mortality but are nonetheless thought-provoking, particularly because type C--unlike type B--is by no means ubiquitous in Britain. Type B was present in 12.2% of samples from the Mersey estuary. PMID:6759578

  4. Multibiomarker assessment of three Brazilian estuaries using oysters as bioindicators

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez Domingos, F.X. Azevedo, M.; Silva, M.D.; Randi, M.A.F.; Freire, C.A.; Silva de Assis, H.C.; Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A.

    2007-11-15

    Oysters have been largely employed as bioindicators of environmental quality in biomonitoring studies. Crassostrea rhizophorae was selected to evaluate the health status of three estuarine areas impacted by anthropogenic activities along the Brazilian coast, in three estuarine complexes, ranging in latitude from 7 to 25 deg. S. In each estuary three sites were sampled in Winter and in Summer: a site considered as reference, and two sites next to contamination sources. Condition index was similar at all sites and estuaries, with the highest values found for Itamaraca oysters in Summer. Necrosis, hyperplasia, mucocyte hypertrophy and fusion of ordinary filaments were the main histopathological lesions observed. Muscle cholinesterase activity was overall similar, but with a strong seasonal effect. Inhibition or activation of branchial total ATPase and Na,K-ATPase activities at the contaminated sites was observed. The health status of these estuarine areas is quite similar, and the combined use of biomarkers is recommended.

  5. Estimation of bed shear stresses in the pearl river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Wu, Jia-xue

    2015-03-01

    Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured by use of a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PC-ADP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter in the tidal bottom boundary layer of the Pearl River Estuary. The bed shear stresses were estimated by four different methods: log profile (LP), eddy correlation (EC), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and inertial dissipation (ID). The results show that (a) all four methods for estimating bed stresses have advantages and disadvantages, and they should be applied simultaneously to obtain reliable frictional velocity and to identify potential sources of errors; (b) the LP method was found to be the most suitable to estimate the bed stresses in non-stratified, quasi-steady, and homogeneous flows; and (c) in the estuary where the semi-diurnal tidal current is dominant, bed shear stresses exhibit a strong quarter-diurnal variation.

  6. WERF MACT Feasibility Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Bonnema; D. Moser; J. Riedesel; K. Kooda; K. Liekhus; K. Rebish; S. Poling

    1998-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the technical feasibility of upgrading the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to meet the offgas emission limits proposed in the Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT)rule. Four practicable offgas treatment processes were identified, which, if installed, would enable the WERF to meet the anticipated MACT emission limits for dioxins and furans (D/F), hydrochloric acid (HCI), and mercury (Hg). Due to the three-year time restraint for MACT compliance, any technology chosen for the upgrade must be performed within the general plant project funding limit of $5 M. The option selected consists of a partial-quench evaporative cooler with dry sorbent injection for HCI removal followed by a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed for Hg control. The planning cost estimate for implementing the option is $4.17 M (with 24% contingency). The total estimated cost includes capital costs, design and construction costs, and project management costs. Capital costs include the purchase of a new offgas evaporative cooler, a dry sorbent injection system with reagent storage, a new fabric filter baghouse, a fixed carbon bed absorber, and two offgas induced draft exhaust fans. It is estimated that 21 months will be required to complete the recommended modification to the WERF. The partial-quench cooler is designed to rapidly cool the offgas exiting the secondary combustion chamber to minimize D/F formation. Dry sorbent injection of an alkali reagent into the offgas is recommended. The alkali reacts with the HCI to form a salt, which is captured with the fly ash in the baghouse. A design HCI removal efficiency of 97.2% allows for the feeding 20 lbs/hr of chlorine to the WERF incinerator. The sorbent feed rate can be adjusted to achieve the desired HCI removal efficiency. A fixed bed of sulfur-impregnated carbon was conservatively sized for a total Hg removal capacity when feeding 10 g/hr Hg to the WERF incinerator. An added benefit for using carbon adsorption is that the activated carbon will also capture a large fraction of any residual D/F present in the offgas.

  7. Sensitivity of estuaries to sea level rise: Vulnerability indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandle, David; Lane, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the question of how tidally-dominated estuaries will adapt to rises in mean sea level and changes in river flows associated with global climate change. The aim was to develop generic 'Vulnerability Indices' to provide immediate indications of relative resilience or sensitivity. Four indices indicate the likely impacts on: (1) Mass flow, (2) Energetics, (3) Vertical mixing and (4) Salinity intrusion.

  8. Seasonal dynamics of turbidity maximum in the Muthupet estuary, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, K. L.; Jegathambal, P.; James, E. J.

    2015-10-01

    Results are presented of the longitudinal and vertical profiling of salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM) at the Muthupet estuary, India, during a one year period under widely varying freshwater flow conditions. Freshwater flow was available during post-monsoon and monsoon. An up-estuary shift in the location of estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) was observed during the transition from post-monsoon to pre-monsoon and further it shifted downstream during the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, thereby exhibiting a pronounced seasonal cycle. The salinity intrusion was dependent on the freshwater discharge and was expressed as a power function of freshwater flow, explaining 97% of the variance. The formation of a salt plug in Muthupet estuary and its seasonal dynamics were observed, which is not an identified feature of any of the Indian estuaries studied so far. The geographical positions of salt plug and ETM core were more or less the same during their formation. The occurrence of two ETM during the LW of post-monsoon and the absence of ETM during monsoon explains the strong seasonal variation in the formation of ETM. The primary factor affecting the formation of ETM was identified as the freshwater flow over an annual cycle; the resuspension of sediments by tidal current affecting the formation on a flood/ebb cycle was secondary. The extent of shift of ETM was found to be an inverse logarithmic function of the freshwater discharge. The separation between ETM intrusion and salinity intrusion increased two fold with the increase in ETM intrusion.

  9. Bedforms and Evolution of Tropical Estuaries: Examples from Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vital, H.; Soares, C.; Rocha, G.; Pereira, T.; Eichler, P.

    2012-12-01

    This paper intends to show the geomorphological and sedimentary responses of tropical estuaries to meteorological and oceanographic forcing. The study area is located on the coastal zone of Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil. This coast is under natural influence of waves and tides with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime and anthropogenic influence (urbanization, oil and salt industries, shrimp farms, and tourism). An operational methodology was developed using collection and analysis of an integrated dataset (comprising remote sensing, oceanographic, hy-droacoustic, and sedimentologic data). All data were integrated through a geographical infor-mation system database. The imaging of subaqueous features allowed the identification of differ-ent bedforms as well as submerged rocky outcrops. Four main groups of bedforms were identi-fied: 2D and 3D large dunes, ripples and flat bottom, and rocky outcrops as well. Rocky outcrops were correlated to Barreiras Formation and beachrocks. The estuarine channel is filled by Holocene sandy- to silt sediments, with sandy sediments in the main channel ranging from well-selected to selected grains, and silty sediments in the river margins. The integration and analysis of currents velocity and other physical parameters with bedforms characterization and different sedimentary textures in the study area allows a better knowledge of the active sedimentary processes, which are responsible for the formation of morphologic features of these estuaries. The evolution of estuary settings, led by the postglacial sea-level rise, is recorded in the subsurface an present-day riverbed. These results contribute to a better understanding of tropical estuaries.; Location of the study area

  10. 7 CFR 4279.150 - Feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feasibility studies. 4279.150 Section 4279.150 Agriculture...Business and Industry Loans § 4279.150 Feasibility studies. A feasibility study by a qualified independent...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.442 - Feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Feasibility studies. 1980.442 Section 1980.442 Agriculture...and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.442 Feasibility studies. A feasibility study by a recognized independent consultant...

  12. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter. 241.1010 ...Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity...

  13. Counting on ?-Diversity to Safeguard the Resilience of Estuaries

    PubMed Central

    de Juan, Silvia; Thrush, Simon F.; Hewitt, Judi E.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are often stressed by non-point source and cumulative effects that can lead to local-scale community homogenisation and a concomitant loss of large-scale ecological connectivity. Here we investigate the use of ?-diversity as a measure of both community heterogeneity and ecological connectivity. To understand the consequences of different environmental scenarios on heterogeneity and connectivity, it is necessary to understand the scale at which different environmental factors affect ?-diversity. We sampled macrofauna from intertidal sites in nine estuaries from New Zealand’s North Island that represented different degrees of stress derived from land-use. We used multiple regression models to identify relationships between ?-diversity and local sediment variables, factors related to the estuarine and catchment hydrodynamics and morphology and land-based stressors. At local scales, we found higher ?-diversity at sites with a relatively high total richness. At larger scales, ?-diversity was positively related to ?-diversity, suggesting that a large regional species pool was linked with large-scale heterogeneity in these systems. Local environmental heterogeneity influenced ?-diversity at both local and regional scales, although variables at the estuarine and catchment scales were both needed to explain large scale connectivity. The estuaries expected a priori to be the most stressed exhibited higher variance in community dissimilarity between sites and connectivity to the estuary species pool. This suggests that connectivity and heterogeneity metrics could be used to generate early warning signals of cumulative stress. PMID:23755252

  14. Local flows in the Quequén Grande River Estuary, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, M. G.; Thomas, L. P.; Marino, B. M.

    2009-05-01

    Quequén Grande River is one of the most important water courses of Buenos Aires Province due to the economic and strategic significance of its estuary, where the populous Quequén-Necochea area and Quequén Port are located. The minor Las Cascadas falls, at 15 km from the place where the river meets the sea is the point where the maximum tidal propagation is detected marking the head of the estuary. Artificial dredging is needed to insure the adequate navigability conditions in the Quequén harbour, which has induced a highly stratified water column in the last 2 km of the estuary. Thus, an abrupt step is established at the head of the harbour, implying a much reduced water circulation and in some cases nonexistent, producing strong reductive and even anoxic conditions. The foot of the step is a sediment and organic matter trap and becomes an interesting place of study. The goal of this article is to present the information obtained with Doppler sonar at the neighborhood of the step, which allows distinguishing local turbidity currents that may influence the deposition patterns of the sediments.

  15. Dissolved oxygen conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, V.D.; Kevin, Summers J.; Macauley, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Because deficient dissolved oxygen (DO) levels may have severe detrimental effects on estuarine and marine life, DO has been widely used as an indicator of ecological conditions by environmental monitoring programs. The U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) monitored DO conditions in the estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to 1994. DO was measured in two ways: 1)instantaneous profiles from the surface to the bottom were taken during the day, and 2) continuous measurements were taken near the bottom at 15 min intervals for at least 12 h. This information was summarized to assess the spatial distribution and severity of DO conditions in these estuaries. Depending on the criteria used to define hypoxia (DO concentrations usually < 2 mg L-1 or 15 mg L-1) and the method by which DO is measured, we estimate that between 5.2 and 29.3% of the total estuarine area in the Louisianian Province was affected by low DO conditions.

  16. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. ); Schuler, C.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Modified optical remote sensing algorithms for the Pearl River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chim, Man-Chung; Pan, Jiayi; Lai, Wenfeng

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to develop new algorithms to retrieve sea surface parameters including concentrations of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), and absorbance of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (aCDOM) by incorporating the contribution of red bands to make them more adaptable to case 2 waters. Optical remote sensing algorithms have demonstrated efficient retrieval of Chl a, SPM, and aCDOM, yet they are not very accurate especially for coastal areas. It has also been found that the default algorithm has overestimated Chl a in the Pearl River Estuary, and shown poor correlation for CDOM absorbance. By incorporating the red band ratios into the algorithm, a correction effect has been shown, which improves the accuracy of quantifying the actual concentration. Modeling and data fitting of the algorithm have been done based on 61 data samples collected in the Pearl River estuary during a cruise from 3 to 11 May 2014. The study also attempts to modify the aerosol correction bands used in SeaDAS to prevent saturation of these bands. The modified algorithms showed an R-Square value of 0.7289 for Chl a fitting, and 0.7338 for CDOM fitting, and corrected overestimation of Chl a concentration in the Pearl River estuary.

  18. Ascent performance feasibility for next-generation spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Salvatore Massimo

    This thesis deals with the optimization of the ascent trajectories for single-stage suborbital (SSSO), single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) rocket-powered spacecraft. The maximum payload weight problem has been solved using the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm. For the TSTO case, some modifications to the original version of the algorithm have been necessary in order to deal with discontinuities due to staging and the fact that the functional being minimized depends on interface conditions. The optimization problem is studied for different values of the initial thrust-to-weight ratio in the range 1.3 to 1.6, engine specific impulse in the range 400 to 500 sec, and spacecraft structural factor in the range 0.08 to 0.12. For the TSTO configuration, two subproblems are studied: uniform structural factor between stages and nonuniform structural factor between stages. Due to the regular behavior of the results obtained, engineering approximations have been developed which connect the maximum payload weight to the engine specific impulse and spacecraft structural factor; in turn, this leads to useful design considerations. Also, performance sensitivity to the scale of the aerodynamic drag is studied, and it is shown that its effect on payload weight is relatively small, even for drag changes approaching ± 50%. The main conclusions are that: the design of a SSSO configuration appears to be feasible; the design of a SSTO configuration might be comfortably feasible, marginally feasible, or unfeasible, depending on the parameter values assumed; the design of a TSTO configuration is not only feasible, but its payload appears to be considerably larger than that of a SSTO configuration. Improvements in engine specific impulse and spacecraft structural factor are desirable and crucial for SSTO feasibility; indeed, it appears that aerodynamic improvements do not yield significant improvements in payload weight.

  19. Variation in tidal wetland plant diversity and composition within and among coastal estuaries: assessing the relative importance of environmental gradients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Question: Does wetland plant composition vary more by estuarine type (differentiated by the degree of riverine versus oceanic influence) or habitat type within estuaries (defined by US National Wetlands Inventory [NWI] marsh classes)? Location: Oregon estuaries: Netarts Bay, ...

  20. RELATIONS OF FISH AND SHELLFISH DISTRIBUTIONS TO HABITAT AND WATER QUALITY IN THE MOBILE BAY ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mobile Bay estuary provides rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those identified as economically and ecologically important. The National Estuary Program has focused on restoration of degraded estuarine habitat on which these species depend. To support this ...

  1. Feasibility of a simplified fuel additive evaluation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, S.J.; Hunzinger, R.D.; Taghizadeh, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the work carried out during the four stages of the first phase of a project that involved the determination of the feasibility of replacing the Association of American Railroads Recommended Practice (ARRP) 503 protocol for testing diesel fuel oil additives with a new procedure using the single cylinder research engine SCRE-251 as the laboratory test engine, which tests for both engine performance as well as emissions compliance. The report begins with a review of the literature on fuel additive testing, then reviews the new US Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding locomotive diesel emissions. This is followed by a review of the ARRP 503 protocol and the proposed new procedure, a comparison of the ARRP 503 test engines and the SCRE-251, and a study of the SCRE-251`s ability to represent a multi-cylinder medium-speed diesel engine. Appendices include fuel additive manufacturers` information sheets.

  2. Estuaries of the northeastern United States: Habitat and land use signatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, C.T.; Jaworski, N.; Short, F.T.; Findlay, S.; Warren, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Geographic signatures are physical, chemical, biotic, and human-induced characteristics or processes that help define similar or unique features of estuaries along latitudinal or geographic gradients. Geomorphologically, estuaries of the northeastern U.S., from the Hudson River estuary and northward along the Gulf of Maine shoreline, are highly diverse because of a complex bedrock geology and glacial history. Back-barrier estuaries and lagoons occur within the northeast region, but the dominant type is the drowned-river valley, often with rocky shores. Tidal range and mean depth of northeast estuaries are generally greater when compared to estuaries of the more southern U.S. Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Because of small estuarine drainage basins, low riverine flows, a bedrock substrate, and dense forest cover, sediment loads in northeast estuaries are generally quite low and water clarity is high. Tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, intertidal mudflats, and rocky shores represent major habitat types that fringe northeast estuaries, supporting commercially-important fauna, forage nekton and benthos, and coastal bird communities, while also serving as links between deeper estuarine waters and habitats through detritus-based pathways. Regarding land use and water quality trends, portions of the northeast have a history of over a century of intense urbanization as reflected in increased total nitrogen and total phosphorus loadings to estuaries, with wastewater treatment facilities and atmospheric deposition being major sources. Agricultural inputs are relatively minor throughout the northeast, with relative importance increasing for coastal plain estuaries. Identifying geographic signatures provides an objective means for comparing the structure function, and processes of estuaries along latitudinal gradients.

  3. Land use and nitrogen loading in seven estuaries along the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIver, Reba; Milewski, Inka; Lotze, Heike K.

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen loading from coastal watersheds is a principal factor associated with the decline in eelgrass bed health and cover in estuaries worldwide. We apply the Nitrogen Loading Model (NLM) framework developed in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts to 7 estuaries in eastern New Brunswick. Using watershed-specific information on human population, wastewater production, atmospheric deposition, and land use in each watershed we estimate annual input of Total Dissolved Nitrogen (TDN) from point and non-point sources. We also estimate flushing time of each estuary using available hydrodynamic and bathymetric data incorporated in a tidal prism model. Finally, we validate the NLM results by testing the link between estimated nitrogen loading, flushing time and nitrogen signals in eelgrass tissue including nitrogen content and stable isotopes. Overall, total nitrogen load (kg TDN yr-1) was strongly dependent on watershed and estuary size, while loading rate per unit watershed area (yield) was linked to watershed population density. Atmospheric deposition was the largest contributor of nitrogen to all estuaries except one, where seafood processing effluent was the greatest source. Stable isotope analysis of eelgrass tissue reflected this distinction, with high ?15N values of 8-10‰ related to high wastewater loading, compared to 2-6.5‰ in the other estuaries that receive proportionally more atmospheric deposition. Tissue nitrogen content was positively related to nitrogen yields and loading rate per volume of estuary, highlighting the influence of variable watershed:estuary size ratio. Multiple regression analysis identified a significant interaction between nitrogen yield and flushing time on eelgrass tissue nitrogen content and isotopes, pointing to the mitigating effect an estuary's quick flushing time can have on the expression of nitrogen enrichment in primary producers. The compilation of new information on nitrogen loading to east Canadian estuaries is a novel contribution from a region where human influences are still at a relatively low level, and hence will add to existing information from cold temperate, mainly forested watershed-estuary environments.

  4. Realization Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    E-print Network

    .95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 200 250 300 350 400 Reliability Cost($) Valid Designs: Planetary Gear TrainFeasible Designs: Planetary Gear Train Feasible, but dominated. No engineer will choose these Model components? · For a conventional architecture, what is the best engine technology (4-cyl. turbo, V6, etc.)? · What is the best gear

  5. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, B.; Cignetti, N.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  6. Short-term variations of phytoplankton communities in response to anthropogenic stressors in a highly altered temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongsik; Jeong, Byungkwan

    2015-04-01

    Data for phytoplankton size classes, taxonomy, and water properties were collected through an episodic freshwater discharge event (4 days) in the temperate Youngsan River estuary, which is highly disturbed by manually regulated inputs of freshwater from a sea dike, to investigate the effects of an acute change in anthropogenic stressors on the short-term dynamics of phytoplankton and their surrounding environments. The salinity of the well-mixed saline water (33.2-33.5) decreased to as low as 4.0 and water temperature increased to 24.0 °C during the freshwater discharge, resulting in a stratified water column in the upper region of the estuary. During the discharge, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations increased to as much as 15.66 ?g L-1 with micro-sized phytoplankton being dominant due to the presence of micro-sized freshwater phytoplankton, mostly Aulacoseira ambigua (98% in cell abundance), transported from the reservoir. Primary production decreased to as little as 87.9 mg C m-2 d-1, although nutrients such as NO2- + NO3- were supplied by the freshwater inputs of the discharge. Following the discharge, dinoflagellate blooms, dominated by Heterocapsa sp. (>88%), a nano-sized red tide species, developed in the upper regions of the estuary with peaks in chl a concentrations reaching as high as 30.33 ?g L-1. Another red tide species, Prorocentrum micans, was also dominant in the estuary, suggesting that harmful algal blooms (HABs) are associated with anthropogenic stressors related to the freshwater inputs. The Shannon diversity index decreased to 0.18 while the Simpson dominance index increased to 0.94 during the discharge, but the diversity increased again following the discharge. The phytoplankton communities and diversity changed along the salinity gradient, corresponding to an "ecocline" pattern. The results of multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phytoplankton species and size structure were controlled mainly by salinity, water temperature, turbidity, and PO43-, which were affected by the regulated freshwater discharge. This study indicates that rapid changes in anthropogenic stressors related to the operation of an engineered structure may impact the eutrophication and biotic integrity of an estuarine system by generating short-term variations in phytoplankton biomass, size, and species composition, especially of harmful algae.

  7. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC ESTUARIES: THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA-Estuaries) evaluated ecological conditions in US Mid-Atlantic estuaries during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Over 800 probability-based stations were monitored in four main estuarine systems?Chesapeake Bay, the Delaware Estuary, Maryla...

  8. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...FXRS12610800000-134-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego...statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration Project. As originally proposed...fws.gov. Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the subject line of the...

  9. Estuaries Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 598-621 December 1995 The Relationships Among Man's Activities in

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Estuaries Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 598-621 December 1995 The Relationships Among Man's Activities in Watersheds and Estuaries: A Model of Runoff Effects on Patterns of Estuarine Community Metabolism CHARLESS,magnitude,and nature of inputs of materialsto estuaries.Despite an awarenessof large-scale,long-term changes in river

  10. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...1261-0000-81680-W5] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego...statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration Project. The proposed project...fws.gov. Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the subject line of the...

  11. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.10.024 Trace element cycling in a subterranean estuary

    E-print Network

    doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.10.024 Trace element cycling in a subterranean estuary: Part 1. Geochemistry February 17, 2004; accepted in revised form October 25, 2004) Abstract--Subterranean estuaries estuaries, like their river water-seawater counterparts on the surface of the earth, represent a major

  12. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (x98x) 12, 5z5-533 Dynamics of Mixing in Estuaries

    E-print Network

    Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (x98x) 12, 5z5-533 Dynamics of Mixing in Estuaries Charles B the paper by Loder & Reichard (i98o) on the dynamics of conservative mixing in estuaries. They solved source at the river end of the estuary. They gave two specific examples, one in which the ratio

  13. E-Estuary: Developing a Decision Support System for Coastal Management in the Conterminous United States (IAHR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  14. E-Estuary: Developing a Decision-support System for Coastal Management in the Counterminous Untied States (Coastal Geotools 09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  15. E-estuary: A Decision Support System for Coastal Water and Ecosystem Management in the US (CZ09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ready access to geographic information is needed to support management decisions for estuaries at local, state, regional, and national scales. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary ...

  16. Submarine canyons and channels in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (Eastern Canada): Morphology, classification and recent sediment dynamics

    E-print Network

    Submarine canyons and channels in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (Eastern Canada): Morphology online 8 April 2015 Keywords: Submarine canyons Gravity flows St. Lawrence Estuary Seabed morphology Sedimentary processes Series of submarine canyons and channels observed in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary

  17. A model study of the circulation in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its adjacent coastal waters

    E-print Network

    Xiu, Peng

    A model study of the circulation in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its adjacent coastal waters results with the in situ measurements collected during the Pearl River Estuary Pollution Project (PREPP. Xue, L. X. Dong, W. B. Guan, and J. L. Su, A model study of the circulation in the Pearl River Estuary

  18. The engine reformer : syngas production in engines using spark-ignition and metallic foam catalysts

    E-print Network

    Lim, Emmanuel G. (Emmanuel Gocheco)

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to assess the feasibility of performing methane (CH4) partial oxidation (POX) in two internal combustion engines: one equipped to perform spark-ignition (the "spark-ignited engine"), and ...

  19. 78 FR 68995 - Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary... Street Bridge in Alameda, CA in support of the Oakland Estuary Closure for the Vessel Removal Project...

  20. SIZE AND DIET OF JUVENILE PACIFIC SALMON DURING SEAWARD MIGRATION mROUGH A SMALL ESTUARY

    E-print Network

    SIZE AND DIET OF JUVENILE PACIFIC SALMON DURING SEAWARD MIGRATION mROUGH A SMALL ESTUARY and predation among juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migrating through the estuary of Porcupine Creek; from 39 to 51 mm (0.4 mm/day) for chum salmon, O. keta; and during June and July, from 99 to 165 mm (l

  1. Second international symposium on the biogeochemistry of model estuaries: Estuarine processes in global change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report consists of abstracts of papers presented at the symposium of Biogeochemistry. The main topics discussed at the meeting are; nutrient and mineral cycling, trace element distribution, sources and sinks of estuaries, sedimentation, importance of organic matter, and other biogeochemical processes of estuaries.

  2. Potential Climate-Induced Runoff Changes and Associated Uncertainty in Four Pacific Northwest Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger investigation into potential impacts of climate change on estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we estimated changes in freshwater inputs into four estuaries. These were the Coquille River estuary, the South Slough of Coos Bay, and the Yaquina Bay...

  3. Linking Data Access to Data Models to Applications: The Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for coastal management. E-Estuary has three elements: an estuarine geo-referenced relational database, watershed GIS coverages, and tools to support decision-making. To facilita...

  4. Demonstration and Hands-on Exercises with the Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is developing e-Estuary, a decision-support system for applications of the Clean Water Act in coastal management. E-Estuary has three elements: an estuarine geo-referenced relational database, watershed GIS coverages, and tools t...

  5. STABLE ISOTOPE VARIATIONS IN SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN A TEMPERATE NORTH PACIFIC ESTUARY, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial distributions of 13C and 15N in suspended particles were examined monthly over an annual cycle in the euphotic zone (0.5m) of the Yaquina River and Estuary, Oregon. Suspended organic matter in estuaries is a mixture of land-derived and oceanic carbon and nitrogen. In a...

  6. Denitrification Capacity in a Subterranean Estuary below a Rhode Island Fringing Salt Marsh

    E-print Network

    Gold, Art

    Denitrification Capacity in a Subterranean Estuary below a Rhode Island Fringing Salt Marsh KELLY in the subterranean estuary below a Rhode Island fringing salt marsh. 15 N-enriched nitrate was injected at multiple depths (125­ 300 cm) below different zones (upland-marsh transition zone, high marsh, and low

  7. Environmental monitoring and assessment program (EMAP) laboratory methods manual estuaries. Volume 1. Biological and physical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Klemm, D.J.; Lobring, L.B.; Eichelberger, J.W.; Alford-Stevens, A.

    1995-08-01

    This document is intended to document analytical methods for use by laboratories conducting analyses for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries. This document is volume I of a two-part series. The second volume of the EMAP-Estuaries Laboratory Methods Manual presents methods for the chemical analyses of sediments and tissue.

  8. Concentration and Distribution of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants and Metals in the Estuaries of Ukraine

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this baseline study of Ukrainian estuaries, sediments and organisms from the Dnieper and Boh estuaries and Danube Delta on the mainland, Sevastopol and Balaklava Bays on the Crimean Peninsula, and coastal Black Sea along the Crimean Peninsula were collected in 2006. Contamina...

  9. LABORATORY METHOD MANUAL - VOLUME 1. BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL ANALYSES EMAP ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is intended to document analytical methods for use by laboratories conducting analyses for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries. his document is Volume I of a two-part series. he second volume of the EMAP-Estuaries Laboratory Methods Manual ...

  10. 76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... comments on the Proposed Estuary Module was published in the Federal Register on January 8, 2008 (73 FR 161... survival during their migration through and rearing in the estuary and plume ecosystems. The module first... of salmon and steelhead during estuarine rearing and migration. Costs are included for each of...

  11. REGIONAL TRANSPORT AND SECONDARY SPREAD OF INVASIVE SPECIES ACROSS PACIFIC ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    San Francisco Bay is considered to be the most highly invaded estuary in North America, and is suspected of acting as a local source pool for secondary invasions of other Pacific estuaries. With support from the Regional Applied Research Effort programs in EPA Regions 9 and 10, ...

  12. Developing Nitrogen Load-Eelgrass Response Relationshups for New England Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have accumulated and analyzed eelgrass areal extent data for 67 estuaries from three New England states. To our knowledge this is the largest data set of its kind. Previous comparative studies have utilized data from a far smaller number of estuaries (ten or less) to develop e...

  13. A CLASSIFICATION OF U.S. ESTUARIES BASED ON PHYSICAL, HYDROLOGIC ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classification of U.S. estuaries is presented based on estuarine characteristics that have been identified as important for quantifying stressor-response

    relationships in coastal systems. Estuaries within a class have similar physical/hydrologic and land use characteris...

  14. WestuRe: U.S. Pacific Coast estuary/watershed data and R tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 350 estuaries along the U.S. Pacific Coast. Basic descriptive data for these estuaries, such as their size and watershed area, are important for coastal-scale research and conservation planning. However, this information is spread among many sources and can be dif...

  15. RESPONSE OF GULF COAST ESTUARIES TO NUTRIENT LOAD: DISSOLVED OXYGEN DEPLETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    GED has developed a process-based approach to hypoxia research on Pensacola Bay as a model Gulf of Mexico estuary. We selected Pensacola Bay because, like many Gulf coast estuaries, it is shallow, microtidal, and experiences seasonal hypoxia. We also have an historical database ...

  16. EFFECTS OF EROSION AND MACROALGAE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN A NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC ESTUARY (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in open-coast northeastern Pacific estuaries is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on the natural factors controlling its upper intertidal growth limits. This two-year study in the Yaquina Estuary (Newport, Oregon, USA) evaluated the...

  17. NAME: St. Lucie River Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration Project LOCATION: St. Lucie Estuary, Martin County, Florida

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    NAME: St. Lucie River Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration Project LOCATION: St. Lucie Estuary, Martin of the restored habitat to document short- and long-term project success. EXPECTED BENEFITS: The proposed restoration of 2 acres of oyster reef in the St. Lucie Estuary will provide habitat for approximately 3

  18. Estuary Data Mapper: A virtual portal to coastal data informing environmental management decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) is a free, interactive graphical application under development at the US EPA that allows environmental researchers and managers to quickly and easily retrieve, view and save subsets of online US coastal estuary-related data. Accessible data include ...

  19. Propagation of tidal waves up in Yangtze Estuary during the dry season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sheng; Tong, Chaofeng; Lee, Dong-Young; Zheng, Jinhai; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yixin

    2015-09-01

    Tide is one of the most important hydrodynamic driving forces and has unique features in the Yangtze Estuary (YE) due to the complex geometry of third-order bifurcations and four outlets. This paper characterizes the tidal oscillations, tidal dampening, tidal asymmetry, and tidal wave propagation, which provides insights into the response of the estuary to tides during the dry season. The structural components of tidal oscillations are initially attained by tidal analysis. The increasingly richer spectrum inside the estuary shows an energy transfer corresponding to the generation and development of nonlinear overtides and compound tides. A 2-D numerical model is further set up to reproduce tidal dynamics in the estuary. The results show that the estuary is a strongly dissipative estuary with a strong nonlinear phenomenon. Three amplifications are presented in the evolution process of tidal ranges due to the channel convergence. Tidal asymmetry is spatiotemporally characterized by the M4/M2 amplitude ratio, the 2M2-M4 phase difference, and the flood-ebb duration-asymmetry parameter, and the estuary tends to be flood-dominant. There exists mimic standing waves with the phase difference of the horizontal and vertical tide close to 90° when tidal wave propagates into the estuary, especially during the neap tide. In addition, the differences in tidal distortion, tidal ranges, and tidal waves along the two routes in the South Branch (S-B) suggest the branched system behaves differently from a single system.

  20. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Mapping ecosystem services in a Great Lakes estuary supports local decision-making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes provide a concentrated supply of ecosystem goods and services from which humans benefit. As long-term centers of human activity, most estuaries of the Great Lakes and have a legacy of chemical contamination, degraded habitats, and non-point...

  2. WATER QUALITY IN THE FRASER RIVER ESTUARY JANUARY, 1993 TO MARCH, 1994

    E-print Network

    #12;WATER QUALITY IN THE FRASER RIVER ESTUARY JANUARY, 1993 TO MARCH, 1994 TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES Consultants Ltd., Victoria, B.C. 2 EnviroEd Consultants Ltd., Victoria, B.C. for FREMP Water Quality Waste- Water quality in the Fraser River Estuary, January 1993 to March 1994 (Technical report series ; WQM 94

  3. CYCLING OF ELEMENTS IN ESTUARIES D. A. WOLFE AND T. R. RICE'

    E-print Network

    CYCLING OF ELEMENTS IN ESTUARIES D. A. WOLFE AND T. R. RICE' ABSTRACT Meaningful evaluation~jor reservoirs of those metals, the mechanisms and path- ways of elemental transformatIOn and rates of elemental mathematical models of elemental cycling. Estuaries form the interface between the open ocean and man's land

  4. 75 FR 2517 - Notice of Solicitation for Estuary Habitat Restoration Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...of the Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-457...or stream or other body of water that has an unimpaired connection...open sea and where the sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water from land drainage.'' Estuary...associated ecosystems, such as: Salt, brackish, and fresh water...below. Applications that best......

  5. An approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest Estuaries: A case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of an approach to developing nutrient criteria for Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, based on a case study of Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. The approach is based on a synthesis of research from field studies, analyses of historical trends in wat...

  6. Mercury Dynamics in a San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetland: Assessing Dynamics Using In Situ Measurements

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Mercury Dynamics in a San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetland: Assessing Dynamics Using In Situ the tidally driven exchange of mercury (Hg) between the waters of the San Francisco estuary and Browns Island, respectively--together predicted 94 % of the observed variability in measured total mercury concentra- tion

  7. Comparasion of finite difference and finite element hydrodynamic models applied to the Laguna Madre Estuary, Texas 

    E-print Network

    McArthur, Karl Edward

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Surface Water Flow and Transport Model in Two-Dimensions (SV*9FT2D) model was applied to the northern half of the Laguna Madre Estuary. SW=D is a two dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model for well-mixed estuaries...

  8. DEVELOPING NUTRIENT CRIETERIA FOR ESTUARIES WITH VARIABLE OCEAN INPUTS: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest have major intraannual and within estuary variation in sources and magnitudes of nutrient inputs. To develop an approach for setting nutrient criteria for these systems, we conducted a case study for Yaquina Bay, OR based on a synthesis of resea...

  9. UTILIZATION OF THE NANAIMO RIVER ESTUARY BY JUVENILE CHINOOK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS TSHAWYTSCHA

    E-print Network

    of Fisheries and Oceans, Resource Services Branch, Pacific Biological Station Nanaimo, B.C., Canada V9R 5K6. 2. Environ. Can., Fish. Mar. Serv., Van- couver. "Hoos, L. M., and C. L. VoId. 1975. The Squamish River estuary: Status ofenvironmental knowledge to 1974. Environ. Can., Fish. Mar. Servo Spec. Estuary Ser. 2

  10. Morphodynamics in sediment-starved inner-shelf submarine canyons (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada)

    E-print Network

    Morphodynamics in sediment-starved inner-shelf submarine canyons (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary Available online 3 September 2014 Keywords: Submarine canyons Inner-shelf Internal waves Slope failures in a series of inner-shelf submarine canyons located in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary were examined using

  11. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEAGRASSES, BENTHIC MACROALGAE AND NUTRIENTS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest estuaries are characterized by large tidal ranges (2-3 m) that routinely expose submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as seagrass and benthic macroalgae. The dominant native seagrass in PNW estuaries is the eelgrass Zostera marina. However, in recent decades...

  12. The relationship between dissolved humic acids and soluble iron in estuaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Dissolved humic acid and soluble iron appear to be chemically unassociated in estuaries despite their coincident removal. This conclusion is supported by differences in the aggregation kinetics of soluble iron and dissolved humic acid, the inability of extracted humic acid to stabilize laboratory preparations of ferric hydroxide, and decreasing ratios of humic acid carbon to soluble iron along the axes of some estuaries.

  13. MODELING FISH AND SHELLFISH DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE MOBILE BAY ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico provide rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those that have been identified as economically and ecologically important. For the Mobile Bay estuary, we developed statistical models to relate distributions of individual species and sp...

  14. Absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    E-print Network

    Absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Pearl River Estuary Available online 15 August 2005 Abstract The Pearl River is a complex river network under the influence of heavy urbanization and industrialization. The Pearl River Estuary receives freshwater from eight major

  15. 75 FR 17382 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the Sonoma County Water Agency (herein after ``Agency'') to take small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to Russian River Estuary (Estuary) water level management and monitoring......

  16. CONDITION OF THE MID ATLANTIC ESTUARIES: PRODUCTION OF A STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has released a report entitled Condition of the Mid-Atlantic Estuaries. That report summarizes the findings of several studies conducted by federal and state agencies and academic institutions in Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Estuary, and the c...

  17. The fish community of a newly restored southern California estuary: ecological perspective 3 years after restoration

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    The fish community of a newly restored southern California estuary: ecological perspective 3 years 2013 Abstract Bays and estuaries are considered essential fish habitat, yet in many parts of the world in the fish assemblages 3 years after the restoration of the Bolsa Chica Full Tidal Basin (BCFTB

  18. Conceptualizing the Structure of Coupled Estuary, Coast and Inner Shelf Sediment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of the coastal cell has endured for 50 years as a geomorphological framework for coastal engineering and management. Cells are readily defined for coasts dominated by alongshore transport of beach-grade material, but the concept struggles to accommodate long range cohesive sediment fluxes. Moreover, the challenges of predicting, understanding and mitigating climate change impacts at the coast demand a richer conceptualization that embraces the connectedness of open coasts with estuaries and the inner shelf at broader scales and that also acknowledges the extent of anthropogenic control. Accordingly, this paper presents a new approach that re-engages with formal systems analysis and restores a geomorphological focus to coastal management problems that have latterly been tackled primarily by engineers. At the heart of this approach is an ontology of landforms and interventions (both structural and non-structural) that is partly inspired by the coastal tract concept and its temporal hierarchy of sediment sharing systems, but which also emphasizes a spatial hierarchy in scale, from coastal regions, through landform complexes, to landforms and human interventions. The complex web of interactions is represented through an influence network in which a sub-set of mass transfer pathways define the sediment system. Guided by a machine-readable ontology and produced within a geospatial framework, such system ';maps' can be utilized in several ways. First, their generation constitutes a form of knowledge formalization in which disparate sources of information (published research, data etc) are generalized into usable knowledge. Second, system maps also provide a repository for more quantitative analyses and system-level modelling at the scales that really matter. Third, they can also be analyzed using methods derived from graph theory to yield potentially valuable insights into the scale linkages that govern the mutual adjustment of estuary, coast and inner shelf morphology and their implications for the development of quantitative models able to capture such behaviour. Illustrative results, produced as a contribution to the NERC Integrated Coastal Sediment Systems (iCOASST) project, are presented for demonstration regions in Liverpool Bay and Suffolk, UK.

  19. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  20. 7 CFR 4279.150 - Feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feasibility studies. 4279.150 Section 4279.150... § 4279.150 Feasibility studies. A feasibility study by a qualified independent consultant may be required... affect the borrower's operations. An acceptable feasibility study should include, but not be limited...

  1. Numerical model of the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, Edmund A.; Haushild, W.L.; Stoner, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical model of a salt-wedge estuary developed by Fischer (1974) has been expanded and used to calculate the distributions of salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved-oxygen concentration in the Duwamish River estuary, King County, Wash. The model was used to predict the dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Duwamish River estuary when the Renton Treatment Plant sewage-effluent discharge is increased to its proposed maximum of 223 cubic feet per second. The computed monthly average dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the estuary decreased by a maximum of 2 milligrams per liter when compared with computations for the summer of 1971, when the effluent discharge averaged 37 cubic feet per second. The increase in effluent discharge is not expected to cause large changes in phytoplankton concentrations in the estuary. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. What does impacted look like? High diversity and abundance of epibiota in modified estuaries.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme F; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dafforn, Katherine A; Coleman, Melinda A; Knott, Nathan A; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems modified by human activities are generally predicted to be biologically impoverished. However, much pollution impact theory stems from laboratory or small-scale field studies, and few studies replicate at the level of estuary. Furthermore, assessments are often based on sediment contamination and infauna, and impacts to epibiota (sessile invertebrates and algae) are seldom considered. We surveyed epibiota in six estuaries in south-east Australia. Half the estuaries were relatively pristine, and half were subject to internationally high levels of contamination, urbanisation, and industrialisation. Contrary to predictions, epibiota in modified estuaries had greater coverage and were similarly diverse as those in unmodified estuaries. Change in epibiota community structure was linearly correlated with sediment-bound copper, and the tubeworm Hydroides elegans showed a strong positive correlation with sediment metals. Stressors such as metal contamination can reduce biodiversity and productivity, but others such as nutrient enrichment and resource provision may obscure signals of impact. PMID:25282127

  3. Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in Meretrix meretrix Roding, Water and Sediments from Estuaries in Sabah, North Borneo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Sidi, Jovita; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in tissues of Meretrix meretrix Roding (M. meretrix R.), water and sediments from two estuaries were determined. One estuary is located in an urban area of Kota Kinabalu (Likas estuary) and the other in a rural district of Kota Belud (Kota Belud estuary), where both are in Sabah, North of…

  4. A framework for investigating general patterns of benthic ?-diversity along estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Francisco; Blanchet, Hugues; Hammerstrom, Kamille; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Oliver, John

    2014-08-01

    The description of major patterns in beta (?) diversity is important in order to understand changes in community composition and/or richness at different spatial and temporal scales, and can interrogate processes driving species distribution and community dynamics. Human impacts have pushed many estuarine systems far from their historical baseline of rich, diverse, and productive ecosystems. Despite the ecological and social importance of estuaries, there has not yet been an attempt to investigate patterns of ?-diversity and its partitioning along estuarine systems of different continents. We aimed to evaluate if benthic assemblages would show higher turnover than nestedness in tropical than in temperate systems, if well-known impacted estuaries would show greater nestedness than less polluted systems, and to propose a conceptual framework for studying benthic macrofauna beta diversity along estuaries. We analyzed subtidal benthic macrofaunal data from estuaries in Brazil, USA and France. We estimated alpha (?), beta (?) and gamma (?) diversity for each sampling time in each system, investigated patterns of ? -diversity as multivariate dispersion and the partitioning (nestedness and replacement) of ?-diversity along each estuary. There was a decrease in the ?-diversity along marine to freshwater conditions at most of the estuaries and sampling dates. Beta diversity as multivariate dispersion showed high variability. Most of the estuaries showed a greater proportion of the ?-diversity driven by replacement than nestedness. We suggest a conceptual framework for estuaries where relatively pristine estuaries would have their ?-diversity mostly driven by replacement while impacted estuaries subjected to several anthropogenic stressors would show total nestedness or total replacement, depending on the stress.

  5. ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology

    E-print Network

    specialized program concentrations: Aircraft Maintenance Technology, Engineering Technology Management: aerospace, computer, electrical, industrial, bioengineering, manufacturing, mechanical, and engineeringENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology Program The Bachelor of Science in Engineering

  6. Nutrient transport to the Swan-Canning Estuary, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Norman E.; Donohue, Robert

    2001-09-01

    Catchment nutrient availability in Western Australia is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly on the relatively narrow (25 km wide), sandy coastal plain. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and fluxes during the wet season of 15 tributaries, including four urban drains to the Swan-Canning Estuary, were evaluated from 1986 to 1992 and additionally concentrations only were evaluated throughout the year from 1993 to 1996. Concentrations of filtered reactive P (FRP) and total P (TP) were generally low, with the volume-weighted means for all sites being 0·06 mg l-1 and 0·12 mg l-1 respectively. The urban drains had higher TP concentrations (volume-weighted mean of 0·21 mg l-1) than the streams (0·12 mg l-1), with the high concentrations associated with particulate matter. Total inorganic N (TIN, NH4N plus NO3N) and total N (TN), which is of interest to eutrophic status of the N-limited estuary, were likewise low, compared with other developed areas having a similar climate. Both TIN and TN were higher in the urban drains (0·76 mg l-1 and 1·5 mg l-1 respectively) than the streams (0·31 mg l-1 and 1·2 mg l-1 respectively). The Avon River, which drains 98·5% of the 121 000 km2 catchment area, contributes most of the N (0·03 kg ha-1 year-1 or 65%) and a high percentage of the P (<0·01 kg ha-1estuaries. The Avon River nutrient fluxes are much less than other tributaries closer to the estuary. The coastal plain receives significantly higher rainfall (1,200 mm yearestuary. The coastal plain is also undergoing urbanization, particularly in areas adjacent to the estuary. Nutrients are subsequently available for transport during the onset of seasonal wet weather. Perennial baseflow from urban areas is an important source of nutrients. Water yield from the urban areas was high, being as much as 50% of annual rainfall. The timing of the nutrients delivered by the tributaries may be an important control on estuarine ecology.

  7. Nutrient transport to the Swan - Canning Estuary, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Donohue, R.

    2001-01-01

    Catchment nutrient availability in Western Australia is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly on the relatively narrow (~25 km wide), sandy coastal plain. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations and fluxes during the wet season of 15 tributaries, including four urban drains to the Swan-Canning Estuary, were evaluated from 1986 to 1992 and additionally concentrations only were evaluated throughout the year from 1993 to 1996. Concentrations of filtered reactive P (FRP) and total P (TP) were generally low, with the volume-weighted means for all sites being 0.06 mg 1-1 and 0.12 mg 1-1 respectively. The urban drains had higher TP concentrations (volume-weighted mean of 0.21 mg 1-1) than the streams (0.12 mg 1-1), with the high concentrations associated with particulate matter. Total inorganic N (TIN, NH4N plus NO3N) and total N (TN), which is of interest to eutrophic status of the N-limited estuary, were likewise low, compared with other developed areas having a similar climate. Both TIN and TN were higher in the urban drains (0.76 mg 1-1 and 1.5 mg 1-1 respectively) than the streams (0.31 mg 1-1 and 1.2 mg 1-1 respectively). The Avon River, which drains 98.5% of the 121 000 km2 catchment area, contributes most of the N (0.03 kg ha-1 year-1 or 65%) and a high percentage of the P (<0.01 kg ha-1 year-1 or 32%) to the estuaries. The Avon River nutrient fluxes are much less than other tributaries closer to the estuary. The coastal plain receives significantly higher rainfall (1,200 mm year-1) and has more intense horticulture and animal production than inland areas (<300 mm year-1). Annual rainfall is seasonal, occuring primarily from May through December. The surficial aquifers on the coastal plain generally are sandy with a low nutrient retention capacity, and rapidly transmit soluble and colloidal material in subsurface flow. Ellen Brook, on the coastal plain, drains pastures treated with superphosphate and has the highest FRP (0.51 mg 1-1), TP (0.7 mg 1-1) and TN (2.1 mg 1-1) of any tributary to the estuary. The coastal plain is also undergoing urbanization, particularly in areas adjacent to the estuary. Nutrients are subsequently available for transport during the onset of seasonal wet weather. Perennial baseflow from urban areas is an important source of nutrients. Water yield from the urban areas was high, being as much as 50% of annual rainfall. The timing of the nutrients delivered by the tributaries may be an important control on estuarine ecology. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  8. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURE PULSING PIPELINE UNPLUGGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    Servin, M. A.; Garfield, J. S.; Golcar, G. R.

    2012-12-20

    The ability to unplug key waste transfer routes is generally essential for successful tank farms operations. All transfer lines run the risk of plugging but the cross site transfer line poses increased risk due to its longer length. The loss of a transfer route needed to support the waste feed delivery mission impacts the cost and schedule of the Hanford clean up mission. This report addresses the engineering feasibility for two pressure pulse technologies, which are similar in concept, for pipeline unplugging.

  9. Library Data Processing Feasibility Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, M. J.; And Others

    To establish the precise effects of using MARC II in West Sussex, and how it could assist the library staff were the goals of this feasibility study. It illustrates the development of the library catalog and associated systems as both realistic and practical. It indicates what kind of repercussions will be felt by the library and how it could…

  10. Computer aided cogeneration feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anaya, D.A.; Caltenco, E.J.L.; Robles, L.F.

    1996-12-31

    A successful cogeneration system design depends of several factors, and the optimal configuration can be founded using a steam and power simulation software. The key characteristics of one of this kind of software are described below, and its application on a process plant cogeneration feasibility analysis is shown in this paper. Finally a study case is illustrated. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Tsunami flooding along Tagus estuary, Portugal, the 1531 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Batlo, J.; Ferreira, H.

    2012-04-01

    TSUNAMI FLOODING ALONG TAGUS ESTUARY (PORTUGAL), THE 1531 EVENT The city of Lisbon one of the main towns in Europe between the XVI and XVIII centuries was severely damaged by two strong earthquakes: 1531-01-26 and 1755-11-01 and the companion tsunamis. In this study we present a re-evaluation of the data available for this event. The 26 January 1531 earthquake occurred between 4 and 5 am and was felt mainly in Lisbon and surroundings dwellings along the Tagus river estuary. The shock heavily destroyed Lisbon downtown causing approximately 1000 casualties Two foreshocks preceded the event: on the 2nd and the 7th January 1531, respectively. The maximum MSK intensity is IX, making it one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the recent history of Portugal. The historical descriptions clearly describe the observation of high waves and the ships touching the riverbed. Although, the difference between tsunamis and storms is sometimes unclear in some historical documents, in this case, the occurrence of the of the earthquake definitively states clearly excludes the hypothesis of a storm. Moreover, the king's chronicle clearly states the observation of high waves and the lack of wind. Other reports consistent with the occurrence of a tsunami are the observation of strong fluxes and refluxes in the river the division of islands into smaller ones and the observation of the riverbed. In this study we present a re-appraisal of the historical information available, a new isoseismal map and the relocation of the epicentre. Finally, we present a tsunami simulation and propagation along a section of 70 km along Tagus estuary compatible with the earthquake data and the historical accounts.

  12. Occurrence of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several decades, a large quantity of reactive nitrogen has been transported into the Yangtze estuarine and coastal water, due to intense human activities in the Yangtze River Basin. At present, it annually receives a high load of anthropogenic inorganic nitrogen (about 1.1 × 1011 mol N) from increased agricultural activities, fish farming, and domestic and industrial wastewater discharge in the Yangtze River Basin, consequently leading to severe eutrophication and frequent occurrences of harmful algal blooms in the estuary and adjacent coastal areas. Hence, the microbial nitrogen transformations are of major concern in the Yangtze Estuary. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been reported to play a significant role in the removal of reactive nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the occurrences of anammox bacteria and associated activity in the Yangtze Estuary were evidenced with molecular and isotope-tracing techniques. It is observed that the anammox bacteria at the study area mainly consisted of Candidatus Scalindua, Brocadia, Kuenenia. Salinity was found to be a key environmental factor controlling distribution and diversity of the anammox bacterial community at the estuarine ecosystem. Also, temperature and organic carbon had significant influences on anammox bacterial biodiversity. Q-PCR assays of anammox bacteria indicated that their abundance had a range of 2.63 ×106 - 9.48 ×107 copies g-1 dry sediment, with high spatiotemporal heterogeneity. The potential anammox activities measured in the present work varied between 0.94 - 6.61nmol N g-1 dry sediment h-1, which were related to temperature, nitrite and anammox bacterial abundance. On the basis of the 15N tracing experiments, the anammox process was estimated to contribute 6.6 - 12.9 % to the total nitrogen loss whereas the remainder was attributed to denitrification.

  13. Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.

    1982-01-01

    The flux of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac riverine and estuarine sediments is controlled by processes occurring at the water-sediment interface and within surficial sediment. In situ benthic fluxes (0.1 to 2.0 mmoles m-2 day-1) are generally five to ten times higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.020 to 0.30 mmoles m-2 day-1). The discrepancy between the two flux estimates is greatest in the transition zone (river mile 50 to 70) and is attributd to macrofaunal irrigation. Both in situ and diffusive fluxes of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac tidal river sediments are low while those from anoxic lower estuarine sediments are high. The net accumulation rate of phosphorus in benthic sediment exhibits an inverse pattern. Thus a large fraction of phosphorus is retained by Potomac tidal river sediments, which contain a surficial oxidized layer and oligochaete worms tolerant of low oxygen conditions, and a large fraction of phosphorus is released from anoxic lower estuary sediments. Tidal river sediment pore waters are in equilibrium with amorphous Fe (OH)3 while lower estuary pore waters are significantly undersaturated with respect to this phase. Benthic regeneration of dissolved reactive phosphorus is sufficient to supply all the phosphorus requirements for net primary production in the lower tidal river and transition-zone waters of the Potomac River Estuary. Benthic regeneration supplies approximately 25% as much phosphorus as inputs from sewage treatment plants and 10% of all phosphorus inputs to the tidal Potomac River. When all available point source phosphorus data are put into a steady-state conservation of mass model and reasonable coefficients for uptake of dissolved phosphorus, remineralization of particulate phosphorus, and sedimentation of particulate phosphorus are used in the model, a reasonably accurate simulation of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in the water column is obtained for the summer of 1980. ?? 1982 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  14. Application of microwave radiometers for wetlands and estuaries monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shutko, A.; Haldin, A.; Novichikhin, E.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents the examples of experimental data obtained with airborne microwave radiometers used for monitoring of wetlands and estuaries located in coastal environments. The international team of researchers has successfully worked in Russia, Ukraine and USA. The data presented relate to a period of time between 1990 and 1995. They have been collected in Odessa Region, Black Sea coast, Ukraine, in Regions of Pittsville and Winfield, Maryland, USA, and in Region of St. Marks, Florida, USA. The parameters discussed are a soil moisture, depth to a shallow water table, vegetation index, salinity of water surface.

  15. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate concentration that was 1000 fold higher than the measured natural levels. The pure culture Nitrosomonas europaea (Nm 50) was more sensitive and was already inhibited by concentrations 10 to 100 fold above the in-situ concentrations. Overall, we find that glyphosate is apparently not as easily degradable as expected, as it can be detected in the water column and sediment of the Elbe estuary in spring and summer. Our results indicate that especially during bacterial growth, the natural nitrifying community can be affected if glyphosate concentrations in the water column increase.

  16. The Mattole River Estuary: Restoration Efforts in a Dynamic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D.; Liquori, M.

    2010-12-01

    Despite extensive scientific advancement integrating our understanding of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology in recent decades, the application of restoration in the field has been slow to evolve. This presentation will highlight 20 years of restoration practices in the Mattole River Estuary and how these practices have informed our understanding of this complex system. The Mattole River Watershed is a 304 square-mile basin located near the Mendocino Triple Junction in a remote region of California known as the “The Lost Coast” for its rugged mountains and undeveloped coastline. In addition to numerous species of fish, mammals, and over 250 bird species, the Mattole Watershed is home to three Federally-listed Threatened salmonids: California Coastal Chinook salmon, Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts coho salmon, and Northern California steelhead trout. The 64 mile-long river meets the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of the 64,000 acre King Range National Conservation Area (KRNCA), managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The watershed is dynamic, with some of the nation’s highest annual rainfall (mean = 158 cm/yr), naturally occurring steep slopes, erosive sedimentary geology, and frequent earthquakes. All of these factors have amplified the negative effects of extensive logging and associated road building between 1945 and 1970, which left a legacy of increased sediment loads and high water temperatures that have yet to recover to pre-disturbance levels, severely impairing riparian and aquatic habitats. Prior to major land disturbances, the Mattole estuary/lagoon was notable for its deep, thermally-stratified pools and numerous functioning north and south bank slough channels that flushed sediments from the river and received marine water. As flows decline in late spring, a sandbar closes off surface flow from the river to the Pacific Ocean, forming a lagoon, which persists until flows increase in the fall. Today, the estuary is poor habitat for all salmon and steelhead species: the water too warm, habitat cover poor, the channel lacks riparian vegetation, and only remnant, non- functioning slough channels are present. Over the last 20 years, the Mattole Salmon group has installed and monitored 12 large wood structures that have had various effects on the instream habitat and geomorphic processes that influence river and estuary dynamics. Methods of construction and hydrologic and geomorphic effects will be discussed, as will developing designs to reconnect abandon slough tributary channels.

  17. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries and embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. M.; Hong, G.-H.; Ye, X. W.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, X. L.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations among the Chinese rivers and bays vary 10-75 fold depending on nutrient elements. The silicic acid levels in South China rivers are higher than those from North China rivers and the yields of dissolved silicate increased from the north to the south of China, indicating the effect of climate on weathering. The nutrient levels in Chinese rivers are higher than those from the large and less-disturbed world rivers such as Amazon and Zaire, but comparable to the values for European and North American polluted and eutrophic rivers like the Loire and Po. This may be ascribed to both of extensive leaching and influences from agricultural and domestic activities over the drainage basins of Chinese rivers. DIN:PO3-4 ratios in most of Chinese rivers and bays are higher (up to 2800) than the other rivers in the world. The atomic ratios of DIN to PO43- in the major Chinese rivers and embayment decrease in exponential trend with increase in the atomic ratios of PO43- to Si(OH)4, indicating that primary production in coastal environments changes with the nutrients transport when the urbanization develops to a certain extent, and the potential limited nutrient elements can be changed from phosphorus to nitrogen limitation, which can modify aquatic food webs and then the ocean ecosystem. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed. The output shows that the estuaries and embayment behave as a sink or source of nutrients. For the major Chinese estuaries, both residual and mixing flow transport nutrients off the estuaries, and nutrient transport fluxes in summer is 3-4 fold that in winter except comparable for NH4+. These fluxes are 1.0-1.7 fold that estimated by timing riverine nutrient concentrations and freshwater discharge. For the major Chinese embayment, nutrient elements are transported to China Seas except PO43- and Si(OH)4 in Sanggou Bay and Jiaozhou Bay. Seasonally, nutrients transport fluxes off the bays in the summer are 2.2-7.0 fold that in the winter. In the embayment, the exchange flow dominated the water budgets, resulting in average system salinity approaching the China seas salinity where river discharge is limited. The major Chinese estuaries and embayment transport 1.0-3.1% of nitrogen, 0.2-0.5% of phosphorus and 3% of silicon necessary for phytoplankton growth for the China Seas. This demonstrates regenerated nutrients in water column and sediments and nutrients transport fluxes between the China Seas and open ocean play an important role for phytoplankton growth. Atmospheric deposition may be another important source of nutrients for the China Seas.

  18. Assessing the effects of nutrient management in an estuary experiencing climatic change: the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Valdes, Lexia M; Piehler, Michael F; Stow, Craig A

    2006-03-01

    Eutrophication is a serious water quality problem in estuaries receiving increasing anthropogenic nutrient loads. Managers undertaking nutrient-reduction strategies aimed at controlling estuarine eutrophication are faced with the challenge that upstream freshwater segments often are phosphorus (P)-limited, whereas more saline downstream segments are nitrogen (N)-limited. Management also must consider climatic (hydrologic) variability, which affects nutrient delivery and processing. The interactive effects of selective nutrient input reductions and climatic perturbations were examined in the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), North Carolina, a shallow estuary with more than a 30-year history of accelerated nutrient loading and water quality decline. The NRE also has experienced a recent increase in Atlantic hurricanes and record flooding, which has affected hydrology and nutrient loadings. The authors examined the water quality consequences of selective nutrient (P but not N) reductions in the 1980s, followed by N reductions in the 1990s and an increase in hurricane frequency since the mid-1990s. Selective P reductions decreased upstream phytoplankton blooms, but increased downstream phytoplankton biomass. Storms modified these trends. In particular, upstream annual N and P concentrations have decreased during the elevated hurricane period. Increased flushing and scouring from storms and flooding appear to have enhanced nutrient retention capabilities of the NRE watershed. From a management perspective, one cannot rely on largely unpredictable changes in storm frequency and intensity to negate anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and eutrophication. To control eutrophication along the hydrologically variable freshwater-marine continuum, N and P reductions should be applied adaptively to reflect point-source-dominated drought and non-point-source-dominated flood conditions. PMID:16456630

  19. Microphytobenthos interannual variations in a north-European estuary (Loire estuary, France) detected by visible-infrared multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyoucef, Ismaïl; Blandin, Elodie; Lerouxel, Astrid; Jesus, Bruno; Rosa, Philippe; Méléder, Vona; Launeau, Patrick; Barillé, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Estuarine intertidal sediments are colonized by photosynthetic microorganisms grouped under the generic term of microphytobenthos (MPB). These microbial assemblages form transient biofilms at the sediment surface and have important ecosystem functions. MPB biofilms are well known to exhibit high microscale patchiness whereas meso- and macroscale spatio-temporal structures are little known. In this work, satellite remote sensing was used to map MPB assemblages at such scales. MPB interannual distribution was investigated in the poly- and mesohaline domain of the north-European estuary (Loire estuary), using a multispectral SPOT image time series (1991-2009). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from two SPOT channels, XS2 and XS3, (red and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively). MPB biofilms were identified by NDVI values between 0 and 0.3. At the scale of the whole intertidal area, the results showed that MPB biofilms in the Loire estuary exhibited perennial structures in both the polyhaline and mesohaline sectors, occupying nearly 90% of the mudflat surfaces. MPB biofilm density was closely associated with intertidal position, with thicker biofilms developing mostly in the upper and middle shore, and formed kilometric longitudinal structures parallel to the shoreline. Mean NDVI values showed a strong positive correlation with mean seasonal air temperature (? = 0.714, p < 0.05 in the polyhaline domain and ? = 0.810, p < 0.05 in the mesohaline domain), with a strong correlation in the upper intertidal mudflat (between +3 and 4 m isobaths). Negative wind effect was mainly detected in the upper intertidal areas, particularly between the +3 and 4 m isobaths (? = -0.810, p < 0.05 in the polyhaline domain and ? = -0.910 in the mesohaline).

  20. Residual fluxes of water and nutrient transport through the main inlet of a tropical estuary, Cochin estuary, West Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Vinita, J; Lallu, K R; Revichandran, C; Muraleedharan, K R; Jineesh, V K; Shivaprasad, A

    2015-11-01

    Determining robust values for estuarine material fluxes has been a complex task and an interdisciplinary research challenge. With the advent of acoustic Doppler profilers (ADPs) having bottom-track capability and which provides three-dimensional current velocity profiles, more accurate estimation of cross-sectional fluxes is far accomplished in unsteady and bidirectional flow conditions of estuaries. This paper reports for the first time the discharge measurements conducted across Cochin inlet using ADP to examine the spring-neap variability in residual fluxes of water and nutrients during dry season. Cross-sectional current velocity profiles and salinity profiles were captured using ADP and conductivity temperature depth (CTD) instrumentation. Samples of surface and bottom water were also collected at 3-h intervals. The results indicated that there is a distinct transition from the neap to spring tides related to flow and salinity structure. The neap tide was partially mixed with large diurnal inequalities whereas the spring tide was well-mixed with symmetric tides. During ebb, an increase in the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and silicate was noticed indicating upstream sources for their inputs. In contrast, elevated levels of ammonia were found in the estuary throughout the period of observation. There was net residual outflow during both tides, and the computed residual water fluxes of neap doubled that of spring. The strong ebb currents and the increased nutrient concentrations during ebb resulted in the export of all nutrients (except ammonia during spring) into the sea. The findings of this study highlight the consequences of anthropogenic interventions in the estuary and their effects on the fluxes of ecologically relevant substances. PMID:26446129

  1. Feasibility of Estimating Relative Nutrient Contributions of Agriculture using MODIS Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Gasser, Gerald; Spiering, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Around the Gulf of Mexico, high-input crops in several regions make a significant contribution to nutrient loading of small to medium estuaries and to the near-shore Gulf. Some crops cultivated near the coast include sorghum in Texas, rice in Texas and Louisiana, sugarcane in Florida and Louisiana, citrus orchards in Florida, pecan orchards in Mississippi and Alabama, and heavy sod and ornamental production around Mobile and Tampa Bay. In addition to crops, management of timberlands in proximity to the coasts also plays a role in nutrient loading. In the summer of 2008, a feasibility project is planned to explore the use of NASA data to enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of near-coast nutrient source information available to the coastal community. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the viability of nutrient source information products applicable to small to medium watersheds surrounding the Gulf of Mexico. Conceptually, these products are intended to complement estuarine nutrient monitoring.

  2. Feasibility of Estimating Relative Nutrient Contributions of Agriculture and Forests Using MODIS Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Gasser, Gerald; Spiering, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Around the Gulf of Mexico, high-input crops in several regions make a significant contribution to nutrient loading of small to medium estuaries and to the near-shore Gulf. Some crops cultivated near the coast include sorghum in Texas, rice in Texas and Louisiana, sugarcane in Florida and Louisiana, citrus orchards in Florida, pecan orchards in Mississippi and Alabama, and heavy sod and ornamental production around Mobile and Tampa Bay. In addition to crops, management of timberlands in proximity to the coasts also plays a role in nutrient loading. In the summer of 2008, a feasibility project is planned to explore the use of NASA data to enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of near-coast nutrient source information available to the coastal community. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the viability of nutrient source information products applicable to small to medium watersheds surrounding the Gulf of Mexico. Conceptually, these products are intended to complement estuarine nutrient monitoring.

  3. Man-induced regime shifts in small estuaries—I: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterwerp, Johan C.; Wang, Zheng Bing

    2013-12-01

    This is Part I of two papers on man-induced regime shifts in small, narrow, and converging estuaries, with focus on the interaction between effective hydraulic drag, fine sediment import, and tidal amplification, induced by river engineering works, e.g., narrowing and deepening. In this part, a simple linear analytical model is derived, solving the linearized shallow water equations in exponentially converging tidal rivers. Distinguishing reflecting and non-reflecting conditions, a non-dimensional dispersion equation is derived which yields the real and imaginary wave numbers as a function of the estuarine convergence number and effective hydraulic drag. The estuarine convergence number describes the major geometrical features of a tidal river, e.g., intertidal area, convergence length, and water depth. This model is used in Part II analyzing the historical development of the tide in four rivers. Part I also presents a conceptual model on the response of tidal rivers to narrowing and deepening. It is argued that, upon the loss of intertidal area, flood-dominant conditions prevail, upon which fine sediments are pumped into the river, reducing its effective hydraulic drag. Then a snowball effect may be initiated, bringing the river into a hyper-turbid state. This state is self-maintaining because of entrainment processes, and favorable from an energetic point of view, and therefore highly stable. We may refer to an alternative steady state.

  4. The Caloosahatchee River Estuary: a monitoring partnership between Federal, State, and local governments, 2007-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    From 2007 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), operated a flow and salinity monitoring network at tributaries flowing into and at key locations within the tidal Caloosahatchee River. This network was designed to supplement existing long-term monitoring stations, such as W.P. Franklin Lock, also known as S–79, which are operated by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lee County, and the City of Cape Coral. Additionally, a monitoring station was operated on Sanibel Island from 2010 to 2013 as part of the USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science initiative and in partnership with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (J.N. Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge). Moving boat water-quality surveys throughout the tidal Caloosahatchee River and downstream estuaries began in 2011 and are ongoing. Information generated by these monitoring networks has proved valuable to the FDEP for developing total maximum daily load criteria, and to the SFWMD for calibrating and verifying a hydrodynamic model. The information also supports the Caloosahatchee River Watershed Protection Plan.

  5. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  6. Pu and 137Cs in the Yangtze River estuary sediments: distribution and source identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Dong, Wei; Yamada, Masatoshi; Aono, Tatsuo; Guo, Qiuju

    2011-03-01

    Pu isotopes and (137)Cs were analyzed using sector field ICP-MS and ? spectrometry, respectively, in surface sediment and core sediment samples from the Yangtze River estuary. (239+240)Pu activity and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.18) shows a generally increasing trend from land to sea and from north to south in the estuary. This spatial distribution pattern indicates that the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) source Pu transported by ocean currents was intensively scavenged into the suspended sediment under favorable conditions, and mixed with riverine sediment as the water circulated in the estuary. This process is the main control for the distribution of Pu in the estuary. Moreover, Pu is also an important indicator for monitoring the changes of environmental radioactivity in the estuary as the river basin is currently the site of extensive human activities and the sea level is rising because of global climate changes. For core sediment samples the maximum peak of (239+240)Pu activity was observed at a depth of 172 cm. The sedimentation rate was estimated on the basis of the Pu maximum deposition peak in 1963-1964 to be 4.1 cm/a. The contributions of the PPG close-in fallout Pu (44%) and the riverine Pu (45%) in Yangtze River estuary sediments are equally important for the total Pu deposition in the estuary, which challenges the current hypothesis that the riverine Pu input was the major source of Pu budget in this area. PMID:21306104

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of the Iture estuary in the central region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fianko, J R; Osae, S; Adomako, D; Adotey, D K; Serfor-Armah, Y

    2007-08-01

    A detailed study has been presented on heavy metal content of the Iture Estuary. Waters of the Sorowie and Kakum rivers that supply water into the Estuary were investigated to ascertain heavy metal pollution levels due to anthropogenic activities. Concentration s of Cd, Zn, Se and Pb were measured. The study shows pre-occupying pollution levels that constitute a threat to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The abundance of metals in the Estuary is in the order Zn > Pb > Cd > Se. The level of Cd in the Iture Estuary ranged between 0.011 mg/l and 0.041 mg/l while Se was in the range 0.018 mg/l to 0.029 mg/l, Pb 0.020 mg/l to 0.075 mg/l and Zn 0.040 to 2.45 mg/l. The impact of contaminated water from the Sorowie River on the Iture Estuary was outstanding and the study points out the importance of the Sorowie River as a primary pollution source to the Iture Estuary. The pollution of the Iture Estuary was found to be connected to human activities in its catchments. PMID:17171259

  8. A Numerical Study of Local Variations in Tidal Regime of Tagus Estuary, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Dias, João Miguel; Valentim, Juliana Marques; Sousa, Magda Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Tidal dynamics of shallow estuaries and lagoons is a complex matter that has attracted the attention of a large number of researchers over the last few decades. The main purpose of the present work is to study the intricate tidal dynamics of the Tagus estuary, which states as the largest estuary of the Iberian Peninsula and one of the most important wetlands in Portugal and Europe. Tagus has large areas of low depth and a remarkable geomorphology, both determining the complex propagation of tidal waves along the estuary of unknown manner. A non-linear two-dimensional vertically integrated hydrodynamic model was considered to be adequate to simulate its hydrodynamics and an application developed from the SIMSYS2D model was applied to study the tidal propagation along the estuary. The implementation and calibration of this model revealed its accuracy to predict tidal properties along the entire system. Several model runs enabled the analysis of the local variations in tidal dynamics, through the interpretation of amplitude and phase patterns of the main tidal constituents, tidal asymmetry, tidal ellipses, form factor and tidal dissipation. Results show that Tagus estuary tidal dynamics is extremely dependent on an estuarine resonance mode for the semi-diurnal constituents that induce important tidal characteristics. Besides, the estuarine coastline features and topography determines the changes in tidal propagation along the estuary, which therefore result essentially from a balance between convergence/divergence and friction and advection effects, besides the resonance effects. PMID:24312474

  9. The stirling engine for vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, P.

    1978-01-01

    The performance data of experimental Stirling engines are considered along with questions of exhaust-gas composition, engine noise, engine volume and weight, engine control, and the engine-starting process. The Stirling engine can use practically any liquid or gaseous fuel for its operation. It is found that technically a use of the Stirling engine in motor vehicles is feasible. Economic questions related to an introduction of the Stirling engine are discussed along with possible new developments which could improve the economic situation in favor of a use of Stirling engine.

  10. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B. ); Thom, Ronald M. ); Rumrill, Steven; Miller, L M.

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  11. Simulating entrainment and particle fluxes in stratified estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, A.; Jirka, G.; Lion, L.W.; Brunk, B.

    1999-04-01

    Settling and entrainment are the dominant processes governing noncohesive particle concentration throughout the water column of salt-wedge estuaries. Determination of the relative contribution of these transport processes is complicated by vertical gradients in turbulence and fluid density. A differential-turbulence column (DTC) was designed to simulate a vertical section of a natural water column. With satisfactory characterization of turbulence dissipation and saltwater entrainment, the DTC facilitates controlled studies of suspended particles under estuarine conditions. The vertical decay of turbulence in the DTC was found to obey standard scaling law relations when the characteristic length scale for turbulence in the apparatus was incorporated. The entrainment rate of a density interface also followed established grid-stirred turbulence scaling laws. These relations were used to model the change in concentration of noncohesive particles above a density interface. Model simulations and experimental data from the DTC were consistent over the range of conditions encountered in natural salt-wedge estuaries. Results suggest that when the ratio of entrainment rate to particle settling velocity is small, sedimentation is the dominant transport process, while entrainment becomes significant as the ratio increases.

  12. Interaction of lateral baroclinic forcing and turbulence in an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, J.R.; Stacey, M.T.; Burau, J.R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of density and velocity in a channel in northern San Francisco Bay show that the onset of vertical density stratification during flood tides is controlled by the balance between the cross-channel baroclinic pressure gradient and vertical mixing due to turbulence. Profiles of velocity, salinity, temperature, and suspended sediment concentration were measured in transects across Suisun Cutoff, in northern San Francisco Bay, on two days over the 12.5-hour tidal cycle. During flood tides an axial density front developed between fresher water flowing from the shallows of Grizzly Bay into the northern side of Suisun Cutoff and saltier water flowing up the channel. North of the front, transverse currents were driven by the lateral salinity gradient, with a top-to-bottom velocity difference greater than 30 cm/s. South of the front, the secondary circulation was weak, and along-channel velocities were greater than to the north. The gradient Richardson number shows that stratification was stable north of the front, while the water column was turbulently mixed south of the front. Time-series measurements of velocity and salinity demonstrate that the front develops during each tidal cycle. In estuaries, longitudinal dynamics predict less stratification during flood than ebb tides. These data show that stratification can develop during flood tides due to a lateral baroclinic pressure gradient in estuaries with complex bathymetry.

  13. Radium and radon in Charlotte Harbor Estuary, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Kraemer, T.F.; McPherson, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Radium-226 and 222Rn activities are greater in the estuarine waters of northern Charlotte Harbor and the lower tidal Peace and Myakka Rivers, Florida, than in either the freshwater reaches of the rivers or waters of the lower estuary and the Gulf of Mexico. The activity of 226Ra in the tidal rivers increases with decreasing river inflow, with a maximum value of 548 dpm 1001-1 measured in the tidal Myakka River. The source of the high activity of 226Ra and 222Rn is predominantly ground water inflow. Because of the large ground water input, the contribution of 226Ra from suspended and bottom sediments is a smaller fraction of the total 226Ra input than in many other estuaries. Although ground water 226Ra activity in the area varies widely, we estimate that artesian ground water inflow to the tidal rivers is similar in magnitude to the flow of the rivers above the tidal reach during the dry season. ?? 1990.

  14. Trace metals geochemistry of Bengkulu river and estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, M. Lutfi; Darti, Puspa; Alwi, Wiwit; Swistoro, Eko; Sundaryono, Agus; Ruyani, Aceng

    2015-09-01

    Unique feature of Indonesian archipelago in addition to its location that settled between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean has made Indonesian seas as important parts of the world ocean system. In contrast, research on Indonesian seas including its marine geochemistry is scarce. Research findings have proven that Indonesian seas and its characteristics, such as Indonesian throughflow, are important in the seawater thermohaline circulation that affect world's global climate. The transports of mass and heat from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean are crucial for the oceanic circulation and sea surface temperatures. It is only until recently known that water masses movement could be traced using chemical elements such as Zr and Hf. In modern ocean, sources of these chemicals are mostly from continents. Chemicals had been brought to the oceans through river, estuary, coastal and eventually open seawater. We have analyzed selected important trace metals of Bengkulu river and estuary starting from upper stream of Bengkulu River to coastal seawater of the Indian Ocean. Concentrations of trace metals in the sample were determined by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Dissolved and labile particulate concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, V, Sr and Zn are reported in this study.

  15. Environmental flow assessments in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. F.; Sun, T.; Zhao, R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach to assess environmental flows in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton considering the complex relationship between hydrological modification and biomass in ecosystems. As a first step, a relationship was established between biomass requirements for organisms of primary and higher nutritional levels based on the principle of nutritional energy flow of ecosystem. Then, diagnostic pigments were employed to represent phytoplankton community biomass, which indicated competition between two groups of phytoplankton in the biochemistry process. Considering empirical relationships between diagnostic pigments and critical environmental factors, responses of biomass to river discharges were established based on a convection-diffusion model by simulating distributions of critical environmental factors under action of river discharges and tide currents. Consequently, environmental flows could be recommended for different requirements of fish biomass. In the case study in the Yellow River estuary, May and October were identified as critical months for fish reproduction and growth during dry years. Artificial hydrological regulation strategies should carefully consider the temporal variations of natural flow regime, especially for a high-amplitude flood pulse, which may cause negative effects on phytoplankton groups and higher organism biomass.

  16. Macrobenthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Maria José; Costa, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    A 1-year study on the evolution of benthic communities of saltpans from the Sado estuary was carried out in order to evaluate its density, biomass and diversity, and to understand its trophic-dynamic structure under harsh environmental conditions. Physical and chemical parameters of the water column and sediments were also studied. Salinity and redox potential fluctuated sharply. Of eighteen taxa observed, a few occurred in significant numbers Chironomus salinarius (99 %) at crystallisation ponds where Artemia is present in the water column at salinities ranging from 23 to 249 g .L -1, Hydrobia (95 %) at evaporation pond (salinities between 29 and 112 g .L -1), while the reservoir, with salinities from 22 to 45 g .L -1, showed higher diversity nevertheless lower than in the estuary itself. It is colonised all year by Abra ovata, Cerastoderma glaucum, Hedistes diversicolor, Capitella sp., Microspio mecznikowianus, Mellina palmata, Polydora ciliata, Capitellidae and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa. The diversity of macrobenthic communities decreases with increasing salinity. Among trophic dynamic groups, surface detritivores burrowers, which are present at 85 % of the samples, are the dominant group at evaporation and crystallisation ponds and appears as an isolated group linked to organic matter of sediments and nutrients.

  17. The Feasibility of Folk Science

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    If folk science means individuals having well worked out mechanistic theories of the workings of the world, then it is not feasible. Lay people's explanatory understandings are remarkably coarse, full of gaps and often full of inconsistencies. Even worse, most people underestimate their own understandings. Yet, recent views suggest that formal scientists may not be so different. In spite of these limitations, science somehow works and its success offers hope for the feasibility of folk science as well. The success of science arises from the ways in which scientists learn to leverage understandings in other minds and to outsource explanatory work through sophisticated methods of deference and simplification of complex systems. Three studies ask whether analogous processes might be present not only in lay people, but also in young children and thereby form a foundation for supplementing explanatory understandings almost from the start of our first attempts to make sense of the world. PMID:20625446

  18. Quantum Telescopes: feasibility and constrains

    E-print Network

    Kurek, A R; Stebel, Tomasz; Pollo, A

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly also other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of these devices, but some configurations were already proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of Quantum Telescopes and their possible limitations. Our rigorous simulations confirm that the general idea of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design.

  19. Lunar Analog Feasibility Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Neigut, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study designed to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5 deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The effect of different types of compression stockings, the pre-bed rest diet, and the use of a specific exercise program were reviewed for comfort, force verification and plasma volume shift

  20. Comparing spatial and temporal dynamics of anammox and denitrifying communities at Cape Fear River Estuary and New River Estuary, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisa, J. A.; Hirsch, M. D.; Duernberger, K. A.; Tobias, C. R.; Song, B.

    2010-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrification are two main microbial processes capable of removing fixed nitrogen by conversion into a gaseous species. Both microbial processes are known to occur in anoxic estuarine sediments and are capable of remediating excess nitrogen loadings from anthropogenic activities. In order to understand the importance of anammox and denitrification in estuarine ecosystems, we investigated both processes in two different estuaries of North Carolina to compare sedimentary nitrogen removal capacity and to identify key players of N2 production pathways. Both Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) and New River Estuary (NRE) are highly enriched with nitrogen from anthropogenic sources in spite of distinct geomorphological and geochemical characteristics. We conducted seasonal samplings to collect sediments across transects at fifteen stations along each estuary. 15N tracer techniques were used to measure spatial and temporal variations of N2 production by denitrification and anammox in estuarine sediments. Molecular analysis of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) and hydrazine oxidase (hzo) genes was conducted to examine community structures of denitrifying and anammox bacteria, respectively. Denitrification was found to be the dominant N2 production processes in both estuaries. Anammox contributed up to 19% and 15 % of total N2 productions in the CFEE and the NRE, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of hzo genes identified that the anammox bacteria at both estuaries are closely associated with five known genera in the order Brocadiales. Anammox communities at the CFRE showed biogeographical distribution along the estuarine gradients while high seasonal variations were observed in the NRE communities. Spatial and temporal variations of denitrifying communities at both estuaries were also found based on nosZ gene analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to define key biogeochemical parameters influencing the community dynamics and activities of anammox and denitrifying bacteria in these ecosystems. Thus, this study reveals the importance of community structure to its function, as well as estimates and compares potential N removal capacity in two geologically distinct estuarine ecosystems.