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1

Copper deficiency potentiates ethanol induced liver damage  

SciTech Connect

Copper sufficient (+Cu) and deficient ({minus}Cu) rats were fed liquid diets with EtOH or dextrose at 36% of kcals for 2 mo. Consumption of either the {minus}Cu diet or EtOH resulted in lower liver CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were lowest in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats; being 20% and 50% of control values, respectively. Ethanol resulted in higher MnSOD activity in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats. Low Cu intake as well as EtOH resulted in lower mitochondrial (Mit) TBARS relative to controls. TBARS were lowest in Mit from EtOH/{minus}Cu rats. Microsomal (Micro) TBARS were lower in {minus}Cu and EtOH-fed rats than in controls. The peroxidizability index (PI) was calculated as an index of substrate availability for lipid peroxidation. Ethanol feeding resulted in lower PI's in Mit and Micro than measured in non-EtOH rats. There was a positive correlation between Micro PI's and TBARS. These results show that despite reductions in components of antioxidant defense, compensatory mechanism arise resulting in reduction in peroxidation targets and/or an increase in alternate free radical quenching factors. Histological examination demonstrated increased portal and intralobular connective tissue and cell necrosis in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats, suggesting that Cu may be a critical modulator of EtOH induced tissue damage.

Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Han, B.; Graham, T.W.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

1992-02-26

2

Exogenous thioredoxin prevents ethanol-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in mouse liver  

PubMed Central

Ethanol-induced liver injury is characterized by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines, resulting in the development of hepatic steatosis, injury and cell death by necrosis and apoptosis. Thioredoxin (Trx), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule with anti-apoptotic properties, protects animals from a number of inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of ethanol on Trx or its role in ethanol-induced liver injury are not known. Female C57BL/6 mice were allowed ad libitum access to a Lieber-deCarli ethanol diet with 5.4% of calories as ethanol for 2 days to acclimate them to the diet, followed by 2 days 32.4% of calories as ethanol or pair-fed control diet. Hepatic Trx-1 was decreased by ethanol feeding; daily supplementation with recombinant human Trx (rhTrx) prevented this ethanol-induced decrease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that administration of rhTrx during ethanol exposure would attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis. Mice were treated with a daily intraperitoneal injection of either 5 g/kg of rhTrx or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Conclusion Ethanol feeding increased accumulation of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts, expression of hepatic tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and resulted in hepatic steatosis and increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). In ethanol-fed mice, treatment with rhTrx reduced 4-HNE adduct accumulation, inflammatory cytokine expression, decreased hepatic triglyceride and improved liver enzyme profiles. Ethanol feeding also increased TUNEL positive cells, caspase-3 activity, and cytokeratin-18 staining in the liver. rhTrx treatment prevented these increases. In summary, rhTrx attenuated ethanol-induced increases in markers of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine expression, and apoptosis. PMID:19205032

Cohen, Jessica I.; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; DiBello, Patricia M.; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Nagy, Laura E.

2010-01-01

3

The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats. PMID:16750340

Pramyothin, Pornpen; Samosorn, Patcharavadee; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

2006-10-11

4

Protective effects of ascorbic acid, dl -?-tocopherol acetate, and sodium selenate on ethanol-induced liver damage of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of a combination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (dl-?-tocopherol acetate), and selenium (sodium selenate) on ethanol-induced liver damage in rats was investigated, morphologically\\u000a and biochemically. The ethanol-induced injury was produced by the administration of 1 mL of absolute ethanol to each rat.\\u000a Animals received vitamin C (250 mg\\/kg), vitamin E (250 mg\\/kg), and

Sadakat Ozdil; ?ehnaz Bolkent; Refiye Yanardag; Pelin Arda-Pirincci

2004-01-01

5

Protective role of intracellular glutathione against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated whether intracellular glutathione is cytoprotective against ethanol-induced injury to cultured rat gastric mucosal cells in vitro. Secondly, it investigated whether reduced glutathione or oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. Cytolysis was quantified by measuring 51Cr release from prelabeled cells. Concentrations of ethanol greater than 12% caused cell damage and increased 51Cr release in a dose-dependent and time-related fashion. When a substrate for glutathione synthesis, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, was provided to cultured cells for 4 h before challenge with ethanol, cytolysis was significantly decreased corresponding with an increase in cellular glutathione content. Pretreatment with diethyl maleate, which depletes reduced glutathione without forming oxidized glutathione, potentiated ethanol-induced cell damage in a dose-dependent manner with the decrease of cellular glutathione content. The administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (which is specifically reduced by glutathione peroxidase to generate oxidized glutathione from reduced glutathione) or diamide (which nonenzymatically oxidizes reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione) enhanced ethanol injury. We conclude that in cultured gastric mucosal cells, (a) intracellular glutathione maintains integrity of gastric mucosal cells against ethanol in vitro; and (b) reduced glutathione rather than oxidized glutathione is responsible for this cytoprotection. We postulate that the presence of reduced glutathione is essential to allow glutathione peroxidase to catalyze the ethanol-generated toxic oxygen radical, hydrogen peroxide.

Mutoh, H.; Hiraishi, H.; Ota, S.; Yoshida, H.; Ivey, K.J.; Terano, A.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1990-06-01

6

PPAR?/? modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects by decreasing pyridoxal kinase activity  

PubMed Central

Because of the significant morbidity and lethality caused by alcoholic liver disease (ALD), there remains a need to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms that can be targeted to prevent and treat ALD. Towards this goal, minimally invasive biomarker discovery represents an outstanding approach for these purposes. The mechanisms underlying ALD include hepatic lipid accumulation. As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR?/?) has been shown to inhibit steatosis, the present study examined the role of PPAR?/? in ALD coupling metabolomic, biochemical and molecular biological analyses. Wild-type and Ppar?/?-null mice were fed either a control or 4% ethanol diet and examined after 4–7 months of treatment. Ethanol fed Ppar?/?-null mice exhibited steatosis after short-term treatment compared to controls, the latter effect appeared to be due to increased activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). The wild-type and Ppar?/?-null mice fed the control diet showed clear differences in their urinary metabolomic profiles. In particular, metabolites associated with arginine and proline metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism, were markedly different between genotypes suggesting a constitutive role for PPAR?/? in the metabolism of these amino acids. Interestingly, urinary excretion of taurine was present in ethanol-fed wild-type mice but markedly lower in similarly treated Ppar?/?-null mice. Evidence suggests that PPAR?/? modulates pyridoxal kinase activity by altering Km, consistent with the observed decreased in urinary taurine excretion. These data collectively suggest that PPAR?/? prevents ethanol-induced hepatic effects by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis, modulation of amino acid metabolism, and altering pyridoxal kinase activity. PMID:23851158

Goudarzi, Maryam; Koga, Takayuki; Khozoie, Combiz; Mak, Tytus D.; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Fornace, Albert J.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

7

PPAR?/? modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects by decreasing pyridoxal kinase activity.  

PubMed

Because of the significant morbidity and lethality caused by alcoholic liver disease (ALD), there remains a need to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms that can be targeted to prevent and treat ALD. Toward this goal, minimally invasive biomarker discovery represents an outstanding approach for these purposes. The mechanisms underlying ALD include hepatic lipid accumulation. As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR?/?) has been shown to inhibit steatosis, the present study examined the role of PPAR?/? in ALD coupling metabolomic, biochemical and molecular biological analyses. Wild-type and Ppar?/?-null mice were fed either a control or 4% ethanol diet and examined after 4-7 months of treatment. Ethanol fed Ppar?/?-null mice exhibited steatosis after short-term treatment compared to controls, the latter effect appeared to be due to increased activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). The wild-type and Ppar?/?-null mice fed the control diet showed clear differences in their urinary metabolomic profiles. In particular, metabolites associated with arginine and proline metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism, were markedly different between genotypes suggesting a constitutive role for PPAR?/? in the metabolism of these amino acids. Interestingly, urinary excretion of taurine was present in ethanol-fed wild-type mice but markedly lower in similarly treated Ppar?/?-null mice. Evidence suggests that PPAR?/? modulates pyridoxal kinase activity by altering Km, consistent with the observed decreased in urinary taurine excretion. These data collectively suggest that PPAR?/? prevents ethanol-induced hepatic effects by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis, modulation of amino acid metabolism, and altering pyridoxal kinase activity. PMID:23851158

Goudarzi, Maryam; Koga, Takayuki; Khozoie, Combiz; Mak, Tytus D; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Fornace, Albert J; Peters, Jeffrey M

2013-09-15

8

Effects of chronic normovolemic anemia on gastric microcirculation and ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of chronic normovolemic anemia on gastric microcirculation and gastric mucosal susceptibility to ethanol-induced gastric damage were investigated in anesthetized rats. Blood exchange by a plasma expander during four consecutive days rendered the animals anemic with a 34% decrease in the baseline hematocrit but without affecting blood volume. Chronic anemia induced a decrease in whole blood viscosity, an increase in gastric mucosal blood flow measured by hydrogen gas clearance, a decrease in gastric vascular resistance, and a decrease in gastric hemoglobin content without changes in the gastric oxygen content, the latter two parameters being measured by reflectance spectrophotometry. Gastric mucosal blood flow was lowered by intragastric administration of 100% ethanol in both anemic and control rats, but the final blood flow was significantly higher in anemic than in control animals. Macroscopic gastric damage induced by ethanol administration was significantly lower in anemic than in control rats. We conclude that chronic normovolemic anemia increases gastric mucosal blood flow and leads a protecting mechanism against gastric mucosal damage induced by absolute ethanol. PMID:8149840

Marroni, N; Casadevall, M; Panés, J; Piera, C; Jou, J M; Pique, J M

1994-04-01

9

The antioxidative and antihistaminic effect of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the possible protective effects of Nigella sativa (NS) and its constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in an experimental model. Forty male\\u000a rats aged four months were divided into four groups (each group containing ten animals); the control group received physiologic\\u000a saline (10 ml kg?1) and the ethanol group had taken 1 ml

Mehmet Kanter; Omer Coskun; Hamdi Uysal

2006-01-01

10

Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate physicochemical characterization of the oil extracted from foxtail millet bran (FMBO), and the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice. GC-MS analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) account for 83.76% of the total fatty acids; in particular, the linoleic acid (C18:2) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and the compounds of squalene and six phytosterols (or phytostanols) were identified in unsaponifiable matter of FMBO. The antioxidant activity examination of FMBO in vitro showed highly ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging effects against DPPH· and HO· radicals. Furthermore, the protective effect of FMBO against acute hepatic injuries induced by ethanol was verified in mice. In this, intragastric administration with different dosages of FMBO in mice ahead of acute ethanol administration could observably antagonize the ethanol-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, along with enhanced hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed and confirmed that FMBO is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury. PMID:24909671

Pang, Min; He, Shujian; Wang, Lu; Cao, Xinmin; Cao, Lili; Jiang, Shaotong

2014-08-01

11

Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Red Algae Gracilaria caudata Protects Mice Gut Against Ethanol-Induced Damage  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg?1, p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g?1, p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg?1, i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg?1, p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg?1, i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg?1, p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25g?1, p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/KATP pathway. PMID:22163181

Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; de Souza Chaves, Luciano; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lucia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

2011-01-01

12

Acute normovolaemic anaemia prevents ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats through a blood flow related mechanism.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess whether changes in gastric mucosal blood flow induced by acute normovolaemic anaemia influence the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ethanol-induced damage, and the relationship of these changes with nitric oxide biosynthesis. Acute normovolaemic anaemia, promoted by exchanging 3 ml of blood by a plasma expander, induced a significant increase in gastric mucosal blood flow measured by hydrogen gas clearance, without changes in arterial blood pressure. After intragastric 60% ethanol administration, gastric blood flow was still significantly higher in anaemic than in control rats, and this was associated with a lower macroscopic and microscopic gastric damage. Following ethanol administration, anaemic rats pretreated with an inhibitor of nitric oxide biosynthesis (L-NMMA, 50 mg/kg, i.v.) had a lower gastric blood flow and a higher macroscopic gastric damage than anaemic rats without pretreatment. Anaemic rats pretreated with vasopressin also had after ethanol administration a lower gastric blood flow and a higher macroscopic gastric damage. It is concluded that acute normovolaemic anaemia protects the gastric mucosa against damage induced by intragastric ethanol. The inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis reverts in part this protective effect, and this seems to be related with the capability of nitric oxide to increase gastric mucosal blood flow, since vasoconstriction by a nitric oxide-independent mechanism causes a similar effect. PMID:7870197

Casadevall, M; Piqué, J M; Cirera, I; Barrachina, M D; Terés, J

1994-11-01

13

Protective effect of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale) on ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice.  

PubMed

Cashew nut-shell liquid and the contained anacardic acids (AAs) have been shown to possess antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory, anti-Helicobacter pylori and antitumor properties. Despite these known effects, hitherto there were no published reports on their likely gastroprotective effects. The present study was designed to verify whether AAs afford gastroprotection against the ethanol-induced gastric damage and to examine the underlying mechanism(s). Gastric damage was induced by intragastric administration of 0.2mL of ethanol (96%). Mice in groups were pretreated orally with AAs (10, 30 and 100mg/kg), misoprostol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (2% Tween 80 in saline, 10mL/kg), 45min before ethanol administration. They were sacrificed 30min later, the stomachs excised, and the mucosal lesion area (mm(2)) measured by planimetry. Gastroprotection was assessed in relation to inhibition of gastric lesion area. To study the gastroprotective mechanism(s), its relations to capsaicin-sensitive fibers, endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels were analysed. Treatments effects on ethanol-associated oxidative stress markers GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD, and total nitrate/nitrite levels as an index of NO were measured in gastric tissue. Besides, the effects of AAs on gastric secretory volume and total acidity were analysed in 4-h pylorus-ligated rat. AAs afforded a dose-related gastroprotection against the ethanol damage and further prevented the ethanol-induced changes in the levels of GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD and nitrate/nitrite. However, they failed to modify the gastric secretion or the total acidity. It was observed that the gastroprotection by AAs was greatly reduced in animals pretreated with capsazepine, indomethacin, l-NAME or glibenclamide. These results suggest that AAs afford gastroprotection principally through an antioxidant mechanism. Other complementary mechanisms include the activation of capsaicin-sensitive gastric afferents, stimulation of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide, and opening of K(+)(ATP) channels. These combined effects are likely to be accompanied by an increase in gastric microcirculation. PMID:19853593

Morais, Talita C; Pinto, Natália B; Carvalho, Karine Maria M B; Rios, Jeison B; Ricardo, Nagila Maria P S; Trevisan, Maria Teresa S; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A

2010-01-01

14

Impaired Adaptive Cytoprotection to Ethanol-Induced Damage in Gastric Mucosa of Portal Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portal hypertension predisposes gastric mucosato increased damage by noxious agents. Adaptivecytoprotection has not been studied in portalhypertensive gastric mucosa. We evaluated adaptivecytoprotection in the gastric mucosa of portal hypertensiverats by exposure to ethanol. The injury index (percentgross lesions) was significantly higher in portalhypertensive rats than in sham-operated rats. The ratio of adaptive cytoprotection, calculated as thedegree of decrease in the

Koichi Ninomiya; Seigo Kitano; Takanori Yoshida; Toshio Bandoh; Dolgor Baatar; Sadaki Tsuboi

1999-01-01

15

The Protective Effect of Quercetin-3-O-?-D-Glucuronopyranoside on Ethanol-induced Damage in Cultured Feline Esophageal Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

Quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) is a flavonoid glucoside extracted from Rumex Aquaticus Herba. We aimed to explore its protective effect against ethanol-induced cell damage and the mechanism involved in the effect in feline esophageal epithelial cells (EEC). Cell viability was tested and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate assay was used to detect intracellular H(2)O(2) production. Western blotting analysis was performed to investigate MAPK activation and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression. Exposure of cells to 10% ethanol time-dependently decreased cell viability. Notably, exposure to ethanol for 30 min decreased cell viability to 43.4%. When cells were incubated with 50 µM QGC for 12 h prior to and during ethanol treatment, cell viability was increased to 65%. QGC also inhibited the H(2)O(2) production and activation of ERK 1/2 induced by ethanol. Pretreatment of cells with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, also inhibited the ethanol-induced ERK 1/2 activation. Treatment of cells with ethanol for 30 or 60 min in the absence or presence of QGC exhibited no changes in the IL-6 expression or release compared to control. Taken together, the data indicate that the cytoprotective effect of QGC against ethanol-induced cell damage may involve inhibition of ROS generation and downstream activation of the ERK 1/2 in feline EEC. PMID:22359468

Cho, Jung Hyun; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Ho Sung; Whang, Wan Kyunn; Sohn, Uy Dong

2011-12-01

16

Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerates ethanol-induced liver injury in mice: involvement of intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency. PMID:24155903

Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2013-01-01

17

Dietary Zinc Deficiency Exaggerates Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice: Involvement of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Factors  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency. PMID:24155903

Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J.; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2013-01-01

18

Tacrolimus (FK506) Prevents Early Stages of Ethanol Induced Hepatic Fibrosis by Targeting LARP6 Dependent Mechanism of Collagen Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Tacrolimus (FK506) is a widely used immunosuppressive drug. Its effects on hepatic fibrosis have been controversial and attributed to immunosuppression. We show that in vitro FK506, inhibited synthesis of type I collagen polypeptides, without affecting expression of collagen mRNAs. In vivo, administration of FK506 at a dose of 4 mg/kg completely prevented development of alcohol/carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis in rats. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was absent in the FK506 treated livers and expression of collagen ?2(I) mRNA was at normal levels. Collagen ?1(I) mRNA was increased in the FK506 treated livers, but this mRNA was not translated into ?1(I) polypeptide. No significant inflammation was associated with the fibrosis model used. FK506 binding protein 3 (FKBP3) is one of cellular proteins which binds FK506 with high affinity. We discovered that FKBP3 interacts with LARP6 and LARP6 is the major regulator of translation and stability of collagen mRNAs. In the presence of FK506 the interaction between FKBP3 and LARP6 is weakened and so is the pull down of collagen mRNAs with FKBP3. We postulate that FK506 inactivates FKBP3 and that lack of interaction of LARP6 and FKBP3 results in aberrant translation of collagen mRNAs and prevention of fibrosis. This is the first report of such activity of FK506 and may renew the interest in using this drug to alleviate hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23755290

Manojlovic, Zarko; Blackmon, John; Stefanovic, Branko

2013-01-01

19

Effect of indole-3-carbinol on ethanol-induced liver injury and acetaldehyde-stimulated hepatic stellate cells activation using precision-cut rat liver slices.  

PubMed

1. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a major indole compound found in high levels in cruciferous vegetables, shows a broad spectrum of biological activities. However, few studies have reported the effect of I3C on alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of I3C on acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and acetaldehyde-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). 2. Rat PCLS were incubated with 50 mmol/L ethanol or 350 ?mol/L acetaldehyde, and different concentrations (100-400 ?mol/L) of I3C were added into the culture system of these two liver injury models, respectively. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in tissue. Activities of alcoholic enzymes were also determined. ?-Smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), transforming growth factor (TGF-?(1) ) and hydroxyproline (HYP) were used as indices to evaluate the activation of HSC. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were observed to estimate collagen degradation. 3. I3C significantly reduced the enzyme leakage in ethanol-treated slices. In I3C groups, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 activities were inhibited by 40.9-51.8%, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was enhanced 1.6-fold compared with the ethanol-treated group. I3C also showed an inhibitory effect against HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. After being incubated with I3C (400 ?mol/L), the expression of MMP-1 was markedly enhanced, whereas TIMP-1 was decreased. 4. These results showed that I3C protected PCLS against alcoholic liver injury, which might be associated with the regulation of ethanol metabolic enzymes, attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:20880187

Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong; Xia, Zheng-Yuan; Wang, Hui

2010-12-01

20

Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves on ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.  

PubMed

The gastroprotective effect of tannic acid and the aqueous extract of Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves was investigated in the rat against ethanol-induced damage. Tannic acid, Q. ilex and P. granatum extracts gave 100% precipitation of ovine haemoglobin in vitro, whereas A. herba-alba extract was devoid of any protein-binding property. Oral administration of these plant extracts or tannic acid induced a significant decrease in gastric lesions (47.7%-76%). The observed protection was more pronounced when the test solution was given at the same time with ethanol, except for Q. ilex extract. The acid content of the stomach was significantly increased by P. granatum (368%) and A. herba-alba (251%) extracts prepared in ethanol. It is suggested that monomeric and polymeric polyphenols can strengthen the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:10189949

Gharzouli, K; Khennouf, S; Amira, S; Gharzouli, A

1999-02-01

21

Apomorphine attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the adult rat cortex.  

PubMed

Apomorphine, therapeutically used for Parkinson's disease, is a dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist that has been determined to be a potent antioxidant and to prevent the reaction of free radicals in the brain. Alcohol is a neurotoxic agent that induces neurodegeneration possibly through the generation of free radicals. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant potential of apomorphine upon ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the cortex of adult rats. Ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration was measured via the suppression of Bcl-2, the induction of Bax, the release of cytochrome C and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Moreover, ethanol-induced elevated levels of cleaved PARP-1 indicated exaggerated neuronal DNA damage. Our results demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of apomorphine by reversing the ethanol-induced apoptotic trend as observed by the increased expression of Bcl-2, down regulation of Bax, inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome C release and inhibition of activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Moreover, apomorphine treatment further decreased the expression of cleaved PARP-1 to reveal a reduction in ethanol-induced neuronal damage. Immunohistochemical analysis and Nissl staining also revealed neuroprotective effect of apomorphine after ethanol-induced neuronal cell death. In this study, our results indicated that apomorphine at doses of 1 and 5mg/kg has neuroprotective effects for ethanol-induced neuronal damage. Finally, we can conclude that apomorphine has effective therapeutic potential to protect the brain against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24795108

Badshah, Haroon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Min Ju; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ali, Tahir; Yoon, Gwang Ho; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Kim, Myeong Ok

2014-07-01

22

Ethanol-induced free radical injury to the hepatocyte glucagon receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma membrane receptors are essential in cellular homeostasis. Free radical generation and catalytic iron have been implicated in alcohol-induced liver injury; damage to plasma membrane receptors may be one important mechanisms of injury. The effect of ethanol-induced free radicals on hepatocyte receptor dysfunction was investigated in rodent models of free radical injury due to chronic alcohol administration. Receptors for glucagon

Spencer Shaw; John Eng; Elizabeth Jayatilleke

1995-01-01

23

Quercetin prevents ethanol-induced iron overload by regulating hepcidin through the BMP6/SMAD4 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure induces iron overload, enhancing ethanol-mediated liver damage. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the naturally occurring compound quercetin on ethanol-induced iron overload and liver damage, focusing on the signaling pathway of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with isocaloric-Lieber De Carli diets containing ethanol (accounting for 30% of total calories) and/or carbonyl iron (0.2%) and treated with quecertin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 15 weeks. Mouse primary hepatocytes were incubated with ethanol (100 mM) and quercetin (100 ?M) for 24 h. Mice exposed to either ethanol or iron presented significant fatty infiltration and iron deposition in the liver; these symptoms were exacerbated in mice cotreated with ethanol and iron. Quercetin attenuated the abnormity induced by ethanol and/or iron. Ethanol suppressed BMP6 and intranuclear SMAD4 as well as decreased hepcidin expression. These effects were partially alleviated by quercetin supplementation in mice and hepatocytes. Importantly, ethanol caused suppression of SMAD4 binding to the HAMP promoter and of hepcidin messenger RNA expression. These effects were exacerbated by anti-BMP6 antibody and partially alleviated by quercetin or human recombinant BMP6 in cultured hepatocytes. In contrast, co-treatment with iron and ethanol, especially exposure of iron alone, activated BMP6/SMAD4 pathway and up-regulated hepcidin expression, which was also normalized by quercetin in vivo. Quercetin prevented ethanol-induced hepatic iron overload different from what carbonyl iron diet elicited in the mechanism, by regulating hepcidin expression via the BMP6/SMAD4 signaling pathway. PMID:24746831

Tang, Yuhan; Li, Yanyan; Yu, Haiyan; Gao, Chao; Liu, Liang; Chen, Shaodan; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

2014-06-01

24

Protective action of antioxidants on hepatic damage induced by griseofulvin.  

PubMed

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a disease associated with ferrochelatase deficiency and characterized by the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PROTO IX) in erythrocytes, liver, and skin. In some cases, a severe hepatic failure and cholestasis were observed. Griseofulvin (Gris) develops an experimental EPP with hepatic manifestations in mice such as PROTO IX accumulation followed by cellular damage as wells as necrotic and inflammatory processes. The antioxidant defense system was also altered. The aim was to evaluate the possible protective effect of different antioxidant compounds: trolox (Tx), ascorbic acid (Asc), the combination Tx and Asc, melatonin (Mel), and the polyphenols: ellagic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and ferulic acid on liver damage and oxidative stress markers in a mouse model of EPP. Coadministration of Gris with Tx, Asc, and its combination, or Mel mainly affected heme biosynthetic pathway, resulting in a decrease in ALA-S activity which was increased by Gris, while the tested polyphenols exerted a protective effect on oxidative stress, decreasing lipid peroxidation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, antioxidant compounds can only protect partially against the liver damage induced by Gris, reducing oxidative stress or acting on heme regulation. PMID:24523661

Martinez, M del C; Afonso, S G; Buzaleh, A M; Batlle, A

2014-01-01

25

Protective Action of Antioxidants on Hepatic Damage Induced by Griseofulvin  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a disease associated with ferrochelatase deficiency and characterized by the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PROTO IX) in erythrocytes, liver, and skin. In some cases, a severe hepatic failure and cholestasis were observed. Griseofulvin (Gris) develops an experimental EPP with hepatic manifestations in mice such as PROTO IX accumulation followed by cellular damage as wells as necrotic and inflammatory processes. The antioxidant defense system was also altered. The aim was to evaluate the possible protective effect of different antioxidant compounds: trolox (Tx), ascorbic acid (Asc), the combination Tx and Asc, melatonin (Mel), and the polyphenols: ellagic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and ferulic acid on liver damage and oxidative stress markers in a mouse model of EPP. Coadministration of Gris with Tx, Asc, and its combination, or Mel mainly affected heme biosynthetic pathway, resulting in a decrease in ALA-S activity which was increased by Gris, while the tested polyphenols exerted a protective effect on oxidative stress, decreasing lipid peroxidation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, antioxidant compounds can only protect partially against the liver damage induced by Gris, reducing oxidative stress or acting on heme regulation. PMID:24523661

Martinez, M. del C.; Afonso, S. G.; Buzaleh, A. M.; Batlle, A.

2014-01-01

26

Nicotine enhances ethanol-induced fat accumulation and collagen deposition but not inflammation in mouse liver  

PubMed Central

Introduction Alcohol and tobacco are frequently co-abused. Tobacco smoke increases alcoholic steatosis in apoE(?/?) mice. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 chemicals, but it is unknown which compounds in tobacco smoke play a major role in increasing alcoholic steatosis. Methods C57BL/J6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with nicotine 1 mg/kg every day or saline at the same volume as a control when the mice were fed dextrose-control or ethanol Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets. Three weeks later the mice were sacrificed after overnight fasting. Results Neither nicotine injection nor ethanol feeding alone increased serum levels of triglyceride, but the combination of nicotine and ethanol increased serum levels of triglyceride. Both nicotine injection and ethanol feeding alone increased hepatic collagen type I deposition, and nicotine injection and ethanol feeding combined further increased hepatic collagen type I deposition. The combination of nicotine and ethanol also activated hepatic stellate cells, a principal liver fibrogenic cell. Hepatic fat accumulation was induced by ethanol feeding, which was enhanced by nicotine injection. Ethanol feeding caused an increase in serum ALT, but nicotine did not further increase serum ALT levels. Lipid droplets and inflammatory foci were observed in liver sections from ethanol-fed mice; nicotine treatment increased the number and size of lipid droplets, but not the number and size of inflammatory foci. Nicotine did not further increase ethanol-induced hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine enhances ethanol-induced steatosis and collagen deposition, but nicotine has no effect on ethanol-induced inflammation. PMID:23731694

Lu, Yongke; Ward, Stephen; Cederbaum, Arthur I.

2013-01-01

27

Cytokine Patterns Correlate with Liver Damage in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and C  

Microsoft Academic Search

T-cell immunoregulatory cytokines influence the persistence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection and the extent of liver damage. Th1 cytokines positively correlate with hepatic inflammation in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The pro-inflammatory, cytokines IL-6 and IL-18, are involved in viral clearance and in metabolic and viral hepatic diseases, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate

Katia Falasca; Claudio Ucciferri; Margherita Dalessandro; Pompea Zingariello; Paola Mancino; Claudia Petrarca; Eligio Pizzigallo; Pio Conti; Jacopo Vecchiet

28

Antioxidant Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Erosion in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This investigation elucidates the role of free radicals in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal erosion and the protective effect of lipoic acid. Methods: After overnight fasting, Wistar albino rats were orally treated with 1 ml of absolute ethanol to induce gastric erosion. Lipoic acid (100 mg\\/kg) was given orally for 3 days before ethanol administration. Mucosal damage was evaluated 1 h

Meral Yüksel; Can Erzik; Sule Çetinel

2008-01-01

29

Protective Effect of a Novel Rice Extract Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of rice extract on ethanol-induced mucosal damage in vivo and\\u000a wound healing of epithelial cells in vitro. Also, the effect of rice extract on gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, HSP72 expression, gastric acid secretion, and contribution of vanilloid receptor-mediated action was studied. In addition,\\u000a using cultured gastric mucosal cells

Tamotsu Matsuhashi; Michiro Otaka; Masaru Odashima; Mario Jin; Koga Komatsu; Isao Wada; Youhei Horikawa; Reina Ohba; Jinko Oyake; Natsumi Hatakeyama; Sumio Watanabe

2007-01-01

30

Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated; whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid, retinol and ?-carotene levels were measured in all the groups. RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid, retinol and ?-carotene levels. CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity. PMID:17278229

Birdane, Fatih Mehmet; Cemek, Mustafa; Birdane, Yavuz Osman; Gulcin, Ilhami; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin

2007-01-01

31

Vanillyl nonanoate protects rat gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury through a mechanism involving calcitonin gene-related peptide.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves are involved in the protection of gastric mucosa against damage by various stimuli and calcitoin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potential mediator in this process. This study was performed to explore the effect of vanillyl nonanoate, a capsaicin analog, on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury and the possible underlying mechanisms. A rat model of gastric mucosal injury was induced by oral administration of acidified ethanol and gastric tissues were collected for analysis of gastric ulcer index, cellular apoptosis, the activities of caspase-3, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), levels of CGRP, TNF-? and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that acute administration of ethanol significantly increased gastric ulcer index concomitantly with increased cellular apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, TNF-? and MDA levels as well as decreased activities of catalase and SOD. Pretreatment with 1mg/kg vanillyl nonanoate significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury and cellular apoptosis accompanied by increase of CGRP expression, and SOD activity and decrease of caspase-3 activity, TNF-? and MDA levels. The effects of vanillyl nonanoate were inhibited by capsazepine, an antagonist of capsaicin receptor. Our results suggested that vanillyl nonanoate was able to protect the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. The underlying mechanism is related to stimulation of CGRP release and subsequent suppression of ethanol-induced inflammatory reaction, cellular apoptosis and oxidative stress. PMID:21640099

Luo, Xiu-Ju; Li, Nian-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Shuai; Liu, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Chun; Li, Yuan-Jian; Dong, Xin-Rong; Peng, Jun

2011-09-01

32

Tumor Induced Hepatic Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Can Cause Moderate Liver Damage  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage. PMID:25401795

Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

2014-01-01

33

Globular adiponectin inhibits ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species production through modulation of NADPH oxidase in macrophages: involvement of liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipocytes, has been shown to play protective roles against chronic alcohol consumption. Although excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages is considered one of the critical events for ethanol-induced damage in various target tissues, the effect of adiponectin on ethanol-induced ROS production is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) on ethanol-induced ROS production and the potential mechanisms underlying these effects of gAcrp in macrophages. Here we demonstrated that gAcrp prevented ethanol-induced ROS production in both RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary murine peritoneal macrophages. Globular adiponectin also inhibited ethanol-induced activation of NADPH oxidase. In addition, gAcrp suppressed ethanol-induced increase in the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, including Nox2 and p22(phox), via modulation of nuclear factor-?B pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK, or knockdown of AMPK by small interfering RNA restored suppression of ethanol-induced ROS production and Nox2 expression by gAcrp. Finally, we found that gAcrp treatment induced phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), an upstream signaling molecule mediating AMPK activation. Knockdown of LKB1 restored gAcrp-suppressed Nox2 expression, suggesting that LKB1/AMPK pathway plays a critical role in the suppression of ethanol-induced ROS production and activation of NADPH oxidase by gAcrp. Taken together, these results demonstrate that globular adiponectin prevents ethanol-induced ROS production, at least in part, via modulation of NADPH oxidase in macrophages. Further, LKB1/AMPK axis plays an important role in the suppression of ethanol-induced NADPH oxidase activation by gAcrp in macrophages. PMID:24850909

Kim, Mi Jin; Nagy, Laura E; Park, Pil-Hoon

2014-09-01

34

Depletion of Kupffer cells modulates ethanol-induced hepatocyte DNA synthesis in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

Kupffer cells (KCs) are important in hepatic homeostasis and responses to xenobiotics. KCs are activated on interaction with endotoxin, releasing cytokines, and reactive oxygen species normally associated with increased gene expression, cellular growth, or hepatic injury. Ethanol-induced endotoxemia is one means of KC activation. We propose that KC depletion attenuates the effect of EtOH-induced endotoxemia to impact the hepatic growth response. Hepatic DNA synthesis was examined in KC competent (KC+) or KC-depleted (KC-) C57BL/6 mice fed EtOH-containing diet in the presence or absence of polyphenol-60 antioxidant. KC depletion was assessed by F4/80 antigen, and DNA synthesis was assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) messenger RNA released was quantified by RT-PCR/electrophoresis. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting, and Nrf2 and CYP2E1protein were also assayed. Apoptosis and hepatic injury were examined by the Tunnel assay and hepatic transaminases in serum, respectively. Hepatic transaminases in serum (AST and ALT) were within normal range. Over 90% of KC was depleted by clodronate treatment. KC depletion decreased TNF-? mRNA release, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and hepatocyte DNA synthesis. KC depletion is associated with increased numbers of apoptotic cells bodies in KC- mice. Antioxidant treatment decreased DNA synthesis, Nrf2, and CYP2E1 protein expression in EtOH-consuming mice. Our data indicate that upon ethanol exposure, KC participates in hepatic DNA synthesis and growth responses. Collectively, these observations suggest that KC depletion attenuates the downstream effect of ethanol-induced endotoxemia by reduced cytokine and reactive oxygen species production with its concomitant effect on MAPK-signaling pathway on hepatocyte DNA synthesis. PMID:22996800

Owumi, Solomon E; Corthals, Stacy M; Uwaifo, Anthony O; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Klaunig, James E

2014-08-01

35

Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5?mg/kg?bw and 10?mg/kg?bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

2014-01-01

36

Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Amalkadi Ghrita against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amalkadi Ghrita (AG), a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of AG was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP). The serum levels of total proteins and bilirubin

Girish S Achliya; Sudhir G Wadodkar; Avinash K Dorle

2004-01-01

37

Investigation of the mechanisms involved in the central effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricularly injected glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Absolute ethanol was administered through an orogastric cannula 5 min before GLP-1 (1 microg/10 microl) injection. One hour later, the rats were decapitated, their stomachs were removed and scored for mucosal damage. GLP-1 inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage by 92%. Centrally injected atropine sulphate, a muscarinic receptor antagonist (5 microg/10 microl), prevented the gastroprotective effect of GLP-1, while mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist (25 microg/10 microl), was ineffective. Peripherally injected atropine methyl nitrate (1 mg/kg) did not change the effect of GLP-1, but mecamylamine (5 mg/kg) blocked it. Cysteamine, a somatostatin depletor (280 mg/kg, s.c.), did not affect the protective activity of GLP-1, while inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by L-NAME (3 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly abolished the protective effect of GLP-1 on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. We conclude that central muscarinic and peripheral nicotinic cholinergic receptors and NO, but not somatostatin, contribute to the protective effect of intracerebroventricularly injected GLP-1 on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. PMID:15721488

Isbil-Buyukcoskun, Naciye; Gulec, Guldal

2005-05-15

38

Role of caspase-3 in ethanol-induced developmental neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute, transient exposure to ethanol causes a widespread pattern of caspase-3 activation and neuroapoptosis in the developing rodent brain. To determine whether caspase-3 activation is an essential step in ethanol-induced developmental neuroapoptosis, we treated homozygous caspase-3 knockout mice or wild-type mice on postnatal day 7 with an apoptosis-inducing dose of ethanol and examined the brains at appropriate survival times for

Chainllie Young; Kevin A. Roth; Barbara J. Klocke; Tim West; David M. Holtzman; Joann Labruyere; Yue-Qin Qin; Krikor Dikranian; John W. Olney

2005-01-01

39

Curcumin attenuates methotraxate-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have addressed the ability of curcumin to suppress MTX-induced liver damage. Hepatotoxicity was induced by injection of a single dose of MTX (20mg/kg I.P.). MTX challenge induced liver damage that was well characterized histopathologically and biochemically. MTX increased relative liver/body weight ratio. Histologically, MTX produced fatty changes in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells, mild necrosis and inflammation. Biochemically, the test battery entailed elevated activities of serum ALT and AST. Liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH), were notably reduced, while lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdhyde (MDA) level was significantly increased. Administration of curcumin (100mg/kg, I.P.) once daily for 5 consecutive days after MTX challenge mitigated the injurious effects of MTX and ameliorated all the altered biochemical parameters. These results showed that administration of curcumin decreases MTX-induced liver damage probably via regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance. In conclusion, the present study indicates that curcumin may be of therapeutic benefit against MTX-cytotoxicity. PMID:20029470

Hemeida, Ramadan A M; Mohafez, Omar M

2008-06-01

40

Hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh- may - ... the most common types of viral hepatitis. Continue Hepatitis A For kids, hep A is the most ...

41

Hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Issues > Conditions > Abdominal > Hepatitis Health Issues Listen Hepatitis Article Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” ... it has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool ...

42

Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities in rats.  

PubMed

Purified oleuropein from olive leaf extract has been shown to have antioxidant effects in our recent studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant abilities of oleuropein in comparison with ranitidine in ethanol-induced gastric damages via evaluation of ulcer index inhibition, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation level. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven equal groups as follows: control group, ethanol group (absolute ethanol 1 ml/rat), oleuropein group (12 mg/kg), and oleuropein (6, 12, and 18 mg/kg) plus ethanol groups, as well as ranitidine (50 mg/kg) plus ethanol group. Pretreatment with oleuropein (12 and 18 mg/kg) significantly increased the ulcer index inhibition (percent), in comparison with oleuropein (6 mg/kg). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in the ethanol group when compared with the other groups whereas, treatment of rats with oleuropein (12 mg/kg) significantly increased glutathione content in gastric tissue when compared with the other groups, and lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the oleuropein- (12 and 18 mg/kg) and ranitidine-treated animals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were both much higher in oleuropein-treated rats than the ethanol group, and although there was a moderate increase in SOD and CAT activities in ranitidine-treated rats, the differences were not significant. These findings suggest that oleuropein has beneficial antioxidant properties against ethanol-induced gastric damages in the rat. Therefore, it seems that a combination regimen including both antioxidant and antisecretory drugs may be beneficial in prevention of ethanol-mediated gastric mucosal damages. PMID:22581435

Alirezaei, Masoud; Dezfoulian, Omid; Neamati, Shima; Rashidipour, Marzyeh; Tanideh, Nader; Kheradmand, Arash

2012-12-01

43

Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Bamboo salt, a Korean folk medicine, is prepared with solar salt (sea salt) and baked several times at high temperatures in a bamboo case. In this study, we compared the preventive effects of bamboo salt and purified and solar salts on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with purified and solar salts, bamboo salts prevented hepatic damage in rats, as evidenced by significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.05). Bamboo salt (baked 9×) triggered the greatest reduction in these enzyme levels. In addition, it also reduced the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Histopathological sections of liver tissue demonstrated the protective effect of bamboo salt, whereas sections from animals treated with the other salt groups showed a greater degree of necrosis. We also performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? in rat liver tissues. Bamboo salt induced a significant decrease (~80%) in mRNA and protein expression levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-?, and IL-1?, compared with the other salts. Thus, we found that baked bamboo salt preparations could prevent CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo. PMID:23964314

Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Kil, Jeung-Ha; Park, Kun-Young

2013-08-01

44

Sulforaphane protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in neural crest cells by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates a diverse array of antioxidant genes and protects cells from oxidative damage. This study is designed to determine whether D-L-sulforaphane (SFN) can protect neural crest cells (NCCs), an ethanol-sensitive cell population implicated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, against ethanol-induced apoptosis and whether protective effects of SFN are mediated by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response. Experimental Approach Control, SFN-treated or Nrf2-siRNA transfected NCCs were exposed to ethanol. Nrf2 activation, the expression and activities of Nrf2 downstream antioxidant proteins, reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis were determined in control and ethanol-exposed NCCs. Key Results Exposure of NCCs to SFN alone significantly increased Nrf2 activation and the expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Treatment of NCCs with SFN along with ethanol significantly decreased ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA significantly increased the sensitivity of NCCs to ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Suppression of Nrf2 signalling in NCCs also significantly diminished SFN-mediated antioxidant response and abolished the protective effects of SFN on ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Conclusions and Implications These results demonstrated that Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response plays an important role in the susceptibility of NCCs to ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and that the protection of SFN against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in NCCs is mediated by the induction of Nrf2 signalling. PMID:23425096

Chen, X; Liu, J; Chen, S-Y

2013-01-01

45

Prostacyclin inhibition by indomethacin aggravates hepatic damage and encephalopathy in rats with thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure  

PubMed Central

AIM: Vasodilatation and increased capillary permeability have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic form of hepatic encephalopathy. Prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) are important contributors to hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertensive states. Our previous study showed that chronic inhibition of NO had detrimental effects on the severity of encephalopathy in thioacetamide (TAA)-treated rats due to aggravation of liver damage. To date, there are no detailed data concerning the effects of PGI2 inhibition on the severity of hepatic encephalopathy during fulminant hepatic failure. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g were used. Fulminant hepatic failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA (350 mg/(kg.d) for 3 d. Rats were divided into two groups to receive intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (5 mg/(kg.d), n = 20) or normal saline (N/S, n = 20) for 5 d, starting 2 d before TAA administration. Severity of encephalopathy was assessed by the counts of motor activity measured with Opto-Varimex animal activity meter. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, an index of liver injury) and 6-keto-PGF1? (a metabolite of PGI2) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: As compared with N/S-treated rats, the mortality rate was significantly higher in rats receiving indomethacin (20% vs 5%, P<0.01). Inhibition of PGI2 created detrimental effects on total movement counts (indomethacin vs N/S: 438±102 vs 841±145 counts/30 min, P<0.05). Rats treated with indomethacin had significant higher plasma levels of TNF-? (indomethacin vs N/S: 22±5 vs 10±1 pg/mL, P<0.05) and lower plasma levels of 6-keto-PGF1? (P<0.001), but not total bilirubin or creatinine (P>0.05), as compared with rats treated with N/S. CONCLUSION: Chronic indomethacin administration has detrimental effects on the severity of encephalopathy in TAA-treated rats and this phenomenon may be attributed to the aggravation of liver injury. This study suggests that PGI2 may provide a protective role in the development of fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:15633222

Chu, Chi-Jen; Hsiao, Ching-Chin; Wang, Teh-Fang; Chan, Cho-Yu; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Chang, Full-Young; Chen, Yi-Chou; Huang, Hui-Chun; Wang, Sun-Sang; Lee, Shou-Dong

2005-01-01

46

Effect of D-002 on gastric mucus composition in ethanol-induced ulcer.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effect of D-002, a natural product isolated and purified from beeswax (Apis mellifera), on gastric mucus composition on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The morphology of the lesions was analysed histologically, and morphometric analysis of gastric-gland content in total glycoprotein and sulphated macromolecules were done. Oral pretreatment with D-002 at 5 and 25 mgkg(-1)1 before oral administration of ethanol at 60%, produced a significant increase in the amount of gastric mucus and total protein. The histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage at the same doses showed a significant increase in neutral glycoproteins and sulfated macromolecules. It is concluded that enhancement of the quantity and quality of the mucus could partly explain the gastroprotective effect of D-002. PMID:10987992

Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Noa, M; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, M L; Aguilar, C; Más, R

2000-10-01

47

Evaluation of the hepatic and renal-protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum in mice.  

PubMed

The antioxidative effect of hot water extract of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum on ethanol-induced free radical generation had been studied. In order to further investigate the hepatic and renal protective mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum, rates of lipid peroxidation were determined. The hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum dose-dependently exhibited antioxidative effect on mouse liver and kidney lipid peroxidation; our results indicated that hepatic and renal homogenates have a higher malonic dialdehyde level in an ethanol administered group than in the Ganoderma lucidum treated group. It was concluded that the hepatic and renal protective mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum, might be due at least in part to its prominent superoxide scavenging effect. Ganoderma extract could protect the liver and kidney from superoxide induced hepatic and renal damages. PMID:11789593

Shieh, Y H; Liu, C F; Huang, Y K; Yang, J Y; Wu, I L; Lin, C H; Li, S C

2001-01-01

48

Adenosine signaling contributes to ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver is commonly associated with alcohol ingestion and abuse. While the molecular pathogenesis of these fatty changes is well understood, the biochemical and pharmacological mechanisms by which ethanol stimulates these molecular changes remain unknown. During ethanol metabolism, adenosine is generated by the enzyme ecto-5?-nucleotidase, and adenosine production and adenosine receptor activation are known to play critical roles in the development of hepatic fibrosis. We therefore investigated whether adenosine and its receptors play a role in the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver. WT mice fed ethanol on the Lieber-DeCarli diet developed hepatic steatosis, including increased hepatic triglyceride content, while mice lacking ecto-5?-nucleotidase or adenosine A1 or A2B receptors were protected from developing fatty liver. Similar protection was also seen in WT mice treated with either an adenosine A1 or A2B receptor antagonist. Steatotic livers demonstrated increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A1 receptors, and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A2B receptors. In vitro studies supported roles for adenosine A1 receptors in promoting fatty acid synthesis and for A2B receptors in decreasing fatty acid metabolism. These results indicate that adenosine generated by ethanol metabolism plays an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis via both A1 and A2B receptors and suggest that targeting adenosine receptors may be effective in the prevention of alcohol-induced fatty liver. PMID:19221436

Peng, Zhongsheng; Borea, Pier Andrea; Wilder, Tuere; Yee, Herman; Chiriboga, Luis; Blackburn, Michael R.; Azzena, Gianfranco; Resta, Giuseppe; Cronstein, Bruce N.

2009-01-01

49

The effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage and on some serum biochemical parameters. Sixty male Wistar albino rats (200-250g) were randomly divided into six groups (ten rats/group) and included the control group the group were given isotonic sodium chloride (1mL/kg b.w) intraperitonealy (i.p.), group 2 the group treated i.p. injection of CCl4 (1.0mL/kg b.w) in corn oil twice in the first week, Groups 3 and 4 injected with CCl4 as described for group 2 and the rats were orally given (100mg/kg b.w) GSE and i.p. injected (10?g/rat) with colchicine for four weeks, respectively and groups 5 and 6 were the grape seed and colchicine control groups in which rats were orally given grape seed (100mg/kg b.w) and i.p. injected with colchicine (10?g/rat), respectively. Anorexia, weight loss, motionlessness and hepatic colour variation at necropsy were observed in groups 2, 3, and 4. Hyperemia, focal bleeding, fat degeneration, changes ranging from degenerative to necrotic, increase in connective tissue elements, pronounced in portal sites in particular, and infiltration of lymphoid series cell observed in the livers of the rats in group 2, treated with CCl4. Histological hepatic changes in the rats in group 3 and 4 were similar to those in group 2. The levels of serum total protein, albumin and globulin decreased in groups 2, 3, and 4, compared with groups 1, 5 and 6; aspartate transaminase (ALT) activities increased. The lowest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were in groups 4 and 5. We concluded that GSE and colchicine have not sufficient ameliorative effects to CCl4 induced acute hepatic damage. PMID:24925249

Atasever, Ayhan; Yaman, Duygu

2014-10-01

50

Role of Nrf2 in preventing ethanol-induced oxidative stress and lipid accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative stress and lipid accumulation play important roles in alcohol-induced liver injury. Previous reports showed that, in livers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-activated mice, genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced, whereas genes involved in lipid biosynthesis are suppressed. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in ethanol-induced hepatic alterations, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation, were treated with ethanol (5 g/kg, po). Blood and liver samples were collected 6 h thereafter. Ethanol increased alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in serum of Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. After ethanol administration, mitochondrial glutathione concentrations decreased markedly in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicates that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. Ethanol increased serum triglycerides and hepatic free fatty acids in Nrf2-null mice, and these increases were blunted in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In addition, the basal mRNA and nuclear protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1(Srebp-1) were decreased with graded Nrf2 activation. Ethanol further induced Srebp-1 mRNA in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In conclusion, Nrf2 activation prevented alcohol-induced oxidative stress and accumulation of free fatty acids in liver by increasing genes involved in antioxidant defense and decreasing genes involved in lipogenesis. -- Highlights: ? Ethanol depleted mitochondrial GSH in Nrf2-null mice but not in Keap1-KD mice. ? Ethanol increased ROS in hepatocytes isolated from Nrf2-null and wild-type mice. ? Nrf2 blunted ethanol-induced increase of triglycerides and free fatty acids. ? The mRNA and nuclear protein of Srebp-1 were decreased with Nrf2 activation. ? The mRNA of Scd1 was increased in Nrf2-null mice after ethanol exposure.

Wu, Kai Connie [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

2012-08-01

51

Effect of Azadirachta indica on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica, a plant used widely in Ayurveda, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and adaptogenic properties. The present study evaluates its hepatoprotective role. Fresh juice of tender leaves of Azadirachta indica (200 mg/kg body wt. p.o.) inhibited paracetamol (2 g/kg body wt. p.o.)-induced lipid peroxidation and prevented depletion of sulfhydryl groups in liver cells. There was an increase in serum marker enzymes of hepatic damage (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) after paracetamol administration. Azadirachta indica pretreatment stabilized the serum levels of these enzymes. Histopathological observations of liver tissues corroborated these findings. PMID:12834004

Yanpallewar, S U; Sen, S; Tapas, S; Kumar, Mohan; Raju, S S; Acharya, S B

2003-01-01

52

Ethanol-induced dysfunction of hepatocytes and leukocytes in patients without liver failure.  

PubMed

The repeated intake of a great amount of ethanol is followed by functional and organic changes in the body. The intestinal absorption of alcohol is accompanied by an increased absorption of Gram negative bacteria endotoxins in the portal blood. In the liver, endotoxins stimulate CD14 receptors on the membrane of Kupffer cells, with a secondary inflammatory liver response, consisting in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins. Simultaneously, alcohol metabolism in the hepatocytes by alcohol dehydrogenase, microsomal enzymes and catalase pathways determines a large production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), with secondary oxidative aggression on all liver cells: hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, endothelial sinusoidal cells, hepatic stellate cells and liver s lymphocytes. The oxidative aggression, as well as the intermediary products of the alcohol metabolism, cause a structural change of the antigenic structures of the liver and of the released proteins, that induces an immune response on the both pathways (humoral and cellular). The pathophysiological mechanisms and the paraclinical characteristics of the ethanol-induced liver failure are well known, so we were interested to study the patients with chronic alcoholism, but no clinical or paraclinical sign of liver failure, in order to describe the liver's protective mechanisms. For this reason, 153 patients with chronic alcoholism were divided into four test lots, in order to determine: the activity and the serum level of ceruloplasmin, plasma level of MDA (malondialdehyde), lactic and pyruvic acids, serum level of transferrin, alpha1-antitrypsin, CRP (C reactive protein), C3 fraction of the complement, IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8, cytosolic level of the cytochrome c in the circulating leukocytes. An immunophenotype study (as normal markers) on the peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed, too. The results demonstrate an important oxidative aggression induced by three sources: the alcohol metabolism in the hepatocytes, activated Kupffer cells and activated neutrophils that have infiltrated the liver, due to the chemoattractant effect of IL-8. This aggression induces apoptosis and necrosis of the liver cells. The major liver protective factor is, in our opinion, IL-6, due to its important antioxidant, antiapoptotic and proregenerative demonstrated actions. This protective effect of IL-6 is accompanied by antioxidant and antiprotease actions of ceruloplasmin, alpha1-antitrypsin and transferrin. We consider that an increased serum level of IL-6 accompanied by a decreased level of IL-1beta signify that antiapoptotic, antioxidant and proregenerative liver mechanisms prevail against proapoptotic and necrotic mechanisms. On the other hand, the ethanol-induced apoptosis of leukocytes (especially of the B cells) is very important, probably due to the absence of IL-6 protective action on these cells. The apoptosis of the circulating leukocytes is proved by their significant increase of the cytochrome c cytosolic level. The ethanol-induced liver immune response is predominantly cellular, as proved by the decreased ratio T helper (CD4+)/T cytotoxic (CD8+) in the peripheral blood. It is very important to observe that these significant immunologic changes appear before clinical or paraclinical signs of hepatic failure start. All these parameters were investigated in three groups of patients: chronic alcoholics, chronic alcoholics in the first 24 hours of the withdrawal and chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol intoxication, so the aggression types and the protective mechanisms were measured and differentiated in each "ethanolic status". PMID:16295318

Gheorghiu, Mihaela; Bâr?, C; P?s?ric?, Daniela; Bra?oveanu, Lorelei; Bleotu, Coralia; Topârceanu, Florica; Trandafir, T; Diaconu, Carmen C

2004-01-01

53

Ethanol-induced hypothermia and hyperglycemia in genetically obese mice  

SciTech Connect

Blood glucose and rectal temperatures were monitored in two strains of genetically obese mice (C57 BL/6J ob/ob) prior to and following intragastric ethanol administration in an attempt to relate the hypothermic response to ethanol to extracellular glucose concentration. In contrast to expectation, ethanol administration was typically associated with a hyperglycemia and a hypothermic response. In the ob/ob genotype, the hypothermic response was associated with pronounced hyperglycemia which was more emphatic in older animals. The data support the conclusion that ethanol-induced hypothermia is independent of blood glucose levels. In light of the known sensitivity of ob/ob mice to insulin, it is suggested further that the observed hypothermic response was not a function of the animals' ability to transport glucose into peripheral cells. The observed hyperglycemia of the obese animals was most likely stress-related

Haller, E.W.; Wittmers, L.E. Jr.

1989-01-01

54

Chemoprevention by Butea monosperma of hepatic carcinogenesis and oxidative damage in male wistar rats.  

PubMed

In this communication, we document chemopreventive effects of Butea monosperma extract on hepatic carcinogenesis and on tumor promoter induced markers and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. Treatment of male Wistar rats for five consecutive days with 2-AAF i.p. induced significant hepatic toxicity, oxidative stress and hyperproliferation. Pretreatment of B.monosperma extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) prevented oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and also prevented toxicity at both doses. The promotion parameters induced (ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis) by 2-AAF administration in diet with partial hepatectomy (PH) were also significantly suppressed dose dependently by B. monosperma. Thereafter, we proceeded with studies on rat liver carcinogenesis. After fourteen days of DEN treatment, dietary administration of 2-AAF with PH resulted in a 100% incidence of tumors in the animals. However, B.monosperma caused reduction in the number of tumors/ rat and percentage of tumor bearing rats at the end of the study, as confirmed histologically. Thus, our data suggest that B.monosperma extract is a potent chemopreventive agent which suppresses 2-AAF-induced hepatic carcinogenesis and oxidative damage in Wistar rats. The protective activity of the plant might be due to the two major constituents (butrin and isobutrin). PMID:16629533

Sehrawat, Anuradha; Sultana, Sarwat

2006-01-01

55

ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PARTNER PREFERENCE IN FEMALE MICE  

PubMed Central

Drinking behavior and social context are intimately intertwined. Peer relations can promote drinking. Conversely, alcohol promotes social interaction. The present study tested female mice for ethanol-induced conditioned partner preference. Ovariectomized (OVX) C57Bl/6 females with chronic estradiol replacement (OVX+E) received saline or ethanol (1, 2 or 4 g/kg) ip and were paired 4x for 30 min each with 1 of 2 stimulus females. The test female was paired with the CS? stimulus female following saline, and was paired with the CS+ female following ethanol. After pairing, we measured proximity of the test female to the CS+ and CS? females in a 10? test. In a second study, OVX and OVX+E females were tested for conditioned partner preference (CS+ vs CS?) in response to 2.5 g/kg ethanol. In separate groups of mice, both test and stimulus females (IS+) received ethanol during pairing to determine if test mice develop conditioned partner preference for another intoxicated mouse. OVX+E test females showed conditioned partner preference for the CS+ female in response to ethanol at 2 g/kg (change in preference score for CS+: +86.6±30.0 sec/10 min), but not at 0, 1 or 4 g/kg. At 2.5 g/kg ethanol, OVX+E females developed conditioned partner preference for either IS+ (+63.6±24.0 sec) or CS+ females (+93.8±27.1 sec). OVX test females demonstrated ethanol-induced conditioned partner preference only for the IS+ female (+153.8±32.0 sec). These data demonstrate that ethanol promotes social preference in female mice, and that estradiol enhances this effect. PMID:23369716

Wood, Ruth I.; Rice, Rachel

2013-01-01

56

Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Amalkadi Ghrita against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

Amalkadi Ghrita (AG), a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of AG was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP). The serum levels of total proteins and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Administration of AG (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ACP, ALP, and bilirubin. The decreased level of total proteins due to hepatic damage induced by CCl4 was found to be increased in AG-treated group. The results are comparable to that of silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to CCl4-treated group. Hepatoprotective effect of AG is probably due to combined action of all ingredients. PMID:15013185

Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K

2004-02-01

57

Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood-borne viral infections have implications for anaesthesia and intensive care because of their potential for transmission and as disease entities. An increasing number of hepatotropic viruses have been identified and may be acquired from faecal contamination (hepatitis A and E) or parenterally via body fluids (hepatitis B, C, D and G). These hepatotropic viruses preferentially cause hepatitis and exhibit this

Rick Keays

2004-01-01

58

14-Deoxyandrographolide targets adenylate cyclase and prevents ethanol-induced liver injury through constitutive NOS dependent reduced redox signaling in rats.  

PubMed

Chronic alcoholism is one of the most common causes of liver diseases worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to have potential for clinical application against chronic hepatocellular injuries. However, mechanisms underlying hepatoprotective functions of NO in ethanol-induced apoptosis are largely unknown. Sprauge-Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol for 8 weeks. Half of the ethanol-fed animals received 14-deoxyandrographolide (14-DAG) treatment for the last 4 weeks of study. Preventive effect of 14-DAG against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity involved constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activation followed by up-regulation of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity and reduced oxidative stress. Enhanced interaction of cNOS with caveolin-1 caused down-regulation of enzyme activity and led to depletion of NO in the hepatocytes of ethanol-fed animals. 14-DAG acted as activator of adenylate cyclase and modulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) mediated expression of caveolin-1 and calmodulin. This eventually favored activation of cNOS through inhibition of cNOS-caveolin-1 interaction. Our results suggest that, protective effect of 14-DAG against ethanol-induced hepatic injury is based on its ability to reduce oxidative stress through cNOS dependent improvement of redox status. 14-DAG mediated activation of adenylate cyclase-cAMP signaling leading to up-regulation of cNOS may provide a promising approach in the prevention of liver diseases during chronic alcoholism. PMID:23764359

Mandal, Samir; Nelson, Vinod K; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Bandhopadhyay, Sukdeb; Maganti, Lakshmi; Ghoshal, Nanda; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli

2013-09-01

59

Angiotensin receptor blockade recovers hepatic UCP2 expression and aconitase and SDH activities and ameliorates hepatic oxidative damage in insulin resistant rats.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is commonly associated with elevated renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress, and steatohepatitis with down-regulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). However, the mechanisms linking renin-angiotensin system, steatosis, and UCP2 to hepatic oxidative damage during insulin resistance are not described. To test the hypothesis that angiotensin receptor activation contributes to decreased hepatic UCP2 expression and aconitase activity and to increased oxidative damage after increased glucose intake in a model of MetS, lean and obese Long Evans rats (n = 10/group) were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) untreated Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (lean, strain control), 2) untreated Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) (MetS model), 3) OLETF + angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (10 mg olmesartan/kg·d × 6 wk), 4) OLETF + high glucose (HG) (5% in drinking water × 6 wk), and 5) OLETF + ARB + HG (ARB/HG × 6 wk). HG increased body mass (37%), plasma triglycerides (TGs) (35%), plasma glycerol (87%), plasma free fatty acids (28%), and hepatic nitrotyrosine (74%). ARB treatment in HG decreased body mass (12%), plasma TG (15%), plasma glycerol (23%), plasma free fatty acids (14%), and hepatic TG content (42%), suggesting that angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) activation and increased adiposity contribute to the development of obesity-related dyslipidemia. ARB in HG also decreased hepatic nitrotyrosine and increased hepatic UCP2 expression (59%) and aconitase activity (40%), as well as antioxidant enzyme activities (50-120%), suggesting that AT1 activation also contributes to protein oxidation, impaired lipid metabolism, and antioxidant metabolism in the liver. Thus, in addition to promoting obesity-related hypertension, AT1 activation may also impair lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity, resulting in steatosis via decreased UCP2 and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. PMID:23087176

Montez, Priscilla; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Rodríguez, Rubén; Thorwald, Max A; Viscarra, José A; Lam, Lisa; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

2012-12-01

60

Role of mitochondria ROS generation in ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death in astroglial cells  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immunity sensors that provide an early/effective response to pathogenic or injury conditions. We have reported that ethanol-induced TLR4 activation triggers signaling inflammatory responses in glial cells, causing neuroinflammation and brain damage. However, it is uncertain if ethanol is able to activate NLRs/inflammasome in astroglial cells, which is the mechanism of activation, and whether there is crosstalk between both immune sensors in glial cells. Here we show that chronic ethanol treatment increases the co-localization of caspase-1 with GFAP+ cells, and up-regulates IL-1? and IL-18 in the frontal medial cortex in WT, but not in TLR4 knockout mice. We further show that cultured cortical astrocytes expressed several inflammasomes (NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1, and IPAF), although NLRP3 mRNA is the predominant form. Ethanol, as ATP and LPS treatments, up-regulates NLRP3 expression, and causes caspase-1 cleavage and the release of IL-1? and IL-18 in astrocytes supernatant. Ethanol-induced NLRP3/caspase-1 activation is mediated by mitochondrial (m) reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation because when using a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger, the mito-TEMPO (500 ?M) or NLRP3 blocking peptide (4 ?g/ml) or a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, Z-YVAD-FMK (10 ?M), abrogates mROS release and reduces the up-regulation of IL-1? and IL-18 induced by ethanol or LPS or ATP. Confocal microscopy studies further confirm that ethanol, ATP or LPS promotes NLRP3/caspase-1 complex recruitment within the mitochondria to promote cell death by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, which accounts for ?73% of total cell death (?22%) and the remaining (?25%) die by caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Suppression of the TLR4 function abrogates most ethanol effects on NLRP3 activation and reduces cell death. These findings suggest that NLRP3 participates, in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and highlight the NLRP3/TLR4 crosstalk in ethanol-induced brain injury. PMID:25136295

Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Urena-Peralta, Juan R.; Morillo-Bargues, Maria Jose; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo

2014-01-01

61

GABAA receptors modulate ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and taste aversion in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: GABAA receptor antagonists have been shown to reduce ethanol self-administration and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion\\u000a (CTA) in rats, suggesting a role for the GABAA receptor in modulating ethanol’s motivational effects. Objectives: The present experiments examined the effects of the GABAA receptor antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, on the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP)\\u000a and CTA in male DBA\\/2J

Julia A. Chester; Christopher L. Cunningham

1999-01-01

62

Protective activity of andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins from Andrographis paniculata Nees. against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

To find out the active principles against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice, Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Ap) was chosen and isolated andrographolide (ANDRO) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). ANDRO was detected by HPTLC, FTIR and quantified by HPLC (10mg/g of Ap powder). AGPs was detected by beta-glucosyl Yariv staining of SDS-PAGE gel, FTIR and quantified by single radial gel diffusion assay with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (0.5mg/g Ap powder). The mice are pretreated intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with different doses (62.5, 125, 250, and 500mg/kg) of body weight of mice] of ANDRO and AGPs for 7 days and then ethanol (7.5g/kg of body weight) was injected, i.p. Besides, silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective agent for comparative study with ANDRO and AGPs. The ameliorative activity of ANDRO and AGP against hepatic renal alcohol toxicity was measured by assessing GOT, GPT, ACP, ALP and LP levels in liver and kidney. It has been observed that pretreatment of mice with ANDRO and AGPs at 500mg/kg of body weight and 125mg/kg of body weight respectively could able to minimize the toxicity in compare to ethanol treated group as revealed by the different enzymatic assay in liver and kidney tissues and the results were comparable with silymarin. Hence, out of several ill-defined compounds present in Ap, ANDRO and AGPs are the potential bioactive compounds responsible for protection against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:17127022

Singha, Prajjal K; Roy, Somenath; Dey, Satyahari

2007-04-20

63

Liver damage and systemic inflammatory responses are exacerbated by the genetic deletion of CD39 in total hepatic ischemia.  

PubMed

Liver ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with both local damage to the hepatic vasculature and systemic inflammatory responses. CD39 is the dominant vascular endothelial cell ectonucleotidase and rapidly hydrolyses both adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate to adenosine monophosphate. These biochemical properties, in tandem with 5'-nucleotidases, generate adenosine and potentially illicit inflammatory vascular responses and thrombosis. We have evaluated the role of CD39 in total hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Wildtype mice, Cd39-hemizygous mice (+/-) and matched Cd39-null mice (-/-); (n?=?25 per group) underwent 45 min of total warm ischemia with full inflow occlusion necessitating partial hepatectomy. Soluble nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDases) or adenosine/amrinone were administered to wildtype (n?=?6) and Cd39-null mice (n?=?6) in order to study protective effects in vivo. Parameters of liver injury, systemic inflammation, hepatic ATP determinations by P(31)-NMR and parameters of lung injury were obtained. All wildtype mice survived up to 7 days with minimal biochemical disturbances and minor evidence for injury. In contrast, 64% of Cd39+/- and 84% of Cd39-null mice required euthanasia or died within 4 h post-reperfusion with liver damage and systemic inflammation associated with hypercytokinemia. Hepatic ATP depletion was pronounced in Cd39-null mice posthepatic IRI. Soluble NTPDase or adenosine administration protected Cd39-deficient mice from acute reperfusion injury. We conclude that CD39 is protective in hepatic IRI preventing local injury and systemic inflammation in an adenosine dependent manner. Our data indicate that vascular CD39 expression has an essential protective role in hepatic IRI. PMID:21656186

Sun, Xiaofeng; Imai, Masato; Nowak-Machen, Martina; Guckelberger, Olaf; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Wu, Yan; Khalpey, Zain; Berberat, Pascal; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Robson, Simon Christopher

2011-12-01

64

The effects of caloric restriction against ethanol-induced oxidative and nitrosative cardiotoxicity and plasma lipids in rats.  

PubMed

Caloric restriction (CR) prevents or delays a wide range of aging-related diseases possibly through alleviation of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of CR on oxidative and nitrosative cardiac damage in rats, induced by acute ethanol intoxication. Male Wistar rats were divided into following groups: control; calorie-restricted groups with intake of 60-70% (CR60-70) and 40-50% of daily energy needs (CR40-50); ethanol-treated group (E); calorie-restricted, ethanol-treated groups (CR60-70?+?E, CR40-50?+?E). Ethanol was administered in five doses of 2?g/kg every 12?h, while the duration of CR was five weeks before ethanol treatment. Malondialdehyde level was significantly lower in CR60-70?+?E and significantly higher in CR40-50?+?E vs. control. Nitrite and nitrate level was significantly higher in CR40-50?+?E compared to control group. Activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its isoenzyme, copper/zinc-SOD (Cu/ZnSOD), was significantly higher in CR60-70?+?E and lower in CR40-50?+?E vs. control. Activity of manganese-SOD (MnSOD), that is also SOD isoenzyme, was significantly lower in ?CR40-50 + E compared to control group. Plasma content of sulfhydryl (SH) groups was significantly higher in CR60-70 group vs. control. Plasma concentration of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins was significantly lower in CR60-70 group compared to control values. Food restriction to 60-70% of daily energy needs has a protective effect on acute ethanol-induced oxidative and nitrosative cardiac damage, at least partly due to alleviation of ethanol-induced decrease in SOD activity, while restriction to 40-50% of energy needs aggravates lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress. PMID:24157589

Vucevic, Danijela; Mladenovic, Dusan; Ninkovic, Milica; Aleksic, Vuk; Stankovic, Milena N; Stankovic, Marija; Jorgacevic, Bojan; Vukicevic, Rada Jesic; Radosavljevic, Tatjana

2013-12-01

65

Effect of intestinal microbiota alteration on hepatic damage in rats with acute rejection after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

The previous studies all focus on the effect of probiotics and antibiotics on infection after liver transplantation. Here, we focus on the effect of gut microbiota alteration caused by probiotics and antibiotics on hepatic damage after allograft liver transplantation. Brown-Norway rats received saline, probiotics, or antibiotics via daily gavage for 3 weeks. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was carried out after 1 week of gavage. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota, liver function and histopathology, serum and liver cytokines, and T cells in peripheral blood and Peyer's patch were evaluated. Distinct segregation of fecal bacterial diversity was observed in the probiotic group and antibiotic group when compared with the allograft group. As for diversity of intestinal mucosal microbiota and pathology of intestine at 2 weeks after OLT, antibiotics and probiotics had a significant effect on ileum and colon. The population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the probiotic group was significantly greater than the antibiotic group and the allograft group. The liver injury was significantly reduced in the antibiotic group and the probiotic group compared with the allograft group. The CD4/CD8 and Treg cells in Peyer's patch were decreased in the antibiotic group. The intestinal Treg cell and serum and liver TGF-? were increased markedly while CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly decreased in the probiotic group. It suggested that probiotics mediate their beneficial effects through increase of Treg cells and TGF-? and deduction of CD4/CD8 in rats with acute rejection (AR) after OLT. PMID:25004996

Xie, Yirui; Chen, Huazhong; Zhu, Biao; Qin, Nan; Chen, Yunbo; Li, Zhengfeng; Deng, Min; Jiang, Haiyin; Xu, Xiangfei; Yang, Jiezuan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

2014-11-01

66

Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice.  

PubMed

Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 ?g/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions. PMID:25284923

Kang, H; Koppula, S

2014-07-01

67

Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 ?g/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions. PMID:25284923

Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

2014-01-01

68

Neuroprotective effect of osmotin against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain  

PubMed Central

Fetal alcohol syndrome is a neurological and developmental disorder caused by exposure of developing brain to ethanol. Administration of osmotin to rat pups reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Osmotin, a plant protein, mitigated the ethanol-induced increases in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP-1. Osmotin and ethanol reduced ethanol neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro by reducing the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, intracellular [Ca2+]cyt, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, and also upregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Osmotin is a homolog of adiponectin, and it controls energy metabolism via phosphorylation. Adiponectin can protect hippocampal neurons against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Abrogation of signaling via receptors AdipoR1 or AdipoR2, by transfection with siRNAs, reduced the ability of osmotin and adiponectin to protect neurons against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. Metformin, an activator of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase), increased whereas Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK pathway, reduced the ability of osmotin and adiponectin to protect against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Osmotin exerted its neuroprotection via Bcl-2 family proteins and activation of AMPK signaling pathway. Modulation of AMPK pathways by osmotin, adiponectin, and metformin hold promise as a preventive therapy for fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:24675468

Naseer, M I; Ullah, I; Narasimhan, M L; Lee, H Y; Bressan, R A; Yoon, G H; Yun, D J; Kim, M O

2014-01-01

69

Effects of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Current anti-gastric ulcer agents have side effects, despite the progression and expansion of advances in treatment. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective mechanisms of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. For this purpose, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 (normal control) rats were orally administered with vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose), Group 2 (ulcer control) rats were also orally administered with vehicle. Group 3 (positive control) rats were orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole, Groups 4 and 5 (experimental groups) received ethanol extract of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract at a concentration of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Sixty minutes later, vehicle was given orally to the normal control group, and absolute ethanol was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control and experimental groups to generate gastric mucosal injury. The rats were sacrificed an hour later. The effect of oral administration of plant extract on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury was studied grossly and histology. The level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde-MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gastric wall mucus were measured from gastric mucosal homogenate. The ulcer control group exhibited severe gastric mucosal injury, and this finding was also confirmed by histology of gastric mucosa which showed severe damage to the gastric mucosa with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer. Pre-treatment with plant extract significantly reduced the formation of ethanol-induced gastric lesions, and gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved. The study also indicated a significant increase in SOD activity in gastric mucosal homogenate, whereas a significant decrease in MDA was observed. Acute toxicity tests did not show any signs of toxicity and mortality up to 5 g/kg. The ulcer protective effect of this plant may possibly be due to its preservation of gastric wall mucus along with increased SOD activity and reduction of oxidative stress (MDA). The extract is non-toxic, even at relatively high concentrations. PMID:22395408

Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Qader, Suhailah Wasmn; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Nimir, Amal R; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain

2012-01-01

70

Schisandra Chinensis Baillon regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes in hepatic damage induced rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study investigated the antioxidant activities and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis Baillon extract (SCE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative hepatic damage in rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were pretreated with SCE (300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg BW) or saline once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, each animal, except those belonging to the normal control group, were injected with t-BHP (0.8 mmol/kg BW/i.p.), and all of the rats were sacrificed 16 h after t-BHP injection. RESULTS Although no significant differences in AST and ALT levels were observed among the TC and SCE groups, the high-dose SCE group showed a decreasing tendency compared to the TC group. However, erythrocyte SOD activity showed a significant increase in the low-dose SCE group compared with the TC group. On the other hand, no significant differences in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed among the TC and SCE groups. Hepatic histopathological evaluation revealed that pretreatment with SCE resulted in reduced t-BHP-induced incidence of lesions, such as neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In particular, treatment with a high dose of SCE resulted in induction of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). CONCLUSIONS Based on these results, we conclude that SCE exerts protective effects against t-BHP induced oxidative hepatic damage through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration, swelling of liver cells, and necrosis. In addition, SCE regulates the gene expression of phase II antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes independent of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24944771

Jang, Han I; Do, Gyeong-Min; Lee, Hye Min; Ok, Hyang Mok; Shin, Jae-Ho

2014-01-01

71

Ethanol inducing ascorbic acid release in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of freely moving mice.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that acute systemic administration of ethanol induced striatal ascorbic acid (AA) release in mice and rats. Undercutting the prefrontal cortex completely eliminated ethanol-induced AA release in rat striatum. In the present study, in vivo brain dialysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemical detection was used to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the release of AA in the prefrontal cortex, compared to that in the striatum of freely moving mice. The results showed that ethanol (4.0 g/kg i.p.) similarly induced AA release in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of freely moving mice. PMID:16880726

Hou, Yue; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu; He, Xiang; Guo, Tao

2006-08-01

72

Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

2014-01-01

73

Hepatoprotective Activity of Capparis spinosa Root Bark Against CCl4 Induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hepatoprotective herbal preparations have been recommended in alternative systems of medicine for the treatment of hepatic disorders. No systematic study has been done on protective efficacy of Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae) to treat hepatic diseases. Protective action of C. spinosa ethanolic root bark extract was evaluated in this study in an animal model of hepatotoxicity, which was induced by carbon

Nasrin Aghel; Amir Mombeini

74

Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37?g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2012-01-01

75

EGFR and FGFR pathways have distinct roles in Drosophila mushroom body development and ethanol-induced behavior.  

PubMed

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling has a conserved role in ethanol-induced behavior in flies and mice, affecting ethanol-induced sedation in both species. However it is not known what other effects EGFR signaling may have on ethanol-induced behavior, or what roles other Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) pathways may play in ethanol induced behaviors. We examined the effects of both the EGFR and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) RTK signaling pathways on ethanol-induced enhancement of locomotion, a behavior distinct from sedation that may be associated with the rewarding effects of ethanol. We find that both EGFR and FGFR genes influence ethanol-induced locomotion, though their effects are opposite - EGFR signaling suppresses this behavior, while FGFR signaling promotes it. EGFR signaling affects development of the Drosophila mushroom bodies in conjunction with the JNK MAP kinase basket (bsk), and with the Ste20 kinase tao, and we hypothesize that the EGFR pathway affects ethanol-induced locomotion through its effects on neuronal development. We find, however, that FGFR signaling most likely affects ethanol-induced behavior through a different mechanism, possibly through acute action in adult neurons. PMID:24498174

King, Ian F G; Eddison, Mark; Kaun, Karla R; Heberlein, Ulrike

2014-01-01

76

EGFR and FGFR Pathways Have Distinct Roles in Drosophila Mushroom Body Development and Ethanol-Induced Behavior  

PubMed Central

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling has a conserved role in ethanol-induced behavior in flies and mice, affecting ethanol-induced sedation in both species. However it is not known what other effects EGFR signaling may have on ethanol-induced behavior, or what roles other Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) pathways may play in ethanol induced behaviors. We examined the effects of both the EGFR and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) RTK signaling pathways on ethanol-induced enhancement of locomotion, a behavior distinct from sedation that may be associated with the rewarding effects of ethanol. We find that both EGFR and FGFR genes influence ethanol-induced locomotion, though their effects are opposite – EGFR signaling suppresses this behavior, while FGFR signaling promotes it. EGFR signaling affects development of the Drosophila mushroom bodies in conjunction with the JNK MAP kinase basket (bsk), and with the Ste20 kinase tao, and we hypothesize that the EGFR pathway affects ethanol-induced locomotion through its effects on neuronal development. We find, however, that FGFR signaling most likely affects ethanol-induced behavior through a different mechanism, possibly through acute action in adult neurons. PMID:24498174

King, Ian F. G.; Eddison, Mark; Kaun, Karla R.; Heberlein, Ulrike

2014-01-01

77

Bile composition, plasma lipids and oxidative hepatic damage induced by calcium supplementation; effects of goat or cow milk consumption.  

PubMed

Calcium-fortified foods, especially milk and dairy products are recommended to be consumed daily for groups in risk of nutritional deficiency, including children, young adults, menopausal women, pregnant women and the elderly, however Ca-supplementation promotes gallstone formation because Ca is a nucleating factor. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of cow or goat milk-based diets, either normal or Ca-supplemented, on bile composition, biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into six groups, fed standard, goat or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Ca content (5.0 g/kg), or Ca-supplemented (10.0 g/kg), for 2 weeks. Bile cholesterol concentration and output was higher in rats fed goat milk in comparison with those fed with standard and cow-milk-based diet. Ca-supplementation increased lithogenic index with the standard and cow-milk based diets, this change was not observed with the goat milk diet. Activities of plasma transaminases were also lower in the animals fed Ca-supplemented goat milk, in comparison with the other diets assayed. In general, Ca-supplement in the diet led to an increase in the hepatic oxidative damage, with an increase in the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied in the standard and cow milk diet, but not with goat milk. The habitual consumption of goat milk has positive effects on the plasma lipid profile, biliary composition and hepatic antioxidant defence. In addition, under our experimental conditions, Ca-supplementation of this type of milk does not increase the lithogenic index, or hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:23470261

Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María J M; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Nestares, Teresa; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Campos, Margarita S

2013-05-01

78

Zinc inhibits ethanol-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol consumption produces a variety of metabolic alterations in liver cells, associated with ethanol oxidation and with nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol, among others apoptosis of hepatocytes. As zinc is known as a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of cell apoptosis, the aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplementation could inhibit ethanol-induced HepG2 apoptosis, and whether this inhibition was connected with attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of FasR/FasL system expression. The results indicated that zinc supplementation significantly inhibited ethanol-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis (measured by cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-3 activation) by attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in the cellular level of GSH, inhibition of ethanol-induced sFasR and FasL overexpression and caspase-8 activation. These results indicate that zinc can inhibit ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by several independent mechanisms, among others by an indirect antioxidative effect and probably by inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-9 activation.

Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka [Department of Virology and Immunology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland)], E-mail: szustera@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl; Plewka, Krzysztof [Department of Virology and Immunology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Daniluk, Jadwiga [Department and Clinic of Gastroenterology, University Medical School, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Kandefer-Szerszen, Martyna [Department of Virology and Immunology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland)

2008-05-15

79

Y-27632 inhibits ethanol-induced increase in intestinal epithelial barrier permeability.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Y-27632, an inhibitor of the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), which belongs to a family of downstream effectors of activated RhoA, on the ethanol-induced increase in permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB). The in vitro model of IEB was established usiung Caco-2 cells, and the cells were pretreated with Y-27632 prior to treatment with ethanol for 60 min. Transepithelial resistance (TEER) and paracellular marker Lucifer yellow flux measurements were performed to assess the IEB permeability. The localization and expression of tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins were detected by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis, respectively. Y-27632 partially inhibited epithelial leakage and restored normal TEER values in the IEB. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that ethanol induces a shift from the insoluble to the soluble fractions of claudin-1, and that the ethanol-induced decreased expression of the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein is restored by Y-27632. In conclusion, our results suggest that ROCK may play a key role in the ethanol-induced increase of IEB permeability. PMID:24643688

Tong, Jing; Wang, Ying; Chang, Bing; Zhang, Dai; Wang, Bingyuan

2014-06-01

80

Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiot- ics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal

Soheila Korourian; Reza Hakkak; Martin J. J. Ronis; Susan R. Shelnutt; James Waldron; Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg; Thomas M. Badger

1999-01-01

81

ALTERED RA SIGNALING IN THE GENESIS OF ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Altered RA Signaling in the Genesis of Ethanol-Induced Limb Defects Johnson CS(1), Sulik KK(1,2) Hunter, ES III(3) (1) Dept of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-Chapel Hill (2) Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, UNC-CH (3) NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC Administr...

82

Microcirculatory stasis precedes tissue necrosis in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of blood flow stasis to the development of unequivocal histologic necrosis (loss of parietal cells from the column of contiguous cells) in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury was studied in anesthetized rats. The most rapid vascular change that occurred when the gastric mucosa was exposed to 100% ethanol was a severe segmental constriction of the large submucosal venules. At

Charles F. Bou-Abboud; Harold Wayland; Gary Paulsen; Paul H. Guth

1988-01-01

83

Metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in recombinant HepG2 cells: Role of nonoxidative metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Chronic alcohol abuse, a major health problem, causes liver and pancreatic diseases and is known to impair hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Hepatic ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol is a major pathway for the ethanol disposition in the body. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), induced in chronic alcohol abuse, is also reported to oxidize ethanol. However, impaired hepatic ADH activity in a rat model is known to facilitate a nonoxidative metabolism resulting in formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via a nonoxidative pathway catalyzed by FAEE synthase. Therefore, the metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 cells and recombinant HepG2 cells transfected with ADH (VA-13), CYP2E1 (E47) or ADH + CYP2E1 (VL-17A). Western blot analysis shows ADH deficiency in HepG2 and E47 cells, compared to ADH-overexpressed VA-13 and VL-17A cells. Attached HepG2 cells and the recombinant cells were incubated with ethanol, and nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol was determined by measuring the formation of FAEEs. Significantly higher levels of FAEEs were synthesized in HepG2 and E47 cells than in VA-13 and VL-17A cells at all concentrations of ethanol (100-800 mg%) incubated for 6 h (optimal time for the synthesis of FAEEs) in cell culture. These results suggest that ADH-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of ethanol is the major mechanism of its disposition, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. On the other hand, diminished ADH activity facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to FAEEs as found in E47 cells, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. Therefore, CYP2E1-mediated oxidation of ethanol could be a minor mechanism of ethanol disposition. Further studies conducted only in HepG2 and VA-13 cells showed lower ethanol disposition and ATP concentration and higher accumulation of neutral lipids and cytotoxicity (apoptosis) in HepG2 cells than in VA-13 cells. The apoptosis observed in HepG2 vs. VA-13 cells incubated with ethanol appears to be mediated by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These results strongly support our hypothesis that diminished hepatic ADH activity facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol and the products of ethanol nonoxidative metabolism cause apoptosis in HepG2 cells via intrinsic pathway.

Wu Hai [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pathology, 3 118A Keiller Building, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Cai Ping [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pathology, 3 118A Keiller Building, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Clemens, Dahn L. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Jerrells, Thomas R. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Ansari, G.A. Shakeel [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pathology, 3 118A Keiller Building, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pathology, 3 118A Keiller Building, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)]. E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu

2006-10-15

84

Drug-induced hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

85

Aripiprazole an atypical antipsychotic protects against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was undertaken, to study the gastro-protective potential of aripiprazole (ARI) an atypical antipsychotic drug in ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. ARI (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) was tested for gastric secretion and antiulcer activity in different groups of male Sprague Dawley rats. Gastric secretion and acidity studies were performed in pylorus ligated rats while indices of gastric ulcers were measured in ethanol (1 ml-100%) induced gastric ulcers. Histological changes and the levels of gastric wall mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and serotonin were used to assess ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries. Exposure of rats to ethanol resulted in gastric mucosal injury and a high index of ulcer. Pretreatment with ARI significantly (P < 0.001), reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol and also resulted in a significant decrease in the gastric secretion, and total acidity in pylorus ligated rats. ARI also significantly attenuated the ethanol induced reduction in the levels of gastric wall mucus, and NP-SH (P < 0.001). The histological changes and the increased MDA and MPO activity were also significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited by ARI. Ethanol induced depletion in the levels of serotonin in the gastric tissue were also significantly restored by pretreatment with ARI (p < 0.001). ARI showed significant antiulcer and gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers. The gastroprotective effects of ARI may be due to its anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and also due to the restoration of the depleted gastric serotonin levels. PMID:25232384

Asmari, Abdulrahman Al; Arshaduddin, Mohammed; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Kadasah, Saeed; Robayan, Abdulrahman Al; Asmary, Saeed Al

2014-01-01

86

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV limits organ damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through induction of autophagy  

PubMed Central

Sterile inflammatory insults, such as ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, result from pathogenic factors, including damage-associated molecular pattern signaling, activation of innate immunity, and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. At the same time, a number of protective, or prosurvival, pathways are also activated, and the extent of end-organ damage is ultimately determined by the balance between these two systems. In liver I/R, members of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) family are known to be activated, but their individual roles are largely unknown. In this study, we show that one CaMK member, CaMKIV, is protective in hepatic I/R by activating the prosurvival pathway of autophagy in hepatocytes. CaMKIV knockout mice experience significantly worse organ damage after I/R and are deficient in hepatocyte autophagic signaling. Restoration of autophagic signaling with rapamycin reduces organ damage in CaMKIV knockout mice to wild-type levels. In vitro, we show that CaMKIV activation induces autophagy in mouse hepatocytes, and that CaMKIV activation protects hepatocytes from oxidative stress-induced cell death. In conclusion, the protective autophagic signaling pathway serves to reduce organ damage following I/R and is regulated by activation of CaMKIV signaling in hepatocytes. PMID:22575222

Evankovich, John; Zhang, Ruilin; Cardinal, Jon S.; Zhang, Lemeng; Chen, Junda; Huang, Hai; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Billiar, Timothy R.; Rosengart, Matthew R.

2012-01-01

87

Increased methylation demand exacerbates ethanol-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

We previously reported that chronic ethanol intake lowers hepatocellular S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio and significantly impairs many liver methylation reactions. One such reaction, catalyzed by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), is a major consumer of methyl groups and utilizes as much as 40% of the SAM-derived groups to convert guanidinoacetate (GAA) to creatine. The exposure to methyl-group consuming compounds has substantially increased over the past decade that puts additional stresses on the cellular methylation potential. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether increased ingestion of a methyl-group consumer (GAA) either alone or combined with ethanol intake, plays a role in the pathogenesis of liver injury. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-fed the Lieber DeCarli control or ethanol diet in the presence or absence of GAA for 2weeks. At the end of the feeding regimen, biochemical and histological analyses were conducted. We observed that 2 weeks of GAA- or ethanol-alone treatment increases hepatic triglyceride accumulation by 4.5 and 7-fold, respectively as compared with the pair-fed controls. However, supplementing GAA in the ethanol diet produced panlobular macro- and micro-vesicular steatosis, a marked decrease in the methylation potential and a 28-fold increased triglyceride accumulation. These GAA-supplemented ethanol diet-fed rats displayed inflammatory changes and significantly increased liver toxicity compared to the other groups. In conclusion, increased methylation demand superimposed on chronic ethanol consumption causes more pronounced liver injury. Thus, alcoholic patients should be cautioned for increased dietary intake of methyl-group consuming compounds even for a short period of time. PMID:24842317

Kharbanda, Kusum K; Todero, Sandra L; Thomes, Paul G; Orlicky, David J; Osna, Natalia A; French, Samuel W; Tuma, Dean J

2014-08-01

88

C/EBP beta and C/EBP delta expression is elevated in the early phase of ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Aim: Alcohol, which is predominantly metabolized in the liver, is a major hepatic toxicant that readily induces hepatic steatosis. The expression of CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), especially the C/EBP delta variety, is increased in the early phase of adipogenesis. However, the role of C/EBP delta in ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis is unclear. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to one of four groups: a control group, a group receiving orally administered ethanol (4 g ethanol/kg body weight) (EtOH), a high-fat-diet (HF) group and an EtOH+HF group. Mice were sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks for various measurements. The in vitro effect of ethanol on the expression of C/EBP alpha, beta and delta was studied in HepG2 cells. Results: By week 5, ethanol treatment had significantly increased liver C/EBP delta and beta protein expression (by 2.3- and 1.4-fold, respectively), which then returned to the control level by week 10. In contrast, the expression of C/EBP alpha was evident only at week 10. The in vitro study shows that C/EBP delta expression was elevated significantly at 24 h but not at 48 or 72 h. C/EBP beta expression was highest at 48 h, whereas C/EBP alpha expression was highest at 72 h. We also found that a low concentration of ethanol plus oleic acid enhanced C/EBP delta expression in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: C/EBP delta expression appears to play an important role in the early phase of ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in mice and in ethanol-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, EtOH+HF enhances the expression of C/EBP delta in HepG2 cells. Thus, C/EBP delta might be a therapeutic target in alcoholic hepatosteatosis. PMID:19617893

Chen, Yu-hsuan; Yang, Chih-min; Chang, Shih-pei; Hu, Miao-lin

2009-01-01

89

Brain catalase activity is highly correlated with ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the

Mercè Correa; Carles Sanchis-Segura; Carlos M. G. Aragon

2001-01-01

90

Ginkgolide B attenuates ethanol-induced neurotoxicity through regulating NADPH oxidases.  

PubMed

Ethanol has long been demonstrated to trigger cell apoptosis in the central nervous system. The over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered as one of the most important mechanisms involving in the apoptosis caused by ethanol. Ginkgolide B (GB), which was widely used as a monomer of traditional Chinese medicine, was reported to scavenge free radicals in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. But whether GB can prevent ethanol-induced neurotoxicity is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of GB on ethanol-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis and explore potential protective molecular mechanism of GB. It was found that GB inhibited cell injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in ethanol-treated PC12 cells by MTT and LDH assays. It was also found that activities of caspase-3 increased by ethanol were mostly abrogated by GB. Further, GB decreased the production of ROS and subsequent over-production of lipid peroxides. A significant increase of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and CYP2E1 enzyme activity was found in the ethanol-exposed PC12 cells as compared to controls. However, GB pretreatment did not significantly affect ethanol-induced ADH and CYP2E1 activities. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that ethanol treatment resulted in a significant increase in mRNA and protein expression of NADPH oxidases, which are main oxidases producing ROS in neurons. Moreover, expression and activities of NADPH oxidases were down-regulated by GB. These results indicate that ethanol-induced neurotoxicity is ameliorated by GB mainly through regulating expression and activity of NADPH oxidases. PMID:21704112

Zhang, Chun; Tian, Xiujuan; Luo, Yi; Meng, Xianfang

2011-09-01

91

Neuropeptide Y Signaling Modulates the Expression of Ethanol-Induced Behavioral Sensitization in Mice  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Protein Kinase A (PKA) have been implicated in neurobiological responses to ethanol. We have previously reported that mutant mice lacking normal production of the RII? subunit of PKA (RII??/? mice) show enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol and increased behavioral sensitization relative to littermate wild-type RII?+/+ mice. We now report that RII??/? mice also show increased NPY immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and the ventral striatum relative to RII?+/+ mice. These observations suggest that elevated NPY signaling in the NAc and/or striatum may contribute to the increased sensitivity to ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization that is characteristic of RII??/? mice. Consistently, NPY?/? mice failed to display ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization that was evident in littermate NPY+/+ mice. To more directly examine the role of NPY in the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol, we infused a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) into the region of the NAc core of DBA/2J mice. The rAAV-FIB-NPY13-36 vector expresses and constitutively secretes the NPY fragment NPY13-36 (a selective Y2 receptor agonist) from infected cells in vivo. Mice treated with the rAAV-FIB-NPY13-36 vector exhibited reduced expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization compared to mice treated with a control vector. Taken together, the current data provide the first evidence that NPY signaling in the NAc core and the Y2 receptor modulate ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization. PMID:21762289

Hayes, Dayna M.; Fee, Jon R.; McCown, Thomas J.; Knapp, Darin J.; Breese, George R.; Cubero, Inmaculada; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.

2011-01-01

92

Involvement of protein kinase A in ethanol-induced locomotor activity and sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleMutant mice lacking the RII? subunit of protein kinase A (regulatory subunit II beta?\\/?) show increased ethanol preference. Recent evidence suggests a relationship between heightened ethanol preference and susceptibility to ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization. It is currently unknown if protein kinase A signaling modulates the stimulant effects and\\/or behavioral sensitization caused by ethanol administration. To address this question, we examined the

J. R. Fee; D. J. Knapp; D. R. Sparta; G. R. Breese; M. J. Picker; T. E. Thiele

2006-01-01

93

Tau Phosphorylation and Cleavage in Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration in the Developing Mouse Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies indicated that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in postnatal day 7 (P7) mice, widely used as a model for\\u000a the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, was accompanied by glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and caspase-3 activation. Presently,\\u000a we examined whether tau, a microtubule associated protein, is modified by GSK-3? and caspase-3 in ethanol-treated P7 mouse\\u000a forebrains. We found that ethanol increased phosphorylated tau

Mariko SaitoGoutam; Goutam Chakraborty; Rui-Fen Mao; Sun-Mee Paik; Csaba Vadasz; Mitsuo Saito

2010-01-01

94

Effects of Haloperidol or SCH-23390 on Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopaminergic systems are thought to play an important role in the motivational effects of ethanol. The present experiments examined the effects of haloperidol (a D2 antagonist) and SCH-23390 (a D1 antagonist) on the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. In four separate experiments, adult male Swiss–Webster mice were acclimated to a 2-h\\/day water restriction regimen. Subsequently they received four conditioning

Fred O Risinger; Miriam M Brown; Roger A Oakes; Julia A Love

1999-01-01

95

Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol-Induced Rat Hippocampal and Serum Oxidative Damage  

PubMed Central

Naltrexone, an antagonist of ?-opioid receptors, is clinically used as adjuvant therapy of alcohol dishabituation. The aim of the present work was to test the effect of 1?mg/kg body weight of naltrexone to revert oxidative stress-related biochemical alterations, in the hippocampus and serum of chronic alcoholic adult rats. Malondialdehyde concentration was increased and glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased in hippocampus and serum of alcohol-treated rats. Naltrexone treatment restored these alterations. The in vitro antioxidant ability of Ntx could not justify these effects considering the doses used. Thus this apparent protective effect of Ntx can only be attributed to its pharmacological effects, as herein discussed. PMID:24363821

Almansa, Inmaculada; Barcia, Jorge M.; Lopez-Pedrajas, Rosa; Muriach, Maria; Miranda, Maria; Romero, Francisco Javier

2013-01-01

96

Glycogen synthase kinase-3/Shaggy mediates ethanol-induced excitotoxic cell death of Drosophila olfactory neurons.  

PubMed

It has long been known that heavy alcohol consumption leads to neuropathology and neuronal death. While the response of neurons to an ethanol insult is strongly influenced by genetic background, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that even a single intoxicating exposure to ethanol causes non-cell-autonomous apoptotic death specifically of Drosophila olfactory neurons, which is accompanied by a loss of a behavioral response to the smell of ethanol and a blackening of the third antennal segment. The Drosophila homolog of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)beta, Shaggy, is required for ethanol-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this requirement, the GSK-3beta inhibitor lithium protects against the neurotoxic effects of ethanol, indicating the possibility for pharmacological intervention in cases of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Ethanol-induced death of olfactory neurons requires both their neural activity and functional NMDA receptors. This system will allow the investigation of the genetic and molecular basis of ethanol-induced apoptosis in general and provide an understanding of the molecular role of GSK-3beta in programmed cell death. PMID:19923438

French, Rachael L; Heberlein, Ulrike

2009-12-01

97

A bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water protects from ethanol-induced hemorrhagic gastric lesions in mice.  

PubMed

Ingestion of elevated amounts of ethanol in humans and rodents induces hemorrhagic gastric lesions, at least in part by increasing oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the influence of a bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water (Uliveto on ethanol-induced hemorrhagic gastric lesions in mice. Lesions were evaluated by both macroscopic and microscopic analysis. In a first set of experiments, mice were allowed to drink Uliveto or reference water ad libitum until 3 h prior to intragastric (i.g.) ethanol (23 ml/kg) administration. Neither Uliveto nor reference water did afford any protection. In a second set of experiments, acute exposure to reference water (35 ml/kg, i.g.), given 30 min before ethanol, did not inhibit gastric lesions. However, administration of the same amount of Uliveto caused a remarkable reduction in ethanol-evoked gastric lesions. Ethanol administration increased 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels, a byproduct of oxidative stress, in the luminal part of the gastric mucosa. This response was substantially reduced by about 70% by Uliveto, but not by reference water. Reference water, added with the bicarbonate content, present in the Uliveto water, protected against ethanol-induced lesions. Thus, acute pre-exposure to bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water (Uliveto) protects from both oxidative stress and hemorrhagic gastric lesions caused by ethanol. The elevated bicarbonate content of Uliveto likely accounts for the protection against ethanol-induced gastric injury. PMID:20686225

Nassini, Romina; Andrè, Eunice; Gazzieri, David; De Siena, Gaetano; Zanasi, Alessandro; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Materazzi, Serena

2010-01-01

98

The protective effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles against hepatic oxidative damage induced by monocrotaline  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the ability of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles to protect against monocrotaline (MCT)-induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model. Method Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were arbitrarily assigned to four groups: control (received saline), CeO2 (given 0.0001 nmol/kg intraperitoneally [IP]), MCT (given 10 mg/kg body weight IP as a single dose), and MCT + CeO2 (received CeO2 both before and after MCT). Electron microscopic imaging of the rat livers was carried out, and hepatic total glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities were quantified. Results Results showed a significant MCT-induced decrease in total hepatic GSH, GPX, GR, and GST normalized to control values with concurrent CeO2 administration. In addition, MCT produced significant increases in hepatic CAT and SOD activities, which also ameliorated with CeO2. Conclusions These results indicate that CeO2 acts as a putative novel and effective hepatoprotective agent against MCT-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:21289991

Amin, Kamal A; Hassan, Mohamed S; Awad, El-Said T; Hashem, Khalid S

2011-01-01

99

Early termination of immune tolerance state of hepatitis B virus infection explains liver damage  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess an early termination of immune tolerance state of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Bangladesh and its clinical significance. METHODS: From a series of 167 treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients aged between 12 to 20 years (mean ± SD; 17.5 ± 2.8 years), percutaneous liver biopsies of 89 patients who were all hepatitis B e antigen negative at presentation were done. Of them, 81 were included in the study. They had persistently normal or raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. A precore mutation (PCM) study was accomplished in 8 patients who were randomly selected. RESULTS: Forty-four (53.7%) patients had significant necroinflammation (HAI-NI > 7), while significant fibrosis (HAI-F ? 3) was seen in 15 (18.5%) patients. Serum ALT (cut off 42 U/L) was raised in 29 (35.8%) patients, while low HBV DNA load (< 105 copies/mL) was observed in 57 (70.4%) patients. PCM was negative in all 8 patients. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the current concept of age-related immune tolerance state of HBV infection deserves further analyses in different population groups. PMID:25232455

Mamun-Al-Mahtab; Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Uddin, Helal; Khan, Sakirul Islam; Rahman, Salimur

2014-01-01

100

Functional correlation between subclasses of brain adenosine receptor affinities and ethanol-induced motor incoordination in mice.  

PubMed

To further investigate if the modulation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination is by brain adenosine A1 and/or A2 receptor, adenosine analogs with wide variability in their affinity for A1 and A2 subtypes were administered ICV and their effect on ethanol-induced (IP) motor incoordination was evaluated by rotorod. A dose-dependent marked accentuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by adenosine agonists (CHA, NECA, CPA, DCCA) tested, with nearly no effect on normal motor coordination in the absence of ethanol, was observed. There was a positive correlation between A2 affinity, A2/A1 affinity ratio but a negative correlation between A1 affinity and the potency (ED50) of adenosine agonists to accentuate ethanol-induced motor incoordination. However, with the high potency of CHA and NECA, both having significant affinity for A1 and A2 receptors, together with the well known membrane perturbation by ethanol, it seems difficult to rule out until more information becomes available the contribution of A1 receptor activation to adenosine modulation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The high density of high affinity A2 (A2a) in the striatum and of A1 in the cerebellum and several brain areas and the known importance of these two brain areas in the motor control, indirectly supports or at least provides a circumstantial evidence for a functional correlation between ethanol-induced motor incoordination and brain adenosine receptors. PMID:2093180

Dar, M S

1990-12-01

101

Menhaden oil decreases high-fat diet-induced markers of hepatic damage, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in obese Ldlr-/- mice.  

PubMed

The frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in parallel with obesity in the United States. NASH is progressive and characterized by hepatic damage, inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress. Because C20-22 (n-3) PUFA are established regulators of lipid metabolism and inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that C20-22 (n-3) PUFA in menhaden oil (MO) prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced fatty liver disease in mice. Wild-type (WT) and Ldlr(-/-) C57BL/6J mice were fed the following diets for 12 wk: nonpurified (NP), HF with lard (60% of energy from fat), HF-high-cholesterol with olive oil (HFHC-OO; 54.4% of energy from fat, 0.5% cholesterol), or HFHC-OO supplemented with MO (HFHC-MO). When compared with the NP diet, the HF and HFHC-OO diets induced hepatosteatosis and hepatic damage [elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases] and elevated hepatic expression of markers of inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), fibrosis (procollagen 1?1), and oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1) (P ? 0.05). Hepatic damage (i.e., ALT) correlated (r = 0.74, P < 0.05) with quantitatively higher (>140%, P < 0.05) hepatic cholesterol in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed the HFHC-OO diet than WT mice fed the HF or HFHC-OO diets. Plasma and hepatic markers of liver damage, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, but not oxidative stress, were lower in WT and Ldlr(-/-) mice fed the HFHC-MO diet compared with the HFHC-OO diet (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MO [C20-22 (n-3) PUFA at 2% of energy] decreases many, but not all, HF diet-induced markers of fatty liver disease in mice. PMID:22739374

Depner, Christopher M; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Tripathy, Sasmita; Milne, Ginger; Jump, Donald B

2012-08-01

102

Acetaminophen increases the risk of arsenic-mediated development of hepatic damage in rats by enhancing redox-signaling mechanism.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether the commonly used analgesic-antipyretic drug acetaminophen can modify the arsenic-induced hepatic oxidative stress and also whether withdrawal of acetaminophen administration during the course of long-term arsenic exposure can increase susceptibility of liver to arsenic toxicity. Acetaminophen was co-administered orally to rats for 3 days following 28 days of arsenic pre-exposure (Phase-I) and thereafter, acetaminophen was withdrawn, but arsenic exposure was continued for another 28 days (Phase-II). Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, depleted glutathione (GSH), and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities. Acetaminophen caused exacerbation of arsenic-mediated lipid peroxidation and ROS generation and further enhancement of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In Phase-I, acetaminophen caused further GSH depletion and reduction in SOD, catalase, GPx and GR activities, but in Phase-II, only GPx and GR activities were more affected. Arsenic did not alter basal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated NO production, but decreased constitutive NOS (cNOS)-mediated NO release. Arsenic reduced expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and iNOS genes. Acetaminophen up-regulated eNOS and iNOS expression and NO production in Phase-I, but reversed these effects in Phase-II. Results reveal that acetaminophen increased the risk of arsenic-mediated hepatic oxidative damage. Withdrawal of acetaminophen administration also increased susceptibility of liver to hepatotoxicity. Both ROS and NO appeared to mediate lipid peroxidation in Phase-I, whereas only ROS appeared responsible for peroxidative damage in Phase-II. PMID:22120977

Majhi, Chhaya Rani; Khan, Saleem; Leo, Marie Dennis Marcus; Prawez, Shahid; Kumar, Amit; Sankar, Palanisamy; Telang, Avinash Gopal; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

2014-02-01

103

Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated-Rad3-related DNA damage checkpoint signaling pathway triggered by hepatitis B virus infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore whether acute cellular DNA damage response is induced upon hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the effects of the HBV infection. METHODS: We incubated HL7702 hepatocytes with HBV-positive serum, mimicking a natural HBV infection process. We used immunoblotting to evaluate protein expression levels in HBV-infected cells or in non-infected cells; immunofluorescence to show ATR foci ands Chk1 phosphorylation foci formation; flow cytometry to analyze the cell cycle and apoptosis; ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ionizing radiation (IR)-treated cells to mimic DNA damage; and Trypan blue staining to count the viable cells. RESULTS: We found that HBV infection induced an increased steady state of ATR protein and increased phosphorylation of multiple downstream targets including Chk1, p53 and H2AX. In contrast to ATR and its target, the phosphorylated form of ATM at Ser-1981 and its downstream substrate Chk2 phosphorylation at Thr-68 did not visibly increase upon infection. However, the level of Mre11 and p21 were reduced beginning at 0.5 h after HBV-positive serum addition. Also, HBV infection led to transient cell cycle arrest in the S and the G2 phases without accompanying increased apoptosis. Research on cell survival changes upon radiation following HBV infection showed that survival of UV-treated host cells was greatly increased by HBV infection, owing to the reduced apoptosis. Meanwhile, survival of IR-treated host cells was reduced by HBV infection. CONCLUSION: HBV infection activates ATR DNA damage response to replication stress and abrogates the checkpoint signaling controlled by DNA damage response. PMID:18985806

Zhao, Fan; Hou, Ning-Bo; Yang, Xiao-Li; He, Xiang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Wei, Cong-Wen; Song, Ting; Li, Li; Ma, Qing-Jun; Zhong, Hui

2008-01-01

104

Gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc solid dispersions against absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions is mediated by enhancement of antioxidant activity and endogenous PGE2 production and attenuation of NO production.  

PubMed

Zinc plays a key role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity, while alcohol dependency can lead to low zinc status. Complexes containing zinc have been reported to have better ability to protect gastric mucosa than the compounds alone. In this study, taurine zinc [Zn(NH3CH2CH2SO3)2] solid dispersions (SDs) were synthesized and investigated in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Gastric ulcer index; gastric mucosa malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production; and serum nitric oxide (NO) were assessed and histological analysis of the gastric mucosa tissue was performed. Taurine zinc (100, 200 mg/kg) SDs protected rat gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury. Moreover, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc SDs was accompanied by a decrease in serum NO and significant increase in gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). When indomethacin, a non-selective COX inhibitor was administered before the last dose of taurine zinc, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was weakened. Furthermore, taurine zinc (200 mg/kg) SDs protected against ulceration more significantly than the same dose of taurine alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between taurine and zinc. These results indicate taurine zinc protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced damage by elevating antioxidants, decreasing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. The gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was also partially mediated by endogenous PGE2 production. PMID:25041839

Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

2014-10-01

105

1,2-DIBROMOETHANE CAUSES RAT HEPATIC DNA DAMAGE AT LOW DOSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Two oral administrations of 1,2-dibromoethane to adult female rats at doses above 10 micromoles/kg (1.9 mg/kg) caused DNA damage as determined by the alkaline elution technique. Far greater doses (300 micromoles/kg, 56.4 mg/kg) of 1,2-dibromoethane were required to cause other he...

106

Fractalkine is a “find-me” signal released by neurons undergoing ethanol-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic neurons generated during normal brain development or secondary to pathologic insults are efficiently cleared from the central nervous system. Several soluble factors, including nucleotides, cytokines, and chemokines are released from injured neurons, signaling microglia to find and clear debris. One such chemokine that serves as a neuronal–microglial communication factor is fractalkine, with roles demonstrated in several models of adult neurological disorders. Lacking, however, are studies investigating roles for fractalkine in perinatal brain injury, an important clinical problem with no effective therapies. We used a well-characterized mouse model of ethanol-induced apoptosis to assess the role of fractalkine in neuronal–microglial signaling. Quantification of apoptotic debris in fractalkine-knockout (KO) and CX3CR1-KO mice following ethanol treatment revealed increased apoptotic bodies compared to wild type mice. Ethanol-induced injury led to release of soluble, extracellular fractalkine. The extracellular media harvested from apoptotic brains induces microglial migration in a fractalkine-dependent manner that is prevented by neutralization of fractalkine with a blocking antibody or by deficiency in the receptor, CX3CR1. This suggests fractalkine acts as a “find-me” signal, recruiting microglial processes toward apoptotic cells to promote their clearance. Next, we aimed to determine whether there are downstream alterations in cytokine gene expression due to fractalkine signaling. We examined mRNA expression in fractalkine-KO and CX3CR1-KO mice after alcohol-induced apoptosis and found differences in cytokine production in the brains of these KOs by 6 h after ethanol treatment. Collectively, this suggests that fractalkine acts as a “find me” signal released by apoptotic neurons, and subsequently plays a critical role in modulating both clearance and inflammatory cytokine gene expression after ethanol-induced apoptosis.

Sokolowski, Jennifer D.; Chabanon-Hicks, Chloe N.; Han, Claudia Z.; Heffron, Daniel S.; Mandell, James W.

2014-01-01

107

Antimutagenic activity of methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum and its effect on hepatic damage caused by benzo[a]pyrene.  

PubMed

The antimutagenic activity of the methanolic extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Krast. occurring in South India was investigated. The activity was assayed by Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test using histidine mutants of Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, TA98, TA100 and TA102. The methanolic extract of the mushroom significantly inhibited (P<0.001) the in vitro sodium azide (NaN(3)), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induced his(+) revertants in a dose dependent manner. In vivo antimutagenic activity of extract was also assayed by determining the mutagenicity of the urine of rats administrated with B[a]P as a mutagen. The prior administration of extract markedly inhibited mutagenicity induced by B[a]P. The results indicated that the methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum occurring in South India possessed significant antimutagenic activity. The effect of B[a]P on hepatic enzymes, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphtase (ALP), were also evaluated. The extract prevented the increase of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP activities consequent to B[a]P challenge, and enhanced the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). The extract also profoundly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by B[a]P. The results revealed that Ganoderma lucidum extract restored antioxidant defense and prevented hepatic damage consequent to the challenge by B[a]P. PMID:16713154

Lakshmi, B; Ajith, T A; Jose, Nayana; Janardhanan, K K

2006-09-19

108

Seabuckthron (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract ameliorates the gamma radiation mediated DNA damage and hepatic alterations.  

PubMed

In vitro assessment showed that H. rhamnoides (HrLE) extract possessed free radical scavenging activities and can protect gamma (gamma) radiation induced supercoiled DNA damage. For in vivo study, Swiss albino mice were administered with HrLE (30 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 5 Gy of beta radiation. HrLE significantly prevented the radiation induced genomic DNA damage indicated as a significant reduction in the comet parameters. The lipid peroxidation, liver function enzymes, expression of phosphorylated NFkappaB (p65) and IkappaBalpha increased whereas the endogenous antioxidants diminished upon radiation exposure compared to control. Pretreatment of HrLE extract ameliorated these changes. Based on the present results it can be concluded that H. rhamnoides possess a potential preventive element in planned and accidental nuclear exposures. PMID:25345244

Khan, Amitava; Manna, Krishnendu; Chinchubose; Das, Dipesh Kr; Sinha, Mahuya; Kesh, Swaraj Bandhu; Das, Ujjal; Dey, Rakhi Sharma; Banerji, Asoke; Dey, Sanjit

2014-10-01

109

Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats  

PubMed Central

Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400?mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50?mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87?mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07?mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71?mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9?mg ?-carotene/100?g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

Y?ld?z, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Ozlem; Yulug, Esin; Ozturk, Ferhat; Aliyaz?c?oglu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolayl?, Sevgi

2013-01-01

110

Ethanolic leaves extract of Trianthema portulacastrum L. ameliorates aflatoxin B 1 induced hepatic damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agents. Reactive oxygen species and consequent peroxidative damage\\u000a caused by aflatoxin are considered to be the main mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity. The present investigation aims at\\u000a assessing the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic leaves extract of Trianthema portulacastrum on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model. The hepatoprotection of T. portulacastrum is compared with

G. Sharmila Banu; Ganeshan Kumar; A. G. Murugesan

2009-01-01

111

Insulin attenuates the acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in DBA/2J mice  

PubMed Central

Aims Ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization is a behavioral manifestation of physiological responses to repeated ethanol exposures. While ethanol exerts direct effects on multiple neurotransmitter systems in the brain, ethanol-induced changes in metabolic state, including acute hyperglycemia and inhibition of insulin signaling, also have plausible roles in the expression of ethanol-related behaviors through direct and indirect effects on brain function. The current experiments examined whether insulin administration or the resultant hypoglycemia might attenuate the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol. Main methods Male and female DBA/2J mice received daily injections of 5 or 10 IU/kg insulin before or after a stimulating dose of ethanol and subsequent testing in an automated activity monitor. Blood glucose levels were determined upon the completion of the experiments. Key findings Insulin injected prior to ethanol blunted the acute stimulant response as well as the acquisition and expression of locomotor sensitization, while insulin given after ethanol did not affect the development of the sensitized response. In a separate experiment, mice given glucose concurrently with insulin developed ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization normally. Significance These experiments suggest that insulin attenuates the development of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization, and that blood glucose levels can largely account for this effect. Further studies of the role of ethanol-induced metabolic states should provide novel information on the expression of ethanol-related behaviors. PMID:22056372

Kliethermes, Christopher L; Heberlein, Ulrike

2011-01-01

112

Hepatitis C virus and metabolic disorder interactions towards liver damage and atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide, and alterations of glucose metabolism have reached pandemic proportions in western countries. However, the frequent coexistence between these two conditions is more than simply coincidental, since HCV can induce insulin resistance through several mechanisms. Indeed, the virus interferes with insulin signaling both directly and indirectly, inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the entire viral life cycle has strict interconnections with lipid metabolism, and HCV is responsible for a “viral” steatosis which is frequently superimposed to a “metabolic” one. Several evidences suggest that HCV-induced metabolic disorders contribute both to the evolution of liver fibrosis and, likely, to the progression of the other disorders which are typically associated with altered metabolism, in particular atherosclerosis. In the present review, we will examine in depth the links between HCV infection and insulin resistance, liver steatosis and diabetes, and analyze the impact of these interactions on the progression of liver fibrosis and atherosclerosis. Special attention will be focused on the highly debated topic of the relationship between HCV infection and cardiovascular disease. The available clinical literature on this item will be broadly reviewed and all the mechanisms possibly implied will be discussed. PMID:24659875

Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Gallo, Paolo; De Vincentis, Antonio; Galati, Giovanni; Picardi, Antonio

2014-01-01

113

Protective effect of [6]-gingerol on the ethanol-induced teratogenesis of cultured mouse embryos.  

PubMed

Excessive ethanol consumption during pregnancy causes fetal alcohol syndrome. We investigated the effect of [6]-gingerol on ethanol-induced embryotoxicity using a whole embryo culture system. The morphological changes of embryos and the gene expression patterns of the antioxidant enzymes cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPx), cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), and Mn-SOD (SOD2), and SOD activity were examined in the cultured mouse embryos exposed to ethanol (5 ?L/3 mL) and/or [6]-gingerol (1×10(-8) or 1×10(-7) ?g/mL) for 2 days. In ethanol-exposed embryos, the standard morphological score of embryos was significantly decreased compared with those of the control (vehicle) group. However, cotreatment of embryos with [6]-gingerol and ethanol significantly improved all of the developmental parameters except crownrump length and head length, compared with those of the ethanol alone group. The mRNA expression levels of cGPx and SOD2, not SOD1, were decreased consistently, SOD activity were significantly decreased compared with the control group. However, the decreases in mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and SOD activity were significantly restored to the control levels by [6]-gingerol supplement. These results indicate that [6]-gingerol has a protective effect against ethanol-induced teratogenicity during mouse embryogenesis. PMID:22297756

Yon, Jung-Min; Baek, In-Jeoung; Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Hong, Jin Tae; Yong, Hwanyul; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang-Yoon

2012-01-01

114

Capsaicin prevents ethanol-induced teratogenicity in cultured mouse whole embryos.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to alcohol promotes the level of reactive oxygen species within embryos and results in developmental disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), the major pungent ingredient in red peppers, on ethanol-induced teratogenicity in mouse embryos (embryonic days 8.5-10.5). In response to ethanol administration (1.0 microl/ml), developmental parameters such as yolk sac circulation, allantois, heart, hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain, otic and optic systems, branchial bar, olfactory system, forelimb, hindlimb, and somites decreased significantly in comparison with those of control group (p<0.05). However, the concurrent administration of capsaicin (1 x 10(-8) microg/ml or 1 x 10(-7) microg/ml) and ethanol significantly ameliorated most of the morphological scores excepting yolk sac circulation and hindlimb scores (p<0.05). Furthermore, the levels of superoxide dismutase activity and cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase mRNAs in the ethanol-treated embryos recovered to the levels observed in control embryos by capsaicin co-administration. These results indicate that capsaicin has a protective effect against ethanol-induced teratogenicity via an antioxidative activity. PMID:18926900

Kim, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ki-Nam; Yon, Jung-Min; Lee, Se-Ra; Jin, Yan; Baek, In-Jeoung; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang-Yoon

2008-01-01

115

Ethanol induces human red cell shape transformations and enhanced ligand-mediated agglutinability  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol concentrations are markedly elevated in rat stomach wall when ulcerogenic doses of 100 % ethanol (2 ml for 5 to 10 minutes) are instilled in rat gastric lumen. The authors observed that red cells in gastric mucosal postcapillary venules become spiculated and interadherent under these conditions. The authors have now studied this phenomenon in vitro using washing human red cells. Concentrations of high grade ethanol ranging from 2 to 10% (v/v) in physiological buffered saline (pH 7.3) without Ca/sup + +/ or Mg/sup + +/ at 25/sup 0/C rapidly transformed human red cells into spiculated forms. 2% ethanol transformed human red cells into disco-echinocytes in 15 min. whereas 10% ethanol transformed red blood cells into echinocytes within 3 min. Washing out of ethanol at 1 hour reverted the echinocytes into discocytes. However, following 3 hours of incubation in 10% ethanol washing out of ethanol produced stomatocytes. The ethanol-induced echinocytic shape transformations were accompanied by a dose-related increase in red cell agglutinability with poly-L-lysine or the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin. The enhanced agglutinability was reversed by restoring the red cell shape changes and alterations in surface properties may play a role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

Weinstein, R.S.; McLawhon, R.W.; Marikovsky, Y.

1986-03-01

116

Curcumin ameliorates ethanol-induced memory deficits and enhanced brain nitric oxide synthase activity in mice.  

PubMed

Ethanol consumption has well-known deleterious effects on memory. However, the mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on memory has received little attention, which has retarded the identification and development of effective therapeutic strategies against ethanol toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the neuronal mechanisms underlying the protective action of curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound of Curcuma longa, against ethanol-induced memory deficits. Adult mice were pretreated with curcumin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) before administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) for the memory acquisition measurement, or were sacrificed 30 min later for evaluation of regional brain differences in the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. The results showed that pretreatment with curcumin significantly ameliorated the memory deficits resulting from acute ethanol administration to mice in the novel object recognition and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Furthermore, acute ethanol treatment increased the NOS activity and NO production in brain regions associated with memory including prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus, while this enhancement was suppressed by pretreatment with curcumin. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of curcumin on acute ethanol-induced memory deficits are mediated, at least in part, by suppressing NOS activity in the brain of mice. Thus, manipulation of the NOS/NO signaling pathway might be beneficial for the prevention of ethanol toxicity. PMID:23500667

Yu, Shu Yan; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Junxia; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Shuanglian

2013-07-01

117

Ethanol induces calcium influx via the Cch1-Mid1 transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Yeast suffers from a variety of environmental stresses, such as osmotic pressure and ethanol produced during fermentation. Since calcium ions are protective for high concentrations of ethanol, we investigated whether Ca(2+) flux occurs in response to ethanol stress. We find that exposure of yeast to ethanol induces a rise in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca(2+). The response is enhanced in cells shifted to high-osmotic media containing proline, galactose, sorbitol, or mannitol. Suspension of cells in proline and galactose-containing media increases the Ca(2+) levels in the cytoplasm independent of ethanol exposure. The enhanced ability for ethanol to induce Ca(2+) flux after the hypertonic shift is transient, decreasing rapidly over a period of seconds to minutes. There is partial recovery of the response after zymolyase treatment, suggesting that cell wall integrity affects the ethanol-induced Ca(2+) flux. Acetate inhibits the Ca(2+) accumulation elicited by the ethanol/osmotic stress. The Ca(2+) flux is primarily via the Cch1 Ca(2+) influx channel because strains carrying deletions of the cch1 and mid1 genes show greater than 90% reduction in Ca(2+) flux. Furthermore, a functional Cch1 channel reduced growth inhibition by ethanol. PMID:21259000

Courchesne, William E; Vlasek, Christopher; Klukovich, Rachel; Coffee, Sara

2011-05-01

118

The ameliorative effect of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

The present work aimed at testing, in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, a local folk medicinal claim that dates are beneficial in gastric ulcers in humans. Aqueous and ethanolic undialyzed and dialyzed extracts from date fruit and pits were given orally to rats at a dose of 4 ml/kg for 14 consecutive days. On the last day of treatment, rats were fasted for 24 h, and were then given ethanol, 80% (1 ml/rat) by gastric intubation to induce gastric ulcer. Rats were killed after 1 h of ethanol exposure, and the incidence and severity of the ulceration were estimated, as well as the concentrations of gastrin in plasma, and histamine and mucus in the gastric mucosa. A single group of rats that were fasted for 24 h, was administered orally with lansoprazole (30 mg/kg), and was given 80% ethanol as above, 8 h thereafter, served as a positive control. The results indicated that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the date fruit and, to a lesser extent, date pits, were effective in ameliorating the severity of gastric ulceration and mitigating the ethanol-induced increase in histamine and gastrin concentrations, and the decrease in mucin gastric levels. The ethanolic undialyzed extract was more effective than the rest of the other extracts used. It is postulated that the basis of the gastroprotective action of date extracts may be multi-factorial, and may include an anti-oxidant action. PMID:15814265

Al-Qarawi, A A; Abdel-Rahman, H; Ali, B H; Mousa, H M; El-Mougy, S A

2005-04-26

119

Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement.  

PubMed

The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus. PMID:25378912

Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

2014-01-01

120

Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement  

PubMed Central

The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus. PMID:25378912

Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

2014-01-01

121

Xanthohumol, a main prenylated chalcone from hops, reduces liver damage and modulates oxidative reaction and apoptosis in hepatitis C virus infected Tupaia belangeri.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tupaia belangeri (Tupaia) represents an important model of HCV infection. Xanthohumol (XN), a major prenylated chalcone from hops, has various biological activities including hepatopreventive and anti-viral activities. In this study, Tupaias infected with HCV RNA positive serum were used to evaluate the effects of XN on liver damage, oxidative reaction, apoptosis and viral protein expression in liver tissues. The Tupaias inoculated with HCV positive serum had elevated serum aminotransferase levels and inflammation, especially hepatic steatosis, and HCV core protein expression in liver tissue. In the animals inoculated with HCV positive serum, XN significantly decreased aminotransferase levels, histological activity index, hepatic steatosis score and transforming growth factor ?1 expression in liver tissue compared with the animals without XN intervention. XN reduced HCV core protein expression in liver tissue compared with those without XN intervention but the difference was not significant. XN significantly decreased malondialdehyde, potentiated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced Bax expression, promoted Bcl-xL and inhibited caspase 3 activity in liver tissues compared with the animals without XN intervention. These results indicate that XN may effectively improve hepatic inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis induced by HCV in Tupaias primarily through inhibition of oxidative reaction and regulation of apoptosis and possible suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation. The anti-HCV potential of XN needs further investigation. PMID:23669332

Yang, Mingbo; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Xi; Han, Qunying; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Cuiling; Liu, Zhengwen

2013-08-01

122

Association between Noninvasive Fibrosis Markers and Cardio-Vascular Organ Damage among Adults with Hepatic Steatosis  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that advanced fibrosis, as determined by the noninvasive NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in individuals with ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD. Whether the severity of histology (i.e., fibrosis stage) is associated with more pronounced cardiovascular organ damage is unsettled. In this study, we analyzed the clinical utility of NFS in assessing increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In this cross-sectional study NFS, cIMT and LVMI were assessed in 400 individuals with ultrasonography-diagnosed steatosis. As compared with individuals at low probability of liver fibrosis, individuals both at high and at intermediate probability of fibrosis showed an unfavorable cardio-metabolic risk profile having significantly higher values of waist circumference, insulin resistance, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, cIMT, and LVMI, and lower insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. The differences in cIMT and LVMI remained significant after adjustment for smoking and metabolic syndrome. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, smoking, and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, individuals at high probability of fibrosis had a 3.9-fold increased risk of vascular atherosclerosis, defined as cIMT>0.9 mm, (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.12–13.87) as compared with individuals at low probability of fibrosis. Individuals at high probability of fibrosis had a 3.5-fold increased risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.22–10.34) as compared with individuals at low probability of fibrosis. In conclusion, advanced fibrosis, determined by noninvasive fibrosis markers, is associated with cardiovascular organ damage independent of other known factors. PMID:25111713

Sesti, Giorgio; Sciacqua, Angela; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Perticone, Maria; Succurro, Elena; Perticone, Francesco

2014-01-01

123

In vivo gastroprotective effects of five Turkish folk remedies against ethanol-induced lesions.  

PubMed

Through evaluation of the data accumulated in Data Bank of Turkish Folk Remedies (TUHIB), five plant remedies, which are used to treat stomach ache were selected to test for their anti-ulcerogenic potency. In order to confirm the claimed activities, either decoction or methanol extracts were prepared from the roots of Asphodelus aestivus and Cichorium intybus, herbs of Equisetum palustre and Viscum album ssp. album and fruits of Laurus nobilis, according to their folkloric application way and tested for their effects on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Pharmacological experiments clearly demonstrated that the relevant extracts of all the plants given orally showed significant stomach protection against this model of ulcerogenesis. Results were further evaluated by using histopathological techniques. PMID:12426092

Gürbüz, Ilhan; Ustün, Osman; Ye?ilada, Erdem; Sezik, Ekrem; Akyürek, Nalan

2002-12-01

124

Parietal and bi-occipital lobe infarction confounded by ethanol-induced optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

A frequent occurrence in geriatric and chronically ill patients is the exhibition of several simultaneously occurring and confounding health problems. This paper reports the case of a 61-year-old-white male who presented with an extensive history of multiple brain infarcts, hemiparesis, personality changes and varied visual complaints. Tests in the neurooptometric work-up for this patient included static automated perimetry, stereoacuity and optokinetic nystagmus evaluation. The results were suggestive of multiple cerebrovascular accidents which included the right and left occipital lobes as well as the right parietal lobe. This clinical picture was complicated by the presence of nutritional or ethanol-induced optic neuropathy. Emphasis was placed on a detailed sequential history of events and a complete neurological and optometric evaluation to ascertain the multiple foci of cortical infarction. Corroboration of clinical findings was obtained by computerized axial tomography (CT scan). PMID:1813574

Tornatore, C W; Townsend, J C; Selvin, G J

1991-08-01

125

Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Binge alcohol consumption in the rat induces substantial neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Oxidative stress and cytotoxic edema have both been shown to be involved in such neurotoxicity, whereas N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity has been implicated in alcohol withdrawal and excitoxic injury. Because the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) was previously shown in vitro to prevent glutamate toxicity through its ability to reduce oxidative stress, we evaluated CBD as a neuroprotectant in a rat binge ethanol model. When administered concurrently with binge ethanol exposure, CBD protected against hippocampal and entorhinal cortical neurodegeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the common antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and ?-tocopherol also afforded significant protection. In contrast, the NMDA receptor antagonists dizocilpine (MK-801) and memantine did not prevent cell death. Of the diuretics tested, furosemide was protective, whereas the other two anion exchanger inhibitors, L-644,711 [(R)-(+)-(5,6-dichloro2,3,9,9a-tetrahydro 3-oxo-9a-propyl-1H-fluoren-7-yl)oxy acetic acid] and bumetanide, were ineffective. In vitro comparison of these diuretics indicated that furosemide is also a potent antioxidant, whereas the nonprotective diuretics are not. The lack of efficacy of L-644,711 and bumetanide suggests that the antioxidant rather than the diuretic properties of furosemide contribute most critically to its efficacy in reversing ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in vitro, in our model. This study provides the first demonstration of CBD as an in vivo neuroprotectant and shows the efficacy of lipophilic antioxidants in preventing binge ethanol-induced brain injury. PMID:15878999

Hamelink, Carol; Hampson, Aidan; Wink, David A.; Eiden, Lee E.; Eskay, Robert L.

2014-01-01

126

Protective Effect of Tragopogon Graminifolius DC Against Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcer  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric ulcer is a serious digestive system problem and affects 5% to 10% of people during their life. Chemical antigastric ulcer drugs have side effect, cannot prevent recurrence of ulcer and also show drug interaction with many other medicaments. Tragopogon graminifolius DC.(TG) is a herb which is widely used in the west of Iran and traditionally consumed for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. TG was introduced as one of the most beneficial plants for digestive ulcer in Iranian traditional medicine. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity and protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of TG (HeTG) against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7). HeTG at the doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg were administered orally for 15 days and gastric ulcer was induced by pure ethanol (1 ml/200gr body weight). Ulcer index and protective rate were calculated and histological changes were determined. Results HeTG was nontoxic up to 2000 mg/Kg. Ulcer index decreased in extract groups significantly. Protective rates of HeTG were 48.94%, 46.39%, and 43.99% in 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg extract, respectively. 50 mg/kg HeTG group had higher protective effect. There was relatively normal cellular arrangement in HeTG groups. Conclusions TG showed protective effect against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. This study confirmed traditional medicine claims of TG. PMID:24616792

Farzaei, Mohamad Hosein; Khazaei, Mozafar; Abbasabadei, Zahra; Feyzmahdavi, Maryam; Mohseni, Gholam Reza

2013-01-01

127

Chitooligosaccharides inhibit ethanol-induced oxidative stress via activation of Nrf2 and reduction of MAPK phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are hydrolyzed products of chitosan and have been proven to exhibit various biological functions. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of COS against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in vitro. Human L02 normal liver cells were pretreated with COS (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) and then hepatotoxicity was stimulated by the addition of ethanol (80 mM). Pretreatment with COS protected L02 cells from ethanol-induced cell cytotoxicity through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion was inhibited by COS. The antioxidant potential of COS was correlated with the induction of antioxidant genes including HO-1, NQO1 and SOD via the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2?related factor-2 (Nrf2). Additionally, the protective effects of COS against ethanol were blocked by Nrf2 knockdown. Moreover, signal transduction studies showed that COS was able to suppress the ethanol-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNK and ERK. In conclusion, the COS-mediated activation of Nrf2 and reduction of MAPK phosphorylation may be important for its hepatoprotective action. PMID:25189124

Luo, Zhiguo; Dong, Xiaoxia; Ke, Qing; Duan, Qiwen; Shen, Li

2014-11-01

128

SELECTIVE VULNERABILITY OF EMBRYONIC CELL POPULATIONS TO ETHANOL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ALCOHOL RELATED BIRTH DEFECTS AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER  

EPA Science Inventory

The locations of cell death and resulting malformations in embryos following teratogen exposure vary depending on the teratogen used, the genotype of the conceptus, and the developmental stage of the embryo at time of exposure. To date, ethanol-induced cell death has been charac...

129

Eat more carrots? Dampening cell death in ethanol-induced liver fibrosis by ?-carotene  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents one of the principal causes of liver damage in humans. Long-term ethanol abuse leads to progressive liver injury and tissue remodeling, including steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Oxidative stress and subsequent liver cell death has long been identified as one of the key mechanisms during ALD progression, therefore antioxidants may display promising treatment options. In this issue of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition (HBSN), Peng et al. demonstrate that oral supplementation with ?-carotene during chronic ethanol feeding in rats reduces oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death and inflammation. Reducing hepatocyte apoptosis, a major trigger for fibrogenesis and tumorigenesis, would make ?-carotene a prospective target for treatment. However, before translating the promising findings of Peng and colleagues into clinical scenarios, it needs to be determined which cell death pathways, including necrosis and necroptosis, are affected by ?-carotene, which liver cell populations are targeted by this vitamin A precursor, how specific the effects are for ALD in comparison to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or other chronic liver diseases, and whether reduced hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis upon ?-carotene supplementation truly relate to beneficial long-term consequences with respect to fibrosis, cirrhosis or HCC development. PMID:24570954

Hammerich, Linda

2013-01-01

130

Cyanidin-3-Glucoside inhibits ethanol-induced invasion of breast cancer cells overexpressing ErbB2  

PubMed Central

Background Ethanol is a tumor promoter. Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that ethanol may enhance the metastasis of breast cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated that ethanol increased the migration/invasion of breast cancer cells expressing high levels of ErbB2. Amplification of ErbB2 is found in 20-30% of breast cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. We sought to identify agents that can prevent or ameliorate ethanol-induced invasion of breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin present in many vegetables and fruits, is a potent natural antioxidant. Ethanol exposure causes the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated the effect of C3G on ethanol-induced breast cancer cell migration/invasion. Results C3G attenuated ethanol-induced migration/invasion of breast cancer cells expressing high levels of ErbB2 (BT474, MDA-MB231 and MCF7ErbB2) in a concentration dependent manner. C3G decreased ethanol-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as the amount of focal adhesions and the formation of lamellipodial protrusion. It inhibited ethanol-stimulated phosphorylation of ErbB2, cSrc, FAK and p130Cas, as well as interactions among these proteins. C3G abolished ethanol-mediated p130Cas/JNK interaction. Conclusions C3G blocks ethanol-induced activation of the ErbB2/cSrc/FAK pathway which is necessary for cell migration/invasion. C3G may be beneficial in preventing/reducing ethanol-induced breast cancer metastasis. PMID:21034468

2010-01-01

131

Inhibitive effect of cordyceps sinensis on experimental hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the inhibitive effect and its possible mechanism of Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) on CCl4-plus ethanol- induced hepatic fibrogenesis in experimental rats. METHODS: Rats were randomly allocated into a normal control group, a model control group and a CS group. The latter two groups were administered with CCl4 and ethanol solution at the beginning of the experiment to induce

Yu-Kan Liu; Wei Shen

2003-01-01

132

Hepatitis B Virus Induces IL-23 Production in Antigen Presenting Cells and Causes Liver Damage via the IL-23/IL-17 Axis  

PubMed Central

IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR)-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis. PMID:23825942

Tian, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jun; Zheng, Yanhua; Huang, Zemin; Tian, Yi; Jia, Zhengcai; Tang, Yan; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Mao, Qing; Bian, Xiuwu; Ping, Yifang; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

2013-01-01

133

Ethanol-Induced Social Facilitation in Adolescent Rats: Role of Endogenous Activity at Mu Opioid Receptors  

PubMed Central

Background Ethanol consumption is considerably elevated during adolescence. Attractiveness of alcohol for humans during the adolescent developmental period is based, in part, on its ability to induce social facilitation—a facilitation of social interactions not only evident in human adolescents but also in adolescent rats. Endogenous opioid systems are among the multiple neural systems implicated in the behavioral and reinforcing effects of ethanol and may play a substantial role in modulating stimulatory effects of low doses of ethanol on social behavior during adolescence. This possibility was explored in the present study through the use of an animal model of peer-directed social behavior. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats were challenged early in adolescence with saline or ethanol intraperitoneally (i.p.), placed into an individual holding cage for 30 minutes, and then tested in a familiar situation with a nonmanipulated partner of the same age and sex. In Experiment 1, each test subject was injected subcutaneously with one of the three doses of a nonselective opioid antagonist naloxone (0, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg), 5 minutes prior to the social interaction test and 25 minutes following challenge with saline or ethanol (0.5 g/kg), whereas in Experiment 2 animals were challenged with one of the six doses of ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 g/kg) prior to injection of either saline or naloxone (0.05 mg/kg). In Experiment 3, animals were pretreated i.p. with the selective ?-opioid antagonist CTOP (0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to challenge with saline or ethanol (0.5 g/kg). Results Low doses of ethanol (0.5 and 0.75 g/kg) produced social facilitation, as indexed by significant increases in play fighting and social investigation. Both doses of naloxone and the three highest doses of CTOP blocked the stimulatory effects of ethanol on play fighting but not on social investigation. These effects were not associated with alterations in ethanol pharmacokinetic properties or with shifts in the biphasic ethanol dose–response curve. Conclusions Ethanol-induced facilitation of social play behavior seen in adolescent animals is mediated in part through ethanol-induced release of endogenous ligands for the ?-opioid receptor or an ethanol-associated enhancement of sensitivity of these receptors for their endogenous ligands. PMID:19302088

Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

2011-01-01

134

Ethanol-Induced Activation of ATP-Dependent Proton Extrusion in Elodea densa Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

In Elodea densa leaves, ethanol up to 0.17 m stimulates H+ extrusion activity. This effect is strictly dependent on the presence of K+ in the medium and is suppressed by the presence of the plasmalemma H+-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Stimulation of H+ extrusion is associated with (a) a decrease in cellular ATP level, (b) a marked hyperpolarization of transmembrane electrical potential, and (c) an increase in net K+ influx. These results suggest that ethanol-induced H+ extrusion is mediated by an activation of the plasma membrane ATP-dependent, electrogenic proton pump. This stimulating effect is associated with an increase of cell sap pH and of the capacity to take up the weak acid 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione, which is interpretable as due to an increase of cytosolic pH. This indicates that the stimulation of H+ extrusion by ethanol does not depend on a cytosolic acidification by products of ethanol metabolism. The similarity of the effects of ethanol and those of photosynthesis on proton pump activity in E. densa leaves suggests that a common metabolic situation is responsible for the activation of the ATP-dependent H+-extruding mechanism. PMID:16653093

Marre, Maria T.; Venegoni, Alberto; Moroni, Anna

1992-01-01

135

Ethanol-Induced Activation of ATP-Dependent Proton Extrusion in Elodea densa Leaves.  

PubMed

In Elodea densa leaves, ethanol up to 0.17 m stimulates H(+) extrusion activity. This effect is strictly dependent on the presence of K(+) in the medium and is suppressed by the presence of the plasmalemma H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Stimulation of H(+) extrusion is associated with (a) a decrease in cellular ATP level, (b) a marked hyperpolarization of transmembrane electrical potential, and (c) an increase in net K(+) influx. These results suggest that ethanol-induced H(+) extrusion is mediated by an activation of the plasma membrane ATP-dependent, electrogenic proton pump. This stimulating effect is associated with an increase of cell sap pH and of the capacity to take up the weak acid 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione, which is interpretable as due to an increase of cytosolic pH. This indicates that the stimulation of H(+) extrusion by ethanol does not depend on a cytosolic acidification by products of ethanol metabolism. The similarity of the effects of ethanol and those of photosynthesis on proton pump activity in E. densa leaves suggests that a common metabolic situation is responsible for the activation of the ATP-dependent H(+)-extruding mechanism. PMID:16653093

Marrè, M T; Venegoni, A; Moroni, A

1992-11-01

136

Acute Ethanol-Induced Changes in Edema and Metabolite Concentrations in Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to describe the acute effects of EtOH on brain edema and cerebral metabolites, using diffusion weight imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at a 7.0T MR and to define changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and the concentration of metabolites in the rat brain after acute EtOH intoxication. ADC values in each ROI decreased significantly at 1 h and 3 h after ethanol administration. ADC values in frontal lobe were decreased significantly compared with other regions at 3 h. For EtOH/Cr+PCr and cerebral metabolites (Cho, Tau, and Glu) differing over time, no significant differences for Ins, NAA, and Cr were observed in frontal lobes. Regression analysis revealed a significant association between TSEtOH/Cr+PCr and TSCho, TSTau, TSGlu, and TSADC. The changes of ADC values in different brain regions reflect the process of the cytotoxic edema in vivo. The characterization of frontal lobes metabolites changes and the correlations between TSEtOH/Cr+PCr and TSCho, TSTau, and TSGlu provide a better understanding for the biological mechanisms in neurotoxic effects of EtOH on the brain. In addition, the correlations between TSEtOH/Cr+PCr and TSADC will help us to understand development of the ethanol-induced brain cytotoxic edema. PMID:24783201

Liu, Huimin; Yan, Gen; Liu, Baoguo; Kong, Lingmei; Ding, Yan; Tan, Hui; Zhang, Guishan

2014-01-01

137

Relation between ethanol induced changes in plasma catecholines during stress and voluntary ethanol preference  

SciTech Connect

N/NIH rats (N = 10) were implanted with venous catheters to permit stressless chronic, repeated blood withdrawal. Following surgical recovery, the rats were restrained to a lab counter top for 30 min after injection with saline or low dose (0.5 g/kg) ethanol. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn to determine AUC production of NE and E to assess the effect that low dose ethanol has on stress responsiveness. Between saline injection restraint and ethanol injection restraint conditions no differences in NE or E AUC were apparent. A 2- bottle preference test for ethanol was then performed over 21 days. Multiple regression analyses of NE saline restraint and ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .02 level with R/sup 2/ = .681. Multiple regressions of E saline restraint and E ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .01 level with R/sup 2/ = .746. These data suggest that ethanol induced increases in plasma NE and E during stress can predict later voluntary ethanol consumption between the ranges of .13 and 1.05 g ethanol/kg/day. This data seems to be more in line with an arousal or withdrawal relationship between ethanol consumption and stress than by a simple tension reduction formulation based on plasma NE or E.

Pashko, S.

1986-03-01

138

Banhabaekchulchunma-tang, a traditional herbal formula attenuates absolute ethanol-induced gastric injury by enhancing the antioxidant status  

PubMed Central

Background Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (hange-byakujutsu-tenma-to in Japanese and banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang in Chinese) is a mixture of fourteen herbs. It is used traditionally for the treatment of anemia, anorexia, general weakness, and female infertility in China, Japan, and Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Banhabaekchulchunma-tang water extract (BCT) against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Methods Gastric injury was induced by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol to each rat. The positive control group and the BCT group were given oral doses of omeprazole (50 mg/kg) or BCT (400 mg/kg), respectively, 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of each animal was excised and examined for gastric mucosal lesions. To confirm the protective effects of BCT, we evaluated the degree of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the stomach. In addition, we conducted an acute toxicity study to evaluate the safety of BCT according to OECD guideline. Results BCT reduced ethanol-induced hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa. BCT reduced the increased lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, and increased the mucosal GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, BCT did not cause any adverse effects at up to 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions These results indicate that BCT protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric injury by increasing the antioxidant status. We suggest that BCT could be developed as an effective drug for the treatment of gastric injury caused by alcohol intake. PMID:23844748

2013-01-01

139

The Ethanol-Induced Stimulation of Rat Duodenal Mucosal Bicarbonate Secretion In Vivo Is Critically Dependent on Luminal Cl–  

PubMed Central

Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ?30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v.) did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl? from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v.) but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl? and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms. PMID:25033198

Sommansson, Anna; Wan Saudi, Wan Salman; Nylander, Olof; Sjoblom, Markus

2014-01-01

140

Gastric histamine content and ulcer formation in rats with ethanol-induced injury. Effects of cinnarizine and flunarizine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the calcium antagonists cinnarizine and flunarizine on gastric histamine content and ulcer formation in rats with ethanol-induced injury were studied. Gastric ulcers were inflicted by oral application of 50% or 100% ethanol solution. Cinnarizine (20 mg\\/kg), flunarizine (10 mg\\/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg\\/kg) were administered orally 1 h before ethanol. Histamine was assayed fluorometrically. No effect of

V. Lozeva; K. Marazova; A. Belcheva

1994-01-01

141

Oxidative stress mediated toxicity exerted by ethanol-inducible CYP2E1  

SciTech Connect

Induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol is one of the central pathways by which ethanol generates a state of oxidative stress in hepatocytes. To study the biochemical and toxicological actions of CYP2E1, our laboratory established HepG2 cell lines which constitutively overexpress CYP2E1 and characterized these cells with respect to ethanol toxicity. Addition of ethanol or an unsaturated fatty acid such as arachidonic acid or iron was toxic to the CYP2E1-expressing cells but not control cells. This toxicity was associated with elevated lipid peroxidation and could be prevented by antioxidants and inhibitors of CYP2E1. Apoptosis occurred in the CYP2E1-expressing cells exposed to ethanol, arachidonic acid, or iron. Removal of GSH caused a loss of viability in the CYP2E1-expressing cells even in the absence of added toxin or pro-oxidant. This was associated with mitochondrial damage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Low concentrations of iron and arachidonic acid synergistically interacted with CYP2E1 to produce cell toxicity, suggesting these nutrients may act as priming or sensitizing agents to alcohol-induced liver injury. Surprisingly, CYP2E1-expressing cells had elevated GSH levels, due to transcriptional activation of glutamate cysteine ligase. Similarly, levels of catalase, alpha-, and microsomal glutathione transferase were also increased, suggesting that upregulation of these antioxidant genes may reflect an adaptive mechanism to remove CYP2E1-derived oxidants. Using co-cultures, interaction between CYP2E1-derived diffusible mediators to activate collagen production in hepatic stellate cells was found. While it is likely that several mechanisms contribute to alcohol-induced liver injury, the linkage between CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury, stellate cell activation, and GSH homeostasis may contribute to the toxic action of ethanol on the liver. HepG2 cell lines overexpressing CYP2E1 may be a valuable model to characterize the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1.

Wu Defeng [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cederbaum, Arthur I. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

2005-09-01

142

Pdgfra protects against ethanol-induced craniofacial defects in a zebrafish model of FASD.  

PubMed

Human birth defects are highly variable and this phenotypic variability can be influenced by both the environment and genetics. However, the synergistic interactions between these two variables are not well understood. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is the umbrella term used to describe the wide range of deleterious outcomes following prenatal alcohol exposure. Although FASD are caused by prenatal ethanol exposure, FASD are thought to be genetically modulated, although the genes regulating sensitivity to ethanol teratogenesis are largely unknown. To identify potential ethanol-sensitive genes, we tested five known craniofacial mutants for ethanol sensitivity: cyp26b1, gata3, pdgfra, smad5 and smoothened. We found that only platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (pdgfra) interacted with ethanol during zebrafish craniofacial development. Analysis of the PDGF family in a human FASD genome-wide dataset links PDGFRA to craniofacial phenotypes in FASD, prompting a mechanistic understanding of this interaction. In zebrafish, untreated pdgfra mutants have cleft palate due to defective neural crest cell migration, whereas pdgfra heterozygotes develop normally. Ethanol-exposed pdgfra mutants have profound craniofacial defects that include the loss of the palatal skeleton and hypoplasia of the pharyngeal skeleton. Furthermore, ethanol treatment revealed latent haploinsufficiency, causing palatal defects in ?62% of pdgfra heterozygotes. Neural crest apoptosis partially underlies these ethanol-induced defects in pdgfra mutants, demonstrating a protective role for Pdgfra. This protective role is mediated by the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results suggest a model where combined genetic and environmental inhibition of PI3K/mTOR signaling leads to variability within FASD. PMID:23861062

McCarthy, Neil; Wetherill, Leah; Lovely, C Ben; Swartz, Mary E; Foroud, Tatiana M; Eberhart, Johann K

2013-08-01

143

Chemokines mediate ethanol-induced exacerbations of murine cockroach allergen asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma imposes considerable patient and economic burdens, with the most severe cases causing the greatest affliction. Identifying stimuli that worsen asthma severity is an essential step to controlling both disease morbidity and the lessening economic impact. This study provides the first mechanistic investigation into how acute ethanol exposure will increase asthma severity in a murine model of mild cockroach allergen (CRA)-induced asthma. Outbred mice were sensitized to induce mild allergic asthma, with intratracheal CRA exposures on days 0 and 14. On day 21 mice were gavaged with water or 32% ethanol, and the third allergen exposure was given 30?min post-gavage. Asthmatic responses were measured at several time-points up to 42?h after the third allergen challenge. Ethanol-gavaged mice showed increased asthma severity within 90?min post-allergen challenge, with exacerbations lasting for 24?h. Ethanol caused greater airways obstruction, including an eightfold increase in epithelial cell mucin and increased mucus plugs, resulting in a 50% reduction in bronchiole patency. Ethanol gavage also induced significant increases in airways hyperreactivity. While T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines were not altered by ethanol gavage, pulmonary neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment were augmented. This increase was associated with increased chemokine production. Administration 2?h prior to ethanol gavage of a neutralizing antibody cocktail to keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 prevented ethanol-induced eosinophil recruitment and airways hyperreactivity. These data provide evidence that acute alcohol exposure immediately prior to a mild allergen-triggered asthmatic episode will exacerbate asthma severity mediated by increased production of chemokines. PMID:23574317

Bouchard, J C; Beal, D R; Kim, J; Vaickus, L J; Remick, D G

2013-05-01

144

Pdgfra protects against ethanol-induced craniofacial defects in a zebrafish model of FASD  

PubMed Central

Human birth defects are highly variable and this phenotypic variability can be influenced by both the environment and genetics. However, the synergistic interactions between these two variables are not well understood. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is the umbrella term used to describe the wide range of deleterious outcomes following prenatal alcohol exposure. Although FASD are caused by prenatal ethanol exposure, FASD are thought to be genetically modulated, although the genes regulating sensitivity to ethanol teratogenesis are largely unknown. To identify potential ethanol-sensitive genes, we tested five known craniofacial mutants for ethanol sensitivity: cyp26b1, gata3, pdgfra, smad5 and smoothened. We found that only platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (pdgfra) interacted with ethanol during zebrafish craniofacial development. Analysis of the PDGF family in a human FASD genome-wide dataset links PDGFRA to craniofacial phenotypes in FASD, prompting a mechanistic understanding of this interaction. In zebrafish, untreated pdgfra mutants have cleft palate due to defective neural crest cell migration, whereas pdgfra heterozygotes develop normally. Ethanol-exposed pdgfra mutants have profound craniofacial defects that include the loss of the palatal skeleton and hypoplasia of the pharyngeal skeleton. Furthermore, ethanol treatment revealed latent haploinsufficiency, causing palatal defects in ?62% of pdgfra heterozygotes. Neural crest apoptosis partially underlies these ethanol-induced defects in pdgfra mutants, demonstrating a protective role for Pdgfra. This protective role is mediated by the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results suggest a model where combined genetic and environmental inhibition of PI3K/mTOR signaling leads to variability within FASD. PMID:23861062

McCarthy, Neil; Wetherill, Leah; Lovely, C. Ben; Swartz, Mary E.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Eberhart, Johann K.

2013-01-01

145

Deficiency in AMPK attenuates ethanol-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction through inhibition of autophagosome formation  

PubMed Central

Aims Binge drinking often triggers compromised myocardial contractile function while activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Given the role of AMPK in the initiation of autophagy through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and Unc51-like kinase (ULK1), this study was designed to examine the impact of AMPK deficiency on cardiac function and the mechanism involved with a focus on autophagy following an acute ethanol challenge. Methods and results Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice overexpressing a kinase-dead (KD) ?2 isoform (K45R mutation) of AMPK were challenged with ethanol. Glucose tolerance, echocardiography, Langendorff heart and cardiomyocyte contractile function, autophagy, and autophagic signalling including AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), mTOR, the mTORC1-associated protein Raptor, and ULK1 were examined. Ethanol exposure triggered glucose intolerance and compromised cardiac contraction accompanied by increased phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC as well as autophagosome accumulation (increased LC3II and p62), the effects of which were attenuated or mitigated by AMPK deficiency or inhibition. Ethanol dampened and stimulated, respectively, the phosphorylation of mTOR and Raptor, the effects of which were abolished by AMPK deficiency. ULK1 phosphorylation at Ser757 and Ser777 was down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, by ethanol, the effect of which was nullified by AMPK deficiency or inhibition. Moreover, the ethanol challenge enhanced LC3 puncta in H9c2 cells and promoted cardiac contractile dysfunction, and these effects were ablated by the inhibition of autophagy or AMPK. Lysosomal inhibition failed to accentuate ethanol-induced increases in LC3II and p62. Conclusion In summary, these data suggest that ethanol exposure may trigger myocardial dysfunction through a mechanism associated with AMPK-mTORC1-ULK1-mediated autophagy. PMID:22451512

Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

2012-01-01

146

Central adenosinergic system involvement in ethanol-induced motor incoordination in mice  

SciTech Connect

To clarify if the behavioral interaction between ethanol and adenosine reported previously occur centrally or due to a peripheral hemodynamic change, the effect of i.c.v. adenosine agonists, N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA), N6-(S-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine, antagonists, theophylline and 8-p-(sulfophenyl)theophylline as well as enprofylline on ethanol-(i.p.)-induced motor incoordination was evaluated by rotorod. Adenosine agonists and antagonists dose dependently accentuated and attenuated, respectively, ethanol-induced motor incoordination, thereby suggesting a central mechanism of adenosine modulation of this effect of ethanol and confirmed our previous reports in which adenosine agonists and antagonists were given i.p. Enprofylline, a weak adenosine antagonist but potent inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, did not alter ethanol's motor incoordination, further supporting involvement of brain adenosine receptor mechanism(s) in ethanol-adenosine interactions. Results from R-PIA and N6-(S-phenylisopropyl)adenosine experiments showed nearly a 40-fold greater potency of R-vs. S-diastereoisomer, suggesting predominance of adenosine A1 subtype. However, 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine data indicate complexity of the mechanism(s) and point toward an additional involvement of a yet unknown subtype of adenosine A2. No effect of ethanol on blood or brain levels of (3H)R-PIA was noted and sufficient amount of the latter entered the brain to suggest adenosine receptor activation adequate to produce behavioral interaction with ethanol. There was no escape of i.c.v.-administered (3H)R-PIA from brain to the peripheral circulation ruling out a peripheral and supporting a central mechanism of ethanol-adenosine interaction.

Dar, M.S. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (USA))

1990-12-01

147

Astrocytes protect neurons from ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic death.  

PubMed

Ethanol induces oxidative stress in cultured fetal rat cortical neurons and this is followed by apoptotic death, which can be prevented by normalization of cell content of reduced glutathione (GSH). Because astrocytes can play a central role in maintenance of neuron GSH homeostasis, the following experiments utilized cocultures of neonatal rat cortical astrocytes and fetal cortical neurons to determine if astrocytes could protect neurons from ethanol-mediated apoptotic death via this mechanism. In cortical neurons cultured in the absence of astrocytes, ethanol (2.5 and 4 mg/ml; 6-, 12-, and 24-hr exposures) decreased trypan blue exclusion and the MTT viability measures by up to 45% (P < 0.05), increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up to 81% (P < 0.05), and decreased GSH within 1 hr of treatment by 49 and 51% for 2.5 and 4 mg/ml, respectively (P < 0.05). This was followed by onset of apoptotic cell death as determined by increased Annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation by 12 hr of ethanol exposure. Coculturing neurons with astrocytes prevented GSH depletion by 2.5 mg/ml ethanol, whereas GSH content was increased over controls in neurons exposed to 4 mg/ml ethanol (by up to 341%; P < 0.05). Ethanol generated increases in neuron ROS and apoptosis; decreases in viability were also prevented by coculture. Astrocytes were largely insensitive to ethanol, using the same measures. Only exposure to 4.0 mg/ml ethanol decreased GSH content in astrocytes, concomitant with a 204% increase in GSH efflux (P < 0.05). These studies illustrate that astrocytes can protect neurons from ethanol-mediated apoptotic death and that this may be related to maintenance of neuron GSH. PMID:15880562

Watts, Lora Talley; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Schenker, Steven; Henderson, George I

2005-06-01

148

Chemokines mediate ethanol-induced exacerbations of murine cockroach allergen asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma imposes considerable patient and economic burdens, with the most severe cases causing the greatest affliction. Identifying stimuli that worsen asthma severity is an essential step to controlling both disease morbidity and the lessening economic impact. This study provides the first mechanistic investigation into how acute ethanol exposure will increase asthma severity in a murine model of mild cockroach allergen (CRA)-induced asthma. Outbred mice were sensitized to induce mild allergic asthma, with intratracheal CRA exposures on days 0 and 14. On day 21 mice were gavaged with water or 32% ethanol, and the third allergen exposure was given 30 min post-gavage. Asthmatic responses were measured at several time-points up to 42 h after the third allergen challenge. Ethanol-gavaged mice showed increased asthma severity within 90 min post-allergen challenge, with exacerbations lasting for 24 h. Ethanol caused greater airways obstruction, including an eightfold increase in epithelial cell mucin and increased mucus plugs, resulting in a 50% reduction in bronchiole patency. Ethanol gavage also induced significant increases in airways hyperreactivity. While T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines were not altered by ethanol gavage, pulmonary neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment were augmented. This increase was associated with increased chemokine production. Administration 2 h prior to ethanol gavage of a neutralizing antibody cocktail to keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 prevented ethanol-induced eosinophil recruitment and airways hyperreactivity. These data provide evidence that acute alcohol exposure immediately prior to a mild allergen-triggered asthmatic episode will exacerbate asthma severity mediated by increased production of chemokines. PMID:23574317

Bouchard, J C; Beal, D R; Kim, J; Vaickus, L J; Remick, D G

2013-01-01

149

Effect of heat stress and recovery on viability, oxidative damage, and heat shock protein expression in hepatic cells of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effects of hyperthermia and recovery on cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and heat shock protein (HSP60, 70, and 90) mRNA expression in the hepatic cells of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Triplicate groups of cultured cells were exposed to 30, 32, or 34 °C for 0.5 h and then immediately incubated at 27 °C in 5 % CO2 for 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Hyperthermia stress greatly reduced cell viability and increased LDH release. Cell damage declined after recovery. Hyperthermia stress increased the lipid peroxide levels and reduced the antioxidant capacity (e.g., reduced SOD and T-AOC) of the cells. However, oxidative damage declined as the recovery period increased, and the levels of MDA, SOD, and T-AOC were restored. After cells were exposed to 32 °C, the expression of HSP60 after recovery for 1, 2, and 4 h (P < 0.05), the expression of HSP70 after recovery for 0.5 and 1 h (P < 0.01), and the expression of HSP90 throughout recovery were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than the prestress levels. During the recovery period, the variations in HSP gene expression reflected the transition period from a state of cellular growth to one of the cellular repairs. In conclusion, hyperthermia depresses cell viability, induces oxidative damage, and increases HSP expression, which plays an important role during hyperthermic stress in grass carp hepatic cells. PMID:24135954

Cui, Yanting; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao; Habte-Tsion, H-Michael; Zhang, Yuanyuan

2014-06-01

150

Ethanol and liver: Recent insights into the mechanisms of ethanol-induced fatty liver  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), a potentially pathologic condition, can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, leading to an increased probability of hepatic failure and death. Alcohol induces fatty liver by increasing the ratio of reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in hepatocytes; increasing hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and early growth response-1 activity; and decreasing hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activity. Alcohol activates the innate immune system and induces an imbalance of the immune response, which is followed by activated Kupffer cell-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? overproduction, which is in turn responsible for the changes in the hepatic SREBP-1 and PAI-1 activity. Alcohol abuse promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the liver and then reprograms TNF-? expression from BMDCs. Chronic alcohol intake triggers the sympathetic hyperactivity-activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) feedback loop that in turn activates the HSCs, resulting in HSC-derived TNF-? overproduction. Carvedilol may block this feedback loop by suppressing sympathetic activity, which attenuates the progression of AFLD. Clinical studies evaluating combination therapy of carvedilol with a TNF-? inhibitor to treat patients with AFLD are warranted to prevent the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25356030

Liu, Jinyao

2014-01-01

151

Nanoscale hepatoprotective herbal decoction attenuates hepatic stellate cell activity and chloroform-induced liver damage in mice  

PubMed Central

Background San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT) decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine containing Rhei rhizome, Coptidis rhizome, and Scutellariae radix, is widely used in hepatoprotective therapy. However, preparation of the decoction requires addition of boiling water that causes loss of numerous effective components. Methods To improve the bioavailability of the decoction, nanoscale SHXXT was developed. Chloroform-induced liver injury and hepatic stellate cell activity in mice were used to demonstrate the hepatoprotective characteristics of nanoscale SHXXT decoction. Results Liver/body weight ratio and serum aspartate and alanine aminotranferase levels were recovered by the nanoscale SHXXT. TIMP-1 gene expression was inhibited and MMP-2 gene expression was accelerated in activated hepatic stellate cells. Conclusion Nanoscale SHXXT decoction prepared in room temperature water could have preserved hepatoprotective ability. The results of this study indicate that nanoscale SHXXT could be extracted easily. The simple preparation of this herbal decoction is more convenient and energy-efficient. PMID:21760731

Huang, Sherry; Chang, Shu-Jen; Yang, Miffy; Chen, Justin Jin-Ching; Chang, Walter H

2011-01-01

152

Effect of allyl alcohol-induced sublethal hepatic damage upon doxorubicin metabolism and toxicity in the rabbit.  

PubMed

A model of hepatic dysfunction in vivo has been developed in rabbits to determine the effects of sublethal hepatocellular necrosis upon doxorubicin pharmacology. Eight New Zealand white rabbits were given 3 mg/kg doxorubicin i.v. Plasma doxorubicin and metabolite pharmacokinetics were determined and toxicity assessed by nadir complete blood counts. Hepatic function was assessed by the pulmonary excretion rate of 14CO2 from [14C]aminopyrine. Hepatocellular necrosis was produced by i.v. injection of 1.35 mg/kg of a 2% allyl alcohol solution. Doxorubicin administration and pharmacokinetics were repeated. Doxorubicin enhances the hepatotoxicity of allyl alcohol. Hepatocellular necrosis does not alter the plasma pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin but does increase the plasma exposure of doxorubicinol. Doxorubicin-induced myelosuppression is enhanced by allyl alcohol pretreatment. These data suggest that in circumstances of reduced hepatocellular volume or acute hepatocellular necrosis, a key plasma marker of doxorubicin-induced acute toxicity may be doxorubicinol. PMID:3581067

Brenner, D E; Anthony, L B; Halter, S; Harris, N L; Collins, J C; Hande, K R

1987-06-15

153

Ethanol inhibition of m-current and ethanol-induced direct excitation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

Ethanol-induced excitation of ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA VTA) neurons is thought to be critical for the reinforcing effects of ethanol. Although ligand-gated ion channels are known to be the targets of ethanol, ethanol modulation of voltage-dependent ion channels of central neurons has not been well studied. We have demonstrated that ethanol excites DA VTA neurons by the reduction of sustained K(+) currents and recently reported that M-current (I(M)) regulates action potential generation through fast and slow afterhyperpolarization phases. In the present study we thus examined whether ethanol inhibition of I(M) contributes to the excitation of DA VTA neurons using nystatin-perforated patch current- and voltage-clamp recordings. Ethanol (20-120 mM) reduced I(M) in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the spontaneous firing frequency of DA VTA neurons. Ethanol-induced increase in spontaneous firing frequency correlated positively with ethanol inhibition of I(M) with a slope value of 1.3. Specific I(M) inhibition by XE991 (0.3-10 microM) increased spontaneous firing frequency which correlated positively with I(M) inhibition with a slope value of 0.5. In the presence of 10 muM XE991, a concentration that produced maximal inhibition of I(M), ethanol still increased the spontaneous firing frequency of DA VTA neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus we conclude that, although ethanol causes inhibition of I(M) and this results in some increase in the firing frequency of DA VTA neurons, another effect of ethanol is primarily responsible for the ethanol-induced increase in firing rate in these neurons. PMID:16956995

Koyama, Susumu; Brodie, Mark S; Appel, Sarah B

2007-03-01

154

Stabilization of Nrf2 Protein by D3T Provides Protection against Ethanol-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that maternal ethanol exposure induces a moderate increase in Nrf2 protein expression in mouse embryos. Pretreatment with the Nrf2 inducer, 3H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), significantly increases the Nrf2 protein levels and prevents apoptosis in ethanol-exposed embryos. The present study, using PC12 cells, was designed to determine whether increased Nrf2 stability is a mechanism by which D3T enhances Nrf2 activation and subsequent antioxidant protection. Ethanol and D3T treatment resulted in a significant accumulation of Nrf2 protein in PC 12 cells. CHX chase analysis has shown that ethanol treatment delayed the degradation of Nrf2 protein in PC12 cells. A significantly greater decrease in Nrf2 protein degradation was observed in the cells treated with D3T alone or with both ethanol and D3T. In addition, D3T treatment significantly reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the stabilization of Nrf2 protein by D3T confers protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. PMID:21304811

Dong, Jian; Yan, Dong; Chen, Shao-yu

2011-01-01

155

Ascorbic acid supplementation enhances recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis than abstention in male guinea pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of ascorbic acid supplementation against ethanol induced Leydig cell toxicity was studied in guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were exposed to ethanol (4g/kgb.wt.) for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was completely stopped and animals in the ethanol group were divided into abstention group and ascorbic acid supplemented group (25mg/100gb.wt.) and those in control group were maintained as control and control+ascorbic acid group. Ethanol administration reduced the serum testosterone and LH (luteinising hormone) levels and elevated estradiol levels. Cholesterol levels in Leydig cell were increased whereas the mRNA and protein expressions of StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) protein, cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome p450side chain cleavage enzyme), 3?-HSD (3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), 17?-HSD (17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and LH receptor were drastically reduced. Administration of ascorbic acid resulted in alteration of all these parameters indicating enhanced recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Although abstention could also reduce the inhibition of steroidogenesis, this was lesser in comparison with ascorbic acid supplemented group. PMID:24333212

Radhakrishnakartha, Harikrishnan; Appu, Abhilash Puthuvelvippel; Indira, Madambath

2014-01-15

156

Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to further establish the pharmacological properties of Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae), hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of B. purpurea leaves (MEBP) was investigated using the paracetamol- (PCM-) induced liver toxicity in rats. Five groups of rats (n = 6) were used and administered orally once daily with 10% DMSO (negative control), 200?mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or MEBP (50, 250, and 500?mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay with the total phenolic content (TPC) also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control), whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pretreated with silymarin and MEBP. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or MEBP exhibited significant decrease (P < 0.05) in ALT and AST enzyme level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and contained high TPC. In conclusion, MEBP exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:23853662

Yahya, F.; Mamat, S. S.; Kamarolzaman, M. F. F.; Seyedan, A. A.; Jakius, K. F.; Mahmood, N. D.; Shahril, M. S.; Suhaili, Z.; Mohtarrudin, N.; Susanti, D.; Somchit, M. N.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Zakaria, Z. A.

2013-01-01

157

Low concentration of ethanol induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells: role of various signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

As we previously demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, ethanol at low concentration triggers the Fas apoptotic pathway. However, its role in other intracellular signaling pathways remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low concentration of ethanol on different intracellular signaling pathways. For this purpose, HepG2 cells were treated with 1 mM ethanol for 10 min and the phosphorylation state of protein kinases was determined. In addition, the mRNA levels of transcription factors and genes associated with the Fas apoptotic pathway were determined. Our data demonstrated that ethanol-induced phosphorylation of protein kinases modulates both anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic mechanisms in HepG2 cells. Pro-apoptosis resulted mainly from the strong inhibition of the G-protein couple receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, the signal transduction initiated by ethanol-induced protein kinases phosphorylation lead to increased expression of the transcription factors with subsequent expression of genes associated with the Fas apoptotic pathway (Fas receptor, Fas ligand, FADD and caspase 8). These results indicate that low concentration of ethanol exert their effect by predominant activation of pro-apoptotic events that can be divided in two phases. An early phase characterized by a rapid transient effect on protein kinases phosphorylation, after 10 min exposure, with subsequent increased expression of transcription factors for up to 6 hr. This early phase is followed by a second phase associated with increased gene expression that began after 6 hr and persisted for more than 24 hr. This information provided a novel insight into the mechanisms of action of ethanol (1mM) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID:17088943

Castaneda, Francisco; Rosin-Steiner, Sigrid

2006-01-01

158

G9a-Mediated Histone Methylation Regulates Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration in the Neonatal Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Rodent exposure to binge-like ethanol during postnatal day 7 (P7), which is comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy, induces neuronal cell loss. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these neuronal losses are still poorly understood. Here, we tested the possibility of histone methylation mediated by G9a (lysine dimethyltransferase) in regulating neuronal apoptosis in P7 mice exposed to ethanol. G9a protein expression, which is higher during embryogenesis and synaptogenic period compared to adult brain, is entirely confined to the cell nuclei in the developing brain. We found that ethanol treatment at P7, which induces apoptotic neurodegeneration in neonatal mice, enhanced G9a activity followed by increased histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and 27 (H3K27me2) dimethylation. In addition, it appears that increased dimethylation of H3K9 makes it susceptible to proteolytic degradation by caspase-3 in conditions in which ethanol induces neurodegeneration. Further, pharmacological inhibition of G9a activity prior to ethanol treatment at P7 normalized H3K9me2, H3K27me2 and total H3 proteins to basal levels and prevented neurodegeneration in neonatal mice. Together, these data demonstrate that G9a mediated histone H3K9 and K27 dimethylation critically regulates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel link between G9a and neurodegeneration in the developing brain exposed to postnatal ethanol and may have a role in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23396011

Subbanna, Shivakumar; Shivakumar, Madhu; Umapathy, Nagavedi S.; Saito, Mariko; Mohan, Panaiyur S.; Kumar, Asok; Nixon, Ralph A.; Verin, Alexander D.; Psychoyos, Delphine; Basavarajappa, Balapal S.

2013-01-01

159

Preventive effect of polysaccharides from the large yellow croaker swim bladder on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study the preventive effect of polysaccharides from the large yellow croaker swim bladder (PLYCSB) on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric injury in ICR mice was investigated. A high dose of PLYCSB (50 mg/kg) was found to reduce the levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, as well as increase the levels of IL-4 compared with those in mice treated with a low dose of PLYCSB (25 mg/kg) and control mice. The somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide serum levels in PLYCSB-treated mice were higher compared with those in control mice, whilst motilin and substance P serum levels were lower compared with those in control mice. The extent of the gastric injury in the mice treated with PLYCSB was lower compared with that in the control mice; however, the results obtained for mice treated with a high dose of PLYCSB were similar to those for omeprazole-treated mice. In addition, the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities of PLYCSB-treated mice were higher compared with those of the control mice, and similar to those observed in normal and omeprazole-treated mice. Furthermore, PLYCSB-treated mice showed levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde that were similar to those in the normal group. Using PCR and western blot analysis, it was demonstrated that PLYCSB significantly inhibited inflammation in the tissues of the HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury mice by downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-? and IL-1?. These results suggest that PLYCSB has an inhibitory effect against gastric injury that is comparable to that of the gastric injury drug omeprazole. Therefore, PLYCSB has the potential to be used as a natural therapeutic drug. PMID:24944640

CHEN, SHAOCHENG; ZHU, KAI; WANG, RUI; ZHAO, XIN

2014-01-01

160

Cilnidipine, an L/N-type calcium channel blocker prevents acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.  

PubMed

Several evidences indicated the involvement of L- and N-type calcium channels in behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including ethanol. Calcium channels are implicated in ethanol-induced behaviors and neurochemical responses. Calcium channel antagonists block the psychostimulants induced behavioral sensitization. Recently, it is demonstrated that L-, N- and T-type calcium channel blockers attenuate the acute locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol. However, no evidence indicated the role of calcium channels in ethanol-induced psychomotor sensitization. Therefore, present study evaluated the influence of cilnidipine, an L/N-type calcium channel blocker on acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization. The results revealed that cilnidipine (0.1 and 1.0?g/mouse, i.c.v.) attenuates the expression of sensitization to locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol (2.0g/kg, i.p.), whereas pre- treatment of cilnidipine (0.1 and 1.0?g/mouse, i.c.v.) during development of sensitization blocks acquisition and attenuates expression of sensitization to locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol. Cilnidipine per se did not influence locomotor activity in tested doses. Further, cilnidipine had no influence on effect of ethanol on rotarod performance. These results support the hypothesis that neuroadaptive changes in calcium channels participate in the acquisition and the expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization. PMID:22402189

Bhutada, Pravinkumar; Mundhada, Yogita; Patil, Jayshree; Rahigude, Anand; Zambare, Krushna; Deshmukh, Prashant; Tanwar, Dhanshree; Jain, Kishor

2012-04-11

161

AMELIORATION OF ETHANOL-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS BY ADENOVIRAL-MEDIATED CU,ZN-SOD AND MN-SOD EXPRESSION IN NEURULATION STAGED MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

AMELIORATION OF ETHANOL-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS BY ADENOVIRAL-MEDIATED Cu,Zn-SOD AND Mn-SOD EXPRESSION IN NEURULATION STAGED MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO. JB Smith1, PC Hartig3, MR Blanton3, KK Sulik1,2, and ES Hunter3. 1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and 2Bowles Cente...

162

Autophagy in Hepatic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future. PMID:24779010

Zhao, Yingying; Wang, Fei; Tao, Lichan; Yang, Changqing

2014-01-01

163

Ethanol-induced alterations of matrix network in the duodenal mucosa of chronic alcohol abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, including dyspepsia and diarrhoea.\\u000a It is not clear whether or not chronic alcohol ingestion damages the mucosa of the small intestine. We investigated the effect\\u000a of chronic alcohol abuse on the duodenal mucosa, and particularly on its extracellular matrix (ECM) network. Duoenal biopsy\\u000a specimens were obtained during upper gastrointestinal

A. Casini; Andrea Galli; Antonio Calabro’; S. Di Lollo; Barbara Orsini; L. Arganini; Anne M. Jezequel; Calogero Surrenti

1999-01-01

164

Effect of anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the protective effect of anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (AEBR) on chronic ethanol-induced biochemical changes in male Wistar rats. Administration of ethanol (3.7 g/kg/day) to Wistar rats for 45 days induced liver damage with a significant increase (P < 0.05) of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the serum and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In contrast, administration of AEBR (500 mg/kg) along with alcohol significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the activities of liver enzymes (AST, ALT and GGT) in serum, the MDA levels and the concentrations of serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH). Rats treated with AEBR showed a better profile of the antioxidant system with normal glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. All these results were accompanied by histological observations in liver. The results demonstrate that AEBR has a beneficial effect in reducing the adverse effect of alcohol. PMID:20143824

Hou, Zhaohua; Qin, Peiyou; Ren, Guixing

2010-03-10

165

Inactivation of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 and other microsomal P450 isozymes by trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a major product of membrane lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed Central

Of the microsomal P450 cytochromes, the ethanol-inducible isoform, P450 2E1, is believed to be predominant in leading to oxidative damage, including the generation of radical species that contribute to lipid peroxidation, and in the reductive beta-scission of lipid hydroperoxides to give hydrocarbons and aldehydes. In the present study, the sensitivity of a series of P450s to trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a known toxic product of membrane lipid peroxidation, was determined. After incubation of a purified cytochrome with HNE, the other components of the reconstituted system (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, phosphatidylcholine, and NADPH) were added, and the rate of oxygenation of 1-phenylethanol to yield acetophenone was assayed. Inactivation occurs in a time-dependent and HNE concentration-dependent manner, with P450s 2E1 and 1A1 being the most sensitive, followed by isoforms 1A2, 3A6, and 2B4. At an HNE concentration of 0.24 microM, which was close to the micromolar concentration of the enzyme, four of the isoforms were significantly inhibited, but not P450 2B4. In other experiments, the reductase was shown to be only relatively weakly inactivated by HNE. P450s 2E1 and 2B4 in microsomal membranes from animals induced with acetone or phenobarbital, respectively, are as readily inhibited as the purified forms. Evidence was obtained that the P450 heme is apparently not altered and the sulfur ligand is not displaced, that substrate protects against HNE, and that the inactivation is reversed upon dialysis. Higher levels of reductase or substrate do not restore the activity of inhibited P450 in the catalytic assay. Our results suggest that the observed inhibition of the various P450s is of sufficient magnitude to cause significant changes in the metabolism of foreign compounds such as drugs and chemical carcinogens by the P450 oxygenase system at HNE concentrations that occur in biological membranes. In view of the known activities of P450 2E1 in generating lipid hydroperoxides and in their beta-scission, its inhibition by this product of membrane peroxidation may provide a negative regulatory function. PMID:7731980

Bestervelt, L L; Vaz, A D; Coon, M J

1995-01-01

166

Evidence for the involvement of 5-lipoxygenase products in ethanol-induced intestinal plasma protein loss  

SciTech Connect

In this study the authors investigated whether the products of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) were involved in the jejunal microvascular injury induced by intraluminal ethanol (ETH). A group of rabbits was given orally a selective inhibitor of 5-LO in two 10-mg doses, 24, and 2 h before the experiments. A jejunal segment was perfused with a control solution (control segment) and an adjacent segment with an ETH-containing solution (ETH-perfused segment). In a series of experiments, they measured 5-LO activity of the jejunal segments of both groups using the generation of leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) as an index. In a second series of experiments, they determined the ETH-induced intraluminal protein loss, which was taken as a measure of mucosal microvascular damage. The ETH-induced increase in protein loss was significantly lower in the treated than in the untreated group. These findings suggest that products of 5-LO are involved in the ETH-induced jejunal microvascular injury.

Beck, I.T.; Boyd, A.J.; Dinda, P.K. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

1988-04-01

167

Effects of somatostatin and some of its tetrapeptide fragments on ethanol - induced gastric mucosal erosion in rat  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the cytoprotective effects of somatostatin (SRIF) and its 3-6, 5-8, 7-10, 9-12 and 11-14 tetrapeptide fragments on absolute ethanol-induced hemorrhagic erosions in the stomach of rat. The SRIF molecule was found to prevent the gastric erosions induced by ethanol. The 7-10 and 11-14 fragments exhibited similar properties. There are two peaks in the cytoprotective dose-response curves. It is concluded that various fragments of SRIF can also exert cytoprotective effects. SRIF is superior to cimetidine in the therapy of bleeding duodenal and gastric ulcers in humans. It prevents the duodenal ulcer produced by cysteamine and the gastric ulcer caused by stress. According to Szabo and Usadel, SRIF has a cytoprotective property, i.e. it decreases the harmful effects of absolute ethanol on the stomach of rat. The aim of this study was to establish whether various SRIF fragment have protective effects, and how the cytoprotection depends on the doses applied. 18 references, 1 figure.

Laszlo, F.; Pavo, I.; Penke, B.; Balint, G.A.

1987-08-31

168

Ethanol-induced hypothermia and ethanol consumption in the rat are affected by low-level microwave irradiation.  

PubMed

Microwave irradiation of rats by circularly polarized, 2,450-MHz, pulsed waves (2-microseconds pulses; 500 pps) was performed in waveguides to determine effects on ethanol-induced hypothermia and on ethanol consumption. Rats injected intraperitoneally with ethanol (3 g/kg in a 25% v/v water solution) immediately after 45 min of microwave irradiation exhibited attenuation of the initial rate of fall in body temperature, which was elicited by the ethanol, but exhibited no significant difference in maximal hypothermia as compared with that of sham-irradiated rats. Microwave irradiation did not affect the consumption of a 10% sucrose (w/v) solution by water-deprived rats. However, it enhanced the consumption of a solution of 10% sucrose (w/v) + 15% ethanol (v/v) by water-deprived animals. These results were obtained at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.6 W/kg, which rate of energy dosing would require a power density of 3-6 mW/cm2 if exposure of the animals had occurred to a 12-cm plane wave. PMID:6732877

Lai, H; Horita, A; Chou, C K; Guy, A W

1984-01-01

169

High ethanol consumption and low sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation in protein kinase A-mutant mice.  

PubMed

Both in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates some of the acute and chronic cellular responses to alcohol. However, it is unclear whether PKA regulates voluntary alcohol consumption. We therefore studied alcohol consumption by mice that completely lack the regulatory IIbeta (RIIbeta) subunit of PKA as a result of targeted gene disruption. Here we report that RIIbeta knockout mice (RIIbeta-/-) showed incr eased consumption of solutions containing 6, 10, and 20% (v/v) ethanol when compared with wild-type mice (RIIbeta+/+). On the other hand, RIIbeta-/- mice showed normal consumption of solutions containing either sucrose or quinine. When compared with wild-type mice, the RIIbeta-/- mice were found to be less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol as measured by more rapid recovery from ethanol-induced sleep, even though plasma ethanol concentrations did not differ significantly from those of controls. Finally, both RIbeta- and catylatic subunit beta1-deficient mice showed normal voluntary consumption of ethanol, indicating that increased ethanol consumption is not a general characteristic associated with deletion of PKA subunits. These data demonstrate a role for the RIIbeta subunit of PKA in regulating voluntary consumption of alcohol and sensitivity to the intoxication effects that are produced by this drug. PMID:10783399

Thiele, T E; Willis, B; Stadler, J; Reynolds, J G; Bernstein, I L; McKnight, G S

2000-05-15

170

Lesions of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in C57BL\\/6J mice disrupt ethanol-induced hypothermia and ethanol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) is a brain region that has recently been implicated as an important novel neural target for ethanol. Thus, the EW is the only brain region consistently showing elevated c-Fos expression following both voluntary and involuntary ethanol administration. Ethanol-induced c-Fos expression in the EW has been shown to occur in urocortin I-positive neurons. Moreover, previous reports using

Ryan K. Bachtell; Adam Z. Weitemier; Andrey E. Ryabinin

2004-01-01

171

Ebselen, a seleno-organic compound, protects against ethanol-induced murine gastric mucosal injury in both in vivo and in vitro systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of the seleno-organic compound ebselen on ethanol-induced murine gastric mucosal injury was examined. In an in vivo study, absolute ethanol (50 ?l\\/mouse, oral) produced marked gastric mucosal necrosis along with hemorrhage or edema and elevations in both lipid peroxide and peptidoleukotriene levels in the fundic mucosa. Pretreatment with ebselen (30 and 100 mg\\/kg, oral) significantly prevented this

Yoshiaki Tabuchi; Norifumi Sugiyama; Tadashi Horiuchi; Mitsuru Furusawa; Kazuhisa Furuhama

1995-01-01

172

Corticotropin releasing factor-1 receptor antagonist, CP154,526, blocks the expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization in DBA\\/2J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleManipulation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling has been shown to alter the acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. It is unknown if other components of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis modulate locomotor sensitization resulting from repeated ethanol administration. In the present investigation, we determined if pretreatment with an i.p. injection of CP-154,526, a selective corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) type-1 receptor

J. R. Fee; D. R. Sparta; M. J. Picker; T. E. Thiele

2007-01-01

173

Cyto protective effect of bis[benzyl N?-(indol-3-ylmethylene)-hydrazinecarbodithioato]-nickel(II) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bis[benzyl N?-(indol-3-ylmethylene)-hydrazinecarbodithioato]-nickel(II) (BIHCN) has been used in traditional medicine for their biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of BIHCN against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Six groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats were orally pre-treated respectively with 10% Tween 20 solution (ulcer control group), omeprazole 20 mg\\/kg (reference group), and 50, 100,

Fathi Farag Mughrabi; Harita Hashim; Mahmood Ameen; Hamid Khaledi

2010-01-01

174

Alcoholic hepatitis and concomitant hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and alcohol abuse are two most important causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic hepatitis is a unique clinical syndrome among patients with chronic and active alcohol abuse with a potential for high short-term mortality. About 20% of patients presenting with alcoholic hepatitis have concomitant HCV infection. Mortality from alcoholic hepatitis is increased in the presence of concomitant hepatitis C due to synergistic interaction between HCV and alcohol in causing hepatocellular damage. Large prospective randomized studies are needed to develop guidelines on the use of corticosteroids among patients with alcoholic hepatitis and concomitant HCV infection. The impact of antiviral therapy on mortality and outcome in the setting of alcoholic hepatitis remains a novel area for future research. PMID:25232227

Shoreibah, Mohamed; Anand, Bhupinderjit S; Singal, Ashwani K

2014-09-14

175

Extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior : the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and medial prefrontal cortex circuitry in extinction of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.  

E-print Network

??Although studies have begun to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP), they have primarily been limited to the acquisition and expression… (more)

Groblewski, Peter A.

2011-01-01

176

Defining Hepatic Dysfunction Parameters in Two Models of Fatty Liver Disease in Zebrafish Larvae  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fatty liver disease in humans can progress from steatosis to hepatocellular injury, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. We developed a series of straightforward assays to determine whether zebrafish larvae with either tunicamycin- or ethanol-induced steatosis develop hepatic dysfunction. We found altered expression of genes involved in acute phase response and hepatic function, and impaired hepatocyte secretion and disruption of canaliculi in both models, but glycogen deficiency in hepatocytes and dilation of hepatic vasculature occurred only in ethanol-treated larvae. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) become activated during liver injury and HSC numbers increased in both models. Whether the excess lipids in hepatocytes are a direct cause of hepatocyte dysfunction in fatty liver disease has not been defined. We prevented ethanol-induced steatosis by blocking activation of the sterol response element binding proteins (Srebps) using gonzombtps1 mutants and scap morphants and found that hepatocyte dysfunction persisted even in the absence of lipid accumulation. This suggests that lipotoxicity is not the primary cause of hepatic injury in these models of fatty liver disease. This study provides a panel of parameters to assess liver disease that can be easily applied to zebrafish mutants, transgenics, and for drug screening in which liver function is an important consideration. PMID:23697887

Howarth, Deanna L.; Yin, Chunyue; Yeh, Karen

2013-01-01

177

[Viral hepatitis].  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatitis A and E viruses are enterally transmitted and lead to usually self-limited acute hepatitis. Hepatitis B, C and D viruses are transmitted by parenteral routes and can lead to chronic hepatitis with progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we briefly review current understanding and new developments in the virology and epidemiology, diagnosis, natural history, therapy and prevention of viral hepatitis. PMID:21452137

Moradpour, Darius; Blum, Hubert E

2011-04-01

178

Antioxidant Mechanism is Involved in the Gastroprotective Effects of Ozonized Sunflower Oil in Ethanol-Induced Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

This research was performed in order to determine the potential protective effects of ozonized sunflower oil (OSO) in the injury of rat gastric mucosa induced by absolute ethanol and as well as to elucidate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and some important constituents of antioxidant defense such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in these effects. OSO was administered to rats intragastrically by a cannula and it was applied during four days to animals. The doses of OSO administered daily to each group of rats were 4, 12, and 24 mg/kg, respectively, and one hour after the last treatment, absolute ethanol (1 mL/200 mg body weight) was administered. Our results showed that gastric ulcer index was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with OSO as compared with ethanol-treated controls. However, in rats pretreated with OSO, no significant reduction of TBARS content in gastric mucosa was found as compared to those rats treated with ethanol alone. In contrast, SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased in gastric mucosa of OSO-pretreated rats with respect to those treated with ethanol alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that OSO pretreatment exerts protective effects in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Furthermore, these results provide evidence that these protective effects of OSO are mediated at least partially by stimulation of some important antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GSH-Px, which are scavengers of ROS and therefore prevent gastric injury induced by them. PMID:17497036

Rodriguez, Zullyt B. Zamora; Alvarez, Ricardo Gonzalez; Guanche, Dailen; Merino, Nelson; Rosales, Frank Hernandez; Cepero, Silvia Menendez; Gonzalez, Yaima Alonso; Schulz, Siegfried

2007-01-01

179

Ethanol-induced analgesia  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

1987-09-07

180

S-adenosyl-methionine decreases ethanol-induced apoptosis in primary hepatocyte cultures by a c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity-independent mechanism  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in ethanol-induced apoptosis and the modulation of this signaling cascade by S-Adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet). METHODS: Primary hepatocyte cultures were pretreated with 100 µmol/L SP600125, a selective JNK inhibitor, 1 mL/L DMSO or 4 mmol/L AdoMet and then exposed to 100 mmo/L ethanol. Hepatocyte apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL and DNA ladder assays. JNK activity and its inhibition by SP600125 and AdoMet were determined by Western blot analysis of c-jun phosphorylation and Bid fragmentation. SP600125 and AdoMet effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway were determined by Western blot analysis of cytochrome c release and pro-caspase 3 fragmentation. The AdoMet effect on glutathione levels was measured by Ellman’s method and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by cell cytometry. RESULTS: The exposure of hepatocytes to ethanol induced JNK activation, c-jun phosphorylation, Bid fragmentation, cytochrome c release and pro-caspase 3 cleavage; these effects were diminished by SP600125, and caused a significant decrease in ethanol-induced apoptosis (P

Cabrales-Romero, Maria del Pilar; Marquez-Rosado, Lucrecia; Fattel-Fazenda, Samia; Trejo-Solis, Cristina; Arce-Popoca, Evelia; Aleman-Lazarini, Leticia; Villa-Trevino, Saul

2006-01-01

181

Parametric analysis of the development and expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization in female Swiss mice: effects of dose, injection schedule, and test context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Repeated administrations of ethanol induce a progressive and enduring increase in its locomotor stimulant effects, a phenomenon\\u000a termed behavioral sensitization that has not been systematically characterized.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The aim of the present studies was to characterize the development and expression of ethanol sensitization in female Swiss\\u000a mice by examining (1) the doses of ethanol that induce behavioral sensitization, (2) the doses

Vincent Didone; Caroline Quoilin; Ezio Tirelli; Etienne Quertemont

2008-01-01

182

Effect of glyprolines PGP, GP, and PG on homeostasis of gastric mucosa in rats with experimental ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.  

PubMed

The decrease in the severity of erosions and ulcer lesions after preventive treatment with PGP or PG correlated with a decrease in the content of lipid peroxidation products to a control level. Activities of SOD and catalase also returned to control values. GP produced the weakest effect on pro- and antioxidant state of the gastric mucosa. We concluded that the pronounced preventive effect of PGP and PG on the development of ethanol-induced erosions and ulcer lesions is largely determined by their antioxidant properties. Glyprolines can be considered as a promising means for prevention and treatment of stomach and duodenal ulcers. PMID:21165422

Falalyeyeva, T M; Samonina, G E; Beregovaya, T V; Andreeva, L A; Dvorshchenko, E A

2010-11-01

183

Hepatoprotective Activity of Elephantopus scaber on Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

Elephantopus scaber has been traditionally used as liver tonic. However, the protective effect of E. scaber on ethanol-induced liver damage is still unclear. In this study, we have compared the in vivo hepatoprotective effect of E. scaber with Phyllanthus niruri on the ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. The total phenolic and total flavanoid content of E. scaber ethanol extract were determined in this study. Accelerating serum biochemical profiles (including AST, ALT, ALP, triglyceride, and total bilirubin) associated with fat drop and necrotic body in the liver section were observed in the mice treated with ethanol. Low concentration of E. scaber was able to reduce serum biochemical profiles and the fat accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, high concentration of E. scaber and positive control P. niruri were able to revert the liver damage, which is comparable to the normal control. Added to this, E. scaber did not possess any oral acute toxicity on mice. These results suggest the potential effect of this extract as a hepatoprotective agent towards-ethanol induced liver damage without any oral acute toxicity effect. These activities might be contributed, or at least in part, by its high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PMID:22973401

Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Chai Ling; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2012-01-01

184

Mangiferin, a natural xanthone, protects murine liver in Pb(II) induced hepatic damage and cell death via MAP kinase, NF-?B and mitochondria dependent pathways.  

PubMed

One of the most well-known naturally occurring environmental heavy metals, lead (Pb) has been reported to cause liver injury and cellular apoptosis by disturbing the prooxidant-antioxidant balance via oxidative stress. Several studies, on the other hand, reported that mangiferin, a naturally occurring xanthone, has been used for a broad range of therapeutic purposes. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the molecular mechanisms of the protective action of mangiferin against lead-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Lead [Pb(II)] in the form of Pb(NO3)2 (at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, 6 days, orally) induced oxidative stress, hepatic dysfunction and cell death in murine liver. Post treatment of mangiferin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (6 days, orally), on the other hand, diminished the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced the levels of serum marker enzymes [alanine aminotranferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)]. Mangiferin also reduced Pb(II) induced alterations in antioxidant machineries, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as mutual regulation of Bcl-2/Bax. Furthermore, mangiferin inhibited Pb(II)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (phospho-ERK 1/2, phosphor-JNK phospho- p38), nuclear translocation of NF-?B and apoptotic cell death as was evidenced by DNA fragmentation, FACS analysis and histological assessment. In vitro studies using hepatocytes as the working model also showed the protective effect of mangiferin in Pb(II) induced cytotoxicity. All these beneficial effects of mangiferin contributes to the considerable reduction of apoptotic hepatic cell death induced by Pb(II). Overall results demonstrate that mangiferin exhibit both antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties and protects the organ in Pb(II) induced hepatic dysfunction. PMID:23451106

Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

2013-01-01

185

Induction of the Nrf2-driven antioxidant response by tert-butylhydroquinone prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis in cranial neural crest cells  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that ethanol exposure causes apoptosis in cranial neural crest cells (NCCs), an ethanol-sensitive cell population implicated in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Additionally, induction of endogenous antioxidants through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to prevent oxidative stress and apoptosis in ethanol-exposed mouse embryos. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 inducer, can protect NCCs against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Ethanol exposure was shown to cause a moderate increase in the protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants in the NCCs. Treatment of NCCs with tBHQ alone significantly increased the protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants and also significantly increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. In NCCs exposed to ethanol, the tBHQ-mediated antioxidant response prevented oxidative stress and apoptosis. These results clearly demonstrate that activation of Nrf2 signaling confers protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis in NCCs. PMID:20223225

Yan, Dong; Dong, Jian; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Chen, Shao-yu

2010-01-01

186

Pre-administration of G9a/GLP inhibitor during synaptogenesis prevents postnatal ethanol-induced LTP deficits and neurobehavioral abnormalities in adult mice.  

PubMed

It has been widely accepted that deficits in neuronal plasticity underlie the cognitive abnormalities observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Exposure of rodents to acute ethanol on postnatal day 7 (P7), which is equivalent to the third trimester of fetal development in human, induces long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory deficits in adult animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Recently, we found that histone H3 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is mediated by G9a (lysine dimethyltransferase), is responsible for the neurodegeneration caused by ethanol exposure in P7 mice. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of G9a prior to ethanol treatment at P7 normalized H3K9me2 proteins to basal levels and prevented neurodegeneration in neonatal mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pre-administration of G9a/GLP inhibitor (Bix-01294, Bix) in conditions in which ethanol induces neurodegeneration would be neuroprotective against P7 ethanol-induced deficits in LTP, memory and social recognition behavior in adult mice. Ethanol treatment at P7 induces deficits in LTP, memory and social recognition in adult mice and these deficits were prevented by Bix pretreatment at P7. Together, these findings provide physiological and behavioral evidence that the long-term harmful consequences on brain function after ethanol exposure with a third trimester equivalent have an epigenetic origin. PMID:25017367

Subbanna, Shivakumar; Basavarajappa, Balapal S

2014-11-01

187

Hepatitis C  

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... been successful in keeping the virus in check. Women who have hepatitis C should check with their ... who share needles or razors • babies born to women who have hepatitis C Prevention Since treatment for ...

188

Autoimmune Hepatitis  

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... with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis commonly have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, an autoimmune disease in ... 2 can also have any of the above autoimmune disorders. [ Top ] What are the symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis? ...

189

Hepatitis A  

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... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

190

Hepatitis C  

MedlinePLUS

... Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 79. Rosen HR. Clinical practice. Chronic hepatitis C infection. N Engl J Med . 2011;364(25):2429-38. Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection ...

191

Hepatitis C  

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... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

192

Comparison of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Protective Effects on Hepatic Damage when Administered After Acetaminophen Overdose  

PubMed Central

In the clinical setting, antidotes are generally administered after the occurrence of a drug overdose. Therefore, the most pertinent evaluation of any new agent should model human exposure. This study tested whether acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity was reversed when S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) was administered after APAP exposure, similar to what occurs in clinical situations. Comparisons were made for potency between SAMe and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the current treatment for APAP toxicity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fasted overnight and divided into groups: control (VEH), SAMe treated (SAMe), APAP treated (APAP), N-acetylcysteine treated (NAC), SAMe or NAC administered 1 h after APAP (SAMe+APAP) and (NAC+APAP), respectively. Mice were injected Intraperitoneal (ip) with water (VEH) or 250 mg/kg APAP (15 ml/kg). One 1h later, mice were injected (ip) with 1.25 mmol/kg SAMe (SAMe+APAP) or NAC (NAC+APAP). Hepatotoxicity was evaluated 4 h after APAP or VEH treatment. APAP induced centrilobular necrosis, increased liver weight and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, depressed total hepatic glutathione (GSH), increased protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) adducted proteins. Treatment with SAMe 1 hr after APAP overdose (SAMe+APAP) was hepatoprotective and was comparable to NAC+APAP. Treatment with SAMe or NAC 1 h after APAP was sufficient to return total hepatic glutathione (GSH) to levels comparable to the VEH group. Western blot showed reversal of APAP mediated effects in the SAMe+APAP and NAC+APAP groups. In summary, SAMe was protective when given 1 h after APAP and was comparable to NAC. PMID:18068290

Terneus, Marcus V.; Brown, J. Michael; Carpenter, A. Betts; Valentovic, Monica A.

2008-01-01

193

Beneficial effects of capsiate on ethanol-induced mucosal injury in rats are related to stimulation of calcitonin gene-related Peptide release.  

PubMed

Capsiate is a non-pungent analogue of capsaicin from CH-19 Sweet peppers. Capsaicin is reported to trigger calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) and produces beneficial effects on gastric mucosa. This study aimed to investigate whether capsiate is able to produce beneficial effects on gastric mucosa and whether the protective effects of capsipate occur through a mechanism involving the activation of TRPV1 and CGRP release. A rat model of gastric mucosal injury was established by the oral administration of acidified ethanol. Gastric tissues were collected for analysis of the gastric ulcer index, cellular apoptosis, activities of caspase-3, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of CGRP, TNF-?, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Our results show that the acute administration of ethanol significantly increased the gastric ulcer index concomitantly with an increase in cellular apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and TNF-? and MDA levels, as well as a decrease in the activities of catalase and SOD. Pretreatment with 1 mg/kg capsiate attenuated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury and cellular apoptosis accompanied by an increase in CGRP level, catalase, and SOD activities, and a decrease in caspase-3 activity, and TNF-? and MDA levels. The effects of capsiate were inhibited by capsazepine, an antagonist of TRPV1. These results suggest that capsiate is able to produce beneficial effects on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. These effects are related to the stimulation of CGRP release through the activation of TRPV1. PMID:21928164

Li, Nian-Sheng; Luo, Xiu-Ju; Dai, Zhong; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yi-Shuai; Yang, Zhi-Chun; Peng, Jun

2012-01-01

194

Alcohol potentiates hepatitis C virus replicon expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption accelerates liver damage and diminishes the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) effect of interferon alfa (IFN-?) in patients with HCV infection. It is unknown, however, whether alcohol enhances HCV replication and promotes HCV disease progression. The availability of the HCV replicon containing hepatic cells has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the interaction between alcohol and HCV replicon expression.

Ting Zhang; Yuan Li; Jian-Ping Lai; Steven D. Douglas; David S. Metzger; Charles P. O'Brien; Wen-Zhe Ho

2003-01-01

195

Hepatic mRNA, microRNA, and miR-34a-Target responses in mice after 28 days exposure to doses of benzo(a)pyrene that elicit DNA damage and mutation  

PubMed Central

Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a mutagenic carcinogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. To better understand the toxic effects of BaP and to explore the relationship between toxicity and toxicogenomics profiles, we assessed global mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Muta™Mouse. Adult male mice were exposed by oral gavage to 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg/day BaP for 28 days. Liver tissue was collected 3 days following the last treatment. Initially, we established that exposure to BaP led to the formation of hepatic DNA adducts and mutations in the lacZ transgene of the Muta™Mouse. We then analyzed hepatic gene expression profiles. Microarray analysis of liver samples revealed 134 differentially expressed transcripts (adjusted P < 0.05; fold changes > 1.5). The mRNAs most affected were involved in xenobiotic metabolism, immune response, and the downstream targets of p53. In this study, we found a significant 2.0 and 3.6-fold increase following exposure to 50 and 75 mg/kg/day BaP, respectively, relative to controls for miR-34a. This miRNA is involved in p53 response. No other significant changes in miRNAs were observed. The protein levels of five experimentally confirmed miR-34a targets were examined, and no major down-regulation was present. The results suggest that liver miRNAs are largely unresponsive to BaP doses that cause both DNA adducts and mutations. In summary, the validated miRNA and mRNA expression profiles following 28 day BaP exposure reflect a DNA damage response and effects on the cell cycle, consistent with the observed increases in DNA adducts and mutations. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2012. © 2011 Crown in the right of Canada PMID:21964900

Malik, Amal I; Williams, Andrew; Lemieux, Christine L; White, Paul A; Yauk, Carole L

2012-01-01

196

Hepatoprotective Effect of Platycodon grandiflorum against Chronic Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress in C57BL\\/6 Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) in ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver damage. Methods and Results: PG treatment (both the total extract and saponin fraction) significantly blocked EtOH-induced oxidative stress through the preservation of activities of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, while the administration of EtOH to C57BL\\/6 mice for 6 weeks

Jung-Ran Noh; Yong-Hoon Kim; Gil-Tae Gang; Jung-Hwan Hwang; Sang-Kyum Kim; Shi-Yong Ryu; Young-Sup Kim; Hyun-Sun Lee; Chul-Ho Lee

2011-01-01

197

Molecular mimicry in halothane hepatitis: Biochemical and structural characterization of lipoylated autoantigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of human individuals to halothane causes, in about 20% of all cases, a mild transient form of hepatotoxicity. A small subset of exposed individuals, however, develops a potentially severe and life-threatening form of hepatic damage, coined halothane hepatitis. Halothane hepatitis is thought to have an immunological basis. Sera of afflicted individuals contain a wide variety of autoantibodies against hepatic

Josef Gut; Urs Christen; Nora Frey; Valeria Koch; Daniel Stoffler

1995-01-01

198

Coenzyme Q10 Rescues Ethanol-induced Corneal Fibroblast Apoptosis through the Inhibition of Caspase-2 Activation*  

PubMed Central

Recent studies indicate that caspase-2 is involved in the early stages of apoptosis, particularly before the occurrence of mitochondrial damage. Here we report the important role of the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the activity of caspase-2 upstream of mitochondria in ethanol (EtOH)-treated corneal fibroblasts. After EtOH exposure, cells produce excessive reactive oxygen species formation, p53 expression, and most importantly, caspase-2 activation. After the activation of the caspase-2, the cells exhibited hallmarks of apoptotic pathway, such as mitochondrial damage and translocation of Bax and cytochrome c, which were then followed by caspase-3 activation. By pretreating the cells with a cell-permeable, biotinylated pan-caspase inhibitor, we identified caspase-2 as an initiator caspase in EtOH-treated corneal fibroblasts. Loss of caspase-2 inhibited EtOH-induced apoptosis. We further found that caspase-2 acts upstream of mitochondria to mediate EtOH-induced apoptosis. The loss of caspase-2 significantly inhibited EtOH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, Bax translocation, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The pretreatment of CoQ10 prevented EtOH-induced caspase-2 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that by blocking caspase-2 activity, CoQ10 can protect the cells from mitochondrial membrane change, apoptotic protein translocation, and apoptosis. Taken together, EtOH-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is initiated by caspase-2 activation, which is regulated by CoQ10. PMID:23430247

Chen, Chun-Chen; Liou, Shiow-Wen; Chen, Chi-Chih; Chen, Wen-Chung; Hu, Fung-Rong; Wang, I-Jong; Lin, Shing-Jong

2013-01-01

199

Hepatitis in Dengue Shock Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue fever is the most frequent arbovirus disease in the world and the most important one in terms of morbidity and mortality. Atypical manifestations of dengue have become commonplace during the last few years, including hepatic damage, which manifests mainly by pain in the right hypochondrium and an increase in the levels of aminotransferases. We describe a case of acute

Luiz José de Souza; Helder Gonçalves Carneiro; João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho; Thiago Ferreira de Souza; Vitor Azevedo Côrtes; Carlos Gicovate Neto; Diogo Assed Bastos; Edno Wallace da Silva Siqueira

2002-01-01

200

Origin of hepatitis ? virus  

PubMed Central

This article addresses some of the questions relating to how hepatitis ? virus (HDV), an agent so far unique in the animal world, might have arisen. HDV was discovered in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). It generally makes HBV infections more damaging to the liver. It is a subviral satellite agent that depends upon HBV envelope proteins for its assembly and ability to infect new cells. In other aspects of replication, HDV is both independent of and very different from HBV. In addition, the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV, and its mechanism of replication, demonstrate an increasing number of similarities to the viroids – a large family of helper-independent subviral agents that cause pathogenesis in plants. PMID:20210550

Taylor, John; Pelchat, Martin

2010-01-01

201

Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)  

PubMed Central

Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 ?g DON kg?1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

202

Autoimmune hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

Autoimmune hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that occurs when immune cells mistake the liver's normal cells for ... lupus erythematosus Thyroiditis Type 1 diabetes Ulcerative colitis ... sometimes occurs in relatives of people with autoimmune ...

203

Autoimmune Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease with a strong female preponderance, characterized by elevated\\u000a levels of transaminases and immunoglobulin G (IgG), seropositivity for organ and non-organ-specific autoantibodies, and a\\u000a histological picture of interface hepatitis. The major pathogenic mechanism is believed to be immune reaction against host\\u000a liver antigens. AIH responds well to immuno-suppressive treatment. The diagnosis should be

Diego Vergani; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

204

Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.  

PubMed

Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE(2), SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

Alrashdi, Ahmed S; Salama, Suzy M; Alkiyumi, Salim S; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig I; Taha, Manal M; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

2012-01-01

205

Research Article Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2012 Ahmed S. AlRashdi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as

Ahmed S. Alrashdi; Suzy M. Salama; Salims. Alkiyumi; Mahmood A. Abdulla; A. Hamid; A. Hadi; Siddig I. Abdelwahab; Manal M. Taha; Jamal Hussiani; Nur Asykin

206

Hepatitis virus panel  

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207

Microtubule Acetylation and Stability May Explain Alcohol-Induced Alterations in Hepatic Protein Trafficking  

PubMed Central

We have been using polarized hepatic WIF-B cells to examine ethanol-induced liver injury. Previously, we determined microtubules were more highly acetylated and more stable in ethanol-treated WIF-B cells. We proposed that the ethanol-induced alterations in microtubule dynamics may explain the ethanol-induced defects in membrane trafficking that have been previously documented. To test this, we compared the trafficking of selected proteins in control cells and cells treated with ethanol or with the histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). We determined that exposure to 50 nM TSA for 30 minutes induced microtubule acetylation (~3-fold increase) and stability to the same extent as did ethanol. As shown previously in situ, the endocytic trafficking of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) was impaired in ethanol-treated WIF-B cells. This impairment required ethanol metabolism and was likely mediated by acetaldehyde. TSA also impaired ASGP-R endocytic trafficking, but to a lesser extent. Similarly, both ethanol and TSA impaired transcytosis of the single-spanning apical resident aminopeptidase N (APN). For both ASGP-R and APN and for both treatments, the block in trafficking was internalization from the basolateral membrane. Interestingly, no changes in transcytosis of the glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, 5?-nucleotidase, were observed, suggesting that increased microtubule acetylation and stability differentially regulate internalization. We further determined that albumin secretion was impaired in both ethanol-treated and TSA-treated cells, indicating that increased microtubule acetylation and stability also disrupted this transport step. Conclusion These results indicate that altered microtubule dynamics explain in part alcohol-induced defects in membrane trafficking. PMID:18161881

Joseph, Rohan A.; Shepard, Blythe D.; Kannarkat, George T.; Rutledge, Tara M.; Tuma, Dean J.; Tuma, Pamela L.

2010-01-01

208

Ethanol induced adaptations in 5-HT2c receptor signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: Implications for anxiety during ethanol withdrawal.  

PubMed

One of the hallmarks of alcohol dependence is the presence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence, which manifests as physical craving for alcohol accompanied by subjective feelings of anxiety. Using a model of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor in mice, we investigated the role of serotonin2c receptor (5HT2c-R) signaling in the BNST as a neural substrate underlying ethanol-induced anxiety during withdrawal. Mice were subjected to a 5-day CIE regimen of 16 h of ethanol vapor exposure followed by an 8 h "withdrawal" period between exposures. After the 5th and final exposure, mice were withdrawn for 24 h or 1 week before experiments began. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the social approach, light dark, and open field tests with mice showing deficits in social, but not general anxiety-like behavior that was alleviated by pretreatment with the 5HT2c-R antagonist SB 242,084 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h and 1 week post-CIE. Using immunohistochemistry and whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology, we also found that CIE increased FOS-IR and enhanced neuronal excitability in the ventral BNST (vBNST) 24 h into withdrawal in a 5HT2c-R dependent manner. This enhanced excitability persisted for 1 week post-CIE. We also found that mCPP, a 5HT2c/b agonist, induced a more robust depolarization in cells of the vBNST in CIE mice, confirming that 5HT2c-R signaling is upregulated in the vBNST following CIE. Taken together, these results suggest that CIE upregulates 5HT2c-R signaling in the vBNST, leading to increased excitability. This enhanced excitability of the vBNST may drive increased anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25229718

Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A; Dorrier, Cayce E; Lopez, Alberto J; Kash, Thomas L

2015-02-01

209

The selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 allosteric agonist AMN082 prevents reinstatement of extinguished ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence is considered a major public health problem in modern societies. The role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of ethanol is becoming increasingly evident. Our previous findings have shown that in rats, the mGluR7 positive allosteric agonist AMN082, but not its allosteric antagonist MMPIP, prevented ethanol consumption and preference in the two-bottle choice paradigm. This study was conducted to determine the effects of AMN082 and MMPIP on the extinction and reinstatement of ethanol-elicited place preference (CPP) in C57BL/6 mice. AMN082 and MMPIP were administered during extinction of ethanol CPP to determine whether mGluR7 signaling is required. Furthermore, the effects of AMN082 and MMPIP on reinstatement of CPP were also evaluated. Finally, spontaneous locomotor activity and ethanol pharmacokinetics were assessed following systemic administration of AMN082 and MMPIP. Our results indicate that mGluR7 pharmacological modulation had no effect on ethanol-elicited CPP extinction. In contrast, mGluR7 activation using AMN082 reduced ethanol-induced CPP reinstatement, an effect reversed by co-administration of MMPIP. Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that activation of the mGluR7 receptor is effective in reducing the reinstatement of conditioned rewarding effects of ethanol. Taken together, the efficacy of AMN082 on the various phases of alcohol-CPP could represent an interesting pharmacological approach and could open a new line of research for the development of therapies to reduce ethanol intake in patients. PMID:22269296

Bahi, Amine

2012-04-01

210

Ethanol induces stronger dopamine release in nucleus accumbens (shell) of alcohol-preferring (bibulous) than in alcohol-avoiding (abstainer) rats  

PubMed Central

Several studies on the differences between ethanol-preferring versus non-preferring rat lines suggest an innate deficit in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system as an underlying factor for ethanol volition. Rats would try to overcome such deficit by engaging in a drug-seeking behaviour, when available, to drink an ethanol solution over water. Thus, in the present study we compared the effect of a single dose of ethanol (1g /kg, i.p.) on the extracellular levels of monoamines measured by microdialysis in the shell of nucleus accumbens of University of Chile bibulous (UChB) and University of Chile Abstainer (UChA) rats, bred for 79 and 88 generations to prefer or reject ethanol, respectively. It is reported that under basal conditions extracellular dopamine levels are lower in the bibulous than in the abstainer rats, while ethanol induced a 2-fold greater increase of dopamine release in bibulous than in abstainer rats. The greater effect of ethanol in bibulous rats was not associated to differences in blood ethanol levels, since the concentration and elimination of ethanol were virtually identical in both rat lines, indicating that bibulous rats are more sensitive to the stimulation of dopamine release by ethanol than abstainer rats. No differences were observed in 5-hydroxytryptamine or metabolites measured simultaneously under basal or ethanol-stimulating conditions in bibulous and abstainer rats. Overall, the present results suggest that a low dopaminergic tone and a strong mesolimbic dopamine response to ethanol are concerted neurochemical features associated to an ethanol-seeking behaviour in rats. PMID:18611399

Bustamante, Diego; Quintanilla, Maria Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Gonzalez, Victor; Israel, Yedy; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

2008-01-01

211

Differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions emerge after pre- or post-pubertal gonadectomy in male and female rats.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that gonadectomy either prior to (early) or after (late) puberty elevated ethanol consumption in males to levels similar to intact adult females-effects that were attenuated by testosterone replacement. To assess whether alterations in the aversive effects of ethanol might contribute to gonadectomy-associated increases in ethanol intake in males, the present study examined the impact of gonadectomy on conditioned taste aversions (CTA) to ethanol in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were gonadectomized, received sham surgery (SH) or non-manipulated (NM) on postnatal (P) day 23 (early) or 67 (late) and tested for CTA to ethanol in adulthood. Water-deprived rats were given 1 hr access every-other-day to 10% sucrose followed by an injection of ethanol (0, 1g/kg) for 5 test sessions. Test data were analyzed to determine the first day significant aversions emerged in each ethanol group (i.e., sucrose intakes significantly less than their saline-injected counterparts). Early gonadectomized males acquired the CTA more rapidly than did early SH and NM males (day 1 vs 3 and 4 respectively), whereas a gonadectomy-associated enhancement in ethanol CTA was not evident in late males. Among females, gonadectomy had little impact on ethanol-induced CTA, with females in all groups showing an aversion by the first or second day, regardless of surgery age. These data suggest that previously observed elevations in ethanol intake induced by either pre- or post-pubertal gonadectomy in males are not related simply to gonadectomy-induced alterations in the aversive effects of ethanol indexed via CTA. PMID:23195111

Morales, Melissa; Spear, Linda P

2013-03-01

212

MT-7716, a novel selective nonpeptidergic NOP receptor agonist, effectively blocks ethanol-induced increase in GABAergic transmission in the rat central amygdala  

PubMed Central

The GABAergic system in the central amygdala (CeA) plays a major role in ethanol dependence and the anxiogenic-like response to ethanol withdrawal. A large body of evidence shows that Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) regulates ethanol intake and anxiety-like behavior. In the rat, ethanol significantly augments CeA GABA release, whereas N/OFQ diminishes it. Using electrophysiological techniques in an in vitro slice preparation, in this study we investigated the effects of a nonpeptidergic NOP receptor agonist, MT-7716 [(R)-2-3-[1-(Acenaphthen-1-yl)piperidin-4-yl]-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl-N-methylacetamide hydrochloride hydrate], and its interaction with ethanol on GABAergic transmission in CeA slices of naïve rats. We found that MT-7716 dose-dependently (100–1000 nM) diminished evoked GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and increased paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) ratio of these evoked IPSPs, suggesting a presynaptic site of action of the MT-7716 by decreasing GABA release at CeA synapses. The presynaptic action of MT-7716 was also supported by the significant decrease in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) induced by the nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist. Interestingly, MT-7716 prevented the ethanol-induced augmentation of evoked IPSPs. A putative selective NOP antagonist, [Nphe1]Nociceptin(1–13)NH2, totally prevented the MT-7716-induced inhibition of IPSP amplitudes indicating that MT-7716 exerts its effect through NOPs. These data provide support for an interaction between the nociceptin and GABAergic systems in the CeA and for the anti-alcohol properties of the NOP activation. The development of a synthetic nonpeptidergic NOP receptor agonist such as MT-7716 may represent a useful therapeutic target for alcoholism. PMID:24600360

Kallupi, Marsida; Oleata, Christopher S.; Luu, George; Teshima, Koji; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Roberto, Marisa

2014-01-01

213

Hepatitis C and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Acute hepatitis C is a rare event in pregnancy. The most common scenario is chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in pregnancy. During pregnancy in women with chronic HCV infection a significant reduction in mean alanine aminotransferase levels has been reported, with a rebound during the postpartum period. In few cases exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C has been reported in pregnancy. A cofactor that might play a role in the reduction of liver damage is the release of endogenous interferon from the placenta. Observations regarding serum HCV-RNA concentration have been variable. In some women HCV-RNA levels rise toward the end of pregnancy. In general, pregnancy does not have a negative effect on HCV infection. Conversely, chronic hepatitis does not appear to have an adverse effect on the course of pregnancy, or the birth weight of the newborn infant. The role of spontaneous abortion is approximately the same as in the general population. The overall rate of mother-to-child transmission for HCV is 3%-5% if the mother is known to be anti-HCV positive. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the rate of mother-to-child transmission up to 19.4%. Numerous risk factors for vertical transmission have been studied. In general, high viral load defined as at least 2.5 × 106 viral RNA copies/mL, HIV co-infection, and invasive procedures are the most important factors. Both interferon and ribavirin are contraindicated during pregnancy. Viral clearance prior to pregnancy increases the likelihood that a woman remains non-viremic in pregnancy with a consequent reduced risk of vertical transmission. PMID:24187446

Floreani, Annarosa

2013-01-01

214

Hepatitis C.  

PubMed

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was isolated during the late 1980s using molecular cloning techniques. It is recognized as the cause of most cases of percutaneously transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Prevalence of antibodies to HCV(anti-HCV) in the general Australian population is 0.3%. However, among regular intravenous drug users the prevalence exceeds 90%. The predominant risk factors for HCV are intravenous drug use, tattoos, exposure to blood products, occupational risk and ethnicity. In contrast to hepatitis B, sexual spread and vertical transmission of HCV from mother to neonate are relatively uncommon. The risk of acquiring HCV from a single HCV-contaminated needlestick accident is about 5%. Most cases of acute HCV infection are asymptomatic, but 50 to 80% progress to chronic disease. The percentage of those with chronic HCV progressing to cirrhosis is not accurately known, but is probably 20%. Treatment strategies for HCV, utilizing recombinant interferons, are proving useful in patients with mild to moderate liver disease, but fare less well in patients with cirrhosis. Currently, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, so pre-exposure prophylaxis is not possible. Equally, no post-exposure intervention, for example with gamma globulin, has been shown to be beneficial, though there may be a role for early interferon therapy. PMID:9133192

Liddle, C

1996-04-01

215

Hepatitis C: progress and problems.  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis. HCV isolates differ in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Nucleotide changes are concentrated in hypervariable regions and may be related to immune selection. In most immunocompetent persons, HCV infection is diagnosed serologically, using antigens from conserved regions. Amplification of RNA may be necessary to detect infection in immunosuppressed patients. Transmission by known parenteral routes is frequent; other means of spread are less common and may represent inapparent, percutaneous dissemination. Infection can lead to classical acute hepatitis, but most infected persons have no history of acute disease. Once infected, most individuals apparently remain carriers of the virus, with varying degrees of hepatocyte damage and fibrosis ensuing. Chronic hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, disease progression varies widely, from less than 2 years to cirrhosis in some patients to more than 30 years with only chronic hepatitis in others. Determinants important in deciding outcome are unknown. Alpha interferon, which results in sustained remission in selected patients, is the only available therapy. Long-term benefits from such therapy have not been demonstrated. Prevention of HCV infection by vaccination is likely to be challenging if ongoing viral mutation results in escape from neutralization and clearance. PMID:7834603

Cuthbert, J A

1994-01-01

216

Autoimmune hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare disease, characterized by female predominance, hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibodies, association with HLA DR3 and HLA DR4 and a good response to immunosuppression. Different subtypes of AIH may be distinguished, based on differences in the autoantibody patterns. AIH type 1 is characterized by anti-nuclear (ANA) and\\/or anti-smooth muscular (SMA) autoantibodies. AIH type 2 is characterized by liver\\/kidney

Petra Obermayer-Straub; Christian P. Strassburg; Michael P. Manns

2000-01-01

217

Hepatic Encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) reflects a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities seen in patients with liver dysfunction\\u000a after exclusion of other known brain disease [1]. HE is primarily divided into two components: overt HE (OHE) and minimal\\u000a HE (MHE). OHE is the specific type of HE that can be diagnosed clinically through a constellation of signs and symptoms while\\u000a MHE cannot be

Jasmohan S. Bajaj; Kevin D. Mullen

218

Hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The discovery of hepatitis B virus (HBV) did not arise from a goal-directed search for this pathogen but from studies in basic\\u000a science that were initially set on a different path. Much of the early research that resulted in the discovery of the virus,\\u000a the invention of diagnostics, and the development of a vaccine was conducted at the Division of

Baruch S. Blumberg

219

Acute liver damage and ecstasy ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight cases of ecstasy related acute liver damage referred to a specialised liver unit are described. Two patients presented after collapse within six hours of ecstasy ingestion with hyperthermia, hypotension, fitting, and subsequently disseminated intravascular coagulation with rhabdomyolysis together with biochemical evidence of severe hepatic damage. One patient recovered and the other with evidence of hyperacute liver failure was transplanted

A J Ellis; J A Wendon; B Portmann; R Williams

1996-01-01

220

Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that ... as liver failure or liver cancer. How is hepatitis B spread? The hepatitis B virus is usually ...

221

Serum iron levels and hepatic iron overload in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine the effect of serum iron levels and hepatic iron overload on hepatocellular damage in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and to compare this with chronic viral hepatitis. Twenty-five patients who had elevated transaminase levels on at least two occasions, without any evidence of viral and autoimmune hepatitis and diabetes, without a history of significant alcohol use, and with a liver biopsy consistent with NASH were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five patients with chronic viral hepatitis (13 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 12 with chronic hepatitis B) who were not under any antiviral treatment were taken as controls. Metabolic factors were studied in the NASH and chronic hepatitis groups. Biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the grade of steatosis and the stage of fibrosis were evaluated as I, II, or III, I being mild and III being severe. Iron overload in the hepatic tissue was studied by Prussian blue staining. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, globulin, and ferritin levels were comparable in both steatohepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis groups. However, patients with chronic hepatitis had a lower albumin level and a higher serum iron level, with higher transferrin saturation. Among patients with NASH, mild, moderate, and severe steatosis was found in 7, 10, and 8 patients, respectively. Inflammatory infiltration was grade I in 24 patients and grade III in 1 patient. Fibrosis was mild in 12 patients and 13 patients had no fibrosis. Among patients with chronic viral hepatitis, inflammatory infiltration of grade I was seen in 11 patients, grade II in 11 patients, and grade III in 3 patients. Fibrosis was mild in 9 patients, moderate in 13 patients, and severe in 2 patients; 1 patient had no fibrosis. Compared to patients with NASH, those with chronic viral hepatitis cases had more severe inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis (P < 0.01). While five patients with chronic viral hepatitis had mild iron overload, patients with NASH had no hepatic paranchymal iron overload. Neither NASH nor chronic viral hepatitis revealed a relationship between hepatic iron overload and disease activity. This suggests that the iron overload actually may be a result of hemachromatosis gene mutation. The absence of hepatic parenchymal iron overload in the NASH group and only mild iron accumulation in the chronic hepatitis group may be explained by a lower frequency of the gene mutation in our country. PMID:15906776

Uraz, Suleyman; Aygun, Cem; Sonsuz, Abdullah; Ozbay, Gulsen

2005-05-01

222

Evaluation of ?-Glutathione- S Transferase as a Biomarker of Lamivudine Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic damage associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) relies on measurement of serum transaminases and asssessment of hepatic\\u000a histology. We determined if serum hepatic function tests, including ?-glutathione-S-transferase ((GST), were of value in monitoring or predicting the effect of lamivudine therapy for CHB. Thirty-nine patients\\u000a received orally 100 mg of lamivudine daily for 48 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at

Paul R. Maxwell; Robert Flisiak

2006-01-01

223

Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.  

PubMed

The lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug. PMID:24695107

Haack, Andrew K; Sheth, Chandni; Schwager, Andrea L; Sinclair, Michael S; Tandon, Shashank; Taha, Sharif A

2014-01-01

224

Protective and therapeutic effects of an extract mixture of alder tree, labiate herb, milk thistle green bean-rice bran fermentation, and turnip against ethanol-induced toxicity in the rat.  

PubMed

An herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were tested for their protective and therapeutic effects on ethanol-induced liver injury. The herbal extract mixture, yogurt and commercial drugs were used for treatment for two weeks prior to administering a single oral dose of ethanol (3 g/kg body weight). The herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were found to provide protection against ethanol-induced toxicity comparable to the commercial drug treatment, according to the serum and histopathological analysis. It was also shown that co-treatment with herbal extract mixture and yogurt against a triple oral dose of ethanol (2 g/kg body weight, over one week) provided protection against ethanol toxicity. After the initial set of experiments, the herbal extract mixture and yogurt treatments were extended for three more weeks. When compared to the positive control, further treatment with both the herbal extract and yogurt significantly reduced liver injury and resulted in a lower grade of lipid deposition. PMID:18296886

Baek, Min-Won; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong Jae; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Huh, Chul-Sung; Park, Jae-Hak

2008-03-01

225

Methyldopa Liver Damage  

PubMed Central

Twenty patients are described in whom liver damage appeared to be directly related to the administration of methyldopa. Sixteen had hepatitic syndromes from which they recovered on stopping methyldopa; four of these patients had recurrences of jaundice after a second course of the drug. Features suggestive of active chronic hepatitis were found in two patients. There were two deaths attributed to methyldopa, one of these being in a patient with pre-existing undiagnosed macronodular cirrhosis. ImagesFIGS. 2-4 PMID:4414663

Toghill, P. J.; Smith, P. G.; Benton, Patricia; Brown, R. C.; Matthews, H. L.

1974-01-01

226

Hepatic hydrothorax.  

PubMed

Hepatic hydrothorax is defined as a pleural effusion in patients with liver cirrhosis in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease. The estimated prevalence among patients with liver cirrhosis is approximately 5-6%. The pathophysiology involves the passage of ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity to the pleural space through diaphragmatic defects. The diagnosis is made from clinical presentation and confirmed by diagnostic thoracentesis with pleural fluid analysis. The initial medical management is sodium restriction and diuretics, but liver transplantation provides the only definitive therapy. For patients who are not transplant candidates and those who await organ availability, other therapeutic modalities that are to be considered include transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, videoassisted thoracoscopic surgery repair, pleurodesis, and vasoconstrictors (eg, octreotide and terlipressin). The primary therapeutic goals are to reduce ascitic fluid production and improve symptoms to bridge the time for liver transplantation. PMID:23085762

Baikati, Kiran; Le, Duong L; Jabbour, Ibrahim I; Singhal, Shashideep; Anand, Sury

2014-01-01

227

Hepatic radiography  

SciTech Connect

The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities.

Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

1985-01-01

228

[Viral hepatitis in travellers].  

PubMed

Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health issues. PMID:18331700

Abreu, Cândida

2007-01-01

229

Hepatic abscesses  

PubMed Central

Hepatic abscesses are potentially lethal diseases if early diagnosis and treatment are not instituted. They are prevalent all over the globe and pyogenic abscesses are predominant over amoebic. With better control of intra abdominal and systemic infections by a spectrum of antibiotics, aetiology of pyogenic abscesses are secondary to interventions and diseases in the biliary tree to a large extent today. The common organisms isolated are the Gram negative group. Amoebic abscesses continue to plague some regions of the world where hygiene and sanitation are questionable. Over the years, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have evolved remarkably. Imaging modalities like ultrasonography and CT scan have become the cornerstone of diagnosis. The absence of ionizing radiation makes MRI an attractive alternative in patients who require multiple follow up scans. Serological testing in amoebic abscesses has become more reliable. Though antibiotics have remained the principal modality of management, percutaneous drainage of abscesses have vastly improved the chances of cure and bring down the morbidity drastically in pyogenic abscesses. Amoebic abscesses respond well to medical treatment with nitroimidazoles, and minimally invasive surgical drainage is an option in cases where open surgery is indicated. PMID:24532886

Rajagopalan, S.; Langer, V.

2012-01-01

230

Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity  

PubMed Central

Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

2013-01-01

231

Hepatitis C (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

232

Hepatitis E in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the spectrum and the clinical and biochemical course of viral hepatitis E during pregnancy. Methods: In this prospective study, sera of 62 pregnant women having jaundice in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for markers of hepatitis A, B, C and E viruses. The cord blood samples of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-positive pregnant women at the

A. Kumar; M. Beniwal; P. Kar; J. B. Sharma; N. S. Murthy

2004-01-01

233

Hepatitis B Virus: Inactive carriers  

PubMed Central

Inactive carriers forms the largest group in chronic HBV infected patients. Around 300 million people are inactive carriers The inactive HBsAg carrier state is diagnosed by absence of HBeAg and presence of anti-HBe, undetectable or low levels of HBV DNA in PCR-based assays, repeatedly normal ALT levels, and minimal or no necroinflammation, slight fibrosis, or even normal histology on biopsy. Inactive cirrhosis may be present in patients who had active liver disease during the replicative phase of infection. The prognosis of the inactive HBsAg carrier state is usually benign. Long-term follow- up (up to 18 years) of these carriers has indicated that the vast majority show sustained biochemical remission and very low risk of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Rarely, patients, even noncirrhotics, may develop liver cancer during the inactive HBsAg carrier state. In addition, approximately 20 to 30% of persons in the inactive HBsAg carrier state may undergo spontaneous reactivation of hepatitis B during follow-up. Multiple episodes of reactivation or sustained reactivation can cause progressive hepatic damage and even hepatic decompensation. Introduction PMID:16191199

Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Saini, Nitin; Chwla, Yogesh

2005-01-01

234

[Hepatitis A in Oslo].  

PubMed

During the last six years we have registered 237 persons with acute hepatitis A in Oslo, 96 of them with non-Scandinavian names. The number with non-Scandinavian names is increasing. Almost all the hepatitis A patients with non-Scandinavian names are children, and two of three had been infected in Pakistan. Adult immigrants from countries where hepatitis A is endemic do not need any prophylaxis against hepatitis A. 29,800 travellers were given human normal immunoglobulin at our department during the last five years and none of them acquired hepatitis A. To prevent import of hepatitis A it is of particular importance to give human normal immunoglobulin or hepatitis A vaccine to all children of immigrants before they visit their parents' country. PMID:7855814

Hasle, G; Espinoza, R

1995-01-20

235

Alcoholic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (? 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and those who did not develop cirrhosis mainly died from causes related to alcohol abuse. In conclusion, the present thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used prognostic models may be helpful adjuvants in the routine management of patients with AH, provided that clinicians are aware of the models' limitations. The causes of death in AH are primarily due to liver-related complications, suggesting that patients with AH could benefit from continued follow-up by a hepatologist after the acute episode. PMID:25283626

Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard

2014-10-01

236

Clinicopathologic effects of cryotherapy on hepatic vessels and bile ducts in a porcine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The proximity of a hepatic tumor to major vessels and bile ducts limits the use of cryotherapy because of the potential damage to these structures. However, the effects of cryotherapy on major hepatic vessels and bile ducts are not well understood.\\u000aMethods: Nine pigs underwent laparotomy and intraoperative ultrasound to identify hepatic vessels larger than 5.0 mm. Cryotherapy consisting

Morton S. Kahlenberg; Carmine Volpe; Donald L. Klippenstein; Remedios B. Penetrante; Nicholas J. Petrelli; Miguel A. Rodriguez-Bigas

1998-01-01

237

Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... booster dose six to 12 months following the initial dose of vaccine. The vaccine is thought to ... patients with chronic hepatitis C recovered after receiving initial treatments from two drugs, peginterferon and ribavirin. Spring ...

238

Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone  

MedlinePLUS

... please turn Javascript on. From Hollywood's "Walk of Stars" to Main Street, USA, people from all walks ... that includes many well-known names: Legendary television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C ...

239

Increased hepatic iron concentration in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease that occasionally progresses to cirrhosis but usually has a benign course. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the hemochromatosis mutation Cys282Tyr in development of the mild hepatic iron overload found in some patients with NASH and its association with hepatic damage in these patients.

D. Keith George; Stefano Goldwurm; Graeme A. Macdonald; Lex L. Cowley; Neal I. Walker; Patrick J. Ward; Elizabeth C. Jazwinska; Lawrie W. Powell

1998-01-01

240

Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

Information on Testing & Diagnosis HEPATITIS C What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease ... liver failure, and even liver cancer. How is Hepatitis C spread? Hepatitis C is spread when blood ...

241

Sun Damage  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Sun Damage A A A The sun has a profound effect over years of exposure on the skin, causing premature ... changes. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun accounts for most premature skin aging. Many skin ...

242

Hepatitis A vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Immunization - hepatitis A; Vaccine - HepA; Immunization - HepA ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged ...

243

Hepatitis B vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccine - HepB; Immunization - hepatitis B; Immunization - HepB ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged ...

244

Over-expression of glutamine synthase in focal nodular hyperplasia (part 1): Early stages in the formation support the hypothesis of a focal hyper-arterialisation with venous (portal and hepatic) and biliary damage  

PubMed Central

Background Most focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) cases are diagnosed by chance. We studied a case of pre-FNH. We used glutamine synthase as an immunohistochemical marker for perivenous zones. Results Neither fibrotic scars nor hepatocytic nodules surrounded by fibrosis with a ductular reaction were observed in the sections studied. Most sections generally displayed preserved architecture. The glutamine synthase-positive hepatocyte areas were wider than those observed in non-tumoural surrounding liver, and they tended to extend outwards. Portal tracts bordering the nodule were more fibrotic, with an absence of portal veins and ducts and with arterial proliferation often in proximity with large draining veins; isolated arteries were present and hepatic veins were rare in the nodule. These features appeared prior to the identification of other major criteria characteristics of FNH, thus supporting the "hypothesis of Wanless". Conclusion The findings confirm that in FNH there is a portal tract injury leading to local portal vein injury. This leads to a cascade of events, including arterial venous shunts, ductular reaction, and scar formation. PMID:18312631

Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Laumonier, Hervé; Cubel, Gaëlle; Saric, Jean; Balabaud, Charles

2008-01-01

245

Reversed light-dark cycle and cage enrichment effects on ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination assessed in inbred mouse strains with a compact battery of refined tests  

PubMed Central

The laboratory environment existing outside the test situation itself can have a substantial influence on results of some behavioral tests with mice, and the extent of these influences sometimes depends on genotype. For alcohol research, the principal issue is whether genotype-related ethanol effects will themselves be altered by common variations in the lab environment or instead will be essentially the same across a wide range of lab environments. Data from 20 inbred strains were used to reduce an original battery of seven tests of alcohol intoxication to a compact battery of four tests: the balance beam and grip strength with a 1.25 g/kg ethanol dose and the accelerating rotarod and open-field activation tests with 1.75 g/kg. The abbreviated battery was then used to study eight inbred strains housed under a normal or reversed light-dark cycle, or a standard or enriched home cage environment. The light-dark cycle had no discernable effects on any measure of behavior or response to alcohol. Cage enrichment markedly improved motor coordination in most strains. Ethanol-induced motor coordination deficits were robust; the well documented strain-dependent effects of ethanol were not altered by cage enrichment. PMID:21664382

Munn, Elizabeth; Bunning, Mark; Prada, Sofia; Bohlen, Martin; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas

2011-01-01

246

BPC-15 reduces trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colonic damage in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of BPC-15 (Booly Protection Compound-15) was evaluated in a rat model of colonic injury. A single intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in ethanol induces severe colonic damage, which is characterized by areas of necrosis surrounded by areas of acute inflammation. The damage is associated with high myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mainly as a reflection of neutrophilic infiltration into the damaged tissue. In this study, 1 hr before a single intracolonic administration of 50 mg/kg of TNBS in 50% ethanol, the animals were treated with one of the following doses of BPC-15: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 nmol/kg administered i.p. or with a dose of 10 nmol/kg administered intracolonically. The animals were sacrificed 3 days later and the extent of colonic necrosis and hyperemia was measured with an image analyzer. The i.p. administration of BPC-15 significantly reduced the extent of TNBS-induced colonic damage in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with a statistically significant and dose-dependent reduction in colonic tissue MPO activity. At the dose tested (10 nmol/kg), intracolonic administration of BPC-15 did not significantly reduce either the extent of the colonic damage or the increase in MPO activity induced by TNBS. In conclusion, this study showed that i.p. administration of BPC-15 reduced TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats. PMID:7815358

Veljaca, M; Lesch, C A; Pllana, R; Sanchez, B; Chan, K; Guglietta, A

1995-01-01

247

Viral Hepatitis and Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acute hepatitis can have an onset during any trimester; it does not represent a risk for malformation in the baby, nor for the mother (with very rare exceptions). In fact, only hepatitis E virus poses a significantly increased risk to pregnant women. The most common scenario is a pregnancy in a women chronically infected with a hepatotropic virus. As

Annarosa Floreani

2009-01-01

248

Hepatitis B FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... a few weeks, but some people can be ill for as long as 6 months. Can a person spread Hepatitis B without having symptoms? Yes. Many people with Hepatitis B have no symptoms, but these people can still spread the virus. What are the symptoms of ...

249

Hepatitis A FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... poor sanitary conditions or poor personal hygiene. The food and drinks most likely to be contaminated are fruits, vegetables, shellfish, ice, and water. In the United States, chlorination of water kills Hepatitis A virus that enters the water supply. Who is at risk for Hepatitis A? Although ...

250

Radiation damage  

E-print Network

a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

1998-01-01

251

[Treatment of viral hepatitis].  

PubMed

Chronic forms of viral B,C and D hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis represent a serious healthcare problem. The study deals with the changes in the strategy in treating these diseases. During the chronic active hepatitis caused by the B hepatitis virus, the main aim of treatment is to cease multiplication of viruses, eliminate the clinical symptoms, prevent the development of cirrhosis, or the origin of hepatocellular carcinoma. The authors analyze the possibilities of the application of corticosteroids, viricidal drugs (vidarabin and interferons) and other medicaments (acyclovir, zidovudin, duramin, gancyclovir, chinacrin, and others) besides corticosteroids, interleukin 2 and tymozin from the group of immunomodulators were tested. The testing included the factor stimulating the colonies of granulocytes and myeloblasts and other substances. The therapy of acute protracted B hepatitis by means of interferon still requires controlled studies. Superinfection by D virus in chronic carriers of HBsAG causes chronic hepatitis which quickly leads to the development of cirrhosis. The therapy on basis of alpha interferon decreases the RNA virus D hepatitis serum level and leads to an improvement in the development of chronic hepatitis in half of the patients. Therapy of chronic C hepatitis on basis of corticosteroids is ineffective, and can be dangerous. Acyclovir is proved to be ineffective as well. The open study indicated certain positive results in application of interferon. The fulminant hepatitis can be defined as a development of encephalopathy and a decrease of the prothrombin time to less than 50% in the course of acute hepatitis. The break-point in the therapy of fulminant hepatitis took place in association with the performance of the transplantation of the liver. Impossibility to transplant the liver means that the effect of therapy of fulminant hepatitis is merely of supportive value. Majority of patients die due to neurologic complications, namely unmanageable oedema of the brain. But still, neither the antioedema therapy, e.g. on basis of manitol, as well as by means of corticosteroids, hemodialysis, hemofiltration, plasmapheresis and hemoperfusion, nor the treatment on basis of E1 prostaglandine improved the survival of patients. (Tab. 2, Ref. 82). PMID:8556359

Miguet, J; Hrusovský, S

1995-09-01

252

Radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation damage workshop considered a variety of topics among which were the need for equivalent electron fluences in gallium arsenide, the possibility of 15 percent end-of-life efficiencies for silicon, increasing radiation resistance in gallium arsenide, annealing of radiation damage and the need for radiation damage studies in cascade cells. The workshop members agreed that a high priority should be assigned to obtaining equivalent electron fluences for gallium arsenide cells. It was suggested that 1 MeV would be a reasonable electron energy for this purpose. Special care should be given to proton irradiations particularly for energies below 1 MeV. In addition, omnidirectional rather than normal incidence protons should be used. It was also agreed that there was a need for obtaining damage coefficients in gallium arsenide. In silicon, there is a requirement for additional flight data, especially in proton dominated orbits. These data are needed to further check the accuracy of the 1 MeV equivalence fluences.

Weinberg, I.

1982-01-01

253

ALLYLISOPROPYLACETAMIDE INDUCES RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) did not cause DNA damage in rat liver. The porphyrinogenic research drug did strongly induce the activity (25-fold) of rat hepatic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). By either the oral or the subcutaneous route AIA produced a long lasting inductio...

254

Prognosis of histological cirrhosis in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis connotes irreversible damage to the liver and shortened life expectancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cirrhosis on treatment response and survival in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight patients were evaluated for histological cirrhosis. Response to treatment, predictors for cirrhosis, and outcomes were determined. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients (29%)

SK Roberts; TM Therneau; AJ Czaja

1996-01-01

255

[Prevention of viral hepatitis].  

PubMed

Prevention of viral hepatitis infection involves health measures designed to avert transmission of viral agents and promote the use of gammaglobulin and vaccines. The availability of safe drinking water and improvements in quality of life result in better individual hygiene; these factors have had the greatest impact on hepatitis A prevention. Serum gammaglobulin administration has been replaced by vaccinations for pre-exposure, and to a great extent for post-exposure prophylaxis because of the progressively lower anti-HAV content of gammaglobulin and the short duration of the protective effect. Universal vaccination in childhood is the recommended measure for controlling hepatitis A. Adults belonging to high-risk groups should also undergo vaccination. The incidence of hepatitis B has decreased worldwide because of universal vaccination programs, initiated in preadolescence and childhood. Prevention of hepatitis C requires control of situations in which there is a likelihood of parenteral infection with the virus. Post-transfusion hepatitis has been virtually eradicated, but considerable effort is still needed to prevent nosocomial hepatitis. PMID:17194391

Bruguera, Miguel

2006-12-01

256

Na+/K+-ATPase Inhibition Partially Mimics the Ethanol-Induced Increase of the Golgi Cell-Dependent Component of the Tonic GABAergic Current in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar granule cells (CGNs) are one of many neurons that express phasic and tonic GABAergic conductances. Although it is well established that Golgi cells (GoCs) mediate phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs, their role in mediating tonic currents in CGNs (CGN-Itonic) is controversial. Earlier studies suggested that GoCs mediate a component of CGN-Itonic that is present only in preparations from immature rodents. However, more recent studies have detected a GoC-dependent component of CGN-Itonic in preparations of mature rodents. In addition, acute exposure to ethanol was shown to potentiate the GoC component of CGN-Itonic and to induce a parallel increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency at CGNs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these effects of ethanol on GABAergic transmission in CGNs are mediated by inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. We used whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology techniques in cerebellar slices of male rats (postnatal day 23–30). Under these conditions, we reliably detected a GoC-dependent component of CGN-Itonic that could be blocked with tetrodotoxin. Further analysis revealed a positive correlation between basal sIPSC frequency and the magnitude of the GoC-dependent component of CGN-Itonic. Inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase with a submaximal concentration of ouabain partially mimicked the ethanol-induced potentiation of both phasic and tonic GABAergic currents in CGNs. Modeling studies suggest that selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase in GoCs can, in part, explain these effects of ethanol. These findings establish a novel mechanism of action of ethanol on GABAergic transmission in the central nervous system. PMID:23383260

Diaz, Marvin R.; Wadleigh, Aya; Kumar, Shyam; De Schutter, Erik; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

2013-01-01

257

Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

258

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have long been an enigmatic subject that have involved genetic and environmental factors. Recent intriguing data has contributed to the mechanisms involved, including the relationship of infectious agents and loss of tolerance. This loss of tolerance is illustrated by the data on the immune response to Hepatitis B virus such as the molecular mimicry between HBV antigens and self proteins, the generation of immune complexes between HBV antigens and antibodies, and apoptosis/tissue damage resulting in the exposure of intracellular antigens to the immune system. In this paper, we review the current database related to HBV infection and a variety of autoimmune conditions, including autoimmune hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, aplastic anemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, thyroid disease and uveitis. PMID:18270862

Maya, Ram; Gershwin, M Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2008-02-01

259

Aggressive hepatitis (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic active hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. Necrosis (death) of liver cells, inflammation and fibrosis may lead to liver failure. Death within 5 years ...

260

Living with Hepatitis B  

MedlinePLUS

... the virus on to others. 3. Hepatitis B Core Antibody (HBcAb or anti-HBc): This antibody does ... health care provider recommend medications that are not harmful to the liver. This includes both over-the- ...

261

Hepatitis C Test  

MedlinePLUS

... sample drawn from a vein in your arm Test Preparation Needed? None The Test Sample What is being tested? Hepatitis C (HCV) ... a blood sample and throat culture. Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the ...

262

What Is Hepatitis?  

MedlinePLUS

... Français ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Updated ... are not widely available. Share Email Twitter Facebook Google Delicious LinkedIn More... Print Question and answer archives ...

263

Alcohol and Hepatitis C  

MedlinePLUS

... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

264

Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E  

MedlinePLUS

... by hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded, RNA virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family. TRANSMISSION HEV ... HEV IgM and IgG in serum. Detecting HEV RNA in serum or stools further confirms the serologic ...

265

Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A  

MedlinePLUS

... INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an RNA virus classified as a picornavirus. TRANSMISSION Through direct ... months after infection. EPIDEMIOLOGY Common throughout the developing world, where infections most frequently are acquired during early ...

266

Children with hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C affects thousands of children throughout the world. Most children acquire the virus through vertical transmission,\\u000a although parenteral routes of acquisition are also common. Hepatitis C progresses slowly, with mild biopsy findings and no\\u000a symptoms in most children and in many adults. However, significant liver inflammation and fibrosis can occur in childhood.\\u000a Trials of antiviral therapy with interferon and

Girish Subba Rao; Jean Pappas Molleston

2005-01-01

267

Hepatitis b vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis,with an estimated 350 million people\\u000a worldwide infected with the virus.Despite continuing advances in antiviral therapy,a cure for chronic HBV infection is considered\\u000a an elusive goal.Thus,primary prevention by immunization with HBV vaccines remains the most effective means to control the\\u000a transmission of HBV infection.

Albert D. Min; Aaron Walfish; Henry C. Bodenheimer

2006-01-01

268

Mechanisms of Hepatic Fibrogenesis  

PubMed Central

Substantial improvements in the treatment of chronic liver disease have accelerated interest in uncovering the mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrosis and its resolution. Activation of resident hepatic stellate cells into proliferative, contractile, and fibrogenic cells in liver injury remains a dominant theme driving the field. However, several new areas of rapid progress in the past 5–10 years also have taken root, including: (1) identification of different fibrogenic populations apart from resident stellate cells, for example, portal fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and bone-marrow– derived cells, as well as cells derived from epithelial mesenchymal transition; (2) emergence of stellate cells as finely regulated determinants of hepatic inflammation and immunity; (3) elucidation of multiple pathways controlling gene expression during stellate cell activation including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms; (4) recognition of disease-specific pathways of fibrogenesis; (5) re-emergence of hepatic macrophages as determinants of matrix degradation in fibrosis resolution and the importance of matrix cross-linking and scar maturation in determining reversibility; and (6) hints that hepatic stellate cells may contribute to hepatic stem cell behavior, cancer, and regeneration. Clinical and translational implications of these advances have become clear, and have begun to impact significantly on the management and outlook of patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:18471545

Friedman, Scott L.

2010-01-01

269

All Kids Need Hepatitis B Shots  

MedlinePLUS

... immunize.org action coalition I All kids need hepatitis B shots! A series of shots can prevent ... got infected with hepatitis B virus What is hepatitis B? How do children and teens get hepatitis ...

270

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine  

E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine What You Need to Know ManyVaccine; - beingstuckwithausedneedle. 2 Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated? Hepatitis hepatitis B vaccine and when? Children and Adolescents · Babiesnormallyget3dosesofhepatitisBvaccine: 1st

Tennessee, University of

271

Inhibitory effect of liposomal quercetin on acute hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis induced by concanavalin A  

PubMed Central

Immune response plays an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis induced by immunological mechanism. In the acute hepatitis model, quercetin (2.5 mg/kg) was injected iv into mice 30 min after concanavalin A (Con A) challenge. Mice were sacrificed 4 or 24 h after Con A injection, and aminotransferase tests and histopathological sections were performed. Treatment with quercetin significantly decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Consistent with this observation, treatment with quercetin markedly attenuated the pathologic changes in the liver. A hepatic fibrosis model was also generated in mice by Con A challenge once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Mice in the experimental group were treated with daily iv injections of quercetin (0.5 mg/kg). Histopathological analyses revealed that treatment with quercetin markedly decreased collagen deposition, pseudolobuli development, and hepatic stellate cells activation. We also examined the effects of quercetin on the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) pathways by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). NF-?B and TGF-? production was decreased after treatment with quercetin, indicating that the antifibrotic effect of quercetin is associated with its ability to modulate NF-?B and TGF-? production. These results suggest that quercetin may be an effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of patients with liver damage and fibrosis. PMID:25098714

Wan, Y.; Tang, M.H.; Chen, X.C.; Chen, L.J.; Wei, Y.Q.; Wang, Y.S.

2014-01-01

272

Ethanol-induced oxidative stress: basic knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a general introduction, the main pathways of ethanol metabolism (alcohol dehydrogenase, catalase, coupling of catalase\\u000a with NADPH oxidase and microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system) are shortly reviewed. The cytochrome P450 isoform (CYP2E1) specifically involved in ethanol oxidation is discussed. The acetaldehyde metabolism and the shift of the\\u000a NAD\\/NADH ratio in the cellular environment (reductive stress) are stressed. The toxic effects of

Mario Comporti; Cinzia Signorini; Silvia Leoncini; Concetta Gardi; Lucia Ciccoli; Anna Giardini; Daniela Vecchio; Beatrice Arezzini

2010-01-01

273

Endothelium attenuates ethanol induced vasoconstriction of arteries  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously demonstrated that clinically relevant doses of ethanol (ETH) caused significant vasoconstriction of rabbit thoracic aorta. This study examined the role of endothelium in ethanol vasoconstriction. Thoracic aorta was harvested from 3 New Zealand White rabbits after anesthetization with sodium pentobarbital. Twelve aortic 3 mm rings were mounted in organ baths attached to force transducers and recording apparatus. Six of the twelve rings were denuded. Denudation was confirmed by challenge with acetylcholine (10-4 M). Resting tension was set at 10 grams and the rings equilibrated in 37 C Krebs-Heinsleit solution for 2 hours. Then, the response to norepinephrine (NE) was established (10-8 to 10-5 M). After reattaining resting tension, the response to ETH (500-2,500 ug/ml) was recorded. ETH produced significant vasoconstriction in both non-denuded (48{plus minus}7% of NE max) and denuded (58{plus minus}2% of NE max) arteries. Vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the denuded condition. The authors conclude that the predominant ETH action on arteries is based in vascular smooth muscle although endothelium acts to attenuate the ETH induced vasoconstrictor response.

Morley, D.; Bove, A.A.; Walter, J. (Temple School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1990-02-26

274

Ethanol Induced Shortening of DNA in Nanochannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The confinement of DNA in nanochannels has greatly facilitated the study of DNA polymer physics and holds promise as a powerful tool for genomic sequencing. Ethanol precipitation of DNA is a common tool in molecular biology, typically in >70% [EtOH]. Even at lower ethanol concentrations, however, DNA transforms from B-form to A-form, a shorter yet slightly less twisted conformation. Accordingly, we isolated individual YOYO-1 labeled ?-DNA molecules in 100nmx100nm channels in 0, 20, 40 and 60% [EtOH]. We observed a dramatic shortening in the mean measured lengths with increasing [EtOH] and a broadening of the distribution of measured lengths at the intermediate concentrations. These observed lengths are less than those expected from fully A-form ?-DNA, suggesting that poor solvency effects are involved. Also, substantial spatial variations in intensity in a small number of molecules at the higher [EtOH] suggest the presence of higher order DNA conformations, in accord with the observation that the effective persistence length of DNA has been greatly reduced.

Gemmen, Greg; Reisner, Walter; Tegenfeldt, Jonas; Linke, Heiner

2010-03-01

275

Classical and Modern Approaches Used for Viral Hepatitis Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Context: Viral hepatitis diagnosis is an important issue in the treatment procedure of this infection. Late diagnosis and delayed treatment of viral hepatitis infections can lead to irreversible liver damages and occurrence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A variety of laboratory methods including old and new technologies are being applied to detect hepatitis viruses. Here we have tried to review, categorize, compare and illustrate the classical and modern approaches used for diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Evidence Acquisition: In order to achieve a comprehensive aspect in viral hepatitis detection methods, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized and summarized in different sections. Results: Analyzing of collected data resulted in the wrapping up the hepatitis virus detection methods in separate sections including 1) immunological methods such as enzyme immunoassay (EIA), radio-immunoassay (RIA) immuno-chromatographic assay (ICA), and immuno-chemiluminescence 2) molecular approaches including non-amplification and amplification based methods, and finally 3) advanced biosensors such as mass-sensitive, electrical, electrochemical and optical based biosensors and also new generation of detection methods. Conclusions: Detection procedures in the clinical laboratories possess a large diversity; each has their individual advantages and facilities' differences. PMID:24829586

Heiat, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

2014-01-01

276

Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis in a hepatitis C-infected individual.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis is a rare manifestation of this fungal infection, typically identified in immunocompromised patients, such as those with HIV/AIDS. Here, we report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with gastrointestinal involvement in a Hepatitis C-infected patient. The fungal agent was confirmed to be Histoplasma capsulatum by a DNA probe assay performed on a bone marrow sample. We propose that this fungal disease should be kept on the differential of patients infected with the Hepatitis C virus, as it has been reported to have numerous damaging effects on the adaptive immune system. PMID:23760983

Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul M; Bayat, Vafa; George, Elias; Sule, Norbert

2013-08-01

277

Calpain and lipopolysaccharide mediated hepatitis  

E-print Network

-mediated hepatitis model to investigate the mechanisms of hepatic neutrophil infiltration following LPS administration was developed by repeat intravenous injection of LPS at a dose of 10 mg/kg to rats. Blood was collected for hematologic and biochemical analysis...

Rose, Robert Edward

2009-06-02

278

Acute hepatic failure in children.  

PubMed Central

Many diseases may present as acute hepatic failure in the pediatric age group, including viral hepatitis A and B, adverse drug reactions, both toxic and "hepatitic," and inherited metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Management is primarily supportive, with care taken to anticipate the known complications of hepatic failure. Few "curative" therapies are known, although attempts at stimulating hepatic regeneration may be helpful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6433587

Riely, C. A.

1984-01-01

279

Immune Tolerant Hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B virus infection remains a global health concern, with perinatal transmission still a problem in many countries. Several new therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection have recently been introduced that can safely and effectively suppress viral replication with a low risk of resistance; thus, it has become increasingly tempting for many clinicians to treat patients in the immune tolerant stage of infection who have high levels of viremia yet persistently normal levels of transaminases. However, understanding the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection and how it pertains to disease progression, as well as how current therapies alter or do not alter this natural history, is important when deciding whether to treat these patients. This article will review the definition and natural history of immune tolerance, the current world guidelines and recommendations for treatment of immune tolerant patients, and data on the effectiveness of current therapies in this patient population. PMID:22298987

2011-01-01

280

[Pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis].  

PubMed

Hepatic fibrosis is a common sequel to most forms of chronic liver disease and an essential component in the development of cirrhosis. Basic and clinical scientists have increasingly realized the importance of all elements of the liver in fibrogenesis, as well as of structural-functional relationships between liver cells and matrix components of the liver. Important is the recognition that hepatic stellate cells play a central role based on their ability to undergo activation following liver injury of any cause. The study brings about the newest information on pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis. On the basis of better knowledge of the pathophysiology of fibrogenesis the development of new therapeutic approaches will become possible. PMID:11852583

Va?ková, M

2002-01-01

281

Protective Effect of Brazilian Propolis against Liver Damage with Cholestasis in Rats Treated with ?-Naphthylisothiocyanate  

PubMed Central

We examined the protective effect of Brazilian propolis against liver damage with cholestasis in rats treated with ?-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in comparison with that of vitamin E (VE). Rats orally received Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE) (25, 50, or 100?mg/kg), VE (250?mg/kg) or vehicle at 12?h after intraperitoneal injection of ANIT (75?mg/kg) and were killed 24?h after the injection. Vehicle-treated rats showed liver cell damage and cholestasis, judging from the levels of serum marker enzymes and components. The vehicle group had increased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and lipid peroxide levels, increased hepatic lipid peroxide, reduced glutathione, and ascorbic acid levels and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. BPEE (50?mg/kg) administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage and cholestasis and attenuated these serum and hepatic biochemical changes except hepatic ascorbic acid, although administered BPEE (25 or 100?mg/kg) was less effective. VE administered to ANIT-treated rats prevented liver cell damage, but not cholestasis, and attenuated increased serum lipid peroxide level, increased hepatic lipid peroxide level and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity. These results indicate that BPEE protects against ANIT-induced liver damage with cholestasis in rats more effectively than VE. PMID:23710219

Nakamura, Tadashi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Ohashi, Koji; Ikeno, Kumiko; Watanabe, Rie; Tokunaga, Kenji; Harada, Nobuhiro

2013-01-01

282

Hepatitis viruses: a pandora's box?  

PubMed

The term hepatitis virus is reserved for those viruses that are predominantly hepatotropic, although several new agents have been assigned to this category in the absence of hepatotropism and clinical disease. The hepatitis viruses can be broadly divided into those transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and those by blood, blood products and body fluids. Hepatitis A (picornaviridae), hepatitis B (hepadnaviridae) and hepatitis C (flaviviridae) represent the major public health problems. The epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is changing in response to vaccination. In the case of HAV, older age groups are now deemed at risk, particularly of fulminant hepatitis if exposed over the age of 50. Chronic hepatitis B in some regions is now predominantly of the so-called precore mutant type where high levels of HBV replication persist in the presence of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBe) antibodies. The HBV vaccination is among the most cost-effective health care measures. The epidemiological significance of mutations found increasingly in the HBV S gene isolated from vaccinated children is unclear. Evidence that hepatitis G and TT virus are significant causes of hepatitis is lacking. Of interest, however, is the finding that the related GBV-B agent of monkeys may be a model for developing new antiviral agents against HCV. Animal models of hepatitis infections are providing new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatitis in humans. Indeed it is possible that hepatitis E is primarily an agent of pigs and other domesticated livestock. Intriguingly, the new TT virus shares many properties with the circoviruses, significant pathogens of chickens and pigs. The challenge in the next decade will be to assess the significance of these new agents in terms of public health and resources. Value judgements will have to be made in assessing the risks associated with blood containing trace amounts of these adventitious agents. PMID:12534779

Howard, Colin R

2002-12-01

283

Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus in Chinese Patients with Viral Hepatitis and Hepatic Failure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) assay with ORTHO kits was done in 100 blood donors and recipients and 374 cases of viral hepatitis, including 65 cases of fulminant, subacute and chronic hepatic failure. None of the 100 blood donors and recipients showed...

D. Zhang, Y. Zhou, X. Jia

1992-01-01

284

Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.ed [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

2010-08-01

285

Juvenile autoimmune hepatitis: Spectrum of the disease.  

PubMed

Juvenile autoimmune hepatitis (JAIH) is a progressive inflammatory liver disease, affecting mainly young girls, from infancy to late adolescence, characterized by active liver damage, as shown by high serum activity of aminotransferases, by elevated immunoglobulin G levels, high titers of serum non organ-specific and organ-specific autoantibodies, and by interface hepatitis on liver biopsy. It is a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology in which environmental factors act as a trigger in genetically predisposed individuals. Two types of JAIH are identified according to the autoantibody panel detected at diagnosis: AIH-1, characterized by the presence of anti-smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody and AIH-2, by anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 and/or by the presence of anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibody. Epidemiological distribution, genetic markers, clinical presentation and pattern of serum cytokines differentiate the two types of AIH suggesting possible pathogenetic mechanisms. The most effective therapy for AIH is pharmacological suppression of the immune response. Treatment should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made to avoid severe liver damage and progression of fibrosis. The aim of this review is to outline the most significant and peculiar features of JAIH, based largely on our own personal database and on a review of current literature. PMID:25067998

Maggiore, Giuseppe; Nastasio, Silvia; Sciveres, Marco

2014-07-27

286

Juvenile autoimmune hepatitis: Spectrum of the disease  

PubMed Central

Juvenile autoimmune hepatitis (JAIH) is a progressive inflammatory liver disease, affecting mainly young girls, from infancy to late adolescence, characterized by active liver damage, as shown by high serum activity of aminotransferases, by elevated immunoglobulin G levels, high titers of serum non organ-specific and organ-specific autoantibodies, and by interface hepatitis on liver biopsy. It is a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology in which environmental factors act as a trigger in genetically predisposed individuals. Two types of JAIH are identified according to the autoantibody panel detected at diagnosis: AIH-1, characterized by the presence of anti-smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody and AIH-2, by anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 and/or by the presence of anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibody. Epidemiological distribution, genetic markers, clinical presentation and pattern of serum cytokines differentiate the two types of AIH suggesting possible pathogenetic mechanisms. The most effective therapy for AIH is pharmacological suppression of the immune response. Treatment should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made to avoid severe liver damage and progression of fibrosis. The aim of this review is to outline the most significant and peculiar features of JAIH, based largely on our own personal database and on a review of current literature. PMID:25067998

Maggiore, Giuseppe; Nastasio, Silvia; Sciveres, Marco

2014-01-01

287

Involvement of REST corepressor 3 in prognosis of human hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Aim: To examine the potential correlation between serum REST corepressor 3 (RCOR3) level and the outcome of patients with hepatitis B. Methods: Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse hepatitis model was used. The mRNA level of RCOR3 in mouse liver was measured using GeneChip array and real-time PCR. One hundred seventy-seven patients with hepatitis B and 34 healthy individuals were categorized into six groups including mild chronic hepatitis, moderate chronic hepatitis B, severe hepatitis B (SHB), cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and healthy control. Serum levels of human RCOR3 were measured using ELISA. Results: In the mouse hepatitis model, the mRNA level of RCOR3 in liver was reduced early after exposure to ConA, then increased after 6 h of exposure. There was no significant difference in the serum RCOR3 level between the mild chronic hepatitis B and the control groups. The serum RCOR3 level was significantly increased in the moderate chronic hepatitis B group, but significantly reduced in SHB, cirrhosis and HCC groups, as compared with the control group. Moreover, the serum RCOR3 levels in SHB, cirrhosis and liver cancer patients were significantly lower than those in the patients with moderate chronic hepatitis B and with mild chronic hepatitis B. Rank correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between serum RCOR3 level and total bilirubin (r=-0.305, P<0.01). There was no significant correlation between RCOR3 on one hand, and alanine transaminase (r=0.014, P>0.05) or aspartate transaminase (r=-0.079, P>0.05) on the other hand. Conclusion: Serum RCOR3 level may reflect the degree of liver damage, which might be a potential biomarker for the outcome of patients with hepatitis B. PMID:21765449

Xue, Ji-hua; Zheng, Min; Xu, Xiao-wei; Wu, Shan-shan; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Feng

2011-01-01

288

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Protects against Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aim: To evaluate the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid in reducing oxidative damage after severe hepatic ischemia\\/reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods: Wistar albino rats were subjected to 45 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 60 min reperfusion period. Lipoic acid (100 mg\\/kg i.p.) was administered 15 min prior to ischemia and immediately before reperfusion period. At the end of

Ender Dulundu; Yahya Ozel; Umit Topalaoglu; Özer Sehirli; Feriha Ercan; Nursal Gedik

2007-01-01

289

Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease. PMID:21994873

Wright, G.; Chattree, A.; Jalan, R.

2011-01-01

290

Viral hepatitis in Bucharest.  

PubMed

A seroprevalence survey of viral hepatitis was conducted in Bucharest, Romania, between April and July 1990 on a systematic sample of 1355 persons drawn from the general population and groups at higher risk of infection. Sera were tested for hepatitis A, B, and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, resp.) markers using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The prevalences of HAV and HBV markers were high in all groups. A total of 47% of the adults from the general population and 39.8% of the children aged 0-16 years had at least one HBV marker. Of the pregnant women 7.8% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Among infants (0-3 years of age) living in orphanages, the prevalence of at least one HBV marker was 54.6%. The findings also confirmed that HCV was circulating in Romania. The results are consistent with national surveillance data and confirm that viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in Romania. Preventive measures will have to include HBV immunization of infants, with an appropriately targeted immunization strategy being determined through further epidemiological studies. PMID:8313496

Paquet, C; Babes, V T; Drucker, J; Sénémaud, B; Dobrescu, A

1993-01-01

291

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

292

P. Roingeard -Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2013 ; 20, 77-84. Page 1 Hepatitis C virus diversity and hepatic steatosis  

E-print Network

of chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis B or autoimmune hepatitis. This suggests a probable direct roleP. Roingeard - Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2013 ; 20, 77-84. Page 1 REVIEW Hepatitis C virus diversity and hepatic steatosis P. Roingeard. INSERM U966, Université François Rabelais & CHRU de Tours, 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Ostensibly ineffectual doses of cadmium and lipopolysaccharide causes liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various hepatotoxicants co-treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have the potential to cause severe hepatic damage. Whether co-treatment with ostensibly ineffectual (without effect on customary clinical liver function tests, such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) doses of cadmium (Cd) and LPS cause liver damage is still unknown. We examined the effects of treating ostensibly ineffectual doses of Cd and LPS on

Periasamy Srinivasan; Ya-Hui Li; Dur-Zong Hsu; Shih-Bin Su; Ming-Yie Liu

2011-01-01

294

[Therapy of hepatitis C].  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is an update of the therapy of hepatitis C especially with Interferon-alpha. From the large number of publications on this topic the established facts were worked out. Taking these facts as a base guidelines for the therapy in practical use were defined. In addition the aspects of therapeutic strategies of chronic hepatitis C which until now can not definitely be judged are discussed. In the relatively few patients in whom hepatitis C is diagnosed already in the acute phase, Interferon-alpha-treatment (3 x 3 million units 3 times a week) for 3 to 4 months increases the percentage of patients in whom HCV-RNA in the serum is eliminated. In patients with chronic hepatitis C, after decision finding for treatment, a standard scheme is recommended which consists of a monotherapy with recombinant Interferon-alpha. The dosage of Interferon-alpha is in the first 12 to 16 weeks 5 up to 6 million units given 3 times a week. For the further therapy 3 million units 3 times a week seems to be appropriate. The recommended duration of Interferon-alpha-therapy is 12 months. A long-term benefit of about 20% can be achieved in unselected groups of patients when judged on the permanent normalisation of serum transaminases and elimination of HCV-RNA in the serum. Important factors which may influence the probability of a sustained response, like HCV genotype, virus titer in serum, duration of the disease, high hepatic iron content and the presence of cirrhosis, are discussed. Up to now there exist no reliable guidelines in the case of a "no change" situation and for patients with a flare-up of inflammatory activity during or after therapy. Combination therapy of Interferon-alpha with other drugs like analogous of nucleotides (for example ribavarin), non steroidal antirheumatic drugs and ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) have still to be evaluated in controlled clinical trials. PMID:9173207

Alscher, D M; Bode, J C

1997-03-15

295

Fulminant hepatic failure in nephrotic syndrome related to withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy.  

PubMed Central

Two patients with nephrotic syndrome developed fatal fulminant hepatitis B following withdrawal of prednisolone or cyclophosphamide. Immunosuppressive therapy probably enhanced hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and widespread infection of hepatocytes; its withdrawal permitted a return of immune competence resulting in massive destruction of infected hepatocytes. Prior screening of all patients for hepatitis B surface antigen, gradual withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs with careful monitoring, and prompt intervention with corticosteroids at the first clinical or biochemical signs of liver cell damage may prevent this complication. PMID:3186580

Onwubalili, J. K.

1988-01-01

296

Hepatic oxidative stress in an animal model of sleep apnoea: effects of different duration of exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Repeated apnoea events cause intermittent hypoxia (IH), which alters the function of various systems and produces free radicals and oxidative stress. Methods We investigated hepatic oxidative stress in adult mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia, simulating sleep apnoea. Three groups were submitted to 21 days of IH (IH-21), 35 days of IH (IH-35), or 35 days of sham IH. We assessed the oxidative damage to lipids by TBARS and to DNA by comet assay; hepatic tissue inflammation was assessed in HE-stained slides. Antioxidants were gauged by catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activity and by total glutathione. Results After IH-21, no significant change was observed in hepatic oxidative stress. After IH-35, significant oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and reduction of endogenous antioxidants were detected. Conclusions In an animal model of sleep apnoea, intermittent hypoxia causes liver damage due to oxidative stress after 35 days, but not after 21 days. PMID:21729291

2011-01-01

297

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine  

E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information 1,000 cases). Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A. 2 Who should get hepatitis A vaccine and when? WHO? Some people should be routinely vaccinated with hepatitis A vaccine: · All children between

Leistikow, Bruce N.

298

Living with Hepatitis C: Qualitative Interviews with Hepatitis C-infected Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects millions of people in the USA and prevalence rates are higher in US veterans.\\u000a The consequences of HCV infection include reduced quality of life, liver damage, and reduced longevity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Our objective was to describe the experiences of US veterans living with chronic HCV infection and use this information in\\u000a the development of an HCV

Erik J. Groessl; Kimberly R. Weingart; Robert M. Kaplan; Jack A. Clark; Allen L. Gifford; Samuel B. Ho

2008-01-01

299

Clinical experience with therapeutic vaccines designed for patients with hepatitis.  

PubMed

Franciscan missionary Giovanni Di Plano Carpini traveled in 1245 to a country named Yeke Tartar, to visit a certain man called Genghis Khan. His journey's report narrated peculiar dietary habits of the locals: "they eat anything, even lice". Little that Carpini knew, he had actually documented the earliest known to us record of oral vaccination against blood-borne infections - an approach that is still used occasionally in the present-day Mongolia for therapy of hepatitis. Currently, efforts aimed at developing therapeutic hepatitis vaccines have switched to more palatable path, but we may still benefit from the insight of medieval Mongols. This review provides an update on development of hepatitis B and C vaccines as related to immunotherapy of hepatitis. Immune therapy is a fast-moving field but the results so far failed to pitch woo. Current trends in research on therapeutic vaccine candidates and liver immunology are discussed. We subscribe to the idea that viral hepatitis is essentially an autoimmune disease generating immune-mediated liver damage. Therapeutic vaccines need to be designed in such a way that self-destructive immunity of the host is targeted not the virus, which is not cytopathic. PMID:19355957

Batdelger, Dendev; Dandii, Dorjiin; Dahgwahdorj, Yagaanbuyant; Erdenetsogt, Erdene; Oyunbileg, Janchivyn; Tsend, Navaansodov; Bayarmagnai, Bold; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S

2009-01-01

300

Clinical management of hepatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

The number of patients with cirrhosis in the United States continues to rise, and 30-45% of these patients are expected to develop hepatic encephalopathy. A broad spectrum of clinical manifestations is seen with the disorder, including mental or personality changes, asterixis, decreased energy level, impaired cognition, impaired sleep-wake cycle, decreased hand-eye coordination, psychomotor retardation, and incessant talking. Hepatic encephalopathy is a clinical diagnosis, and several scoring systems have been used to determine the severity of hepatic encephalopathy. The West Haven Criteria appear to be the scoring system most frequently used. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy has been reported to affect 60-70% of patients with cirrhosis and is predictive of the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. An estimated 10-50% of patients who have undergone a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for variceal bleeding develop hepatic encephalopathy. A great amount of attention has centered on the role of ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy, but that role is still largely hypothetical. Lactulose has been used for many years to minimize the effects of hepatic encephalopathy; however, noncompliance with lactulose is a common cause of rehospitalization. The pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy is extremely complex, and formal treatment guidelines are grossly outdated. The survival rate after 3 years among patients with hepatic encephalopathy is only 25%. PMID:20412035

Schiano, Thomas D

2010-05-01

301

Treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases with radiofrequency.  

PubMed

Although metastatic disease indicates diffusion of a cancer at a distance from its site of origin, in some cases pulmonary and hepatic metastases are isolated and slowly progressive, making them suitable for local treatment. Thermo-ablation techniques are associated with low morbidity and reduced collateral parenchymal damage; they therefore play an important role in such patients, where the disease is slow and chronic, requiring repeated local treatments. Unlike radiotherapy, a second treatment is possible in the event of local failure. PMID:24933270

de Baere, T; Deschamps, F

2014-01-01

302

The Effect of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation on Inflammatory Liver Damage following Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhagic shock is a frequent cause of liver failure and often leads to a fatal outcome. Several studies have revealed that p38 MAPK is a key mediator in hemorrhagic damage of the primary organs through the activation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1?. However, the precise role of these factors in liver damage following hemorrhagic shock is unclear. In this study, we used FR167653, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, to examine the role of p38 MAPK in liver damage occurring up to 5 hours after a hemorrhagic episode in a rat model. Activation of p38 MAPK in the liver as well as an increase in hepatic mRNA expression and serum concentrations of TNF-? and IL-1? occurred during the early phase after hemorrhage. Increased serum levels of hepatic enzymes, as well as histological damage and activated neutrophil accumulation in the liver, were observed in the late phase following hemorrhagic shock. FR167653 inhibited the inflammation-related hepatic injury following hemorrhagic shock. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the gut appeared to have little effects on the hepatic damage. These results demonstrate that p38 MAPK activation is induced by hepatic ischemia during hemorrhagic shock and plays an important role both in the hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines and in the development of inflammation-related liver damage. PMID:22253904

Sato, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tanaka, Noriyuki

2012-01-01

303

T-cell responses to hepatitis B splice-generated protein of hepatitis B virus and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in chronic hepatitis B patients. ANRS study: HB EP 02 HBSP-FIBRO.  

PubMed

A new hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein, hepatitis B splice-generated protein (HBSP), has been detected in liver biopsy specimens from patients with chronic active hepatitis. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype and functions of peripheral HBSP-specific T cells and to determine whether these T-cell responses may be implicated in liver damage or viral control. Two groups of patients were studied: HBV-infected patients with chronic active hepatitis and HBV-infected patients who were inactive carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen. HBSP-specific T-cell responses were analysed ex vivo and after in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Soluble cytokines and chemokines were analysed in sera and in cell culture supernatants. Few HBSP- or capsid-specific T-cell responses were detected in patients with chronic active hepatitis whereas frequency of HBV-specific T cells was significantly higher in inactive carrier patients. HBSP activated CD8+ and CD4+ T cells that recognized multiple epitopes and secreted inflammatory cytokines. The IL-12 level was significantly lower in sera from asymptomatic carrier patients compared to patients with chronic active hepatitis. IL-12 and IP-10 levels in the sera were significantly and independently correlated with both alanine amino transferase and HBV DNA levels. Our results show that the HBSP protein activates cellular immune responses in HBV-infected patients but has probably no prominent role in liver damage. The pattern of cytokines and chemokines in sera was linked to HBV viral load and was consistent with the level of inflammation during chronic hepatitis. PMID:23121366

Bayard, F; Godon, O; Nalpas, B; Costentin, C; Zhu, R; Soussan, P; Vallet-Pichard, A; Fontaine, H; Mallet, V; Pol, S; Michel, M-L

2012-12-01

304

Hepatic sinusoidal ectasia.  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive-associated sinusoidal ectasia is a rare lesion of unknown pathogenesis. We describe the case of a 31-year-old woman who had used oral contraceptives for 10 years and was found to have abnormal liver function tests on "routine" examination. A single 9 x 5 x 4 cm hypervascular lesion was demonstrated radiographically. The hepatic immuno-diacetic acid and liver-spleen scans were normal. One subcapsular lesion was identified in the resected right hepatic lobe; it was characterized by focal marked dilatation of the sinusoidal spaces associated with rare hepatocyte necrosis and early intrasinusoidal fibrosis. The subcapsular location and the vascular nature of this wedge-shaped lesion suggest it may represent the telangiectatic precursor of a centrally scarred focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:1644440

Oligny, L L; Lough, J

1992-08-01

305

Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Summary – Sept. 13, 2013 Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus Formats View PDF (PDF) 999 kB ... for this summary. Understanding the Condition What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a disease caused by ...

306

Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... PPTX - 832KB] Hepatitis B virus PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 3.1 Reported cases of acute hepatitis B, by state ? ... characteristic and year – United States, 2007-2011 Slide 3.1 Reported number of acute hepatitis B cases — United ...

307

Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond  

MedlinePLUS

... when traveling internationally and practicing good hygiene and sanitation also help prevent hepatitis A. What is the ... when traveling internationally and practicing good hygiene and sanitation. What is the treatment for hepatitis E? Hepatitis ...

308

Hepatic response to the oxidative stress induced by E. coli endotoxin: Glutathione as an index of the acute phase during the endotoxic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species are important mediators of cellular damage during endotoxic shock. In order to investigate the hepatic response to the oxidative stress induced by endotoxin, hepatic and plasma glutathione (total, GSH and GSSG), GSSG\\/GSH ratio as well as Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined during the acute and recovery phases of reversible endotoxic shock in the rat. A

M. Teresa Portolés; Myriam Catalfi; Adolfo Antón; Raffaella Pagani

1996-01-01

309

Chronic hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Interferon alpha, lamivudine, and adefovir are the three drugs currently approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B\\u000a virus (HBV). There are pros and cons associated with the use of each drug. Individualization of therapy, based upon factors\\u000a such as patient comorbidities, response to prior therapies, and stage of disease, is recommended. Patients with abnormal liver\\u000a enzymes, indices of

Stephanie D. Straley; Norah A. Terrault

2004-01-01

310

Hepatic Venous Outflow Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The liver is the largest organ in the body and its dual blood supply makes it a unique organ. Although it makes up less than\\u000a 3% of total body weight (about 1,800 g in men and 1,400 g in women), the liver receives one-quarter of the total cardiac output\\u000a via the hepatic artery and portal vein [1]. Classically, the liver

Yusuf Bayraktar

311

Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst is a rare, benign, most often solitary and unilocular, rarely multilocular cyst made up of a\\u000a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, a subepitheial connective tissue layer, a smooth muscle layer and an outer\\u000a fibrous capsule. The lesion is usually found incidentally by ultrasonography, during surgical exploration or autopsy. Recent\\u000a publications characterizes of its fine needle aspiration biopsy

Barna Bogner; Géza Hegedûs

2002-01-01

312

[Acute hepatic vascular complications].  

PubMed

Acute hepatic vascular complications are rare. Acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BSC) are the leading causes. Coagulopathy and local factors are present in up to 80% of cases. Diagnosis is established by colour-coded Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute PVT present with abdominal pain and disturbed intestinal motility. In the absence of cirrhosis anticoagulation with heparin is established followed by oral anticoagulation. In severe cases, surgical thrombectomy or transjugular thrombolysis with stent shunt may be necessary. Acute or fulminant BCS may require emergency liver transplantation or a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt, if patients present with acute liver failure. Milder cases receive anticoagulation for thrombolysis of occluded hepatic veins. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is diagnosed after total body irradiation or chemotherapy, the term SOS replacing the former veno-occlusive disease. The treatment of congenital vascular malformations, complications in the setting of OLTX as well as patients with hepatic involvement of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia requires significant expertise in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:21667100

Ochs, A

2011-07-01

313

Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.  

PubMed

Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50 % in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions. PMID:24798996

Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

2014-10-01

314

Therapy of chronic viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), the delta agent (HDV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) carries high risks of chronic liver disease which can result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Many antiviral agents have been tried to inhibit viral replication and thereby limit infectivity and the risks of eventual serious liver disease. Interferon offers a 30-40% chance of viral clearance to the hepatitis B carrier, offers a good chance of clinical response in parenterally acquired chronic non-A non-B hepatitis and may be of benefit for some patients with chronic delta infection. PMID:1716277

Main, J

1991-06-01

315

Hepatitis C in haematological patients.  

PubMed

There is no consensus guideline concerning the management of chronic hepatitis C patients during chemotherapy, and immunosuppression. However, there are some suggestions in literature that hepatitis C viral load increases during chemotherapy and there is a risk of rebound immunity against hepatitis C after discontinuation of immunosuppression with a consequent liver injury. A close monitoring of liver function of these patients is prudent during treatment of haematological malignancy. Antiviral treatment is deferred after the completion of chemotherapy and recovery of patients' immunity to minimize the toxicity of treatment. A combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the standard therapy in hepatitis C infected haematological patients. PMID:21188204

Hwang, Y Y; Liang, R H S

2010-01-01

316

Serological diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty cases of symptomatic acute viral hepatitis presenting at the Washington, D.C., Veterans Administration Medical Center between 1976 and 1977 were tested for serological markers of hepatitis virus infection. The etiology of the acute hepatitis appeared to be hepatitis A virus in 20%, hepatitis B virus in 52%, non-A, non-B agents in 22%, delta hepatitis in 4%, and infectious mononucleosis

Jay H. Hoofnagle; Antonio Ponzetto; Lars R. Mathiesen; Jeanne G. Waggoner; Z. Buskell Bales; Leonard B. Seeff

1985-01-01

317

Radioembolization of hepatic tumors  

PubMed Central

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

2014-01-01

318

Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.  

PubMed

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

Kennedy, Andrew

2014-06-01

319

Combination of Oxidative Stress and Steatosis Is a Risk Factor for Fibrosis in Alcohol-Drinking Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Alcohol and HCV have been shown to interact in stimulating hepatic oxidative damage. Thus, we investigated the contribution of oxidative mechanisms in the progression of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in alcohol consumers.METHODS: An increased IgG reactivity against lipid peroxidation-derived antigens was used as the marker for alcohol-induced oxidative damage in 125 CHC patients.RESULTS:Alcohol intake significantly increased the frequency

Matteo Vidali; Giuseppa Occhino; Alessandra Ivaldi; Cristina Rigamonti; Massimo Sartori; Emanuele Albano

2008-01-01

320

Hepatitis B Antigen in Viral Hepatitis in West London  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first 12 months of a total population survey 249 patients were seen with viral hepatitis. A total of 215 of these were tested for hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) by radioimmunoassay and 32 (15%) were positive.More than five times as many men (27) as women (5) were HBAg positive and 19 of the men were between the ages

L. J. Farrow; S. G. Lamb; N. F. Coghill; R. L. Lindon; Jill Preece; A. J. Zuckerman; J. S. Stewart

1974-01-01

321

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

322

[Hepatitis B and pregnancy].  

PubMed

In pregnant women, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection presents the risk of mother-to-child (vertical) transmission. The contaminated newborn most often remains a chronic carrier. Mother-to-child transmission can be avoided by serovaccination of the newborn. Screening for HBs antigen is essential in all pregnant women; in France, it is mandatory at the 6-month prenatal examination. All infants born to mothers who are carriers of HBs antigen must receive a serovaccination against this virus, by intramuscular injection of vaccine and of hepatitis B immune globulin (H-BIG, 100 or 200 IU), in two different sites, in the first hours after birth. Vaccination then continues, according to the recommended protocol. Although the combination of vaccination and H-BIG is very effective in preventing chronic carriage in children (efficacy >90 %), some children may nonetheless be contaminated, especially when the viral load is very high during pregnancy. These women with very high viral loads may receive lamivudine treatment at the end of pregnancy to diminish viral load and thus the risk of chronic carriage in the child; however the role of this drug in this situation is not yet clearly defined. The efficacy of the serovaccination must be confirmed in all children by a serologic examination (HBs antigen and anti-HBs antibodies) at some time after the last vaccination. Children carrying the HBs antigen must be seen by a pediatrician who has experience with viral hepatitis. When HBs antigen is found in a woman during pregnancy, a specialist should be consulted and the family should undergo complete serologic testing (HBs antigen, anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibodies). PMID:18662605

Bacq, Y

2008-01-01

323

Ostensibly ineffectual doses of cadmium and lipopolysaccharide causes liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

Various hepatotoxicants co-treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have the potential to cause severe hepatic damage. Whether co-treatment with ostensibly ineffectual (without effect on customary clinical liver function tests, such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) doses of cadmium (Cd) and LPS cause liver damage is still unknown. We examined the effects of treating ostensibly ineffectual doses of Cd and LPS on liver dysfunction as well as on liver histopathology. We injected rats with saline only, Cd only, LPS only, or a single ostensibly ineffectual dose of Cd (100 ?g/kg body weight) plus LPS (0.1 mg/kg body weight). After 6 h, the rats were killed and their liver damage was assessed. Co-treated with ostensibly ineffectual doses of Cd and LPS had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, hepatic lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite, nitrite, and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), but lower levels of hepatic metallothionein (MT) than did that treated with saline only, Cd only, and LPS only. Histopathological analysis of Cd only and LPS only showed apparent liver damage, but Cd plus LPS showed marked hepatic damage. We conclude that co-treating the rats with ostensibly ineffectual doses of Cd and LPS is hepatotoxic. Cd promotes LPS-initiated oxidative-stress-associated liver damage by increasing IL-1? and decreasing MT levels in rats. PMID:20639273

Srinivasan, Periasamy; Li, Ya-Hui; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Su, Shih-Bin; Liu, Ming-Yie

2011-07-01

324

Gastroprotective Effect of Cochinchina momordica Seed Extract in Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Acute Gastric Damage in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The major compounds of Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) include momordica saponins. We report that the gastroprotective effect of SK-MS10 in an ethanol-induced gastric damage rat model is mediated by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and downregulating cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and the activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide. In this study, we evaluated the gastroprotective effects of SK-MS10 in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage rat model. Methods The pretreatment effect of SK-MS10 was evaluated in the NSAID-induced gastric damage rat model using aspirin, indomethacin, and diclofenac in 7-week-old rats. Gastric damage was evaluated based on the gross ulcer index by gastroenterologists, and the damage area (%) was measured using the MetaMorph 7.0 video image analysis system. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting was used to analyze the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, cPLA2, and 5-LOX. Results All NSAIDs induced gastric damage based on the gross ulcer index and damage area (p<0.05). Gastric damage was significantly attenuated by SK-MS10 pretreatment compared with NSAID treatment alone (p<0.05). The SK-MS10 pretreatment group exhibited lower MPO levels than the diclofenac group. The expression of cPLA2 and 5-LOX was decreased by SK-MS10 pretreatment in each of the three NSAID treatment groups. Conclusions SK-MS10 exhibited a gastroprotective effect against NSAID-induced acute gastric damage in rats. However, its protective mechanism may be different across the three types of NSAID-induced gastric damage models in rats. PMID:24516701

Lim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Byoung Hwan; Seo, Pyoung Ju; Kang, Jung Mook; Jo, So Young; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Chang, Hyun; Kwon, Jin-Won; Lee, Dong Ho

2014-01-01

325

Clinico-histopathological characteristics of clopidogrel-induced hepatic injury: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Clopidogrel is a thienopyridine derivative with a relatively low occurrence of adverse side effects. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that clopidogrel may cause severe liver injury. Until now, five cases of clopidogrel-induced acute hepatitis have been reported. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man who developed symptomatic liver disease 6 weeks after 1x75 mg/day clopidogrel intake as adjunctive antiplatelet therapy for a renal artery stent implantation. Histological examination revealed severe acute hepatitis with extensive hepatocanalicular cholestasis and focal cell necrosis with a preferential zone-3 distribution of hepatic damage. In the present paper, we describe the clinico-histopathological characteristics of a case of clopidogrel-induced acute hepatitis and discuss the current literature. PMID:16825915

Höllmüller, Isolde; Stadlmann, Sylvia; Graziadei, Ivo; Vogel, Wolfgang

2006-08-01

326

Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlation between IgM Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen, Hepatitis B e Antigen, and Hepatitis B DNA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sera from 102 black patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) and hepatitis B surface antigenemia were tested for immunoglobulin M antibody against hepatitis B core (IgM anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B viral (HBV) DNA....

E. Song, G. M. Dusheiko, M. C. Kew, M. H. Sjogren

1988-01-01

327

5 Natural history of hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause acute, fulminant or chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Perinatally or childhood acquired HBV infection usually causes subclinical or anicteric acute hepatitis and is associated with a high risk of chronicity (30 to 90% of cases), whereas adult acquired infection may cause acute symptomatic hepatitis (approximately 30% of patients) and

Leonard B. Seeff

2000-01-01

328

Percutaneous Management of a Hepatic Artery Aneurysm: Bleeding After Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

In this article we present an unusual case of hepatic artery aneurysm bleeding due to a hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation. The patient developed a recurrent hepatic artery thrombosis leading to severe graft failure in four consecutive liver transplantations. While being evaluated for a fifth transplant, stabilization of the clinical situation was attempted by interventional therapy. The first intervention was to place a stent into the hepatic artery to prevent further ischemic damage. This failed to improve graft function, but unfortunately led to the development of a pseudoaneurysm at the distal end with a subsequent rupture into the biliary tree. Bleeding was treated successfully by direct puncture and coil embolization of the aneurysm. In addition, the patient demonstrated a hemodynamically relevant portal vein stenosis on the CT scan. Stenting of the portal vein markedly improved graft function. After extensive investigations, a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was found to be the underlying cause of the recurrent hepatic artery thrombosis. Here we suggest that hepatic artery aneurysm bleeding is a rare but potentially fatal complication that can be successfully treated by percutaneous coil embolization. Additionally, we propose that stenting of the portal vein can lead to a significant improvement of the graft perfusion even though the hepatic artery remained occluded.

Millonig, Gunda; Graziadei, Ivo W. [University of Innsbruck, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Austria)], E-mail: ivo.graziadei@uibk.ac.at; Waldenberger, Peter [University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology I (Austria); Koenigsrainer, Alfred [University of Innsbruck, Transplant Surgery (Austria); Jaschke, Werner [University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology I (Austria); Vogel, Wolfgang [University of Innsbruck, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Austria)

2004-09-15

329

Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy. PMID:23855291

Zakhari, Samir

2013-08-01

330

Multigenerational epigenetic adaptation of the hepatic wound-healing response.  

PubMed

We investigated whether ancestral liver damage leads to heritable reprogramming of hepatic wound healing in male rats. We found that a history of liver damage corresponds with transmission of an epigenetic suppressive adaptation of the fibrogenic component of wound healing to the male F1 and F2 generations. Underlying this adaptation was less generation of liver myofibroblasts, higher hepatic expression of the antifibrogenic factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) and lower expression of the profibrogenic factor transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) compared to rats without this adaptation. Remodeling of DNA methylation and histone acetylation underpinned these alterations in gene expression. Sperm from rats with liver fibrosis were enriched for the histone variant H2A.Z and trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys27 (H3K27me3) at PPAR-? chromatin. These modifications to the sperm chromatin were transmittable by adaptive serum transfer from fibrotic rats to naive rats and similar modifications were induced in mesenchymal stem cells exposed to conditioned media from cultured rat or human myofibroblasts. Thus, it is probable that a myofibroblast-secreted soluble factor stimulates heritable epigenetic signatures in sperm so that the resulting offspring better adapt to future fibrogenic hepatic insults. Adding possible relevance to humans, we found that people with mild liver fibrosis have hypomethylation of the PPARG promoter compared to others with severe fibrosis. PMID:22941276

Zeybel, Müjdat; Hardy, Timothy; Wong, Yi K; Mathers, John C; Fox, Christopher R; Gackowska, Agata; Oakley, Fiona; Burt, Alastair D; Wilson, Caroline L; Anstee, Quentin M; Barter, Matt J; Masson, Steven; Elsharkawy, Ahmed M; Mann, Derek A; Mann, Jelena

2012-09-01

331

Role of ischemic preconditioning in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

Background Investigation into less traumatic method of vascular occlusion during liver resection is the actual problem in hepatic surgery because of high level of complications such as liver failure. In this connection, the goal of our study was to determine the optimal model of vascular clamping. The research showed that vascular occlusion with ischemic preconditioning in the mode 5/10/15 the most delicate technique. Methods Forty white giant rabbits were divided randomly into four groups (n=10 in each group). In group I we used continuous Pringle maneuver by 30 min. In group II we used intermittent Pringle maneuver: 15 min of clamping/5 min of unclamping (reperfusion)/15 min of clamping. In group III we used intermittent Pringle maneuver with ischemic precondition: 5 min of ischemia/5 min of reperfusion, 10 min of ischemia/5 min of reperfusion/15 min of ischemia. Group IV (control group) is without hepatic ischemia. All animals were performed a liver biopsy at the end of the surgery. Five rabbits from each group underwent re-laparotomy on day 3 after surgery with biopsy samples being taken for studying reparative processes in liver parenchyma. Results Results of morphometric analysis were the best to illustrate different level of liver injury in the groups. Thus, there were 95.5% damaged hepatocytes after vascular occlusion in hepatic preparations in group I, 70.3% damaged hepatocytes in group II, and 42.3% damaged hepatocytes in group III. There were 5.3% damaged hepatocytes in the control group. Conclusions Vascular occlusion with ischemic preconditioning in the mode 5/10/15 the most delicate technique that does not involve major structural injuries and functional disorders in the remnant liver. Thus, it is amenable to translation into clinical practice and may improve outcomes in liver resection with inflow vascular occlusion.

Boyko, Valeriy V.; Tyshchenko, Oleksandr M.; Skoryi, Denys I.; Kozlova, Tatiana V.; Gorgol, Natalia I.; Volchenko, Igor V.

2014-01-01

332

Evaluation of hepatoprotective effects of Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) are used by the Kattunaikan tribe of Kerala, for the treatment of various hepatic disorders. In the present study, the effect of the methanolic extract of Helminthostachys zeylanica rhizomes on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in Wistar rats was studied. The results showed that significant hepatoprotective effect was obtained against CCl4-induced liver damage, by

S. R. Suja; P. G. Latha; P. Pushpangadan; S. Rajasekharan

2004-01-01

333

Emerging drugs for hepatitis B Fabien Zoulim 1,2,3  

E-print Network

replication and the severity of liver disease (3, 4). The hepatitis B vaccine was shown to be effective with their pegylated forms (8, 9). Because of this non satisfactory response rate and the side effects associated not induce directly a cytopathic effect, liver damage is induced the specific anti-HBV immune response

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Tamoxifen Prevents Induction of Hepatic Neoplasia by Zeranol, an Estrogenic Food Contaminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeranol (alpha-zearalanol) is a beta-resorcylic acid lactone (RAL) that has estrogen activity. It is synthesized by molds and is difficult to avoid in human food products. We tested the ability of this mycoestrogen to damage the liver of the Armenian hamster, a rodent that is especially sensitive to hepatotoxic effects of exogenous estrogens. Zeranol induced acute hepatotoxicity and, subsequently, hepatic

John E. Coe; Kamal G. Ishak; Jerrold M. Ward; Mary J. Ross

1992-01-01

335

Caspase activation correlates with the degree of inflammatory liver injury in chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease characterized by inflammation, cell damage, and fibrotic reactions of hepatocytes. Apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis, although it is unclear whether proteases of the caspase family as the central executioners of apoptosis are involved and how caspase activation contributes to liver injury. In the present study, we

Heike Bantel; Andreas Lügering; Christopher Poremba; Norbert Lügering; Jürgen Held; Wolfram Domschke; Klaus Schulze-Osthoff

2001-01-01

336

Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

Thiel, Thelma King

337

Chobert MN et al LIVER PRECURSOR CELLS INCREASE HEPATIC FIBROSIS INDUCED BY CHRONIC  

E-print Network

Chobert MN et al LIVER PRECURSOR CELLS INCREASE HEPATIC FIBROSIS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CARBON liver CCl4-induced fibrosis Pages of text: 27 Tables: 1 Black and white or grayscale figures: 1 Color complication of virtually all types of chronic liver damage, usually begins in portal areas, and its severity

Boyer, Edmond

338

Aplastica Anemia And Viral Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells. The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA. In none of the studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial target organ of the immune response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure. Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic and blood lymphocytes with T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia. PMID:21415960

Cudillo, Laura

2009-01-01

339

Bone Lesions and Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms » Bone Damage Bone Lesions and Damage Bone lesions from multiple myeloma ... have some degree of bone loss. Causes of bone destruction in myeloma Normally, osteoclasts function with bone- ...

340

Hepatic nervous system development.  

PubMed

During embryonic development, the liver emerges from the foregut as a thickening of the ventral endodermal epithelium. The embryonic liver then develops into a bud of cells that proliferates and differentiates to eventually form the largest gland of the body. Prior to birth, the primary function of the liver is hematopoietic, and the organ receives little innervation during early development. Postnatally, the role of the liver changes and many different nerve types modulate its function. Although the liver shares a common embryonic origin with other foregut derivatives, such as the gallbladder and the pancreas, the development of its innervation exhibits distinct characteristics. In this review, we summarize what is known about the development of the hepatic innervation, draw comparisons with the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs, and discuss the potential role of molecular signals in guiding the nerves that innervate the liver. PMID:15382016

Delalande, Jean-Marie; Milla, Peter J; Burns, Alan J

2004-09-01

341

Pericholecystic hepatic activity in cholescintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Gallbladder nonvisualization in cholescintigraphy has been shown to be a reliable finding in acute cholecystitis. In some cholescintigrams, the authors have observed faintly increased pericholecystic hepatic activity in conjunction with gallbladder nonvisualization. To determine the frequency and significance of the pericholecystic hepatic activity finding, they evaluated 334 consecutive adult patients who had cholescintigrams with technetium-99m diisopropylphenylcarboamoyl iminodiacetic acid. Pericholecystic hepatic activity was seen in 21% of the abnormal scans demonstrating gallbladder nonvisualization but in none of the other scans. Thirteen of these patients underwent surgery; 11 (85%) were found to have acute cholecystitis, and two (15%) had chronic cholecystitis. The pericholecystic hepatic activity sign is not specific for gangrenous cholecystitis or gallbladder perforation but does reliably indicate inflammatory gallbladder disease and is associated with a relatively high incidence of cholecystitis complicated by perforation.

Smith, R.; Rosen, J.M.; Gallo, L.N.; Alderson, P.O.

1985-09-01

342

Modeling Hepatitis C Treatment Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. As the nation's largest provider of care for HCV, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) invests extensive resources in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseas...

D. Ross, G. Lambert, M. Chartier, M. A. Kuypers, P. D. Finley, R. J. Glass, T. W. Moore

2013-01-01

343

Hepatic Manifestations in Hematological Disorders  

PubMed Central

Liver involvement is often observed in several hematological disorders, resulting in abnormal liver function tests, abnormalities in liver imaging studies, or clinical symptoms presenting with hepatic manifestations. In hemolytic anemia, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly are often seen mimicking liver diseases. In hematologic malignancies, malignant cells often infiltrate the liver and may demonstrate abnormal liver function test results accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly or formation of multiple nodules in the liver and/or spleen. These cases may further evolve into fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:23606974

Murakami, Jun

2013-01-01

344

Replication of hepatitis C virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exciting progress has recently been made in understanding the replication of hepatitis C virus, a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. The development of complete cell-culture systems should now enable the systematic dissection of the entire viral lifecycle, providing insights into the hitherto difficult-to-study early and late steps. These efforts have already translated into the

François Penin; Charles M. Rice; Darius Moradpour

2007-01-01

345

Hepatic and renal complications arising from accidental carbon tetrachloride poisoning in the human subject  

PubMed Central

A young man, who was admitted to hospital acutely ill following the ingestion of half a mouthful of carbon tetrachloride, was investigated for the degree and duration of hepatic and renal damage, using various tests of function. On the basis of the serum bilirubin and enzyme activities, the acute hepatic damage had subsided after 15 days from the time of the accident, but the serum albumin and total proteins returned to normal only after a considerably longer time interval (between 33 and 129 days). There was no evidence of residual hepatic damage after this time. Acute renal damage reached a maximum about a week after the accident, and recovery of function in respect of the kidneys' power to reabsorb sodium and chloride and to secrete potassium and acid recovered almost completely after three weeks. However, the power of the kidneys to reabsorb water, ie, to produce a concentrated urine, approached normal only after 139 days. Residual renal damage was not evident after this time interval as indicated by the clearance values for creatinine and inorganic phosphate. The significance of the results is discussed. PMID:5420737

Alston, W. C.

1970-01-01

346

Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested  

MedlinePLUS

... When Getting Tested HEPATITIS C Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C ... clear,” the virus. What does a non-reactive Hepatitis C Antibody Test result mean? • A non-reactive ...

347

Overexpression of the cholesterol-binding protein MLN64 induces liver damage in the mouse  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the in vivo phenotype associated with hepatic metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64) over-expression. METHODS: Recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer was used to overexpress MLN64 in the livers of C57BL/6 mice. We measured the effects of MLN64 overexpression on hepatic cholesterol content, bile flow, biliary lipid secretion and apoptosis markers. For in vitro studies cultured CHO cells with transient MLN64 overexpression were utilized and apoptosis by TUNEL assay was measured. RESULTS: Livers from Ad.MLN64-infected mice exhibited early onset of liver damage and apoptosis. This response correlated with increases in liver cholesterol content and biliary bile acid concentration, and impaired bile flow. We investigated whether liver MLN64 expression could be modulated in a murine model of hepatic injury. We found increased hepatic MLN64 mRNA and protein levels in mice with chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver damage. In addition, cultured CHO cells with transient MLN64 overexpression showed increased apoptosis. CONCLUSION: In summary, hepatic MLN64 over-expression induced damage and apoptosis in murine livers and altered cholesterol metabolism. Further studies are required to elucidate the relevance of these findings under physiologic and disease conditions. PMID:17589922

Tichauer, Juan Enrique; Morales, Maria Gabriela; Amigo, Ludwig; Galdames, Leopoldo; Klein, Andres; Quinones, Veronica; Ferrada, Carla; R, Alejandra Alvarez; Rio, Marie-Christine; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Rigotti, Attilio; Zanlungo, Silvana

2007-01-01

348

Cholylglycine measured in serum by RIA and interleukin-1 beta determined by ELISA in differentiating viral hepatitis from chemical liver injury.  

PubMed

Serum bile acids have been shown to serve as useful indicators of liver disease. We have confirmed these findings and added an analysis of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) profiles to further differentiate viral hepatitis from toxic liver damage associated with exposure to vinyl chloride (VC) or trinitrotoluene (TNT). The frequency of elevated cholylglycine (CG) was 100%, 75%, and 37.5% in viral hepatitis, VC- and TNT-linked liver injury patients, respectively. The mean levels, expressed in micrograms/dL, were 578, 507, 142, and 65 in hepatitis B, hepatitis non-A non-B, VC and TNT liver injury patients, respectively. Thus, the CG test could detect viral hepatitis and, VC liver injury, and (less frequently) liver injury associated with exposure to TNT. The mean level of IL-1 beta in patients with hepatitis type B was 424 pg/mL and hepatitis non A non B was 384 pg/mL compared with a mean of 33-40 pg/mL in those with VC or TNT-linked liver disease. The IL-1 beta detection test proved further to be an important distinguishing parameter as it was 100% positive in patients with viral hepatitis but only 12.5% to 25% positive in patients with VC/TNT-induced liver damage. PMID:1447600

Li, G Y; Wang, T; Huggins, E M; Shams, N K; Davis, J F; Calkins, J H; Hornung, C A; Altekruse, J M; Sigel, M M

1992-09-01

349

Hepatitis C Treatment & Management  

PubMed Central

Abstract Combination therapy with pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFN alfa) and the nucleoside analogue ribavirin is the current standard of care in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Patients with HCV genotype 1 have a much less favorable response to therapy and are treated for 12 months, compared with patients infected with genotypes 2 and 3, in whom a 6-month course of therapy is sufficient. If viremia is present after 6 months, additional therapy has a negligible benefit, and treatment should be stopped in all patients regardless of the viral genotype. With HIV coinfection, all patients with a response to therapy at the end of 6 months should receive an additional 6 months of combination therapy regardless of the genotype. Patients with acute HCV infection should be treated for 6 months. The addition of protease inhibitors to the combination of PEG-IFN alfa and ribavirin is becoming the new standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection. Regimens that include a protease inhibitor significantly improve sustained virologic response rates in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. PMID:24653754

Andronescu, D; Diaconu, S; Tiuca, N; Purcarea, RM; Andronescu, CI

2014-01-01

350

Anti-hepatitis activities in the broth of Ganoderma lucidum supplemented with a Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

The anti-hepatitis B virus activity and hepatoprotective activity of a liquid fermentation broth of Ganoderma lucidum were investigated. The cultured broth was supplemented with aqueous extract of Radix Sophorae flavescentis, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine. Our results indicated that the cultured broth had effects of anti-hepatitis B virus activity in vitro and protected mice from liver damage in vivo. Our results also indicated that the co-fermentation broth of Ganoderma lucidum in the presence of aqueous extract of Radix Sophorae flavescentis has better medicinal effects than simply mixing these two ingredients together, suggesting a potential novel way to prepare Chinese herbal mixtures. PMID:16552843

Li, Yanqun; Yang, Yailong; Fang, Lu; Zhang, Zhibin; Jin, Jian; Zhang, Kechang

2006-01-01

351

Tamoxifen prevents induction of hepatic neoplasia by zeranol, an estrogenic food contaminant.  

PubMed

Zeranol (alpha-zearalanol) is a beta-resorcylic acid lactone (RAL) that has estrogen activity. It is synthesized by molds and is difficult to avoid in human food products. We tested the ability of this mycoestrogen to damage the liver of the Armenian hamster, a rodent that is especially sensitive to hepatotoxic effects of exogenous estrogens. Zeranol induced acute hepatotoxicity and, subsequently, hepatic carcinogenesis; both effects were blocked by tamoxifen, suggesting estrogen receptor mediation. Because zeranol is acting alone as a primary initiator of hepatic neoplasms, this model provides an unusual opportunity to study the pathogenesis of estrogen-initiated tumorigenesis. PMID:1736291

Coe, J E; Ishak, K G; Ward, J M; Ross, M J

1992-02-01

352

Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis during pregnancy is essential for health planners and programme managers. While much data exist concerning viral hepatitis during pregnancy in many African countries, no proper published data are available in Sudan. AIM: The study aimed to investigate the sero-prevalance and the possible risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Rasha M Elsheikh; Ahmed A Daak; Mohamed A Elsheikh; Mubarak S Karsany; Ishag Adam

2007-01-01

353

Epidemiological serosurvey of Hepatitis B in China—Declining HBV prevalence due to Hepatitis B vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core anti-body (anti-HBc) in a representative population in China 14 years after introduction of hepatitis B vaccination of infants.

Xiaofeng Liang; Shengli Bi; Weizhong Yang; Longde Wang; Gang Cui; Fuqiang Cui; Yong Zhang; Jianhua Liu; Xiaohong Gong; Yuansheng Chen; Fuzhen Wang; Hui Zheng; Feng Wang; Jing Guo; Zhiyuan Jia; Jingchen Ma; Huaqing Wang; Huiming Luo; Li Li; Shuigao Jin; Stephen C. Hadler; Yu Wang

2009-01-01

354

Damage Tolerance of Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

Hodge, Andy

2007-01-01

355

Hepatitis B Prevention: A Resource Guide, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

'Hepatitis B Prevention: A Resource Guide' is designed to assist health care and other professionals who work in planning or administering hepatitis B prevention programs. People who are interested in available research and information about HBV and the u...

1990-01-01

356

Hepatitis viruses: changing patterns of human disease.  

PubMed Central

Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different virus family, and each has a unique epidemiology. The medical impact of these viruses on society has been strongly influenced by changes in human ecology. This has resulted in some cases in diminished disease and in others in increases in the incidence of disease. PMID:8146130

Purcell, R H

1994-01-01

357

Hepatic tumor angiography: a subject review  

SciTech Connect

The dual blood supply of the normal hepatic parenchyma and the single arterial supply of hepatic neoplasms are important factors in the interpretation of celiac and hepatic arteriograms. Depending on whether the hepatic artery, portal vein, or both are opacified, three types of hepatogram can occur: arterial, portal, or mixed. On the celiac arteriogram, the densely opacified hepatic parenchyma makes the less well opacified tumor appear relatively hypovascular; and conversely, on the hepatic arteriogram the nonopacified portal flow has a ''wash-out'' effect on the normal parenchyma so that the neoplasm remains hypervascular. Thus most hepatic neoplasms are hypervascular on the hepatic arteriogram, and conversion of a hypervascular tumor to a hypovascular one is indicative of its response to treatment.

Chuang, V.P.

1983-09-01

358

76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Americans living with the disease are unaware of their status...done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis touches Americans...hepatitis, and persons with sexually transmitted diseases or behaviors such as...

2011-08-01

359

Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

2013-01-01

360

Targeting apoptosis in autoimmune hepatitis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is the predominant mechanism of liver cell death in autoimmune hepatitis, and interventions that can modulate this activity are emerging. The aim of this review was to describe the apoptotic mechanisms, possible aberrations, and opportunities for intervention in autoimmune hepatitis. Studies cited in PubMed from 1972 to 2014 for autoimmune hepatitis, apoptosis in liver disease, apoptosis mechanisms, and apoptosis treatment were examined. Apoptosis is overactive in autoimmune hepatitis, and the principal pathway of cell death is receptor mediated. Surface death receptors are activated by extrinsic factors including liver-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells and the cytokine milieu. The executioner caspases 3 and 7 cleave nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid, and the release of apoptotic bodies can stimulate inflammatory, immune, and fibrotic responses. Changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability can be initiated by caspase 8, and an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis can complement the extrinsic pathway. Defects in the apoptosis of activated effector cells can prolong their survival and sustain the immune response. Caspase inhibitors have been used in diverse experimental and human diseases to retard apoptosis. Oligonucleotides that inhibit the signaling of toll-like receptors can limit the presentation of auto-antigens, and inhibitors of apoptosis that extend the survival of effector cells can be blocked by antisense oligonucleotides. Mechanisms that enhance the clearance of apoptotic bodies and affect key signaling pathways are also feasible. Interventions that influence the survival of liver and effector cells by altering their apoptosis are candidates for study in autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:25038736

Czaja, Albert J

2014-12-01

361

Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus from infected mothers to their infants. We studied eight babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis E in third trimester. One baby was icteric at birth with elevated transaminases and four babies had anicteric hepatitis. Two babies were born with hypothermia and hypoglycaemia and died within 24 h; one had

M. S. Khuroo; S. Kamali; S. Jameel

1995-01-01

362

Aberrant Hepatic Artery in Patients Undergoing Pancreaticoduodenectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is very important to keep the integrity of the hepatic artery blood supply in patients treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy. Knowing and identifying hepatic artery anomalies is helpful to avoid injuring them during the procedure of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with ampullary tumors (including cancer in the pancreatic head). Methods: Aberrant hepatic artery in patients with ampullary tumors was identified by

Feng Yang; Jiang Long; De-Liang Fu; Chen Jin; Xian-Jun Yu; Jin Xu; Quan-Xing Ni

2008-01-01

363

Hepatic Capillanasis in Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first prevalence data of hepatic capillariasis in muskrats in Pennsyl- vania and Connecticut (USA). The prevalence of hepatic capillariasis in five groups of muskrats coming from different locations and numbering 81, 229, 11, 19, and 20 animals, was 42%, 78%, 36%, 16%, and 0%, respectively. Liver lesions varied from minimal to severe multifocal gran- ulomatous hepatitis, often

J. D. Borucinska; S. W. Nielsen

1993-01-01

364

Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The incidence of HCC varies considerably with the geographic area because of differences in the major causative factors. Chronic hepatitis B and C, mostly in the cirrhotic stage, are responsible for the great majority of cases of HCC worldwide. The geographic areas at the highest risk are South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, here hepatitis B is highly endemic and is the main cause of HCC. In areas with an intermediate rate of HCC such as Southern Europe and Japan, hepatitis C is the predominant cause, whereas in low rate areas such as Northern Europe and the USA, HCC is often related to other factors as alcoholic liver disease. There is a rising incidence in HCC in developed countries during the last two decades, due to the increasing rate of hepatitis C infection and improvement of the clinical management of cirrhosis. Methods This article reviews the literature on hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Medline search was carried out using these key words and articles were selected on epidemiology, risk factors, screening, and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results Screening of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis B and C with hepatic ultrasound and determination of serum alfa-fetoprotein may improve the detection of HCC, but further studies are needed whether screening improves clinical outcome. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) can be implicated in the development of HCC in an indirect way, through induction of chronic inflammation, or directly by means of viral proteins or, in the case of HBV, by creation of mutations by integration into the genome of the hepatocyte. Conclusion The most effective tool to prevent HCC is avoidance of the risk factors such as viral infection. For HBV, a very effective vaccine is available. Preliminary data from Taiwan indicate a protective effect of universal vaccination on the development of HCC. Vaccination against HBV should therefore be a health priority. In patients with chronic hepatitis B or C, interferon-alfa treatment in a noncirrhotic stage is protective for HCC development in responders, probably by prevention of cirrhosis development. When cirrhosis is already present, the protective effect is less clear. For cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, a protective effect was demonstrated in Oriental, but not in European patients. For cirrhosis due to hepatitis C, interferon-alfa treatment showed to be protective in some studies, especially in Japan with a high incidence of HCC in untreated patients. Virological, but also merely biochemical response, seems to be associated with a lower risk of development of HCC. As most studies are not randomized controlled trials, no definitive conclusions on the long-term effects of interferon-alfa in HBV or HCV cirrhosis can be established. Especially in hepatitis C, prospective studies should be performed using the more potent reference treatments for cirrhotics, namely the combination of peginterferon and ribavirin. PMID:15907199

Michielsen, Peter P; Francque, Sven M; van Dongen, Jurgen L

2005-01-01

365

Drug-induced hepatic steatosis.  

PubMed

Several drugs have been associated with the potential for drug-induced hepatic steatosis (DIHS) and/or phospholipidosis (DIPL), a lysosomal storage disorder. Drug-induced hepatic steatosis is generally a chronic but reversible affliction and may involve drug accumulation in the liver. Fat accumulation may be either macrovesicular or microvesicular in nature. Commonly used medications associated with DIHS include amiodarone, valproate, tamoxifen, methotrexate, and some chemotherapeutic and antiretroviral agents. Two recently approved medications for the treatment of hereditary homozygous hypercholesterolemia have also been noted to cause hepatic steatosis. For some compounds such as methotrexate and tamoxifen, the underlying metabolic risk factors such as obesity and metabolic syndrome may exacerbate their potential to cause DIHS and its progression. In this article, the authors discuss the preclinical screening and mechanisms of DIHS and DIPL, and review specific examples of drugs commonly used in clinical practice that are known to cause DIHS. PMID:24879984

Amacher, David E; Chalasani, Naga

2014-05-01

366

Apicobasal polarity controls lymphocyte adhesion to hepatic epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Loss of apicobasal polarity is a hallmark of epithelial pathologies. Leukocyte infiltration and crosstalk with dysfunctional epithelial barriers are crucial for the inflammatory response. Here, we show that apicobasal architecture regulates the adhesion between hepatic epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Polarized hepatocytes and epithelium from bile ducts segregate the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) adhesion receptor onto their apical, microvilli-rich membranes, which are less accessible by circulating immune cells. Upon cell depolarization, hepatic ICAM-1 becomes exposed and increases lymphocyte binding. Polarized hepatic cells prevent ICAM-1 exposure to lymphocytes by redirecting basolateral ICAM-1 to apical domains. Loss of ICAM-1 polarity occurs in human inflammatory liver diseases and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). We propose that adhesion receptor polarization is a parenchymal immune checkpoint that allows functional epithelium to hamper leukocyte binding. This contributes to the haptotactic guidance of leukocytes toward neighboring damaged or chronically inflamed epithelial cells that expose their adhesion machinery. PMID:25242329

Reglero-Real, Natalia; Alvarez-Varela, Adrián; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Feito, Jorge; Marcos-Ramiro, Beatriz; Fernández-Martín, Laura; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José; Muntané, Jordi; Sandoval, Pilar; Majano, Pedro L; Correas, Isabel; Alonso, Miguel A; Millán, Jaime

2014-09-25

367

Hepatitis C, stigma and cure.  

PubMed

The infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important global chronic viral infections worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 3% of the world population, about 170-200 million people. Great part of the infections are asymptomatic, the patient can be a chronic carrier for decades without knowing it. The most severe consequences of the chronic infection are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which appears in 20%-40% of the patients, leading to hepatic failure and death. The HCV was discovered 25 years ago in 1989, is a RNA virus and classified by the World Health Organization as an oncogenic one. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most important cancers, the fifth worldwide in terms of mortality. It has been increasing in the Ocidental world, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is not only a liver disease and a cause of cirrhosis, but also a mental, psychological, familiar, and social disease. The stigma that the infected person sometimes carries is tremendous having multiple consequences. The main cause is lack of adequate information, even in the health professionals setting. But, besides the "drama" of being infected, health professionals, family, society and the infected patients, must be aware of the chance of real cure and total and definitive elimination of the virus. The treatment for hepatitis C has begun in the last 80's with a percentage of cure of 6%. Step by step the efficacy of the therapy for hepatitis C is rapidly increasing and nowadays with the very new medications, the so called Direct Antiviral Agents-DAAs of new generation, is around 80%-90%. PMID:24187444

Marinho, Rui Tato; Barreira, David Pires

2013-10-28

368

Is autoimmune hepatitis a frequent finding among HCV patients with intense interface hepatitis?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the overlap of autoimmune hepatitis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with intense interface hepatitis. METHODS: Among 1759 patients with hepatitis C submitted to liver biopsy, 92 (5.2%) presented intense interface hepatitis. These patients were evaluated regarding the presence of antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody (LKM-1), levels of ?-globulin and histological findings related to autoimmune hepatitis (plasma cell infiltrate and presence of rosettes). RESULTS: Among patients with hepatitis C and intense interface hepatitis there was a low prevalence of autoantibodies (ANA = 12%, SMA = 5%, LKM-1 = 0%) and the median ?-globulin level was within the normal range. Typical histological findings of autoimmune disease were observed in only two cases (2%). After applying the score for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis, only one patient was classified with a definitive diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Since overlap with autoimmune hepatitis was not the explanation for the intense necroinflammatory activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C we sought to identify the variables associated with this finding. The presence of intense interface hepatitis was associated with more advanced age, both at the time of infection and at the time of the biopsy, and higher prevalence of blood transfusion and alcohol abuse. CONCLUSION: Although possible, overlap with autoimmune hepatitis is a very rare association in HCV-infected patients with intense interface hepatitis, an unusual presentation which seems to be related to other host variables. PMID:20677344

Badiani, Rosilene G; Becker, Vitória; Perez, Renata M; Matos, Carla AL; Lemos, Lara B; Lanzoni, Valéria P; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C; Dellavance, Alessandra; Silva, Antonio Eduardo B; Ferraz, Maria Lucia G

2010-01-01

369

[Surgical treatment of hepatic hemangioma].  

PubMed

Experience of treatment of 86 patients with hemangioma of the liver was summarized. New in the main tactics of treatment, envisaging the preoperative selective or superselective roentgen endovascular occlusion of the hepatic artery branches, ultrasonic surgical aspirator "SUS-101" ("Aloka" firm) application and the wound surface treatment with hot air stream (500 degrees C temperature), was offered. The mentioned method application permitted to prevent severe complications beginning, promoted the hepatic mass restoration even after vast resection of the organ in 3-4 months, functional indexes normalization and restoration of the patients' capacity to work. PMID:7658657

Vishnevski?, V A

1994-01-01

370

[Intrahepatic bilomas after hepatic arterial embolization of malignant hepatic neoplasms].  

PubMed

Reviewed and discussed are six cases of intrahepatic biloma that developed after hepatic arterial embolization therapy for malignant hepatic tumors. All six cases were administered emulsion of adriamycin and lipiodol and/or sponge gel particles, as the etiology of their disease was considered to be bile duct necrosis due to obstructions of peripheral supplying arterial branches. From the 23rd to the 76 days after embolization therapy, each lesion was detected by CT scan, and every case showed an elevation of serum alkaline phoshatase. Further, in 4 cases, hepatobiliary scintigraphy revealed a delayed bile clearance in the hepatic lobe. In one case followed up for 2 months, only one of two lesions disappeared. And in 5 cases that were followed up for more than 4 months, recovery occurred in 4 cases without any further treatment, but another case required percutaneous drainage for 3.5 months to be cured. An intrahepatic biloma, or bile duct necrosis, is a complication that can arise from hepatic arterial embolization therapy, so that careful follow-up must be given. PMID:2174471

Nambu, T; Yoshikawa, H; Shirato, H; Suzuki, K; Kikuchi, H; Akikawa, K

1990-11-01

371

Hepatitis mouse models: from acute-to-chronic autoimmune hepatitis.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease associated with interface hepatitis, raised plasma liver enzymes, the presence of autoantibodies and regulatory T-cell (Tregs) dysfunction. The clinical course is heterogeneous, manifested by a fulminant or indolent course. Although genetic predisposition is well accepted, the combination with currently undefined environmental factors is crucial for the development of the disease. Progress in the development of reliable animal models provides added understanding of the pathophysiology of AIH, and these will be very useful in evaluating potential therapeutics. It appears that artificially breaking tolerance in the liver is easy. However, maintaining this state of tolerance breakdown, to get chronic hepatitis, is difficult because liver immune homeostasis is strongly regulated by several immune response inhibitory mechanisms. For example, Tregs are crucial regulators in acute and chronic hepatitis, and C57BL/6 mice are most prone to experimental AIH. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with liver (AIH) autoantigens (CYP2D6/FTCD or IL-4R) and the disturbance of liver regulatory mechanism(s), leading to experimental AIH, are likely to be most representative of human AIH pathology. PMID:25112417

Yüksel, Muhammed; Laukens, Debby; Heindryckx, Femke; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Geerts, Anja; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li; Colle, Isabelle

2014-10-01

372

Occult Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients With Autoimmune Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) is recognized by finding hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in hepatocytes without detectable anti-HCV antibodies and viral RNA in plasma. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic and generally progressive disease without exactly-identified etiology. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of OCI among patients with AIH and to evaluate the tests used to rule out HCV infection in diagnosing AIH. Patients and Methods: Between July 2012 to February 2013, 35 Iranian patients with AIH who attended Tehran Hepatitis Center were investigated. For identifying OCI, detection of HCV RNA in both ultracentrifuged serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: Six males and 29 females with mean disease duration of 77.1 ± 39.5 month and mean age of 43.62 ± 12.67 years were investigated. All cases were negative for anti-HCV antibody and we could not find any HCV RNA in ultracentrifuged serum samples and PBMCs. Conclusions: With our laboratory diagnostic method, it seems that there are no cases of OCI in patients with AIH. However, we recommend further studies with more samples and more precise laboratory method. PMID:25337141

Rezaee Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Karimisari, Hamidreza; Shafiei, Mostafa; Saiedi Hosseini, Seyed Yasser

2014-01-01

373

The neuropathology of alcohol-related brain damage.  

PubMed

Excessive alcohol use can cause structural and functional abnormalities of the brain and this has significant health, social and economic implications for most countries in the world. Even heavy social drinkers who have no specific neurological or hepatic problems show signs of regional brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Changes are more severe and other brain regions are damaged in patients who have additional vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Quantitative studies and improvements in neuroimaging have contributed significantly to the documentation of these changes but mechanisms underlying the damage are not understood. A human brain bank targeting alcohol cases has been established in Sydney, Australia, and tissues can be used for structural and molecular studies and to test hypotheses developed from animal models and in vivo studies. The recognition of potentially reversible changes and preventative medical approaches are important public health issues. PMID:19147798

Harper, Clive

2009-01-01

374

Current strategies to minimize hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by targeting reactive oxygen species  

PubMed Central

Ischemia–reperfusion is a major component of injury in vascular occlusion both during liver surgery and during liver transplantation. The pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia–reperfusion includes a number of mechanisms including oxidant stress that contribute to various degrees to the overall organ damage. A large volume of recent research has focused on the use of antioxidants to ameliorate this injury, although results in experimental models have not translated well to the clinic. This review focuses on critical sources and mediators of oxidative stress during hepatic ischemia–reperfusion, the status of current antioxidant interventions, and emerging mechanisms of protection by preconditioning. While recent advances in regulation of antioxidant systems by Nrf2 provide interesting new potential therapeutic targets, an increased focus must be placed on more in-depth mechanistic investigations in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury and translational research in order to refine current strategies in disease management. PMID:22459037

Jaeschke, Hartmut; Woolbright, Benjamin L.

2013-01-01

375

Multigenerational Epigenetic Adaptation of the Hepatic Wound-Healing Response  

PubMed Central

We asked if ancestral liver damage leads to heritable reprogramming of hepatic wound-healing. We discovered that male rats with a history of liver damage transmit epigenetic suppressive adaptation of the fibrogenic component of wound-healing through male F1 and F2 generations. Underlying this adaptation was reduced generation of liver myofibroblasts, increased hepatic expression of antifibrogenic PPAR-? and decreased expression of profibrogenic TGF-?1. Remodelling of DNA methylation and histone acetylation underpinned these alterations in gene expression. Sperm from rats with liver fibrosis were enriched for H2A.Z and H3K27me3 at PPAR-? chromatin. These sperm chromatin modifications were transmittable by adaptive serum transfer from fibrotic rats and were induced in stem cells exposed to myofibroblast-conditioned media. A myofibroblast secreted soluble factor therefore stimulates heritable epigenetic signatures to sperm so as to adapt fibrogenesis in offspring. Humans with mild liver fibrosis display PPAR-? promoter hypomethylation compared with severe fibrotics, thus lending support for epigenetic regulation of fibrosis. PMID:22941276

Zeybel, Mujdat; Hardy, Timothy; Wong, Yi K.; Mathers, John C.; Fox, Christopher R.; Gackowska, Agata; Oakley, Fiona; Burt, Alastair D.; Wilson, Caroline L.; Anstee, Quentin M.; Barter, Matt J.; Masson, Steven; Elsharkawy, Ahmed M.; Mann, Derek A.; Mann, Jelena

2012-01-01

376

Hepatic encephalopathy: An approach to its multiple pathophysiological features  

PubMed Central

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complex syndrome, ranging from subtle behavioral abnormalities to deep coma and death. Hepatic encephalopathy emerges as the major complication of acute or chronic liver failure. Multiplicity of factors are involved in its pathophysiology, such as central and neuromuscular neurotransmission disorder, alterations in sleep patterns and cognition, changes in energy metabolism leading to cell injury, an oxidative/nitrosative state and a neuroinflammatory condition. Moreover, in acute HE, a condition of imminent threat of death is present due to a deleterious astrocyte swelling. In chronic HE, changes in calcium signaling, mitochondrial membrane potential and long term potential expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate-cGMP and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors alterations, and changes in the mRNA and protein expression and redistribution in the cerebral blood flow can be observed. The main molecule indicated as responsible for all these changes in HE is ammonia. There is no doubt that ammonia, a neurotoxic molecule, triggers or at least facilitates most of these changes. Ammonia plasma levels are increased two- to three-fold in patients with mild to moderate cirrhotic HE and up to ten-fold in patients with acute liver failure. Hepatic and inter-organ trafficking of ammonia and its metabolite, glutamine (GLN), lead to hyperammonemic conditions. Removal of hepatic ammonia is a differentiated work that includes the hepatocyte, through the urea cycle, converting ammonia into GLN via glutamine synthetase. Under pathological conditions, such as liver damage or liver blood by-pass, the ammonia plasma level starts to rise and the risk of HE developing is high. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of HE is rapidly expanding and identification of focally localized triggers has led the development of new possibilities for HE to be considered. This editorial will focus on issues where, to the best of our knowledge, more research is needed in order to clarify, at least partially, controversial topics. PMID:22489256

Perazzo, Juan Carlos; Tallis, Silvina; Delfante, Amalia; Souto, Pablo Andres; Lemberg, Abraham; Eizayaga, Francisco Xavier; Romay, Salvador

2012-01-01

377

Assessing tubal damage  

PubMed Central

The fallopian tube plays an important role in the mechanical transport and physiological sustenance of the gametes and early conceptus. Complex and coordinated neuromuscular activity, cilial action and endocrine secretions are required for successful tubal function. Compromised tubal damage can occur after external or internal injury, inhibiting the normal transport of gametes. The overall prognosis for fertility depends principally on the insult and the severity of the tissue damage; hence, assessment of tubal damage plays a major role in predicting occurrence of pregnancy and the likelihood of developing ectopic pregnancy. PMID:19562067

Patil, Madhuri

2009-01-01

378

DNA Damage Response  

PubMed Central

Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

2011-01-01

379

Flutamide-induced toxic hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Flutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Hepatic toxicity associated with flutamide has been reported with an incidence from less than 1% to about 5%. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been widely used in the treatment of cholesterol gallstones and of several liver diseases, but few data are now available

Camilla Cicognani; Mauro Malavolti; Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate; Claudia Sama; Luigi Barbara

1996-01-01

380

Cholestatic phenotypes of autoimmune hepatitis.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hepatitis can have cholestatic features that are outside the codified diagnostic criteria. These features have uncertain effects on the clinical presentation and progression of disease. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis can have antimitochondrial antibodies and coincidental bile duct injury or loss (2%-13% of patients), focal biliary strictures and dilations based on cholangiography (2%-11%), or histologic changes of bile duct injury or loss in the absence of other features (5%-11%). These findings probably represent atypical manifestations of autoimmune hepatitis or variants of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, depending on the predominant findings. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and ?-glutamyl transferase, histologic features of bile duct injury, and findings from cholangiography are associated with responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and individualized alternative treatments. Corticosteroid therapy, in combination with low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid, has been promulgated by international societies, but these recommendations are not based on strong evidence. The frequency, variable outcomes, and uncertainties in diagnosis and management of the cholestatic phenotypes must be addressed by a collaborative investigational network. This network should define the genetic and pathologic features of these disorders, standardize their nomenclature, and establish a treatment algorithm. In this review, the different cholestatic phenotypes of autoimmune hepatitis, mechanisms of pathogenesis, current management strategies and outcomes, and opportunities for improving understanding and therapy are presented. PMID:24013108

Czaja, Albert J

2014-09-01

381

Rheumatologic manifestations of hepatic diseases.  

PubMed

A possible link is suggested between hepatic diseases and rheumatic disease. Polyarthralgia and polyarthritis may be seen during the prodromal period of acute viral hepatitis, especially in hepatitis B virus (HBV). The symptoms of arthritis, mild, localized or generalized, mostly involve the small joints of hands. Joint symptoms frequently precede the onset of jaundice, no residual joint deformities. Circulating immune complexes are believed to play a causative role in the development of vasculitis and arthritis. Hemochromatosis is an antosomal recessive disorder of iron. About 43%-81% of patients with hemochromatosis have arthritis. The common extrahepatic manifestations of autoimmune hepatitis are arthralgia and skin rash. The reported prevalence of symptomatic inflammatory arthropathy in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis ranges from 4% to 50%. Skeletal involvement with Wilson's disease is common. Such patients may complain of pain and stiffness, mainly in the knee, wrist, or other large joints. Shwachman's syndrome is a disorder of pancreatic exocrine. Symmetric bone lesions have been reported in 10% to 15% of patients. They are involved predominantly at the femoral neck. Rheumatic symptoms are seen in one third of adult patients with cystic fibrosis and arthritis in 2.5% to 12% of patients. The arthritis caused by pancreatic panniculitis is usually symmetrical and involves the small joints of the hand, wrist, and feet, but may involve such larger joints as the elbow, ankle, and knee. PMID:14599926

Chi, Zhao-Chun; Ma, Su-Zhen

2003-02-01

382

Optimal therapy of hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highest response rates to antiviral therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C have been achieved using the combination of peginterferon and ribavirin. Recently completed controlled trials have reported rates of sustained virological response (SVR) between 50% and 60% in patients treated with higher doses of peginterferon and ribavirin, which was 5% to 10% higher with standard doses of

Adrian M. Di Bisceglie; Jay H. Hoofnagle

2002-01-01

383

Historical reflections on autoimmune hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), initially known as chronic active or active chronic hepatitis (and by various other names), first came under clinical notice in the late 1940s. However, quite likely, chronic active hepatitis (CAH) had been observed prior to this and was attributed to a persistently destructive virus infection of the liver. An earlier (and controversial) designation in 1956 as lupoid hepatitis was derived from associated L.E. cell test positivity and emphasized accompanying multisystem features and immunological aberrations. Young women featured prominently in early descriptions of CAH. AIH was first applied in 1965 as a descriptive term. Disease-characteristic autoantibodies were defined from the early 1960s, notably antinuclear antibody (ANA), smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and liver-kidney microsomal (LKM) antibody. These are still widely used diagnostically but their relationship to pathogenesis is still not evident. A liver and disease specific autoantigen has long been searched for but unsuccessfully. Prolonged immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine in the 1960s proved beneficial and remains standard therapy today. AIH like many other autoimmune diseases is associated with particular HLA alleles especially with the “ancestral” B8, DR3 haplotype, and also with DR4. Looking forwards, AIH is one of the several enigmatic autoimmune diseases that, despite being (relatively) organ specific, are marked by autoimmune reactivities with non-organ-specific autoantigens. New paradigms are needed to explain the occurrence, expressions and pathogenesis of such diseases. PMID:18528926

Mackay, Ian R

2008-01-01

384

Hepatic Cysts: Treatment with Alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six patients with hepatic cysts were successfully treated with percutaneous aspiration and temporary direct injection of sterile alcohol U.S.P. (95% ethanol) into the cyst cavities through an aspiration catheter. Five cysts were treated percutaneously using sonographic guidance, and one cyst was treated under direct vision during a cholecys- tectom?. It is ideal to treat with 25% replacement volume of alcohol.

William J. Bean; Bruce A. Rodan

385

Hepatitis B surveillance in Singapore.  

PubMed

257 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported between January 1977 and June 1979. This constituted about one-third of all reported acute viral hepatitis cases in Singapore. The mean annual morbidity and mortality rates per 100,000 was 4.4 and 0.12 respectively. The case-fatality rate was 2.7%. The age-specific morbidity rates were high in the 15-24 and 25-34 years age groups, while the ethnic specific morbidity rate was highest in Indians. The male to female ratio was 4.6: 1. Cases were concentrated in urban and suburban areas with high population density. Three outbreaks, one traced to contaminated needles and syringes, one to contaminated tattoo neeedles, and amongst close contacts, were described. Although parenteral procedures were associated with hepatitis B infection (p < 0.005), non-parenteral or inapparent parenteral mode of transmission probably contributes to a significant extent in the transmission of hepatitis B in Singapore. Studies to determine the role of perinatal transmission, and of vectors, in maintaining the endemicity of the disease, were suggested. PMID:6775577

Goh, K T

1980-04-01

386

A Plant Kavalactone Desmethoxyyangonin Prevents Inflammation and Fulminant Hepatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Alpinia pricei Hayata is a Formosan plant which has been popularly used as nutraceutical or folk medicine for inflammation and various disorders. An active compound of the plant rhizomes, desmethoxyyangonin (DMY), was identified in this study for its novel effect against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in murine macrophages and LPS/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice. DMY was observed to significantly inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells ex vivo and the activity of several pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro. DMY also protected LPS/D-GalN?induced acute hepatic damages in mice through inhibiting aminotransferases activities and infiltrations of inflammatory macrophages, neutrophils and pathogenic T cells into the liver tissues. In addition, pretreatment with DMY significantly improved the survival rate of LPS/D-GalN?treated mice to 90% (9/10), compared to LPS/D-GalN?treated group (40%, 4/10). UPLC/MS platform-based comparative metabolomics approach was used to explore the serum metabolic profile in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) mice with or without the DMY pretreatment. The results showed that LPS/D-GalN?induced hepatic damage is likely through perturbing amino acid metabolism, which leads to decreased pyruvate formation via catalysis of aminotransferases, and DMY treatment can prevent to a certain degree of these alterations in metabolic network in mouse caused by LPS/D-GalN. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DMY protects LPS or LPS/D-GalN?induced damages in cell or liver tissues mainly through de-regulating IKK/NF?B and Jak2/STAT3 signaling pathways. This report provides evidence-based knowledge to support the rationale for the use of A. pricei root extract in anti-inflammation and also its new function as hepatoprotetive agent against fulminant hepatitis. PMID:24143247

Huang, Chi-Chang; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Shyur, Lie-Fen

2013-01-01

387

A plant kavalactone desmethoxyyangonin prevents inflammation and fulminant hepatitis in mice.  

PubMed

Alpinia pricei Hayata is a Formosan plant which has been popularly used as nutraceutical or folk medicine for inflammation and various disorders. An active compound of the plant rhizomes, desmethoxyyangonin (DMY), was identified in this study for its novel effect against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in murine macrophages and LPS/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice. DMY was observed to significantly inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells ex vivo and the activity of several pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro. DMY also protected LPS/D-GalN-induced acute hepatic damages in mice through inhibiting aminotransferases activities and infiltrations of inflammatory macrophages, neutrophils and pathogenic T cells into the liver tissues. In addition, pretreatment with DMY significantly improved the survival rate of LPS/D-GalN-treated mice to 90% (9/10), compared to LPS/D-GalN-treated group (40%, 4/10). UPLC/MS platform-based comparative metabolomics approach was used to explore the serum metabolic profile in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) mice with or without the DMY pretreatment. The results showed that LPS/D-GalN-induced hepatic damage is likely through perturbing amino acid metabolism, which leads to decreased pyruvate formation via catalysis of aminotransferases, and DMY treatment can prevent to a certain degree of these alterations in metabolic network in mouse caused by LPS/D-GalN. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DMY protects LPS or LPS/D-GalN-induced damages in cell or liver tissues mainly through de-regulating IKK/NF?B and Jak2/STAT3 signaling pathways. This report provides evidence-based knowledge to support the rationale for the use of A. pricei root extract in anti-inflammation and also its new function as hepatoprotetive agent against fulminant hepatitis. PMID:24143247

Chou, Tsui-Wei; Feng, Jia-Hua; Huang, Chi-Chang; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Shyur, Lie-Fen

2013-01-01

388

Hepatitis A: Old and New  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, is a common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Spread of infection is generally person to person or by oral intake after fecal contamination of skin or mucous membranes; less commonly, there is fecal contamination of food or water. Hepatitis A is endemic in developing countries, and most residents are exposed in childhood. In contrast, the adult population in developed countries demonstrates falling rates of exposure with improvements in hygiene and sanitation. The export of food that cannot be sterilized, from countries of high endemicity to areas with low rates of infection, is a potentially important source of infection. After ingestion and uptake from the gastrointestinal tract, the virus replicates in the liver and is excreted into the bile. Cellular immune responses to the virus lead to destruction of infected hepatocytes with consequent development of symptoms and signs of disease. Humoral immune responses are the basis for diagnostic serologic assays. Acute HAV infection is clinically indistinguishable from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. In young children the disease is often asymptomatic, whereas in older children and adults there may be a range of clinical manifestations from mild, anicteric infection to fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical variants include prolonged, relapsing, and cholestatic forms. Management of the acute illness is supportive, and complete recovery without sequelae is the usual outcome. Research efforts during World War II led to the development of passive immunoprophylaxis. Pooled immune serum globulin is efficacious in the prevention and attenuation of disease in exposed individuals. More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated. PMID:11148002

Cuthbert, Jennifer A.

2001-01-01

389

Controlling Mole Damage  

E-print Network

Moles can cause much damage to crops and livestock. This leaflet explains the proper way to set shocker loop traps and harpoon traps. Cultural controls and habitat modifications are discussed. Moles also can be controlled with toxicants...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-03-13

390

Composite heat damage assessment  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1993-12-31

391

Court Disallows Damage Claims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In rejecting claims for damages, the Court finds that contract's "increase or decrease of cost" language is not applicable to added overhead costs and loss of labor efficiency resulting from delays over which the contractor has no control. (Author)

Tomson, Bernard; Coplan, Norman

1976-01-01

392

Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

Gregg, Wayne

2006-01-01

393

Review: hepatitis B immune globulin for prevention of hepatitis B infection.  

PubMed

Specific hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) contains a high titer of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigens and provides immediate passive protection against infection with hepatitis B virus, after acute exposure to infection. It is now generally combined with active immunization with hepatitis B vaccine. The principal indications for administration of HBIG are: a single acute percutaneous exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV); mucocutaneous exposure; unprotected sexual exposure; mother-to-infant transmission; prevention of re-infection after liver transplantation; non-responders to hepatitis B vaccine and immunosuppressed patients. PMID:17516515

Zuckerman, J N

2007-07-01

394

Controlling Opossum Damage  

E-print Network

damage; however, their pelts can be sold only during the furbearer season and with the proper licenses. Other furbearers include beaver, otter, mink, nutria, ringtailed cat, badger, skunk, weasel, raccoon, muskrat, fox and civet cat. Homeowners... damage; however, their pelts can be sold only during the furbearer season and with the proper licenses. Other furbearers include beaver, otter, mink, nutria, ringtailed cat, badger, skunk, weasel, raccoon, muskrat, fox and civet cat. Homeowners...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-05-23

395

Rate Tornado Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive Flash animation that educates students about the Fujita scale for rating tornado wind speeds and the damage caused by tornados. After being presented with photographs of tornado damage, students are challenged to assign the tornado a rating on the F-scale. The interactive explains the different levels of the F-scale and provides instant feedback on whether or not the correct category was assigned to the tornado.

Krock, Lexi; Pbs

396

Rate Tornado Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tornadoes can produce damage that ranges from broken tree limbs to a block of houses swept from their foundations. They can inflict utter devastation across a wide swath of land or, destroy one house and leave others on either side largely untouched. In this interactive feature from NOVA Online, sudents examine a series of photos of tornado damage and assign intensity ratings (on the Fulita scale) based on what they see.

2011-02-24

397

Controlling Beaver Damage  

E-print Network

Damage Controlling BEAVER B eavers (Castor canadensis) are the largest rodents in North America. Their range includes most of North America, from the northern parts of Canada and Alaska to northern Mexico. Beavers are aquatic rodents which live...Damage Controlling BEAVER B eavers (Castor canadensis) are the largest rodents in North America. Their range includes most of North America, from the northern parts of Canada and Alaska to northern Mexico. Beavers are aquatic rodents which live...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-03-13

398

Replication of damaged genomes.  

PubMed

Cellular DNA is continuously assaulted by chemical and physical agents that arise from both endogenous metabolic processes as well as exogenous insults. Commonly encountered environmental agents include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic amines, the ultraviolet component of sunlight, and ionizing radiation, among many others. Although the kinds of damages and the mechanisms involved in their interaction with DNA vary widely, genotoxic agents alter the structure of DNA in ways that may result in permanent alterations in the DNA sequence or in cell death. To avoid these consequences, cells have evolved countermeasures to reduce the biological consequences of DNA damage. These mechanisms are highly conserved and are present in all eukaryotic cells. In general, cellular responses include the detection of damage, signal transduction to halt cell cycle progression, and the recruitment of repair mechanisms that are tailored to the specific kind of damage. If replication-blocking damage remains when cells enter S-phase, then tolerance mechanisms in the form of complex recombination mechanisms or translesion DNA synthesis using accessory DNA polymerases exist. These mechanisms complete the replication of damaged genomes and suppress cytotoxicity, but at the potential cost of mutagenesis and genomic instability. This review focuses on error-prone mechanisms, including a discussion of the Y-family of DNA polymerases, current concepts of DNA polymerase switching mechanisms, and their relevance to cancer and cancer prevention. PMID:22181702

Klarer, Alden C; McGregor, W

2011-01-01

399

Hepatitis C virus-mediated angiogenesis: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic strategies  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is an essential process for organ growth and repair. Thus, an imbalance in this process can lead to several diseases including malignancy. Angiogenesis is a critical step in vascular remodeling, tissue damage and wound healing besides being required for invasive tumor growth and metastasis. Because angiogenesis sets an important point in the control of tumor progression, its inhibition is considered a valuable therapeutic approach for tumor treatment. Chronic liver disease including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main cause for the development of hepatic angiogenesis and thereby plays a critical role in the modulation of hepatic angiogenesis that finally leads to hepatocellular carcinoma progression and invasion. Thus, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HCV-mediated hepatic angiogenesis will help design a therapeutic protocol for the intervention of HCV-mediated angiogenesis and subsequently its outcome. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms of HCV-mediated hepatic angiogenesis and the related signaling pathways that can be target for current and under development therapeutic approaches. PMID:25400432

Hassan, Mohamed; Selimovic, Denis; El-Khattouti, Abdelouahid; Soell, Martine; Ghozlan, Hanan; Haikel, Youssef; Abdelkader, Ola; Megahed, Mosaad

2014-01-01

400

Engraftment potential of spheroid-forming hepatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Transplantation and drug discovery programs for liver diseases are hampered by the shortage of donor tissue. While recent studies have shown that hepatic cells can be derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), few cases have shown selective enrichment of hESC-derived hepatocytes and their integration into host liver tissues. Here we demonstrate that the dissociation and reaggregation procedure after an endodermal differentiation of hESC produces spheroids mainly consisted of cells showing hepatic phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. A combined treatment with Wnt3a and bone morphogenic protein 4 efficiently differentiated hESCs into definitive endoderm in an adherent culture. Dissociation followed by reaggregation of these cells in a nonadherent condition lead to the isolation of spheroid-forming cells that preferentially expressed early hepatic markers from the adherent cell population. Further differentiation of these spheroid cells in the presence of the hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and dexamethasone produced a highly enriched population of cells exhibiting characteristics of early hepatocytes, including glycogen storage, indocyanine green uptake, and synthesis of urea and albumin. Furthermore, we show that grafted spheroid cells express hepatic features and attenuate the serum aspartate aminotransferase level in a model of acute liver injury. These data suggest that hepatic progenitor cells can be enriched by the spheroid formation of differentiating hESCs and that these cells have engraftment potential to replace damaged liver tissues. PMID:23373441

Kim, Sung-Eun; An, Su Yeon; Woo, Dong-Hun; Han, Jiyou; Kim, Jong Hyun; Jang, Yu Jin; Son, Jeong Sang; Yang, Hyunwon; Cheon, Yong Pil; Kim, Jong-Hoon

2013-06-15

401

Complications of radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors: Frequency and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become an important option in the therapy of primary and secondary hepatic tumors. Surgical resection is still the best treatment option, but only a few of these patients are candidates for surgery: multilobar disease, insufficient liver reserve that will lead to liver failure after resection, extra-hepatic disease, proximity to major bile ducts and vessels, and co-morbidities. RFA has a low mortality and morbidity rate and is considered to be safe. Thus, complications occur and vary widely in the literature. Complications are caused by thermal damage, direct needle injury, infection and the patient’s co-morbidities. Tumor type, type of approach, number of lesions, tumor localization, underlying hepatic disease, the physician’s experience, associated hepatic resection and lesion size have been described as factors significantly associated with complications. The physician in charge should promptly recognize high-risk patients more susceptible to complications, perform a close post procedure follow-up and manage them early and adequately if they occur. We aim to describe complications from RFA of hepatic tumors and their risk factors, as well as a few techniques to avoid them. This way, others can decrease their morbidity rates with better outcomes. PMID:24672640

Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko; Santin, Stephanie; Gomes, Luiz Guilherme Lisboa; Waisberg, Jaques; Ribeiro Jr., Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle

2014-01-01

402

Contribution of hepatitis E virus in acute sporadic hepatitis in north western India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute viral hepatitis. Majority of the documented studies on hepatitis E have been focused on the incidence of this disease in northern and south central India. Limited data are available on HEV infection among acute sporadic hepatitis cases in north western India. The present study was undertaken to investigate the contribution of hepatitis E virus infection in sporadic hepatitis cases in Rajasthan and neighbouring States. Methods: Seven hundred and thirty six patients suspected to have viral hepatitis were screened for the hepatotropic viral markers, hepatitis A, B, C and E by using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits with a high sensitivity and specificity. The acute nature of HEV infection was also confirmed by the detection of HEV RNA by nested RT-PCR. Results: Hepatitis E was found to be the major cause of acute sporadic viral hepatitis (49.7%) in this region of India. Mixed infections of HEV-HAV (1.2%), HEV-HBV (6.1%), and HEV-HCV (1.7%) were also detected. No viral marker was detected in 32 per cent cases. Interpretation & conclusion: HEV was found as the major aetiological agent of acute sporadic viral hepatitis in Rajasthan (north western India). It is important to screen primarily for all the common enterically and parenterally transmitted hepatotropic viral markers in acute sporadic viral hepatitis. There is a need to do additional serological and molecular tests to identify the aetiological agent in the cases of acute hepatitis. PMID:23041743

Chandra, Nidhi Subhash; Sharma, Asha; Rai, Ramesh Roop; Malhotra, Bharti

2012-01-01

403

Liver biopsy findings in chronic hepatitis B.  

PubMed

Liver biopsy plays a central role in treatment algorithms in patients with hepatitis B and remains the gold standard for evaluating hepatic pathology. The pathology of hepatitis B is diverse and reflects the natural history of infection. An acute hepatitic pattern with lobular disarray is seen in acute infection, during acute flares of disease, and with acute hepatitis D superinfection. In chronic hepatitis B, inflammation is less pronounced in the immune-tolerant phase and is prominent during immune-mediated viral clearance. Active inflammation appears to be the driving force for development of fibrosis. Inflammatory grades and fibrosis stage are assigned as is done for hepatitis C. Although current management guidelines recommend liver biopsies only in select patients based on age, viral levels, and hepatitis B e antigen status, these clinical and biochemical parameters do not show consistent correlations with liver histology. Liver biopsy also helps identify preneoplastic lesions including large cell and small cell change. Unlike in other causes of chronic hepatitis, immunostains are widely used and can help determine the phase of infection. Liver biopsies can also identify additional pathology that may contribute to liver disease such as steatohepatitis, iron overload, autoimmune hepatitis, and drug-induced injury. Thus, liver biopsy can play an important role in staging and grading chronic hepatitis B and should be more widely used in assessing the need for therapy. PMID:19399798

Mani, Haresh; Kleiner, David E

2009-05-01

404

The protective effect of curcumin on hepatotoxicity and ultrastructural damage induced by Cisplatin.  

PubMed

Abstract We investigate the protective effect of curcumin (CU) on the hepatic ultrastructural damage induced by cisplatin in mice. 18 adult Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) group, cisplatin treatment group (CP) and CU?+?CP group (n?=?6 for each group). Mice in control group and CP group were administered with NS (20?mL/kg/day) and CU?+?CP group were i.p injected with CU (200?mg/kg/day) for 10 days. Then cisplatin (50?mg/kg/day) was injected in mice of CP group and CU?+?CP group, while those in control group were given the same volume of NS. Five days after injection all mice were killed and liver dissected. The hepatic morphological structures were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results indicated that CU alleviated the hepatic histopathological damages induced by cisplatin, which included declined body weight, vacuolated cytoplasm and blurred liver trabecular structure. Moreover, no hepatic ultrastructural damages were observed in the CU protective group with condensed and marginated nuclear chromatin, bile canaliculi outstreched and bile deposited. PMID:25079681

Wang, Ying; Hu, Peng-Chao; Gao, Fang-Fang; Lv, Jia-Wei; Xu, Shuai; Kuang, Chang-Chun; Wei, Lei; Zhang, Jing-Wei

2014-10-01

405

Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL\\/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone

Pi-Jung Hsiao; Tusty-Jiuan Hsieh; Kung-Kai Kuo; Wei-Wen Hung; Kun-Bow Tsai; Ching-Hsiu Yang; Ming-Lung Yu; Shyi-Jang Shin

2008-01-01

406

Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl{sub 4}-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl{sub 4}-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were compared. > These effects were evaluated on CCl{sub 4}-induced